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The TGV
TGV
(French: Train à Grande Vitesse, "high-speed train") is France's intercity high-speed rail service, operated by the SNCF, the national rail operator. It was developed in the 1970s by GEC-Alsthom and the SNCF. Originally designed as turbotrains to be powered by gas turbines, TGV
TGV
prototypes evolved into electric trains with the 1973 oil crisis. Following the inaugural service between Paris
Paris
and Lyon
Lyon
in 1981 on the LGV Sud-Est
LGV Sud-Est
(LGV for Ligne à Grande Vitesse; "high-speed line"), the network, centred on Paris, has expanded to connect main cities across France
France
(Marseille, Lille, Bordeaux, Strasbourg, Rennes) and in adjacent countries on combinations of high-speed and conventional lines. A TGV
TGV
test train set the record for the fastest wheeled train, reaching 574.8 km/h (357.2 mph) on 3 April 2007.[1] In mid-2011, scheduled TGV
TGV
trains operated at the highest speeds in conventional train service in the world, regularly reaching 320 km/h (200 mph) on the LGV Est, LGV Rhin-Rhône, and LGV Méditerranée. Trains running from Paris
Paris
to Marseille
Marseille
and Strasbourg can also reach 350 km/h (220 mph).[2] According to Railway Gazette International reports in 2007, the world's fastest scheduled rail journey was a start-to-stop average speed of 279.4 km/h (173.6 mph) between the Gare de Champagne-Ardenne and Gare de Lorraine on the LGV Est,[3][4] not surpassed until Railway Gazette International's 2013 reported average of 283.7 km/h (176.3 mph) express service on the Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
to Zhengzhou segment of China's Shijiazhuang–Wuhan high-speed railway.[5] The commercial success of the first LGV, the LGV Sud-Est, led to an expansion of the network to the south (LGV Rhône-Alpes, LGV Méditerranée, Contournement Nîmes – Montpellier), and new lines in the west (LGV Atlantique, LGV Bretagne-Pays de la Loire
LGV Bretagne-Pays de la Loire
and LGV Sud Europe Atlantique), north ( LGV Nord
LGV Nord
and LGV Interconnexion Est), and east (LGV Est). Eager to emulate the TGV's success, neighbouring countries Italy, Spain, and Germany developed their own high-speed rail services. The TGV
TGV
system itself extends to neighbouring countries, either directly (Italy, Spain, Luxembourg, Germany and Switzerland) or through TGV-derivative networks linking France
France
to Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands (Thalys), as well as France
France
and Belgium
Belgium
to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(Eurostar). Several future lines are planned, including extensions within France
France
and to surrounding countries. Cities such as Tours
Tours
have become part of a " TGV
TGV
commuter belt" around Paris. In 2007, the SNCF
SNCF
generated profits of €1.1 billion (approximately US$1.75 billion, £875 million) driven largely by higher margins on the TGV
TGV
network.[6][7]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Development 1.2 Service 1.3 Milestones 1.4 Passenger usage

2 Rolling stock

2.1 TGV
TGV
Sud-Est 2.2 TGV
TGV
Atlantique 2.3 TGV
TGV
Réseau 2.4 Eurostar 2.5 TGV
TGV
Duplex 2.6 Thalys
Thalys
PBKA 2.7 TGV
TGV
POS 2.8 TGV
TGV
2N2

3 TGV
TGV
technology outside France 4 Future TGVs 5 Accidents

5.1 On LGVs 5.2 On normal tracks

6 Protests against the TGV 7 Special
Special
services 8 Rebranding 9 See also 10 Notes and references 11 Further reading 12 External links

History[edit]

Europe's high-speed rail system

French TGV
TGV
network

The idea of the TGV
TGV
was first proposed in the 1960s, after Japan had begun construction of the Shinkansen
Shinkansen
(also known as the "bullet train") in 1959. At the time the Government of France
France
favoured new technology, exploring the production of hovercraft and the Aérotrain air-cushion vehicle. Simultaneously, the SNCF
SNCF
began researching high-speed trains on conventional tracks. In 1976, the administration agreed to fund the first line. By the mid-1990s, the trains were so popular that SNCF
SNCF
President Louis Gallois
Louis Gallois
declared that the TGV
TGV
was "the train that saved French railways".[8] Development[edit] Main article: Development of the TGV It was originally planned that the TGV, then standing for très grande vitesse ("very high speed") or turbine grande vitesse ("high-speed turbine"), would be propelled by gas turbines, selected for their small size, good power-to-weight ratio and ability to deliver high power over an extended period. The first prototype, TGV
TGV
001, was the only gas-turbine TGV: following the increase in the price of oil during the 1973 energy crisis, gas turbines were deemed uneconomic and the project turned to electricity from overhead lines, generated by new nuclear power stations. TGV 001
TGV 001
was not a wasted prototype:[9] its gas turbine was only one of its many new technologies for high-speed rail travel. It also tested high-speed brakes, needed to dissipate the large amount of kinetic energy of a train at high speed, high-speed aerodynamics, and signalling. It was articulated, comprising two adjacent carriages sharing a bogie, allowing free yet controlled motion with respect to one another. It reached 318 km/h (198 mph), which remains the world speed record for a non-electric train. Its interior and exterior were styled by British-born designer Jack Cooper, whose work formed the basis of early TGV
TGV
designs, including the distinctive nose shape of the first power cars. Changing the TGV
TGV
to electric traction required a significant design overhaul. The first electric prototype, nicknamed Zébulon, was completed in 1974, testing features such as innovative body mounting of motors, pantographs, suspension and braking. Body mounting of motors allowed over 3 tonnes to be eliminated from the power cars and greatly reduced the unsprung weight. The prototype travelled almost 1,000,000 km (620,000 mi) during testing. In 1976 the French administration funded the TGV
TGV
project, and construction of the LGV Sud-Est, the first high-speed line (French: ligne à grande vitesse), began shortly afterwards. The line was given the designation LN1, Ligne Nouvelle 1 ("New Line 1"). After two pre-production trainsets (nicknamed Patrick and Sophie) had been tested and substantially modified, the first production version was delivered on 25 April 1980. Service[edit] Main article: List of TGV
TGV
services

