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Southern California
California
(colloquially known as SoCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises California's 10 southernmost counties.[1][2] The region is traditionally described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties: Imperial, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, and Ventura.[3] The more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is also used and is based on historical political divisions.[1] The 8-county and 10-county definitions are not used for the greater Southern California
California
Megaregion, one of the 11 megaregions of the United States. The megaregion is more expansive, extending east into Las Vegas, Nevada
Nevada
and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana.[4] Southern California
California
includes the heavily built-up urban area which stretches along the Pacific coast from Ventura through the Greater Los Angeles area and the Inland Empire, and down to Greater San Diego. Southern California's population encompasses seven metropolitan areas: the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
metropolitan area ( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and Orange counties), the Inland Empire
Inland Empire
(Riverside and San Bernardino
San Bernardino
counties), the San Diego metropolitan area, the Oxnard–Thousand Oaks–Ventura metropolitan area, the Santa Barbara metropolitan area, the San Luis Obispo metropolitan area, and the El Centro area. The Los Angeles
Los Angeles
area has over 12 million inhabitants, while the Riverside-San Bernardino area has over 4 million inhabitants and the San Diego
San Diego
area has over 3 million inhabitants. For Combined Statistical Area
Combined Statistical Area
(CSA) purposes, the five counties of Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, and Ventura, are all combined to make up the Greater Los Angeles
Los Angeles
area with over 17.5 million people, the second-most populous U.S. combined statistical area, after the New York metropolitan area. With over 22 million people, southern California
California
contains roughly 60 percent of California's population. The Colorado Desert
Colorado Desert
and the Colorado River
Colorado River
are located on southern California's eastern border with Arizona, and the Mojave Desert
Mojave Desert
is located north on California's Nevada
Nevada
border. Southern California's southern border is part of the Mexico– United States
United States
border.

Contents

1 Significance 2 Northern boundary of southern California 3 Urban landscape 4 Climate 5 Natural landscape 6 Geography

6.1 Geographic features 6.2 Geology

6.2.1 Earthquakes

7 Regions

7.1 Divisions

8 Population

8.1 Cities 8.2 Counties

9 Economy

9.1 Industries 9.2 Major central business districts 9.3 Theme parks and waterparks 9.4 Vinyard-Winery American Viticultural Area
American Viticultural Area
(AVA) districts

10 Transportation

10.1 Airports 10.2 Freeways and highways 10.3 Public transportation

11 Communication

11.1 Telephone area codes

12 Colleges and universities 13 Medical Facilities 14 Parks and recreation areas 15 Sports 16 See also 17 References 18 Further reading 19 External links

Significance[edit]

San Diego
San Diego
Marina district

Sunset in Venice, a district in Los Angeles

Within southern California
California
are two major cities, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and San Diego, as well as three of the country's largest metropolitan areas.[5] With a population of 4,042,000, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
is the most populous city in California
California
and the second most populous in the United States. South of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation.

Three Arch Bay in Laguna

The counties of Los Angeles, Orange, San Diego, San Bernardino, and Riverside are the five most populous in the state, and are in the top 15 most populous counties in the United States.[6] The motion picture, television, and music industry are centered in the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
area in southern California. Hollywood, a district of Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, which is synonymous with the neighborhood name. Headquartered in southern California
California
are The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company
(which owns ABC), Sony Pictures, Universal, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Warner Brothers. Universal, Warner Brothers, and Sony also run major record companies. Southern California
California
is also home to a large homegrown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Vans, Volcom, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, and Body Glove are all headquartered here. Skateboarder Tony Hawk; surfers Rob Machado, Tim Curran, Bobby Martinez, Pat O'Connell, Dane Reynolds, and Chris Ward live in southern California. Some of the most famous surf locations are in southern California
California
as well, including Trestles, Rincon, The Wedge, Huntington Beach, and Malibu. Some of the world's largest action sports events, including the X Games,[7] Boost Mobile Pro,[8] and the U.S. Open of Surfing, are held in Southern California. The region is also important to the world of yachting with premier events including the annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles
Los Angeles
to Hawaii. The San Diego Yacht Club held the America's Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995 and hosted three America's Cup
America's Cup
races during that time. The first modern era triathlon was held in Mission Bay, San Diego, California
California
in 1974. Since then, Southern California, and San Diego
San Diego
in particular have become a mecca for triathlon and multi-sport racing, products and culture. Southern California
California
is home to many sports franchises and sports networks such as Fox Sports Net. Many locals and tourists frequent the southern California
California
coast for its beaches. The desert city of Palm Springs
Palm Springs
is especially popular. Northern boundary of southern California[edit]

