The Info List - Symbolist

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Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts. In literature, the style originates with the 1857 publication of Charles Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du mal. The works of Edgar Allan Poe, which Baudelaire admired greatly and translated into French, were a significant influence and the source of many stock tropes and images. The aesthetic was developed by Stéphane Mallarmé
Stéphane Mallarmé
and Paul Verlaine during the 1860s and 1870s. In the 1880s, the aesthetic was articulated by a series of manifestos and attracted a generation of writers. The name "symbolist" itself was first applied by the critic Jean Moréas, who invented the term to distinguish the Symbolists from the related Decadents of literature and of art. Distinct from, but related to, the style of literature, symbolism in art is related to the gothic component of Romanticism
and Impressionism.


1 Etymology 2 Precursors and origins 3 Movement

3.1 The Symbolist Manifesto 3.2 Techniques 3.3 Paul Verlaine
Paul Verlaine
and the poètes maudits 3.4 Philosophy 3.5 Symbolists and decadents 3.6 Periodical literature

4 In other media

4.1 Visual arts 4.2 Music 4.3 Prose fiction 4.4 Theatre

5 Effect 6 Symbolists

6.1 Precursors 6.2 Authors 6.3 Influence in English literature 6.4 Symbolist visual artists 6.5 Symbolist playwrights 6.6 Composers affected by symbolist ideas

7 Gallery 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Etymology[edit] The term "symbolism" is derived from the word "symbol" which derives from the Latin symbolum, a symbol of faith, and symbolus, a sign of recognition, in turn from classical Greek σύμβολον symbolon, an object cut in half constituting a sign of recognition when the carriers were able to reassemble the two halves. In ancient Greece, the symbolon was a shard of pottery which was inscribed and then broken into two pieces which were given to the ambassadors from two allied city states as a record of the alliance. Precursors and origins[edit] Symbolism was largely a reaction against naturalism and realism, anti-idealistic styles which were attempts to represent reality in its gritty particularity, and to elevate the humble and the ordinary over the ideal. Symbolism was a reaction in favour of spirituality, the imagination, and dreams.[1] Some writers, such as Joris-Karl Huysmans, began as naturalists before becoming symbolists; for Huysmans, this change represented his increasing interest in religion and spirituality. Certain of the characteristic subjects of the Decadents represent naturalist interest in sexuality and taboo topics, but in their case this was mixed with Byronic romanticism and the world-weariness characteristic of the fin de siècle period. The Symbolist poets have a more complex relationship with Parnassianism, a French literary style that immediately preceded it. While being influenced by hermeticism, allowing freer versification, and rejecting Parnassian clarity and objectivity, it retained Parnassianism's love of word play and concern for the musical qualities of verse. The Symbolists continued to admire Théophile Gautier's motto of "art for art's sake", and retained – and modified – Parnassianism's mood of ironic detachment.[2] Many Symbolist poets, including Stéphane Mallarmé
Stéphane Mallarmé
and Paul Verlaine, published early works in Le Parnasse contemporain, the poetry anthologies that gave Parnassianism its name. But Arthur Rimbaud
Arthur Rimbaud
publicly mocked prominent Parnassians and published scatological parodies of some of their main authors, including François Coppée
François Coppée
– misattributed to Coppée himself – in L'Album zutique.[3] One of Symbolism's most colourful promoters in Paris was art and literary critic (and occultist) Joséphin Péladan, who established the Salon de la Rose + Croix. The Salon hosted a series of six presentations of avant-garde art, writing and music during the 1890s, to give a presentation space for artists embracing spiritualism, mysticism, and idealism in their work. A number of Symbolists were associated with the Salon. Movement[edit] The Symbolist Manifesto[edit]

Henri Fantin-Latour, By the Table, 1872, depicting: Paul Verlaine, Arthur Rimbaud, Léon Valade, Ernest d'Hervilly and Camille Pelletan (seated); Pierre Elzéar, Emile Blémont and Jean Aicard
Jean Aicard

Symbolists believed that art should represent absolute truths that could only be described indirectly. Thus, they wrote in a very metaphorical and suggestive manner, endowing particular images or objects with symbolic meaning. Jean Moréas
Jean Moréas
published the Symbolist Manifesto ("Le Symbolisme") in Le Figaro
Le Figaro
on 18 September 1886 (see 1886 in poetry). The Symbolist Manifesto names Charles Baudelaire, Stéphane Mallarmé, and Paul Verlaine
Paul Verlaine
as the three leading poets of the movement. Moréas announced that symbolism was hostile to "plain meanings, declamations, false sentimentality and matter-of-fact description", and that its goal instead was to "clothe the Ideal in a perceptible form" whose "goal was not in itself, but whose sole purpose was to express the Ideal."

Ainsi, dans cet art, les tableaux de la nature, les actions des humains, tous les phénomènes concrets ne sauraient se manifester eux-mêmes ; ce sont là des apparences sensibles destinées à représenter leurs affinités ésotériques avec des Idées primordiales.

(In this art, scenes from nature, human activities, and all other real world phenomena will not be described for their own sake; here, they are perceptible surfaces created to represent their esoteric affinities with the primordial Ideals.)[4]

In a nutshell, as Mallarmé writes in a letter to his friend Cazalis, 'to depict not the thing but the effect it produces'.[5] Techniques[edit]

Portrait of Charles Baudelaire, precursor of the symbolist style, c. 1862

The symbolist poets wished to liberate techniques of versification in order to allow greater room for "fluidity", and as such were sympathetic with the trend toward free verse, as evident in the poems of Gustave Kahn
Gustave Kahn
and Ezra Pound. Symbolist poems were attempts to evoke, rather than primarily to describe; symbolic imagery was used to signify the state of the poet's soul. T. S. Eliot
T. S. Eliot
was influenced by the poets Jules Laforgue, Paul Valéry
Paul Valéry
and Arthur Rimbaud
Arthur Rimbaud
who used the techniques of the Symbolist school,[6] though it has also been said[by whom?] that 'Imagism' was the style to which both Pound and Eliot subscribed (see Pound's Des Imagistes). Synesthesia
was a prized experience[citation needed]; poets sought to identify and confound the separate senses of scent, sound, and colour. In Baudelaire's poem Correspondences, (considered to be the touchstone of French Symbolism [7]) also mentions forêts de symboles – forests of symbols –

Il est des parfums frais comme des chairs d'enfants, Doux comme les hautbois, verts comme les prairies, – Et d'autres, corrompus, riches et triomphants,

Ayant l'expansion des choses infinies, Comme l'ambre, le musc, le benjoin et l'encens, Qui chantent les transports de l'esprit et des sens.