A TGV Duplex
TGV Duplex
in Héricourt, Haute-Saône
Héricourt, Haute-Saône
on the LGV Rhin-Rhône

The TGV
TGV
opened to the public between Paris
Paris
and Lyon
Lyon
on 27 September 1981. Contrary to its earlier fast services, SNCF
SNCF
intended TGV
TGV
service for all types of passengers, with the same initial ticket price as trains on the parallel conventional line. To counteract the popular misconception that the TGV
TGV
would be a premium service for business travellers, SNCF
SNCF
started a major publicity campaign focusing on the speed, frequency, reservation policy, normal price, and broad accessibility of the service.[10] This commitment to a democratised TGV
TGV
service was enhanced in the Mitterrand era with the promotional slogan "Progress means nothing unless it is shared by all".[11] The TGV
TGV
was considerably faster (in terms of door to door travel time) than normal trains, cars, or aeroplanes. The trains became widely popular, the public welcoming fast and practical travel. The Eurostar
Eurostar
service began operation in 1994, connecting continental Europe to London via the Channel Tunnel
Channel Tunnel
and the LGV Nord-Europe with a version of the TGV
TGV
designed for use in the tunnel and the United Kingdom. The first phase of the British High Speed 1
High Speed 1
line, or Channel Tunnel Rail Link, was completed in 2003, the second phase in November 2007. The fastest trains take 2 hours 15 minutes London– Paris
Paris
and 1 hour 51 minutes London–Brussels. The first twice-daily London-Amsterdam service ran April 3, and took 3 hours 47 minutes.[12] Milestones[edit]

Record runs of the TGV

The TGV
TGV
was the world's fourth commercial and third standard gauge high-speed train service,[13] after Japan's Shinkansen, which connected Tokyo and Osaka
Osaka
from 1 October 1964, the Russian ER200 around 1974 (full service in 1984), and Britain's InterCity 125
InterCity 125
on main lines such as the East Coast Main Line, which entered service in 1976. The TGV
TGV
holds the world speed record for conventional trains. On 3 April 2007 a modified TGV POS
TGV POS
train reached 574.8 km/h (357.2 mph) under test conditions on the LGV Est
LGV Est
between Paris and Strasbourg. The line voltage was boosted to 31 kV, and extra ballast was tamped onto the permanent way. The train beat the 1990 world speed record of 515.3 km/h (320.2 mph), set by a similarly shortened train (two power cars and three passenger cars), along with unofficial records set during weeks preceding the official record run. The test was part of an extensive research programme by Alstom.[14][15] In 2007 the TGV
TGV
was the world's fastest conventional scheduled train: one journey's average start-to-stop speed from Champagne-Ardenne Station to Lorraine Station is 279.3 km/h (173.5 mph).[3][4] This record was surpassed on 26 December 2009 by the new Wuhan-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway[16] in China where the fastest scheduled train covered 922 km (573 mi) at an average speed of 312.54 km/h (194.20 mph). However, on 1 July 2011 in order to save energy and reduce operating costs the maximum speed of Chinese high-speed trains was reduced to 300 km/h, and the average speed of the fastest trains on the Wuhan–Guangzhou high-speed railway was reduced to 272.68 km/h (169 mph), slower than the TGV. A Eurostar
Eurostar
(TGV) train broke the record for the longest non-stop high-speed international journey on 17 May 2006 carrying the cast and filmmakers of The Da Vinci Code from London to Cannes
Cannes
for the Cannes Film Festival. The 1,421-kilometre (883 mi) journey took 7 hours 25 minutes on an average speed of 191.6 km/h (119.1 mph).[17] The fastest long distance run was by a TGV Réseau
TGV Réseau
train from Calais-Frethun to Marseille
Marseille
(1067.2 km, 663 mi) in 3 hours 29 minutes at a speed of 306 km/h (190 mph) for the inauguration of the LGV Méditerranée
LGV Méditerranée
on 26 May 2001.[18] Passenger usage[edit]

TGV
TGV
passengers in millions from 1981 to 2010

25

50

75

100

125

150

1981

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

On 28 November 2003 the TGV
TGV
network carried its one billionth passenger, a distant second only to the Shinkansen's five billionth passenger in 2000. Excluding international traffic, the TGV
TGV
system carried 98 million passengers during 2008, an increase of 8 million (9.1%) on the previous year.[19]

Decade Passengers (millions)[20]

1980s 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

1.26 6.08 9.20 13.77 15.38 15.57 16.97 18.10 19.16

1990s [t 1][t 2] 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

29.93 37.00 39.30 40.12 43.91 46.59 55.73 62.60 71.00 74.00

2000s 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

79.70 83.50 87.90 86.70 90.80 94.00 97.00 106.00 114.00 122.00

2010s 2010

114.45

^ from 1994 including Eurostar ^ from 1997 including Thalys

Rolling stock[edit] TGVs have semi-permanently coupled articulated un-powered coaches, with Jacobs bogies between the coaches supporting both of them. Power cars at each end of the trains have their own bogies. Trains can be lengthened by coupling two TGVs, using couplers hidden in the noses of the power cars. The articulated design is advantageous during a derailment, as the passenger carriages are more likely to stay upright and in line with the track. Normal trains could split at couplings and jackknife, as seen in the Eschede train disaster. A disadvantage is that it is difficult to split sets of carriages. While power cars can be removed from trains by standard uncoupling procedures, specialised depot equipment is needed to split carriages, by lifting the entire train at once. Once uncoupled, one of the carriage ends is left without a bogie at the split, so a bogie frame is required to support it. There are about 550 TGVs, of nine types:

SNCF
SNCF
TGV Sud-Est
TGV Sud-Est
(8 carriages) SNCF
SNCF
TGV Atlantique
TGV Atlantique
(10 carriages) SNCF
SNCF
TGV Réseau
TGV Réseau
(similar to Atlantique, but 8 carriages) SNCF
SNCF
TGV Duplex
TGV Duplex
(two floors for greater passenger capacity) SNCF
SNCF
TGV 2N2
TGV 2N2
(upgrade of the TGV
TGV
Duplex) SNCF
SNCF
TGV POS
TGV POS
(originally for routes to Germany, now used to Switzerland) Eurostar
Eurostar
(for routes to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Belgium) Thalys
Thalys
(for routes to the Benelux countries and Germany, derived from Réseau and Duplex respectively) SNCF
SNCF
TGV
TGV
La Poste (freight trainsets, phased-out in 2015)

Several TGV
TGV
types have broken records, including the V150 and TGV
TGV
001. V150 was a specially modified five-car double-deck trainset that reached 574.8 km/h (357.2 mph) under controlled conditions on a test run. It narrowly missed beating the world train speed record of 581 km/h (361 mph).[21] The record-breaking speed is impractical for commercial trains due to motor overcharging, empty train weight, rail and engine wear issues, elimination of all but three coaches, excessive vibration, noise and lack of emergency stopping methods. TGVs travel at up to 320 km/h (200 mph) in commercial use. All are at least bi-current, which means that they can operate at 25 kV, 50 Hz AC (including LGVs) and at 1.5 kV DC (such as the 1.5 kV lignes classiques south of Paris). Trains to Germany, Switzerland, Belgium
Belgium
and the Netherlands must accommodate other voltages, requiring tri-current and quadri-current TGVs. TGVs have two pairs of pantographs, two for AC use and two for DC. When passing between areas of different supply voltage, marker boards remind the driver to turn off power, lower the pantograph(s), adjust a switch to select the appropriate system, and raise the pantograph(s). Pantographs and pantograph height control are selected automatically based on the voltage system chosen by the driver. Once the train detects the correct supply, a dashboard indicator illuminates and the driver can switch on the traction motors. The train coasts across the boundary between sections.

Equipment type Top speed Seating capacity Overall length Width Weight, empty (t) Weight, full (t) Power, at 25 kV (kW) Power-to-weight ratio, empty (W/kg) First built

km/h mph m ft m ft

TGV
TGV
Sud-Est 270, 300 (rebuilt) 170, 190 (rebuilt) 345 200 660 2.81 9.2 385 418 6,450 16.75 1978

TGV
TGV
Atlantique* 300 190 485, 459 (rebuilt) 238 781 2.90 9.5 444 484 8,800 19.82 1988

TGV
TGV
Réseau 320 200 377, 361 (rebuilt) 200 660 2.90 9.5 383 415 8,800 22.98 1992

TGV
TGV
TMST Three Capitals 300 190 750 394 1,293 2.81 9.2 752 816 12,240 16.28 1993

TGV
TGV
TMST North of London 300 190 596 319 1,047 2.81 9.2 665   12,240 18.41 1993

TGV
TGV
Duplex 320 200 512 200 660 2.90 9.5 380 424 8,800 23.16 1994

Thalys
Thalys
PBKA 300 190 377, 374 (rebuilt) 200 660 2.90 9.5 385 415 8,800 22.86 1997

TGV
TGV
POS 320 200 361 200 660 2.90 9.5 383 415 9,280 24.23 2005

TGV
TGV
2N2 320 200 509 200 660 2.90 9.5 380 424 9,400 24.74 2011

TGV
TGV
Sud-Est[edit] Main article: SNCF
SNCF
TGV
TGV
Sud-Est

A TGV Sud-Est
TGV Sud-Est
set in the original orange livery, since superseded by silver and blue

A TGV Réseau
TGV Réseau
on an enhanced ordinary track

A TGV Réseau
TGV Réseau
second-generation train at Marseille
Marseille
St-Charles