California
California
counties below the thirty sixth standard parallel

Southern California
California
is not a formal geographic designation and definitions of what constitutes southern California
California
vary. Geographically, California's North-South midway point lies at exactly 37° 9' 58.23" latitude, around 11 miles (18 km) south of San Jose; however, this does not coincide with the popular use of the term. When the state is divided into two areas (northern and southern California), the term southern California
California
usually refers to the 10 southernmost counties of the state. This definition coincides neatly with the county lines at 35° 47′ 28″ North latitude, which form the northern borders of San Luis Obispo, Kern, and San Bernardino counties. Another definition for southern California
California
uses Point Conception and the Tehachapi Mountains
Tehachapi Mountains
as the northern boundary.

Topography of the border region

Though there is no official definition for the northern boundary of southern California, such a division has existed from the time when Mexico
Mexico
ruled California
California
and political disputes raged between the Californios
Californios
of Monterrey
Monterrey
in the upper part and Los Angeles
Los Angeles
in the lower part of Alta California. Following the acquisition of California by the United States, the division continued as part of the attempt by several pro-slavery politicians to arrange the division of Alta California
California
at 36 degrees, 30 minutes, the line of the Missouri Compromise. Instead, the passing of the Compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850
enabled California
California
to be admitted to the Union as a free state, preventing southern California
California
from becoming its own separate slave state. Subsequently, Californians (dissatisfied with inequitable taxes and land laws) and pro-slavery Southerners in the lightly populated "cow counties" of southern California
California
attempted three times in the 1850s to achieve a separate statehood or territorial status separate from Northern California. The last attempt, the Pico Act of 1859, was passed by the California
California
State Legislature and signed by State Governor John B. Weller. It was approved overwhelmingly by nearly 75 percent of voters in the proposed Territory of Colorado. This territory was to include all the counties up to the then much larger Tulare County
Tulare County
(that included what is now Kings, most of Kern, and part of Inyo counties) and San Luis Obispo County. The proposal was sent to Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
with a strong advocate in Senator Milton Latham. However, the secession crisis following the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 and the subsequent American Civil War
American Civil War
led to the proposal never coming to a vote.[9][10] In 1900, the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times defined southern California
California
as including "the seven counties of Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Orange, Riverside, San Diego, Ventura and Santa Barbara." In 1999, the Times added a newer county, Imperial, to that list.[11] The state is most commonly divided and promoted by its regional tourism groups, consisting of northern, central, and southern California
California
regions. The two American Automobile Association
American Automobile Association
(AAA) Auto Clubs of the state, the California
California
State Automobile Association, and the Automobile Club of Southern California, choose to simplify matters by dividing the state along the lines where their jurisdictions for membership apply, as either northern or southern California, in contrast to the three-region point of view. Another influence is the geographical phrase South of the Tehachapis, which would split the southern region off at the crest of that transverse range, but in that definition, the desert portions of north Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County and eastern Kern and San Bernardino
San Bernardino
Counties would be included in the southern California
California
region due to their remoteness from the central valley and interior desert landscape.

Population, land area & population density (07-01-2008 est.)