(There are perfumes that are fresh like children's flesh, sweet like oboes, green like meadows – And others, corrupt, rich, and triumphant,

having the expansiveness of infinite things, like amber, musc, benzoin, and incense, which sing of the raptures of the soul and senses.)

and Rimbaud's poem Voyelles:

A noir, E blanc, I rouge, U vert, O bleu : voyelles…

(A black, E white, I red, U green, O blue: vowels…)

– both poets seek to identify one sense experience with another. The earlier Romanticism
of poetry used symbols, but these symbols were unique and privileged objects. The symbolists were more extreme, investing all things, even vowels and perfumes, with potential symbolic value. "The physical universe, then, is a kind of language that invites a privileged spectator to decipher it, although this does not yield a single message so much as a superior network of associations."[8] Symbolist symbols are not allegories, intended to represent; they are instead intended to evoke particular states of mind. The nominal subject of Mallarmé's "Le cygne" ("The Swan") is of a swan trapped in a frozen lake. Significantly, in French, cygne is a homophone of signe, a sign. The overall effect is of overwhelming whiteness; and the presentation of the narrative elements of the description is quite indirect:

Le vierge, le vivace, et le bel aujourd'hui Va-t-il nous déchirer avec un coup d’aile ivre Ce lac dur oublié que hante sous le givre Le transparent glacier des vols qui n’ont pas fui! Un cygne d’autrefois se souvient que c’est lui Magnifique mais qui sans espoir se délivre…

(The virgin, lively, and beautiful today – will it tear for us this hard forgotten lake that lurks beneath the frost, the transparent glacier of flights not taken with a blow from a drunken wing? A swan of long ago remembers that it is he, magnificent but without hope, who breaks free…)

Paul Verlaine
Paul Verlaine
and the poètes maudits[edit] Of the several attempts at defining the essence of symbolism, perhaps none was more influential than Paul Verlaine's 1884 publication of a series of essays on Tristan Corbière, Arthur Rimbaud, Stéphane Mallarmé, Marceline Desbordes-Valmore, Gérard de Nerval, and "Pauvre Lelian" ("Poor Lelian", an anagram of Paul Verlaine's own name), each of whom Verlaine numbered among the poètes maudits, "accursed poets."

Eugen Bracht, The Shore of Oblivion, 1889

Verlaine argued that in their individual and very different ways, each of these hitherto neglected poets found genius a curse; it isolated them from their contemporaries, and as a result these poets were not at all concerned to avoid hermeticism and idiosyncratic writing styles.[9] They were also portrayed as at odds with society, having tragic lives, and often given to self-destructive tendencies. These traits were not hindrances but consequences of their literary gifts. Verlaine's concept of the poète maudit in turn borrows from Baudelaire, who opened his collection Les fleurs du mal
Les fleurs du mal
with the poem Bénédiction, which describes a poet whose internal serenity remains undisturbed by the contempt of the people surrounding him.[10] In this conception of genius and the role of the poet, Verlaine referred indirectly to the aesthetics of Arthur Schopenhauer, the philosopher of pessimism, who maintained that the purpose of art was to provide a temporary refuge from the world of strife of the will.[11] Philosophy[edit] Schopenhauer's aesthetics
Schopenhauer's aesthetics
represented shared concerns with the symbolist programme; they both tended to consider Art
as a contemplative refuge from the world of strife and will. As a result of this desire for an artistic refuge, the symbolists used characteristic themes of mysticism and otherworldliness, a keen sense of mortality, and a sense of the malign power of sexuality, which Albert Samain termed a "fruit of death upon the tree of life."[12] Mallarmé's poem Les fenêtres[13] expresses all of these themes clearly. A dying man in a hospital bed, seeking escape from the pain and dreariness of his physical surroundings, turns toward his window but then turns away in disgust from

Pornocrates, by Félicien Rops, etching and aquatint, 1878

… l'homme à l'âme dure Vautré dans le bonheur, où ses seuls appétits Mangent, et qui s'entête à chercher cette ordure Pour l'offrir à la femme allaitant ses petits, …

(… the hard-souled man, Wallowing in happiness, where only his appetites Feed, and who insists on seeking out this filth To offer to the wife suckling his children, …)

and in contrast, he "turns his back on life" (tourne l’épaule à la vie) and he exclaims:

Je me mire et me vois ange! Et je meurs, et j'aime – Que la vitre soit l'art, soit la mysticité – A renaître, portant mon rêve en diadème, Au ciel antérieur où fleurit la Beauté!

(I marvel at myself, I seem an angel! and I die, and I love – Whether the glass might be art, or mysticism – To be reborn, bearing my dream as a diadem, Under that former sky where Beauty
once flourished!)

Symbolists and decadents[edit] The symbolist style has frequently been confused with decadence, the name derived from French literary critics in the 1880s, suggesting the writers were self indulgent and obsessed with taboo subjects.[14] A few writers embraced the term while most avoided it. Jean Moréas' manifesto was largely a response to this polemic. By the late 1880s, the terms "symbolism" and "decadence" were understood to be almost synonymous.[15] Though the aesthetics of the styles can be considered similar in some ways, the two remain distinct. The symbolists were those artists who emphasized dreams and ideals; the Decadents cultivated précieux, ornamented, or hermetic styles, and morbid subject matters.[16] The subject of the decadence of the Roman Empire was a frequent source of literary images and appears in the works of many poets of the period, regardless of which name they chose for their style, as in Verlaine's "Langueur":[17]

Je suis l'Empire à la fin de la Décadence, Qui regarde passer les grands Barbares blancs En composant des acrostiches indolents D'un style d'or où la langueur du soleil danse.

(I am the Empire at the end of the decadence, who watches the large, white barbarians passing, while composing lazy acrostic poems in a gilded style in which the languor of the sun dances.)

Periodical literature[edit]

Victor Vasnetsov, The Knight at the Crossroads, 1878

A number of important literary publications were founded by symbolists or became associated with the style. The first was La Vogue initiated in April 1886. In October of that same year, Jean Moréas, Gustave Kahn, and Paul Adam began the periodical Le Symboliste. One of the most important symbolist journals was Mercure de France, edited by Alfred Vallette, which succeeded La Pléiade; founded in 1890, this periodical endured until 1965. Pierre Louÿs
Pierre Louÿs
initiated La conque, a periodical whose symbolist influences were alluded to by Jorge Luis Borges in his story Pierre Menard, Author
of the Quixote. Other symbolist literary magazines included La Revue blanche, La Revue wagnérienne, La Plume
La Plume
and La Wallonie. Rémy de Gourmont
Rémy de Gourmont
and Félix Fénéon
Félix Fénéon
were literary critics associated with symbolism. The symbolist and decadent literary styles were satirized by a book of poetry, Les Déliquescences d'Adoré Floupette, published in 1885 by Henri Beauclair and Gabriel Vicaire.[18] In other media[edit] Visual arts[edit]

Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Jeunes Filles au Bord de la Mer ("Young Girls on the Edge of the Sea"), 1879, Musée d'Orsay, Paris

Symbolism in literature is distinct from symbolism in art although the two were similar in many aspects. In painting, symbolism can be seen as a revival of some mystical tendencies in the Romantic tradition, and was close to the self-consciously morbid and private decadent movement. There were several rather dissimilar groups of Symbolist painters and visual artists, which included Gustave Moreau, Gustav Klimt, Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis, Jacek Malczewski, Odilon Redon, Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Henri Fantin-Latour, Gaston Bussière, Edvard Munch, Félicien Rops, and Jan Toorop. Symbolism in painting was even more widespread geographically than symbolism in poetry, affecting Mikhail Vrubel, Nicholas Roerich, Victor Borisov-Musatov, Martiros Saryan, Mikhail Nesterov, Léon Bakst, Elena Gorokhova
Elena Gorokhova
in Russia, as well as Frida Kahlo
Frida Kahlo
in Mexico[citation needed], Elihu Vedder, Remedios Varo, Morris Graves
Morris Graves
and David Chetlahe Paladin in the United States. Auguste Rodin is sometimes considered a symbolist sculptor. The symbolist painters used mythological and dream imagery. The symbols used by symbolism are not the familiar emblems of mainstream iconography but intensely personal, private, obscure and ambiguous references. More a philosophy than an actual style of art, symbolism in painting influenced the contemporary Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
style and Les Nabis.[11] Music[edit] Symbolism had some influence on music as well. Many symbolist writers and critics were early enthusiasts of the music of Richard Wagner,[19] an avid reader of Schopenhauer.