The Sud-Est fleet was built between 1978 and 1988 and operated the first TGV
TGV
service, from Paris
Paris
to Lyon
Lyon
in 1981. There are 107 passenger sets, of which nine are tri-current (including 15 kV, 16⅔ Hz AC for use in Switzerland) and the rest bi-current. There were seven bi-current half-sets without seats that carried mail for La Poste between Paris, Lyon
Lyon
and Provence, in a distinctive yellow livery until they were phased out in 2015. Each set is made up of two power cars and eight carriages (capacity 345 seats), including a powered bogie in the carriages adjacent to the power cars. They are 200 m (660 ft) long and 2.81 m (9.2 ft) wide. They weigh 385 tonnes with a power output of 6,450 kW under 25 kV. The sets were built to run at 270 km/h (170 mph) but most were upgraded to 300 km/h (190 mph) during mid-life refurbishment in preparation for the opening of the LGV Méditerranée. The few sets that still have a maximum speed of 270 km/h operate on those routes that include a comparatively short distance on LGV, such as to Switzerland via Dijon; SNCF
SNCF
did not consider it financially worthwhile to upgrade their speed for a marginal reduction in journey time. TGV
TGV
Atlantique[edit] Main article: SNCF
SNCF
TGV
TGV
Atlantique The 105-strong bi-current Atlantique fleet was built between 1988 and 1992 for the opening of the LGV Atlantique and entry into service began in 1989. They are 237.5 m (779 ft) long and 2.9 m (9.5 ft) wide. They weigh 444 tonnes, and are made up of two power cars and ten carriages with a capacity of 485 seats. They were built with a maximum speed of 300 km/h (190 mph) and 8,800 kW of power under 25 kV. The efficiency of the Atlantique with all seats filled has been calculated at 767 PMPG, though with a typical occupancy of 60% it is about 460 PMPG (a Toyota Prius with three passengers is 144 PMPG).[22] Modified unit 325 set the world speed record in 1990 on the LGV before its opening. Modifications such as improved aerodynamics, larger wheels and improved braking were made to enable speeds of over 500 km/h (310 mph). The set was reduced to two power cars and three carriages to improve the power-to-weight ratio, weighing 250 tonnes. Three carriages, including the bar carriage in the centre, is the minimum possible configuration because of the articulation. TGV
TGV
Réseau[edit] Main article: SNCF
SNCF
TGV
TGV
Réseau The first Réseau (Network) sets entered service in 1993. Fifty bi-current sets were ordered in 1990, supplemented by 40 tri-current sets in 1992/1993. Ten tri-current sets carry the Thalys
Thalys
livery and are known as Thalys
Thalys
PBA (Paris-Brussels-Amsterdam) sets. As well as using standard French voltages, the tri-current sets can operate under the Netherlands' 1.5 kV and Italian and Belgian 3 kV DC supplies. They are formed of two power cars (8,800 kW under 25 kV – as TGV
TGV
Atlantique) and eight carriages, giving a capacity of 377 seats. They have a top speed of 320 km/h. They are 200 m (660 ft) long and are 2.90 m (9.5 ft) wide. The bi-current sets weigh 383 tonnes: owing to axle-load restrictions in Belgium
Belgium
the tri-current sets have a series of modifications, such as the replacement of steel with aluminium and hollow axles, to reduce the weight to under 17 t per axle. Owing to early complaints of uncomfortable pressure changes when entering tunnels at high speed on the LGV Atlantique, the Réseau sets are now pressure-sealed. They can be coupled to a Duplex set. Eurostar[edit] Main article: British Rail
British Rail
Class 373

Eurostar
Eurostar
at London St Pancras. These long trains connect London with Paris
Paris
and Brussels, are narrower to fit the British loading gauge (this was required when operating out of Waterloo), and have extensive fireproofing.

The Eurostar
Eurostar
train is essentially a long TGV,[23] modified for use in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and in the Channel Tunnel. Differences include a smaller cross-section to fit within the constrictive British loading gauge (though High Speed 1
High Speed 1
can accommodate Berne gauge traffic, this feature was required when Eurostar
Eurostar
trains operated on existing tracks between London Waterloo and the Channel Tunnel), British-designed asynchronous traction motors, and extensive fireproofing in case of fire in the Channel Tunnel. They also have yellow front panels, which are required for all trains operating on track owned by Network Rail or High Speed 1
High Speed 1
in the UK. In the UK they are called Class 373. In the planning stages they were called TransManche Super Train (Cross-channel Super Train). They were built by GEC-Alsthom (now Alstom) in La Rochelle
La Rochelle
(France), Belfort (France) and Washwood Heath
Washwood Heath
(England), entering service in 1993. Two types were built: Three Capitals sets, consisting of two power cars and 18 carriages, including two with one powered bogie each; and North of London sets, with 14 carriages. They consist of two identical half-sets that are not articulated in the middle, so that in case of emergency in the Channel Tunnel
Channel Tunnel
one half can be uncoupled and leave the tunnel. Each half-set is numbered separately. Thirty-eight full sets, plus one spare power car, were ordered: 16 by SNCF, four by SNCB/NMBS, and 18 by British Rail, of which seven were North of London sets. Upon the privatisation of British Rail, the BR sets were bought by London & Continental Railways (LCR), whose subsidiary Eurostar
Eurostar
(UK) Limited was managed by a consortium of National Express
National Express
(40%), SNCF
SNCF
(35%), SNCB/NMBS
SNCB/NMBS
(15%) and British Airways (10%) from 1998 to 2010. Following the merger of the separate Eurostar
Eurostar
operators on 1 September 2010, ownership of all jointly owned sets transferred to the parent company, Eurostar
Eurostar
International Limited. The sets operate at a maximum speed of 300 km/h (186 mph), with the power cars supplying 12,240 kW of power. The Three Capitals sets are 394 m (1,293 ft) long and have 766 seats, weighing 752 tonnes. The North of London sets have 558 seats. All are at least tri-current and are able to operate on 25 kV, 50 Hz AC (on LGVs, including High Speed 1, and on UK overhead electrified lines), 3 kV DC on lignes classiques in Belgium
Belgium
and 750 V DC on the UK former Southern Region third rail network. The third-rail equipment became obsolete in 2007 when the second phase of High Speed 1 was brought into use between London and the Channel Tunnel, which uses 25 kV, 50 Hz AC. Five of the Three Capitals sets owned by SNCF
SNCF
are quadri-current and are able to operate on French lignes classiques at 1500 V DC.