County Ref. Population Land mi² Land km² Pop. /mi² Pop. /km²

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County[12] 7006986204900000000♠9,862,049 4,060.87 10,517.61 2,428.56 937.67

San Diego
San Diego
County[13] 7006309531300000000♠3,095,313 4,199.89 10,877.67 714.56 275.89

Orange County[14] 7006301075900000000♠3,010,759 789.40 2,044.54 3,813.98 1,472.59

Riverside County[15] 7006210051600000000♠2,100,516 7,207.37 18,667.00 291.44 112.53

San Bernardino
San Bernardino
County[16] 7006201535500000000♠2,015,355 20,052.50 51,935.74 100.50 38.80

Kern County[17] 7005800458000000000♠800,458 8,140.96 21,084.99 98.32 37.96

Ventura County[18] 7005797740000000000♠797,740 1,845.30 4,779.31 432.31 166.92

Santa Barbara County[19] 7005405396000000000♠405,396 2,737.01 7,088.82 148.12 57.19

San Luis Obispo County[20] 7005265297000000000♠265,297 3,304.32 8,558.15 80.29 31.00

Imperial County[21] 7005163972000000000♠163,972 4,174.73 10,812.50 39.28 15.17

Southern California 7007224226140000000♠22,422,614 56,512.35 146,366.31 396.77 153.19

California 7007367566660000000♠36,756,666 155,959.34 403,932.84 235.68 91.00

Urban landscape[edit]

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Percent of households with incomes above $150k across LA County census tracts.

Southern California
California
consists of a heavily developed urban environment, home to some of the largest urban areas in the state, along with vast areas that have been left undeveloped. It is the third most populated megalopolis in the United States, after the Great Lakes Megalopolis and the Northeastern Megalopolis. Much of southern California
California
is famous for its large, spread-out, suburban communities and use of automobiles and highways. The dominant areas are Los Angeles, Orange County, San Diego, and Riverside-San Bernardino, each of which are the centers of their respective metropolitan areas, composed of numerous smaller cities and communities. The urban area is also host to an international metropolitan region in the form of San Diego–Tijuana, created by the urban area spilling over into Baja California. Traveling south on Interstate 5, the main gap to continued urbanization is Camp Pendleton. The cities and communities along Interstate 15 and Interstate 215 are so interrelated that Temecula and Murrieta have as much connection with the San Diego
San Diego
metropolitan area as they do with the Inland Empire. To the east, the United States Census Bureau considers the San Bernardino
San Bernardino
and Riverside County
Riverside County
areas, Riverside-San Bernardino area
Riverside-San Bernardino area
as a separate metropolitan area from Los Angeles County. Newly developed exurbs formed in the Antelope Valley, north of Los Angeles, the Victor Valley, and the Coachella Valley
Coachella Valley
with the Imperial Valley. Also, population growth was high in the Bakersfield-Kern County, Santa Maria and San Luis Obispo areas.

The Downtown Los Angeles
Downtown Los Angeles
skyline seen at sunset on an October day. At 1,018 feet (310 m), 73 floors, the U.S. Bank Tower stands as the West Coast's tallest building since 1989.

Climate[edit]

Köppen climate types of southern California

Southern California
California
contains several different types of climate, including Mediterranean, semi-arid and desert, with infrequent rain and many sunny days. Summers are hot or warm, and dry, while winters are mild, and rainfall is low to moderate depending on the area. Although heavy rain can occur, it is unusual. This climatic pattern was alluded to in the hit song "It Never Rains (In Southern California)". While snow is very rare in the southwest region of the state, it occurs occasionally in the southeast region of the state. Natural landscape[edit]

Proctor Valley
Proctor Valley
in Chula Vista

Autumn of 2008 in southern California.

Main article: Geography of southern California Southern California
California
consists of one of the more varied collections of geologic, topographic, and natural ecosystem landscapes in a diversity outnumbering other major regions in the state and country. The region spans from Pacific Ocean islands, shorelines, beaches, and coastal plains, through the Transverse and Peninsular Ranges
Peninsular Ranges
with their peaks, and into the large and small interior valleys, to the vast deserts of California.

Introductory categories include:

Category: Beaches of southern California Category: Mountain ranges of Southern California Category: Rivers of Southern California Category: Deserts of California Category: Parks in Southern California

Geography[edit]

Satellite view of Southern California, including the Channel Islands

Southern California
California
is divided into:

The Coastal Region, which is densely populated and includes the coastal interior valleys west of the coastal mountains with all of Orange County and portions of San Diego, Los Angeles, Ventura, Santa Barbara, and San Luis Obispo counties

A related florist province term is the Cismontane Region on the coastal side of the Transverse and Peninsular mountain ranges, with the term "southern California" popularly referring to this more populated and visited zone

The Desert Region, which is larger and sparsely populated with portions of Kern, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, Riverside, Imperial, and San Diego
San Diego
counties. The division between the Coastal Region and the Inland Empire/ Imperial Valley
Imperial Valley
winds along the backs of coastal mountain ranges such as the Santa Ana Mountains.