John William Waterhouse, Saint Cecilia, 1895

The symbolist aesthetic affected the works of Claude Debussy. His choices of libretti, texts, and themes come almost exclusively from the symbolist canon. Compositions such as his settings of Cinq poèmes de Charles Baudelaire, various art songs on poems by Verlaine, the opera Pelléas et Mélisande with a libretto by Maurice Maeterlinck, and his unfinished sketches that illustrate two Poe stories, The Devil in the Belfry and The Fall of the House of Usher, all indicate that Debussy was profoundly influenced by symbolist themes and tastes. His best known work, the Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune, was inspired by Mallarmé's poem, L'après-midi d'un faune.[20] The symbolist aesthetic also influenced Aleksandr Scriabin's compositions. Arnold Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire
Pierrot Lunaire
takes its text from German translations of the symbolist poems by Albert Giraud, showing an association between German expressionism and symbolism. Richard Strauss's 1905 opera Salomé, based on the play by Oscar Wilde, uses a subject frequently depicted by symbolist artists. Prose fiction[edit] Symbolism's style of the static and hieratic adapted less well to narrative fiction than it did to poetry. Joris-Karl Huysmans' 1884 novel À rebours
À rebours
(English title: Against Nature or Against the Grain) explored many themes that became associated with the symbolist aesthetic. This novel, in which very little happens, catalogues the psychology of Des Esseintes, an eccentric, reclusive antihero. Oscar Wilde was influenced by the novel, it being a major influence in writing his play Salome
and Huysman's book appears in The Picture of Dorian Gray, with the titular character becoming corrupted after reading the book.[21] Paul Adam was the most prolific and representative author of symbolist novels. Les Demoiselles Goubert (1886), co-written with Jean Moréas, is an important transitional work between naturalism and symbolism. Few symbolists used this form. One exception was Gustave Kahn, who published Le Roi fou in 1896. In 1892, Georges Rodenbach
Georges Rodenbach
wrote the short novel Bruges-la-morte, set in the Flemish town of Bruges, which Rodenbach described as a dying, medieval city of mourning and quiet contemplation: in a typically symbolist juxtaposition, the dead city contrasts with the diabolical re-awakening of sexual desire.[22] The cynical, misanthropic, misogynistic fiction of Jules Barbey d'Aurevilly is sometimes considered symbolist, as well. Gabriele d'Annunzio wrote his first novels in the symbolist manner. Theatre[edit]

Alexandre Benois' set for Stravinsky's Petrushka
in 1911

The characteristic emphasis on an internal life of dreams and fantasies have made symbolist theatre difficult to reconcile with more recent trends. Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam's drama Axël (rev. ed. 1890) is a definitive symbolist play. In it, two Rosicrucian aristocrats become enamored of each other while trying to kill each other, only to agree to commit suicide mutually because nothing in life could equal their fantasies. From this play, Edmund Wilson adopted the title Axel's Castle for his influential study of the symbolist literary aftermath. Maurice Maeterlinck, also a symbolist playwright, wrote The Blind (1890), The Intruder (1890), Interior (1891), Pelléas and Mélisande (1892), and The Blue Bird (1908). Eugénio de Castro is considered one of the introducers of Symbolism in the Iberian Peninsula. He wrote Belkiss, "dramatic prose-poem" as he called it, about the doomed passion of Belkiss, The Queen of Sheba, to Solomon, depicting in a avant-guard and violent style the psychological tension and recreating very accurately the tenth century BC Israel. He also wrote King Galaor and Polycrates' Ring, being one the most prolific Symbolist theoriticians.[23] Lugné-Poe (1869–1940) was an actor, director, and theatre producer of the late nineteenth century. Lugné-Poe "sought to create a unified nonrealistic theatre of poetry and dreams through atmospheric staging and stylized acting".[24] Upon learning about symbolist theatre, he never wanted to practice any other form. After beginning as an actor in the Théâtre Libre
Théâtre Libre
and Théâtre d'Art, Lugné-Poe grasped on to the symbolist movement and founded the Théâtre de l'Œuvre
Théâtre de l'Œuvre
where he was manager from 1892 until 1929. Some of his greatest successes include opening his own symbolist theatre, producing the first staging of Alfred Jarry's Ubu Roi
Ubu Roi
(1896), and introducing French theatregoers to playwrights such as Ibsen and Strindberg.[24] The later works of the Russian playwright Anton Chekhov
Anton Chekhov
have been identified by essayist Paul Schmidt as being much influenced by symbolist pessimism.[25] Both Konstantin Stanislavski
Konstantin Stanislavski
and Vsevolod Meyerhold experimented with symbolist modes of staging in their theatrical endeavors. Drama by symbolist authors formed an important part of the repertoire of the Théâtre de l'Œuvre
Théâtre de l'Œuvre
and the Théâtre d'Art. Effect[edit]

Black night. White snow. The wind, the wind! It will not let you go. The wind, the wind! Through God's whole world it blows

The wind is weaving The white snow. Brother ice peeps from below Stumbling and tumbling Folk slip and fall. God pity all!

“ ”

From "The Twelve" (1918) Trans. Babette Deutsch and Avrahm Yarmolinsky [26]

Night, street and streetlight, drug store, The purposeless, half-dim, drab light. For all the use live on a quarter century – Nothing will change. There's no way out.

You'll die – and start all over, live twice, Everything repeats itself, just as it was: Night, the canal's rippled icy surface, The drug store, the street, and streetlight.