The TGV Duplex
TGV Duplex
power cars use a more streamlined nose than previous TGVs

TGV Duplex
TGV Duplex
power car in profile

TGV Duplex
TGV Duplex
trains have bi-level carriages

A Thalys
Thalys
PBKA at Köln Hauptbahnhof

Eurostar, Thalys
Thalys
and TGV
TGV
PSE No 81 at Paris
Paris
Gare du Nord

Three of the Three Capitals sets owned by SNCF
SNCF
are in French domestic use and carry the silver and blue TGV
TGV
livery. The North of London sets, intended to provide Regional Eurostar
Eurostar
services from continental Europe to UK cities north of London using the West Coast and East Coast Main Lines, have never seen regular international use: budget airlines in the UK offered lower fares. A few of the sets were leased to GNER for use on some services from London King's Cross to York and Leeds, with two carrying its dark blue livery. The lease ended in December 2005 and a year later the same sets were working SNCF services to Calais in Eurostar
Eurostar
livery, albeit with the Eurostar branding and yellow front panels removed.[24][25] The chief executive of Eurostar, Richard Brown, suggested that the trains could be replaced by double-deck trains similar to the TGV Duplex when they are withdrawn. A double-deck fleet could carry 40 million passengers per year from Britain to Continental Europe, equivalent to adding an extra runway at a London airport.[26] Eurostar
Eurostar
has higher security measures than other TGVs.[27] Luggage is screened and passengers are required to check in 30 minutes before departure. Because the UK is not part of the Schengen Area, and because France
France
and Belgium
Belgium
are not part of the Common Travel Area, passengers are subject to immigration checks. These take place before passengers board the train, so officials from the UK Border Force
Border Force
are stationed in France
France
and Belgium, with their French counterparts stationed in the UK. TGV
TGV
Duplex[edit] Main article: SNCF
SNCF
TGV
TGV
Duplex The Duplex was built to increase TGV
TGV
capacity without increasing train length or the number of trains. Each carriage has two levels, with access doors at the lower level taking advantage of low French platforms. A staircase gives access to the upper level, where the gangway between carriages is located. There are 512 seats per set. On busy routes such as Paris- Marseille
Marseille
they are operated in pairs, providing 1,024 seats in two Duplex sets or 800 in a Duplex set plus a Reseau set. Each set has a wheelchair accessible compartment. After a lengthy development process starting in 1988 (during which they were known as the TGV-2N) the original batch of 30 was built between 1995 and 1998. Further deliveries started in 2000 with the Duplex fleet now totalling 160 units, making it the backbone of the SNCF
SNCF
TGV-fleet. They weigh 380 tonnes and are 200 m (660 ft) long, made up of two power cars and eight carriages. Extensive use of aluminium means that they weigh not much more than the TGV
TGV
Réseau sets they supplement. The bi-current power cars provide 8,800 kW, and they have a slightly increased speed of 320 km/h (200 mph). Duplex TGVs are now operating on all of the French high speed lines.[28] Thalys
Thalys
PBKA[edit] Main article: SNCF
SNCF
TGV
TGV
Thalys
Thalys
PBKA Unlike Thalys
Thalys
PBA sets, the PBKA (Paris-Brussels-Cologne-Amsterdam) sets were built exclusively for Thalys. They are technologically similar to TGV Duplex
TGV Duplex
sets, but single deck. They are quadri-current, operating under 25 kV, 50 Hz AC (LGVs), 15 kV 16⅔ Hz AC (Germany, Switzerland), 3 kV DC (Belgium) and 1.5 kV DC (Dutch and French lignes classiques). Their top speed is 300 km/h (186 mph) under 25 kV, with two power cars supplying 8,800 kW. When operating under 15 kV power output drops to 3,680 kW, resulting in a very poor power-to-weight-ratio on German high-speed lines.[29] They have eight carriages and are 200 m (660 ft) long, weighing a total of 385 tonnes. They have 377 seats. Seventeen trains were ordered: nine by SNCB/NMBS, six by SNCF
SNCF
and two by NS. Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn
contributed to financing two of the SNCB/NMBS sets. TGV
TGV
POS[edit] Main article: SNCF
SNCF
TGV
TGV
POS

TGV POS
TGV POS
have the newer power cars unlike a TGV
TGV
Réseau

TGV POS
TGV POS
(Paris-Ostfrankreich-Süddeutschland or Paris-Eastern France-Southern Germany) are used on the LGV Est. They consist of two Duplex power cars with eight TGV
TGV
Réseau-type carriages, with a power output of 9,600 kW and a top speed of 320 km/h (200 mph). Unlike TGV-A, TGV-R and TGV-D, they have asynchronous motors, and isolation of an individual motor is possible in case of failure. TGV
TGV
2N2[edit] Main article: SNCF
SNCF
TGV
TGV
2N2 The bi-current 2N2 can be regarded as the fourth generation of Duplex. The series was commissioned from December 2011 for links to Germany and Switzerland (tri-current trains) and to cope with the increased traffic due to the opening of the LGV Rhine-Rhone. They are numbered from 800, and are limited to 320 km/h (200 mph). ERTMS makes them compatible to allow access to Spain in support Dasye. TGV
TGV
technology outside France[edit] TGV
TGV
technology has been adopted in a number of other countries:[30]

AVE
AVE
(Alta Velocidad Española), in Spain.[31] Thalys
Thalys
in Belgium, the Netherlands and Germany. Korea Train Express
Korea Train Express
(KTX), in South Korea.[32] British Rail Class 373
British Rail Class 373
operates Eurostar
Eurostar
services between the United Kingdom, France
France
and Belgium. Acela Express, a high-speed tilting train built by TGV
TGV
participant Bombardier for the United States. The Acela uses several TGV technologies including the motors, electrical/drivetrain system (rectifiers, inverters, regenerative braking technology), truck structure and disc brakes, and crash energy management technology to control structural deformations in accidents.[33] However, the Acela's tilting, non-articulated carriages are derived from the Bombardier's Canadian LRC trains and are custom built for U.S. Federal Railroad Administration crash standards.[33] The Moroccan government
Moroccan government
agreed to a €2 billion contract for Alstom
Alstom
to build an LGV between Tangier
Tangier
and Casablanca, to be operational in 2018.[34] Italian open-access high-speed operator Nuovo Trasporto Viaggiatori has signed up with Alstom
Alstom
to purchase 25 AGV 11-car sets ( TGV
TGV
4th generation, running at 350 km/h (220 mph)) for delivery starting in 2009.[35]