A related floristic province term is the Transmontane Region on the rain shadow side of the same mountain ranges, with the term southern California
California
including this zone geographically and when distinguishing all the 'southland' from northern California

Geographic features[edit]

View from La Jolla Cove
La Jolla Cove
in San Diego.

Peaks in the eastern San Gabriel Mountains, Angeles National Forest, San Bernardino
San Bernardino
County.

Yucca Valley with Visitor Center in Background in June 2017.

Ocean Beach Sunset in San Diego.

Angeles National Forest
Angeles National Forest
(Los Angeles, San Bernardino, & Ventura Counties) Antelope Hills (Kern County) Antelope Valley
Antelope Valley
( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
& Kern Counties) Arroyo Seco ( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County) Bacon Hills
Bacon Hills
(Kern County) Baldwin Hills ( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County) Ballona Wetlands
Ballona Wetlands
( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County) Big Bear Lake
Big Bear Lake
( San Bernardino
San Bernardino
County) Bissell Hills
Bissell Hills
(Kern County) Black Hills
Black Hills
(Kern County) Bolsa Chica Estuary (Orange County) Buena Vista Hills (Kern County) Buena Vista Lake
Buena Vista Lake
(Kern County) Cajon Pass
Cajon Pass
( San Bernardino
San Bernardino
County) Calico Mountains ( San Bernardino
San Bernardino
County) Channel Islands (Santa Barbara, Ventura & Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Counties) Chino Hills
Chino Hills
(Orange, Los Angeles, Riverside & San Bernardino Counties) Coachella Valley
Coachella Valley
(Riverside County) Colorado Desert
Colorado Desert
(San Bernardino, Riverside, Imperial, & San Diego Counties) Colorado River
Colorado River
(San Bernardino, Riverside & Imperial Counties, Baja California
California
& Sonora) Conejo Valley
Conejo Valley
(Ventura County) Cucamonga Valley
Cucamonga Valley
( San Bernardino
San Bernardino
County) Cuyamaca Mountains
Cuyamaca Mountains
( San Diego
San Diego
County) Death Valley
Death Valley
( San Bernardino
San Bernardino
& Inyo Counties) Diablo Range
Diablo Range
(Kern County) Elk Hills
Elk Hills
(Kern County) Elkhorn Hills
Elkhorn Hills
(San Luis Obispo County) El Paso Mountains
El Paso Mountains
(Kern County) Greenhorn Mountains
Greenhorn Mountains
(Kern County) High Desert (Los Angeles, Kern, Inyo, & San Bernardino
San Bernardino
Counties) Horned Toad Hills
Horned Toad Hills
(Kern County) Imperial Valley
Imperial Valley
(Imperial County) Irish Hills (San Luis Obispo County) In-Ko-Pah Mountains
In-Ko-Pah Mountains
( San Diego
San Diego
County) Inland Empire
Inland Empire
(Riverside, San Bernardino
San Bernardino
Counties) Jacumba Mountains
Jacumba Mountains
( San Diego
San Diego
County) Jawbone Canyon
Jawbone Canyon
(Kern County) Kern River
Kern River
(Kern County) La Jolla Cove
La Jolla Cove
( San Diego
San Diego
County) Laguna Mountains
Laguna Mountains
( San Diego
San Diego
County) Lake Arrowhead ( San Bernardino
San Bernardino
County) Lake Casitas
Lake Casitas
(Ventura County) Lake Castaic
Lake Castaic
( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County) Lake Elsinore
Lake Elsinore
(Riverside County) Lake Isabella
Lake Isabella
(Kern County) Lake Piru
Lake Piru
(Ventura County) Lakeview Mountains
Lakeview Mountains
(Riverside County) Lake Webb
Lake Webb
(Kern County) Little San Bernardino Mountains
Little San Bernardino Mountains
(Riverside & San Bernardino Counties) Little Signal Hills
Little Signal Hills
(Kern County) Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Basin ( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County) Los Angeles
Los Angeles
River ( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County) Los Padres National Forest
Los Padres National Forest
(Kern, Los Angeles, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, & Ventura Counties) Lost Hills