“ ”

"Night, street and streetlight, drugstore..." (1912) Trans. by Alex Cigale

Among English-speaking artists, the closest counterpart to symbolism was aestheticism. The pre-Raphaelites were contemporaries of the earlier symbolists, and have much in common with them. Symbolism had a significant influence on modernism, ( Remy de Gourmont
Remy de Gourmont
considered the Imagists were its descendants)[27] and its traces can also be detected in the work of many modernist poets, including T. S. Eliot, Wallace Stevens, Conrad Aiken, Hart Crane, and W. B. Yeats
W. B. Yeats
in the anglophone tradition and Rubén Darío
Rubén Darío
in Hispanic literature. The early poems of Guillaume Apollinaire
Guillaume Apollinaire
have strong affinities with symbolism. Early Portuguese Modernism
was heavily influenced by Symbolist poets, especially Camilo Pessanha; Fernando Pessoa
Fernando Pessoa
had many affinities to Symbolism, such as mysticism, musical versification, subjectivism and transcendatilism. Edmund Wilson's 1931 study Axel's Castle focuses on the continuity with symbolism and several important writers of the early twentieth century, with a particular emphasis on Yeats, Eliot, Paul Valéry, Marcel Proust, James Joyce, and Gertrude Stein. Wilson concluded that the symbolists represented a dreaming retreat into

things that are dying–the whole belle-lettristic tradition of Renaissance culture perhaps, compelled to specialize more and more, more and more driven in on itself, as industrialism and democratic education have come to press it closer and closer.[28]

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Mikhail Nesterov's The Vision of the Youth Bartholomew, 1890

After the beginning of the 20th century, symbolism had a major effect on Russian poetry even as it became less popular in France. Russian symbolism, steeped in the Eastern Orthodoxy
Eastern Orthodoxy
and the religious doctrines of Vladimir Solovyov, had little in common with the French style of the same name. It began the careers of several major poets such as Alexander Blok, Andrei Bely, and Marina Tsvetaeva. Bely's novel Petersburg (1912) is considered the greatest example of Russian symbolist prose. Primary influences on the style of Russian Symbolism
Russian Symbolism
were the irrationalistic and mystical poetry and philosophy of Fyodor Tyutchev and Solovyov, the novels of Fyodor Dostoyevsky, the operas of Richard Wagner,[29] the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer[citation needed] and Friedrich Nietzsche,[30] French symbolist and decadent poets (such as Stéphane Mallarmé, Paul Verlaine
Paul Verlaine
and Charles Baudelaire), and the dramas of Henrik Ibsen. The style was largely inaugurated by Nikolai Minsky's article The Ancient Debate (1884) and Dmitry Merezhkovsky's book On the Causes of the Decline and on the New Trends in Contemporary Russian Literature (1892). Both writers promoted extreme individualism and the act of creation. Merezhkovsky was known for his poetry as well as a series of novels on god-men, among whom he counted Christ, Joan of Arc, Dante, Leonardo da Vinci, Napoleon, and (later) Hitler. His wife, Zinaida Gippius, also a major poet of early symbolism, opened a salon in St Petersburg, which came to be known as the "headquarters of Russian decadence". Andrei Bely's Petersburg (novel)
Petersburg (novel)
a portrait of the social strata of the Russian capital, is frequently cited as a late example of Symbolism in 20th century Russian literature. In Romania, symbolists directly influenced by French poetry first gained influence during the 1880s, when Alexandru Macedonski
Alexandru Macedonski
reunited a group of young poets associated with his magazine Literatorul. Polemicizing with the established Junimea
and overshadowed by the influence of Mihai Eminescu, Romanian symbolism was recovered as an inspiration during and after the 1910s, when it was exampled by the works of Tudor Arghezi, Ion Minulescu, George Bacovia, Mateiu Caragiale, Tristan Tzara
Tristan Tzara
and Tudor Vianu, and praised by the modernist magazine Sburătorul. The symbolist painters were an important influence on expressionism and surrealism in painting, two movements which descend directly from symbolism proper. The harlequins, paupers, and clowns of Pablo Picasso's "Blue Period" show the influence of symbolism, and especially of Puvis de Chavannes. In Belgium, symbolism became so popular that it came to be known as a national style, particularly in landscape painting[31]: the static strangeness of painters like René Magritte can be considered as a direct continuation of symbolism. The work of some symbolist visual artists, such as Jan Toorop, directly affected the curvilinear forms of art nouveau. Many early motion pictures also employ symbolist visual imagery and themes in their staging, set designs, and imagery. The films of German expressionism owe a great deal to symbolist imagery. The virginal "good girls" seen in the cinema of D. W. Griffith, and the silent film "bad girls" portrayed by Theda Bara, both show the continuing influence of symbolism, as do the Babylonian scenes from Griffith's Intolerance. Symbolist imagery lived on longest in horror film: as late as 1932, Carl Theodor Dreyer's Vampyr
showed the obvious influence of symbolist imagery; parts of the film resemble tableau vivant re-creations of the early paintings of Edvard Munch.[32] Symbolists[edit]

(1907) by Gaston Bussière


William Blake
William Blake
(1757–1827) English writer (Songs of Innocence) Caspar David Friedrich
Caspar David Friedrich
(1774–1840) German painter (Wanderer above the Sea of Fog) Alexander Pushkin
Alexander Pushkin
(1799–1837) Russian poet and writer (Eugene Onegin) Prosper Mérimée
Prosper Mérimée
(1803–1870) French novelist Đorđe Marković Koder
Đorđe Marković Koder
(1806–1891) Serbian poet (Romoranka) Gérard de Nerval
Gérard de Nerval
(1808–55) French poet Jules Amédée Barbey d'Aurevilly
Jules Amédée Barbey d'Aurevilly
(1808–1889) French writer Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe
(1809–49) American poet and writer (The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket) Mikhail Lermontov
Mikhail Lermontov
(1814–1841) Russian poet and writer (A Hero of Our Time) Charles Baudelaire
Charles Baudelaire
(1821–67) French poet (Les Fleurs du mal) Gustave Flaubert
Gustave Flaubert
(1821–1880) French writer (Madame Bovary) Dante
Gabriel Rossetti (1828–82) English poet and painter (Beata Beatrix) Christina Rossetti
Christina Rossetti
(1830–1894) English poet

Authors[edit] (listed by year of birth)


Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam
Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam
(1838–89) Stéphane Mallarmé
Stéphane Mallarmé
(1842–98) Paul Verlaine
Paul Verlaine
(1844–96) Léon Bloy
Léon Bloy
(1846–1917) Germain Nouveau
Germain Nouveau
(1851—1920) Jean Lorrain
Jean Lorrain
(1855–1906) Arthur Rimbaud
Arthur Rimbaud
(1854–91) Albert Samain
Albert Samain
(1858–1900) Rémy de Gourmont
Rémy de Gourmont
(1858–1915) Gustave Kahn
Gustave Kahn
(1859–1936) Rachilde (1860–1953) Saint-Pol-Roux
(1861–1940) Paul Adam (1862–1920) Francis Vielé-Griffin (1863–1937) Henri de Régnier
Henri de Régnier
(1864–1936) Albert Aurier
Albert Aurier
(1865–1892) Marcel Schwob
Marcel Schwob
(1867–1905) Paul Valéry
Paul Valéry
(1871–1945) Paul Fort
Paul Fort
(1872–1960) Alfred Jarry
Alfred Jarry
(1873–1907) Early Henri Barbusse (1873–1935) Charles Vildrac (1882–1971) Georges Duhamel
Georges Duhamel
(1884–1966) Alexandre Mercereau
Alexandre Mercereau
(1884–1945) Jules Romains
Jules Romains

French Uruguayan

Comte de Lautréamont
Comte de Lautréamont
(1846–70) Jules Laforgue
Jules Laforgue