Future TGVs[edit] SNCF
SNCF
and Alstom
Alstom
are investigating new technology that could be used for high-speed transport. The development of TGV
TGV
trains is being pursued in the form of the Automotrice à grande vitesse
Automotrice à grande vitesse
(AGV) high-speed multiple unit with motors under each carriage.[36] Investigations are being carried out with the aim of producing trains at the same cost as TGVs with the same safety standards. AGVs of the same length as TGVs could have up to 450 seats. The target speed is 360 kilometres per hour (220 mph). The prototype AGV was unveiled by Alstom
Alstom
on 5 February 2008.[37] Italian operator NTV is the first customer for the AGV, and intends to become the first open-access high-speed rail operator in Europe, starting operation in 2011.[35] The next generation of TGVs are being considered with specifications for the new train is due to be finalized by the end of 2017. A detailed design concept will be completed within four years with the aim of introducing the trains into commercial service by mid-2022 with the aim to increase the capacity of TGVs by 10% by replacing the central two power cars of a double TGV
TGV
with passenger carriages. These carriages would have motorized bogies, as do the first and last carriage of the train, to make up for the lost power. The aim is also to develop a train which reduces the cost of acquisition and operation by 20% and cuts energy consumption by at least 25% with recyclability of more than 90%. Another focus will be improving the passenger environment with modular interiors and improved comfort and connectivity. Due to a change in the French law in 2014, French state-owned companies can now work in collaboration with private sector partners during the design phase of a project in order to minimise costs and a guarantee that it will be awarded a contract when the joint development phase has been completed.[38] Accidents[edit] Main article: TGV
TGV
accidents In almost three decades of high-speed operation, the TGV
TGV
has not recorded a single passenger fatality due to accidents while running at high speed on normal passenger service. There have been several accidents, including three derailments at or above 270 km/h (170 mph), but in only one of these—a test run on a new line—did carriages overturn. This is credited in part to the stiffness that the articulated design lends to the train. There have been fatal accidents involving TGVs on lignes classiques, where the trains are exposed to the same dangers as normal trains, such as level crossings. These include one terrorist bombing, which could as well have occurred at high speed as not. On LGVs[edit]

14 December 1992: TGV
TGV
920 from Annecy to Paris, operated by set 56, derailed at 270 km/h (170 mph) at Mâcon-Loché TGV
TGV
station (Saône-et-Loire). A previous emergency stop had caused a wheel flat; the bogie concerned derailed while crossing the points at the entrance to the station. No one on the train was injured, but 25 passengers waiting on the platform for another TGV
TGV
were slightly injured by ballast that was thrown up from the trackbed. 21 December 1993: TGV
TGV
7150 from Valenciennes to Paris, operated by set 511, derailed at 300 km/h (190 mph) at the site of Haute Picardie TGV
TGV
station, before it was built. Rain had caused a hole to open up under the track; the hole dated from the First World War
First World War
but had not been detected during construction. The front power car and four carriages derailed but remained aligned with the track. Of the 200 passengers, one was slightly injured. 5 June 2000: Eurostar
Eurostar
9073 from Paris
Paris
to London, operated by sets 3101/2 owned by SNCB/NMBS, derailed at 250 km/h (155 mph) in the Nord-Pas de Calais
Nord-Pas de Calais
region near Croisilles.[39] The transmission assembly on the rear bogie of the front power car failed, with parts falling onto the track. Four bogies out of 24 derailed. Out of 501 passengers, seven were bruised[40] and others treated for shock.[41] 14 November 2015: TGV
TGV
2369 was involved in the Eckwersheim derailment, near Strasbourg, while being tested on the then-unopened second phase of the LGV Est. The derailment resulted in 11 deaths among those aboard, while the 11 others aboard the train were seriously injured[42]. Excessive speed has been cited as the cause.[43]

On normal tracks[edit]

31 December 1983: A bomb allegedly planted by the terrorist organisation of Carlos the Jackal
Carlos the Jackal
exploded on board a TGV
TGV
from Marseille
Marseille
to Paris; two people were killed. 28 September 1988: TGV
TGV
736, operated by set 70 "Melun", collided with a lorry carrying an electric transformer weighing 100 tonnes that had become stuck on a level crossing in Voiron, Isère. The vehicle had not obtained the required crossing permit from the French Direction départementale de l'équipement. The weight of the lorry caused a very violent collision; the train driver and a passenger died, and 25 passengers were slightly injured. 4 January 1991: after a brake failure, TGV
TGV
360 ran away from Châtillon depot. The train was directed onto an unoccupied track and collided with the car loading ramp at Paris-Vaugirard station at 60 km/h (37 mph). No one was injured. The leading power car and the first two carriages were severely damaged, and were rebuilt. 25 September 1997: TGV
TGV
7119 from Paris
Paris
to Dunkerque, operated by set 502, collided at 130 km/h (81 mph) with a 70 tonne asphalt paving machine on a level crossing at Bierne, near Dunkerque. The power car spun round and fell down an embankment. The front two carriages left the track and came to a stop in woods beside the track. Seven people were injured. 31 October 2001: TGV
TGV
8515 from Paris
Paris
to Irun derailed at 130 km/h (81 mph) near Dax in southwest France. All ten carriages derailed and the rear power unit fell over. The cause was a broken rail. 30 January 2003: a TGV
TGV
from Dunkerque
Dunkerque
to Paris
Paris
collided at 106 km/h (66 mph) with a heavy goods vehicle stuck on the level crossing at Esquelbecq in northern France. The front power car was severely damaged, but only one bogie derailed. Only the driver was slightly injured. 19 December 2007: a TGV
TGV
from Paris
Paris
to Geneva collided at about 100 km/h (62 mph) with a truck on a level crossing near Tossiat
Tossiat
in eastern France, near the Swiss border. The driver of the truck died; on the train, one person was seriously injured and 24 were slightly injured.[44] 17 July 2014: a TER
TER
train ran into the rear of a TGV
TGV
at Denguin, Pyrénées-Atlantiques. Forty people were injured.