Emile Verhaeren
Emile Verhaeren
(1855–1916) Georges Rodenbach
Georges Rodenbach
(1855–98) Albert Giraud
Albert Giraud
(1860–1929) Maurice Maeterlinck
Maurice Maeterlinck
(1862–1949) Albert Mockel (1866–1945)

German and Austrian

Arthur Schnitzler
Arthur Schnitzler
(1862–1931) Austrian Stefan George
Stefan George
(1868–1933) German Hugo von Hofmannsthal
Hugo von Hofmannsthal
(1874–1929) Austrian Rainer Maria Rilke
Rainer Maria Rilke
(1875–1926) Bohemian-Austraian Alfred Kubin
Alfred Kubin
(1877–1959) Austrian


Manuel da Silva Gaio (1861–1934) Camilo Pessanha
Camilo Pessanha
(1867–1926) António Nobre
António Nobre
(1867–1900) Raul Brandão
Raul Brandão
(1867–1930) Alberto Osório de Castro (1868–1946) Eugénio de Castro (1869–1944) Augusto Gil (1873–1929) Mário de Sá-Carneiro
Mário de Sá-Carneiro


Innokenty Annensky
Innokenty Annensky
(1855–1909) Fyodor Sologub
Fyodor Sologub
(1863–1927) Dmitry Merezhkovsky
Dmitry Merezhkovsky
(1865–1941) Vyacheslav Ivanov (1866–1949) Konstantin Balmont
Konstantin Balmont
(1867–1942) Zinaida Gippius
Zinaida Gippius
(1869–1945) Teffi
(1872—1952) Valery Bryusov
Valery Bryusov
(1873–1924) Maximilian Voloshin
Maximilian Voloshin
(1877–1932) Alexander Blok
Alexander Blok
(1880–1921) Andrei Bely
Andrei Bely


Aleksa Šantić
Aleksa Šantić
(1868–1924) Jovan Dučić
Jovan Dučić
(1871–1943) Svetozar Ćorović
Svetozar Ćorović
(1875–1919) Milan Rakić (1876–1938) Borisav Stanković
Borisav Stanković
(1876–1927) Jovan Skerlić
Jovan Skerlić
(1877–1914) Isidora Sekulić
Isidora Sekulić
(1877–1958) Petar Kočić
Petar Kočić
(1877–1916) Vladislav Petković Dis
Vladislav Petković Dis
(1880–1917) Sima Pandurović (1883–1960) Veljko Petrović (poet)
Veljko Petrović (poet)


Levon Shant
Levon Shant
(1869–1951) Siamanto
(1878–1915) Daniel Varujan
Daniel Varujan
(1884–1915) Gostan Zarian
Gostan Zarian
( 1885–1969) Misak Metsarents
Misak Metsarents


Grigol Robakidze
Grigol Robakidze
(1880–1962) Valerian Gaprindashvili (1888–1941) Sergo Kldiashvili (1893–1986) Paolo Iashvili
Paolo Iashvili
(1894–1937) Sandro Tsirekidze (1894–1923) Kolau Nadiradze (1895–1991) Titsian Tabidze
Titsian Tabidze
(1895–1937) Giorgi Leonidze
Giorgi Leonidze

Polish See Also: Young Poland
Young Poland

Antoni Lange
Antoni Lange
(1861–1929) Tadeusz Miciński (1873–1918) Stanisław Korab-Brzozowski (1876–1901)


Edmund Gosse
Edmund Gosse
1849—1928) William Ernest Henley
William Ernest Henley
(1849—1903) Arthur Symons
Arthur Symons
(1865—1945) Renée Vivien (1877–1909)


Giovanni Pascoli
Giovanni Pascoli
(1855–1912) Italian Louis Couperus
Louis Couperus
(1863–1923) Dutch Jean Moréas
Jean Moréas
(1856–1910) Greek João da Cruz e Sousa
João da Cruz e Sousa
(1861–1898) Brazilian Stuart Merrill
Stuart Merrill
(1863–1915) American Otokar Březina
Otokar Březina
(1868–1929) Czech Jurgis Baltrušaitis
Jurgis Baltrušaitis
(1873–1944) Lithuanian Ivan Krasko (1876–1958) Slovak Dumitru Karnabatt
Dumitru Karnabatt
(1877–1949) Romanian Oscar Milosz
Oscar Milosz
(1877–1939) Lithuanian (French language) Josip Murn Aleksandrov
Josip Murn Aleksandrov
(1879–1901) Slovene Émile Nelligan
Émile Nelligan
(1879–1941) Canadian Ady Endre
Ady Endre
(1877–1919) Hungarian George Bacovia
George Bacovia
(1881–1957) Romanian Mateiu Caragiale
Mateiu Caragiale
(1885–1936) Romanian Dimcho Debelyanov
Dimcho Debelyanov
(1887–1916) Bulgarian

Influence in English literature[edit] English language authors who influenced or were influenced by symbolism include:

Conrad Aiken
Conrad Aiken
(1889–1973) Max Beerbohm
Max Beerbohm
(1872–1956) Hart Crane
Hart Crane
(1899–1932) Olive Custance (1874–1944) Ernest Dowson
Ernest Dowson
(1867–1900) T. S. Eliot
T. S. Eliot
(1888–1965) James Elroy Flecker
James Elroy Flecker
(1884–1915) John Gray (1866–1934) George MacDonald
George MacDonald
(1824–1905) Arthur Machen
Arthur Machen
(1863–1947) Katherine Mansfield
Katherine Mansfield
(1888–1923) Edith Sitwell
Edith Sitwell
(1887–1964) Clark Ashton Smith
Clark Ashton Smith
(1893–1961) George Sterling
George Sterling
(1869–1926) Wallace Stevens
Wallace Stevens
(1879–1955) Algernon Charles Swinburne
Algernon Charles Swinburne
(1837–1909) Francis Thompson
Francis Thompson
(1859–1907) Rosamund Marriott Watson (1860–1911) Oscar Wilde
Oscar Wilde
(1854–1900) W. B. Yeats
W. B. Yeats

Symbolist visual artists[edit] See also: Category:Symbolist painters and Category:Symbolist sculptors


Edmond Aman-Jean
Edmond Aman-Jean
(1858—1936) Émile Bernard (1868–1941) Gaston Bussière
Gaston Bussière
(painter) (1862–1929) Eugène Carrière
Eugène Carrière
(1849—1906) Pierre Puvis de Chavannes
Pierre Puvis de Chavannes
(1824–1898) Henri Fantin-Latour
Henri Fantin-Latour
(1836–1904) Charles Filiger
Charles Filiger
(1863–1928) Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin
(1848–1903) Charles Guilloux
Charles Guilloux
(1866—1946) Lucien Lévy-Dhurmer
Lucien Lévy-Dhurmer
(1865–1953) Edgar Maxence
Edgar Maxence
(1871—1954) Gustave Moreau
Gustave Moreau
(1826–1898) Gustav-Adolf Mossa (1883–1971) Alphonse Osbert
Alphonse Osbert
(1857—1939) Armand Point
Armand Point
(1861—1932) Ary Renan
Ary Renan
(1857—1900) Odilon Redon
Odilon Redon
(1840–1916) Alexandre Séon
Alexandre Séon

Russian See Also: Russian Symbolism
Russian Symbolism
and the Blue Rose group.