Following the number of accidents at level crossings, an effort has been made to remove all level crossings on lignes classiques used by TGVs. The ligne classique from Tours
Tours
to Bordeaux
Bordeaux
at the end of the LGV Atlantique has no level crossings as a result. Protests against the TGV[edit] The first environmental protests against the building of an LGV occurred in May 1990 during the planning stages of the LGV Méditerranée. Protesters blocked a railway viaduct to protest against the planned route, arguing that it was unnecessary, and that trains could keep using existing lines to reach Marseille
Marseille
from Lyon.[45] Lyon
Lyon
Turin
Turin
Ferroviaire (Lyon-Chambéry-Turin), which would connect the TGV
TGV
network to the Italian TAV network, has been the subject of demonstrations in Italy. While most Italian political parties agree on the construction of this line, some inhabitants of the towns where construction would take place oppose it vehemently.[citation needed] The concerns put forward by the protesters centre on storage of dangerous materials mined during tunnel boring, like asbestos and perhaps uranium, in the open air.[citation needed]. This health danger could be avoided by using more expensive techniques for handling radioactive materials.[citation needed] A six-month delay in the start of construction has been decided in order to study solutions. In addition to the concerns of the residents, RFB – a ten-year-old national movement – opposes the development of Italy's TAV high-speed rail network as a whole.[46] General complaints about the noise of TGVs passing near towns and villages have led the SNCF
SNCF
to build acoustic fencing along large sections of LGV to reduce the disturbance to residents, but protests still take place where SNCF
SNCF
has not addressed the issue.[47] Special
Special
services[edit] In addition to its standard services, TGV
TGV
also provides mail and "low cost" travel services For many years, a service termed SNCF
SNCF
TGV
TGV
La Poste has been transporting mail for the French mail service, La Poste. It uses windowless but otherwise standard TGV
TGV
rolling stock, painted in the yellow and blue livery of La Poste In 2013 a new "low cost" TGV
TGV
service was created by the SNCF. It was called Ouigo
Ouigo
and was designed to mimic and challenge low cost airline services. Rebranding[edit] From July 2017, TGV
TGV
services will gradually be rebranded InOui
InOui
so that high-speed rails and the railway industry in France
France
can start competition in 2020.[48][49][50] See also[edit]

Trains portal France
France
portal

iDTGV High-speed rail
High-speed rail
in France TER-GV – TGVs operating on relatively short distances along the LGV Nord TGV
TGV
track construction TGV world speed record
TGV world speed record
– overview and chronology of speed record attempts Train categories in Europe V150 (train)

Notes and references[edit]