Léon Bakst
Léon Bakst
(1866–1924) Alexandre Benois (1870–1960) Ivan Bilibin
Ivan Bilibin
(1876–1942) Victor Borisov-Musatov
Victor Borisov-Musatov
(1870–1905) Konstantin Bogaevsky
Konstantin Bogaevsky
(1872–1943) Wassily Kandinsky
Wassily Kandinsky
(early works) (1866–1944) Mikhail Nesterov
Mikhail Nesterov
(1862–1942) Nicholas Roerich
Nicholas Roerich
(1874–1947) Konstantin Somov
Konstantin Somov
(1869–1939) Viktor Vasnetsov
Viktor Vasnetsov
(1848–1926) Mikhail Vrubel
Mikhail Vrubel


Jean Delville
Jean Delville
(1867–1953) Fernand Khnopff
Fernand Khnopff
(1858–1921) William Degouve de Nuncques(1867–1935) Égide Rombaux
Égide Rombaux
(1865–1942) Léon Frédéric (1865–1940) Félicien Rops
Félicien Rops
(1855–1898) Léon Spilliaert
Léon Spilliaert

Romanian See also:Symbolist Movement in Romania

Apcar Baltazar
Apcar Baltazar
(1880–1909) Mihail Simonidi
Mihail Simonidi
(1870–1933) Octavian Smigelschi
Octavian Smigelschi
(1866–1912 Austro-Hungarian born, culturally Romanian Ion Theodorescu-Sion
Ion Theodorescu-Sion
(1882–1939) Lascăr Vorel
Lascăr Vorel


Eugen Bracht
Eugen Bracht
(1842–1921) Karl Wilhelm Diefenbach
Karl Wilhelm Diefenbach
(1851–1913) Ludwig Fahrenkrog (1867–1952) Max Klinger
Max Klinger
(1857 – July 1920) Sascha Schneider
Sascha Schneider
(1870–1927) Franz Stuck
Franz Stuck


Arnold Böcklin
Arnold Böcklin
(1827–1901) Carlos Schwabe
Carlos Schwabe
(1866–1926) Ferdinand Hodler
Ferdinand Hodler


Gustav Klimt
Gustav Klimt
(1862–1918) Alfred Kubin
Alfred Kubin
(1877–1959) Karl Mediz
Karl Mediz
(1868–1945) Richard Müller (1874–1954)


Anselmo Bucci
Anselmo Bucci
(1887–1955) Felice Casorati
Felice Casorati
(1883–1963) Italian Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis
Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis
(1875–1911) Lithuanian Arthur Bowen Davies
Arthur Bowen Davies
(1863–1928) American John Duncan (1866–1945) Scottish Luis Ricardo Falero
Luis Ricardo Falero
(1851–1896) Spanish Early František Kupka
František Kupka
(1871–1957) Czech Jacek Malczewski
Jacek Malczewski
(1854–1929) Polish Edvard Munch
Edvard Munch
(1863–1944) Norwegian Ze'ev Raban
Ze'ev Raban
(1890–1970) Polish/Israeli Giovanni Segantini
Giovanni Segantini
(1858–1899) Italian Hugo Simberg
Hugo Simberg
(1873–1917) Finnish Jan Toorop
Jan Toorop
(1858–1928) Dutch Eliseu Visconti
Eliseu Visconti
(1866–1944) Brazilian George Frederic Watts
George Frederic Watts
(1817–1904) English John William Waterhouse
John William Waterhouse
(1849–1917) English

Symbolist playwrights[edit]

Gerhart Hauptmann
Gerhart Hauptmann
(1862–1946) French Federico García Lorca
Federico García Lorca
(1898–1936) Spanish Maurice Maeterlinck
Maurice Maeterlinck
(1862–1949) Belgian Lugné-Poe (1869–1940) French

Composers affected by symbolist ideas[edit]

Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner
(1813–1883) German Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
(1840–1893) Russian Gabriel Fauré
Gabriel Fauré
(1845–1924) French Charles Loeffler
Charles Loeffler
(1861–1935) American Claude Debussy
Claude Debussy
(1862–1918) French Erik Satie
Erik Satie
(1866–1925) French

Mieczysław Karłowicz
Mieczysław Karłowicz
(1876–1909) Polish Alexander Scriabin
Alexander Scriabin
(1872–1912) Russian Maurice Ravel
Maurice Ravel
(1875–1937) French Cyril Scott (1879–1970) English Richard Strauss
Richard Strauss
(1864—1949) Karol Szymanowski
Karol Szymanowski
(1882–1937) Polish Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis
Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis
(1875–1911) Lithuanian


Gustav Klimt, Allegory
of Skulptur, 1889

Jan Toorop, The Three Brides, 1893

Fernand Khnopff, Incense, 1898

Mikhail Vrubel, The Swan
Princess, 1900

Franz von Stuck, Susanna und die beiden Alten, 1913

The cover to Aleksander Blok's 1909 book Theatre. Konstantin Somov's illustrations for the Russian symbolist poet display the continuity between symbolism and Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
artists such as Aubrey Beardsley.

Alfred Kubin, The Last King, 1902

Franz von Stuck, Die Sünde, 1893

Sascha Schneider
Sascha Schneider
The Feeling of Dependence, 1920

Gustave Moreau, Jupiter and Semele, 1894-85

Ferdinand Hodler, The Night, 1889-90

Arnold Böcklin
Arnold Böcklin
- Die Toteninsel I, 1880

Faragó Géza (hu), The Symbolist, 1908, satirical piece in Art Nouveau style

See also[edit]

Belle Époque Les Nabis Rosicrucianism Sigmund Freud Synthetism The Yellow Book Visionary art