^ "French Train Hits 357 mph Breaking World Speed Record". foxnews.com. 4 April 2007. Retrieved 11 February 2010.  ^ Le TGV
TGV
ruler bientôt à 360 km/h, Le Figaro (in French), 17 December 2007. ^ a b ,"World Speed Survey: New lines boost rail's high speed performance". Railway Gazette International. 4 September 2007. Retrieved 1 May 2009.  ^ a b Railway Gazette International 2007 World Speed Survey Tables Railway Gazette International (September 2007) ^ "World Speed Survey 2013: China sprints out in front". Railway Gazette International. Retrieved 2 July 2013.  ^ David Gow (9 July 2008). "Europe's rail renaissance on track". guardian.co.uk. London. Retrieved 9 February 2010.  ^ Ben Fried (15 July 2008). "French Trains Turn $1.75B Profit, Leave American Rail in the Dust". Streetsblog New York City. streetsblog.org. Retrieved 9 February 2010.  ^ Fender, Keith (August 2010). "TGV: High Speed Hero". Trains Magazine. Kalmbach. 70 (8).  ^ "Early TGV
TGV
history". TGVWeb. Retrieved 18 April 2008.  ^ Meunier, Jacob. On The Fast Track: French Railway Modernisation and the Origins of the TGV, 1944–1983. pp. 209–210.  ^ Meunier, Jacob. On The Fast Track: French Railway Modernisation and the Origins of the TGV, 1944–1983. p. 7.  ^ https://www.standard.co.uk/news/transport/jubilant-passengers-hop-on-board-first-ever-direct-train-from-london-to-amsterdam-a3805256.html ^ "General definitions of highspeed". UIC. 28 November 2006. Archived from the original on 10 December 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-03.  ^ " Alstom
Alstom
commits itself to the French very high speed rail programme". Alstom. 18 December 2006. Retrieved 2007-02-04. [dead link] ^ "French high-speed TGV
TGV
breaks world conventional rail-speed record". Deutsche Presse-Agentur (reprinted by Monsters and Critics). 14 February 2007. Archived from the original on 18 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-14.  ^ Wuhan-Guangzhou line opens at 380 km/h, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 12 February 2010. Retrieved 17 May 2010.  ^ " Eurostar
Eurostar
sets new Guinness World Record with cast and filmmakers of Columbia Pictures' The Da Vinci Code". Eurostar. 17 May 2006. Retrieved 2007-02-15.  ^ "French train breaks speed record". BBC News. 27 May 2001. Retrieved 2007-08-26.  ^ "Bilan de l'année 2008 : Perspectives 2009" (PDF) (in French). SNCF. 12 February 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-07.  ^ Pepy, G.: 25 Years of the TGV. Modern Railways 10/2006, p. 67 – 74 ^ "French Train Sets New World Speed Record". London. Archived from the original on 7 May 2008.  ^ Energy Efficiency of different modes of transportation, accessed March 21, 2009 Archived 1 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Martin Wilckens & Gunther Ellewanger. "High speed for Europe" (PDF). Japan Railway & Transport Review. Retrieved 2009-05-01.  ^ "Class 91s to replace GNER's Eurostars" Rail Magazine
Rail Magazine
issue 527 23 November 2005 pages 14/15 ^ Webster, Ben (6 July 2007). "Trains for high-speed link handed over to the French". London: The Times. Retrieved 2009-04-09.  ^ RAIL (page 11, issue 529, 21 December 2005 – 3 January 2006), Double decked trains could be replacement for Eurostars ^ " Eurostar
Eurostar
boosts passenger security at ashford international". Eurostar. Retrieved 2009-04-26.  ^ The Electric Railway Society (March 2015). "The History of the French High Speed Rail Network and TGV". Retrieved 2016-10-19.  ^ Alain Jeunesse and Michel Rollin (March 2004). "La motorisation du TGV
TGV
POS" (in French). Retrieved 2007-07-04.  ^ "French Railway Industry: The paths of excellence" (PDF). DGE/UBIFRANCE. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 2009-05-01.  ^ Ryo Takagi. "High-speed Railways:The last ten years" (PDF). Japan Railway & Transport Review. Retrieved 2009-05-01.  ^ "Korea develops high-speed ambitions: a thorough programme of research and development will soon deliver results for Korea's rail industry in the form of the indigenous KTX II high-speed train. Dr Kihwan Kim of the Korea Railroad Research Institute explains the development of the new train". BNET (International Railway Journal). May 2008. Archived from the original on 16 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-31.  ^ a b "TGVweb Acela Express
Acela Express
page". TGVweb. May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-10.  ^ "Engineers begin work on Moroccan high-speed rail link". BNET (International Railway Journal). May 2008. Retrieved 2009-04-09.  ^ a b " Alstom
Alstom
awarded Italian AGV contract". Railway Gazette International. 17 January 2008. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012.  ^ " Alstom
Alstom
unveils AGV prototype train". Railway Gazette International. 5 February 2008.  ^ " France
France
unveils super-fast train". BBC News. 5 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-05.  ^ Barrow, Keith. "Next-generation TGV
TGV
to enter service in 2022".  ^ " TGV
TGV
Accidents". trainweb.org. 1 May 2009.  ^ Eurostar
Eurostar
derails; seven passengers bruised Associated Press
Associated Press
(5 June 2000), Retrieved 24 November 2005 ^ " Eurostar
Eurostar
train derails in France". BBC News. 5 June 2000. Retrieved 2009-05-10.  ^ "At least 11 killed in rail crash in France". BBC News. Retrieved 2017-12-20.  ^ Bach, Christian; Poivret, Aurélien (14 November 2015). "Une rame d'essai d'un TGV
TGV
se renverse et prend feu à Eckwersheim, près de Strasbourg : cinq morts". Dernieres Nouvelles D'Alsace (in French).  ^ French TGV
TGV
train hits lorry and kills one Reuters UK
Reuters UK
(December 2007) ^ New Scientist (issue 1719, 2 June 1990), High-Speed Protest. Retrieved 15 November 2005. ^ Planet Ark (reprinted from Reuters 1 November 2005), Environmental Protesters Block French-Italian Railway. Retrieved 1 November 2005. ^ Environmental Science and Engineering (November 2001), Train à grande vitesse causes distress Archived 16 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 24 November 2005. ^ SNCF
SNCF
to rebrand TGV
TGV
services as inOui Railway Gazette International 27 May 2017 ^ SNCF
SNCF
rebrands TGV
TGV
as InOui
InOui
International Railway Journal 30 May 2017 ^ SNCF
SNCF
confirms new InOui
InOui
name for TGV
TGV
Business Traveller 31 May 2017

Further reading[edit]

Allen, Geoffrey Freeman (December 1981 – January 1982). "It's a knockout". Rail Enthusiast. EMAP National Publications. pp. 34–37. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965.  Cooper, Basil (January 1983). "What's in a TGV?". Rail Enthusiast. EMAP National Publications. pp. 18–20. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965.  Perren, Brian (October 1983). "TGV: the completion of a dream". Rail Enthusiast. EMAP National Publications. pp. 32–40. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965.  Cinotti, Eric and Tréboul, Jean-Baptiste (2000) Les TGV européens : Eurostar, Thalys, Paris : Presses universitaires de France, ISBN 2-13-050565-1 (in French) Perren, Brian (2000) TGV
TGV
handbook, 2nd ed., Harrow Weald : Capital Transport, ISBN 1-85414-195-3 Malaspina, Jean-Pierre (2005). Des TEE aux TGV
TGV
[TEE to TGV]. Trains d'Europe (in French). 1. Paris: La Vie du Rail. ISBN 2915034486.  Soulié, Claude and Tricoire, Jean (2002). Le grand livre du TGV, Paris: La Vie du Rail, ISBN 2-915034-01-X (in French)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to TGV.

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SNCF
Website (in English) Official TGV
TGV
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