^ Balakian, Anna, The Symbolist Movement: a critical appraisal. Random House, 1967, ch. 2. ^ Balakian, see above; see also Houston, introduction. ^ L'Album zutique ^ Jean Moreas, Le Manifeste du Symbolisme, Le Figaro, 1886 ^ Conway Morris, Roderick The Elusive Symbolist movement article – International Herald Tribune, March 17, 2007. ^ Untermeyer, Louis, Preface to Modern American Poetry
Harcourt Brace & Co New York 1950 ^ Pratt, William. The Imagist Poem, Modern Poetry
in Miniature (Story Line Press, 1963, expanded 2001). ISBN 1-58654-009-2 ^ Olds, Marshal C. "Literary Symbolism", originally published (as Chapter 14) in A Companion to Modernist Literature and Culture, edited by David Bradshaw and Kevin J. H. Dettmar. Malden, MA : Blackwell Publishing, 2006. Pages 155–162. ^ Paul Verlaine, Les Poètes maudits ^ Charles Baudelaire, Bénédiction ^ a b Delvaille, Bernard, La poésie symboliste: anthologie, introduction. ISBN 2-221-50161-6 ^ Luxure, fruit de mort à l'arbre de la vie... , Albert Samain, "Luxure", in the publication Au jardin de l'infante (1889) ^ Stéphane Mallarmé, Les fenêtres ^ What Was the Decadent Movement in Literature? ^ David Schimmelpenninck van der Oye, Russian orientalism: Asia in the Russian mind from Peter the Great to the emigration, New Haven: Yale UP, 2010, p. 211 (online). ^ Olds, see above, p. 160. ^ Langueur, from Jadis et Naguère, 1884 ^ Henri Beauclair and Gabriel Vicaire, Les Déliquescences d'Adoré Floupette (1885) Les Déliquescences – poèmes décadents d'Adoré Floupette, avec sa vie par Marius Tapora by Henri Beauclair and Gabriel Vicaire
Gabriel Vicaire
(in French) ^ Jullian Phillipe, The Symbolists, 1977, p.8 ^ Symbolism – Symbolism and Music ^ Joris–Karl Huysmans, Decadent novel À rebours, or, Against Nature, Paris, 1891 ^ Alan Hollinghurst, " Bruges
of sighs" (The Guardian, 29 Jan. 2005, accessed 26 Apr 2009 ^ Saraiva, Lopes, António José, Óscar (2017). História da Literatura Portuguesa (17th ed.). Lisboa: Porto Editora. ISBN 978-972-0-30170-3.  ^ a b "Symbolist Movement". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 3 April 2012.  ^ The Plays of Anton Chekhov, trans. Paul Schmidt (1997) ^ Fragment from "The Twelve" re-printed in The Slavonic and East European Review Vol. 8, No. 22 (Jun., 1929), pp. 188–198 ^ de Gourmont, Remy. La France (1915) ^ Quoted in Brooker, Joseph (2004). Joyce's Critics: Transitions in Reading and Culture. Madison, Wisc.: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 73. ISBN 0299196046.  ^ Nathalie Lorand, Symbolist Vision, The role of music in the paintings of M.K. Čiurlionis, Lituanus, Volume 49, No.2 – Summer 2003 ^ Boris Christa, 'Andrey Bely and the Symbolist Movement in Russia' in The Symbolist Movement in the Literature of European Languages John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1984, p. 389 ^ Philippe Jullian, The Symbolists, 1977, p.55 ^ Jullian, Philippe, The Symbolists. (Dutton, 1977) ISBN 0-7148-1739-2

Further reading[edit]

Anna Balakian, The Symbolist Movement: a critical appraisal. New York: Random House, 1967 Michelle Facos, Symbolist Art
in Context. London: Routledge, 2011 Bernard Delvaille, La poésie symboliste: anthologie. Paris: Seghers, 1971. ISBN 2-221-50161-6 John Porter Houston and Mona Tobin Houston, French Symbolist Poetry: An Anthology. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1980. ISBN 0-253-20250-7 Philippe Jullian, The Symbolists. Oxford: Phaidon; New York: E.P. Dutton, 1973. ISBN 0-7148-1739-2 Andrew George Lehmann, The Symbolist Aesthetic in France 1885–1895. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1950, 1968 The Oxford Companion to French Literature, Sir Paul Harvey and J. E. Heseltine (eds.). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1959. ISBN 0-19-866104-5 Mario Praz, The Romantic Agony. London: Oxford University Press, 1930. ISBN 0-19-281061-8 Arthur Symons, The Symbolist Movement in Literature. E. P. Dutton and Co., Inc. (A Dutton Paperback), 1958 Edmund Wilson, Axel's Castle: A Study in the Imaginative Literature of 1870–1930. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1931 (online version). ISBN 978-1-59853-013-1 (Library of America) Michael Gibson, Symbolism London: Taschen, 1995 ISBN 3822893242

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Symbolist paintings.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Symbolism (arts)

Collection of German Symbolist art The Jack Daulton Collection Les Poètes maudits by Paul Verlaine
Paul Verlaine
(in French) ArtMagick The Symbolist Gallery What is Symbolism in Art
Ten Dreams Galleries – extensive article on Symbolism Symbolism Gustave Moreau, Puvis de Chavannes, Odilon Redon Literary Symbolism Published in A Companion to Modernist Literature and Culture (2006)

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19th-century movements

Neo-impressionism Divisionism Pointillism Cloisonnism Les Nabis Synthetism Symbolism Art


Cuno Amiet Charles Angrand Émile Bernard Edvard Munch Pierre Bonnard Marius Borgeaud Paul Cézanne Henri-Edmond Cross Maurice Denis Georges Dufrénoy Paul Gauguin Hippolyte Petitjean Paul Ranson Odilon Redon Henri Rousseau René Schützenberger Paul Sérusier Georges Seurat Paul Signac Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Charles Laval Georges Lemmen Maximilien Luce Paul Ranson Vincent van Gogh Théo van Rysselberghe Félix Vallotton Édouard Vuillard

20th-century movements

Fauvism Die Brücke Der Blaue Reiter Expressionism Cubism


Georges Braque Charles Camoin André Derain Raoul Dufy Henri Matisse Albert Gleizes Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Karl Schmidt-Rottluff Wassily Kandinsky Sonia Lewitska Franz Marc Jean Metzinger Henry Ottmann Francis Picabia Pablo Picasso Robert Antoine Pinchon Henriette Tirman Jean Marchand Othon Friesz


Artistes Indépendants Les XX Volpini Exhibition Le Barc de Boutteville La Libre Esthétique Ambroise Vollard Salon d'Automne Salon des Indépendants Salon des Cent Salon des Tuileries


Félix Fénéon Albert Aurier

See also

Impressionism Modernism Modern art Secessionism

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Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe
Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe
(1862-63) Olympia (1863) A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte
A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte
(1886) Mont Sainte-Victoir (1887) The Starry Night
The Starry Night
(1889) Ubu Roi
Ubu Roi
(1896) Verklärte Nacht
Verklärte Nacht
(1899) Le bonheur de vivre
Le bonheur de vivre
(1905-1906) Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
Les Demoiselles d'Avignon
(1907) The Firebird
The Firebird
(1910) Afternoon of a Faun (1912) Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2
Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2
(1912) The Rite of Spring
The Rite of Spring
(1913) In Search of Lost Time
In Search of Lost Time
(1913–1927) The Metamorphosis
The Metamorphosis
(1915) Black Square (1915) Fountain (1917) The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari
The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari
(1920) Six Characters in Search of an Author (1921) Ulysses (1922) The Waste Land
The Waste Land
(1922) The Magic Mountain
The Magic Mountain
(1924) Battleship Potemkin
Battleship Potemkin
(1925) The Sun Also Rises
The Sun Also Rises
(1926) The Threepenny Opera
The Threepenny Opera
(1928) The Sound and the Fury
The Sound and the Fury
(1929) Un Chien Andalou
Un Chien Andalou
(1929) Villa Savoye
Villa Savoye
(1931) The Blue Lotus
The Blue Lotus
(1936) Fallingwater
(1936) Waiting for Godot
Waiting for Godot


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Anna Akhmatova Richard Aldington W. H. Auden Charles Baudelaire Luca Caragiale Constantine P. Cavafy Blaise Cendrars Hart Crane H.D. Robert Desnos T. S. Eliot Paul Éluard Odysseas Elytis F. S. Flint Stefan George Max Jacob Federico García Lorca Amy Lowell Robert Lowell Mina Loy Stéphane Mallarmé Marianne Moore Wilfred Owen Octavio Paz Fernando Pessoa Ezra Pound Lionel Richard Rainer Maria Rilke Arthur Rimbaud Giorgos Seferis Wallace Stevens Dylan Thomas Tristan Tzara Paul Valéry William Carlos Williams W. B. Yeats

Visual art

Josef Albers Jean Arp Balthus George Bellows Umberto Boccioni Pierre Bonnard Georges Braque Constantin Brâncuși Alexander Calder Mary Cassatt Paul Cézanne Marc Chagall Giorgio de Chirico Camille Claudel Joseph Cornell Joseph Csaky Salvador Dalí Edgar Degas Raoul Dufy Willem de Kooning Robert Delaunay Charles Demuth Otto Dix Theo van Doesburg Marcel Duchamp James Ensor Max Ernst Jacob Epstein Paul Gauguin Alberto Giacometti Vincent van Gogh Natalia Goncharova Julio González Juan Gris George Grosz Raoul Hausmann Jacques Hérold Hannah Höch Edward Hopper Frida Kahlo Wassily Kandinsky Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Paul Klee Oskar Kokoschka Pyotr Konchalovsky André Lhote Fernand Léger Franz Marc Albert Marque Jean Marchand René Magritte Kazimir Malevich Édouard Manet Henri Matisse Colin McCahon Jean Metzinger Joan Miró Amedeo Modigliani Piet Mondrian Claude Monet Henry Moore Edvard Munch Emil Nolde Georgia O'Keeffe Méret Oppenheim Francis Picabia Pablo Picasso Camille Pissarro Man Ray Odilon Redon Pierre-Auguste Renoir Auguste Rodin Henri Rousseau Egon Schiele Georges Seurat Paul Signac Alfred Sisley Edward Steichen Alfred Stieglitz Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Édouard Vuillard Grant Wood


George Antheil Milton Babbitt Jean Barraqué Alban Berg Luciano Berio Nadia Boulanger Pierre Boulez John Cage Elliott Carter Aaron Copland Henry Cowell Henri Dutilleux Morton Feldman Henryk Górecki Josef Matthias Hauer Paul Hindemith Arthur Honegger Charles Ives Leoš Janáček György Ligeti Witold Lutosławski Olivier Messiaen Luigi Nono Harry Partch Krzysztof Penderecki Sergei Prokofiev Luigi Russolo Erik Satie Pierre Schaeffer Arnold Schoenberg Dmitri Shostakovich Richard Strauss Igor Stravinsky Edgard Varèse Anton Webern Kurt Weill Iannis Xenakis


Edward Albee Maxwell Anderson Jean Anouilh Antonin Artaud Samuel Beckett Bertolt Brecht Anton Chekhov Friedrich Dürrenmatt Jean Genet Maxim Gorky Walter Hasenclever Henrik Ibsen William Inge Eugène Ionesco Alfred Jarry Georg Kaiser Maurice Maeterlinck Vladimir Mayakovsky Arthur Miller Seán O'Casey Eugene O'Neill John Osborne Luigi Pirandello Erwin Piscator George Bernard Shaw August Strindberg John Millington Synge Ernst Toller Frank Wedekind Thornton Wilder Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz


Ingmar Bergman Anton Giulio Bragaglia Luis Buñuel Marcel Carné Charlie Chaplin René Clair Jean Cocteau Maya Deren Alexander Dovzhenko Carl Theodor Dreyer Viking Eggeling Sergei Eisenstein Jean Epstein Robert J. Flaherty Abel Gance Isidore Isou Buster Keaton Lev Kuleshov Fritz Lang Marcel L'Herbier Georges Méliès F. W. Murnau Georg Wilhelm Pabst Vsevolod Pudovkin Jean Renoir Walter Ruttmann Victor Sjöström Josef von Sternberg Dziga Vertov Jean Vigo Robert Wiene


George Balanchine Merce Cunningham Clotilde von Derp Sergei Diaghilev Isadora Duncan Michel Fokine Loie Fuller Martha Graham Hanya Holm Doris Humphrey Léonide Massine Vaslav Nijinsky Alwin Nikolais Alexander Sakharoff Ted Shawn Anna Sokolow Ruth St. Denis Helen Tamiris Charles Weidman Mary Wigman


Alvar Aalto Marcel Breuer Gordon Bunshaft Antoni Gaudí Walter Gropius Hector Guimard Raymond Hood Victor Horta Friedensreich Hundertwasser Philip Johnson Louis Kahn Le Corbusier Adolf Loos Konstantin Melnikov Erich Mendelsohn Pier Luigi Nervi Richard Neutra Oscar Niemeyer Hans Poelzig Antonin Raymond Gerrit Rietveld Eero Saarinen Rudolf Steiner Edward Durell Stone Louis Sullivan Vladimir Tatlin Paul Troost Jørn Utzon Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Frank Lloyd Wright

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Abhinavagupta Theodor W. Adorno Leon Battista Alberti Thomas Aquinas Hans Urs von Balthasar Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten Clive Bell Bernard Bosanquet Edward Bullough R. G. Collingwood Ananda Coomaraswamy Arthur Danto John Dewey Denis Diderot Hubert Dreyfus Curt John Ducasse Thierry de Duve Roger Fry Nelson Goodman Clement Greenberg Georg Hegel Martin Heidegger David Hume Immanuel Kant Paul Klee Susanne Langer Theodor Lipps György Lukács Jean-François Lyotard Joseph Margolis Jacques Maritain Thomas Munro Friedrich Nietzsche José Ortega y Gasset Dewitt H. Parker Stephen Pepper David Prall Jacques Rancière Ayn Rand George Lansing Raymond I. A. Richards George Santayana Friedrich Schiller Arthur Schopenhauer Roger Scruton Irving Singer Rabindranath Tagore Giorgio Vasari Morris Weitz Johann Joachim Winckelmann Richard Wollheim more...


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Schools of poetry

Akhmatova's Orphans Angry Penguins Auden Group The Beats Black Arts Movement Black Mountain poets British Poetry
Revival Cairo poets Castalian Band Cavalier poets Chhayavaad Churchyard poets Confessionalists Créolité Cyclic Poets Dada Deep image Della Cruscans Dolce Stil Novo Dymock poets Ecopoetry The poets of Elan Flarf Fugitives Garip Gay Saber Generation of '27 Generation of the '30s Generation of '98 Georgian poets Goliard The Group Harlem Renaissance Harvard Aesthetes Hungry generation Imagism Informationist poetry Jindyworobaks Lake Poets Language poets Martian poetry Metaphysical poets Misty Poets Modernist poetry The Movement Négritude Neotericism New American Poetry New Apocalyptics New Formalism New York School Objectivists Others Parnassian poets La Pléiade Quantum Sheep Rhymers' Club San Francisco Renaissance Scottish Renaissance Sicilian School Sons of Ben Southern Agrarians Spasmodic poets Sung poetry Surrealism Symbolism Uranian poetry

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