Lost Hills
(Kern County) Low Desert
Low Desert
(Imperial, San Diego, Riverside & San Bernardino Counties) Mojave Desert
Mojave Desert
(Los Angeles, Kern & San Bernardino
San Bernardino
Counties) Mojave River
Mojave River
( San Bernardino
San Bernardino
County) Mount San Antonio
Mount San Antonio
( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County) New River (Imperial County, Mexicali Municipality) Nine Sisters
Nine Sisters
(San Luis Obispo County) Ojai Valley (Ventura County) Orange Coast
Orange Coast
(Orange County) Oxnard Plain
Oxnard Plain
(Ventura County) Palomar Mountain
Palomar Mountain
( San Diego
San Diego
County) Palo Verde Valley
Palo Verde Valley
(Riverside & Imperial Counties) Palos Verdes Peninsula ( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County) Panamint Range
Panamint Range
(Inyo County) Peninsular Ranges
Peninsular Ranges
(San Diego, Riverside, & Orange Counties) Pleito Hills
Pleito Hills
(Kern County) Point Loma ( San Diego
San Diego
County) Point Mugu
Point Mugu
(Ventura County) Point of Rocks (Kern County) Pomona Valley
Pomona Valley
( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
& San Bernardino
San Bernardino
Counties) Providence Mountains
Providence Mountains
( San Bernardino
San Bernardino
County) Puente Hills
Puente Hills
( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County) Pyramid Lake ( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County) Rand Mountains
Rand Mountains
(Kern County) Rio Hondo ( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County) Rosamond Hills
Rosamond Hills
(Kern County) Saddleback Valley (Orange County) Salton Sea
Salton Sea
(Imperial & Riverside Counties) San Andreas Fault
San Andreas Fault
(All Counties) San Bernardino Mountains
San Bernardino Mountains
( San Bernardino
San Bernardino
County) San Bernardino National Forest
San Bernardino National Forest
(Riverside & San Bernardino Counties) San Bernardino Valley
San Bernardino Valley
( San Bernardino
San Bernardino
County) San Diego
San Diego
Bay ( San Diego
San Diego
County) San Diego
San Diego
River ( San Diego
San Diego
County) San Emigdio Mountains
San Emigdio Mountains
(Los Angeles, Ventura, & Kern Counties) San Fernando Valley
San Fernando Valley
( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County) San Gabriel Mountains
San Gabriel Mountains
( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
& San Bernardino
San Bernardino
Counties) San Gabriel River ( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County) San Gabriel Valley
San Gabriel Valley
( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County) San Jacinto Mountains
San Jacinto Mountains
(Riverside County) San Jacinto River (Riverside County) San Joaquin Valley
San Joaquin Valley
(Kern County) San Luis Rey River
San Luis Rey River
( San Diego
San Diego
County) San Pedro Bay ( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County) San Rafael Mountains
San Rafael Mountains
(Santa Barbara County) Santa Ana Mountains
Santa Ana Mountains
(Orange & Riverside Counties) Santa Ana River
Santa Ana River
(San Bernardino, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
& Orange County) Santa Ana Valley
Santa Ana Valley
(Orange County) Santa Catalina Island ( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County) Santa Clara River (Ventura County) Santa Clara River Valley
Santa Clara River Valley
(Ventura County) Santa Clarita Valley
Santa Clarita Valley
( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County) Santa Margarita River
Santa Margarita River
(Riverside, Orange & San Diego
San Diego
Counties) Santa Monica Bay
Santa Monica Bay
( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County) Santa Monica Mountains
Santa Monica Mountains
( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
& Ventura Counties) Santa Rosa Mountains (Riverside, Orange & San Diego
San Diego
Counties) Santa Susana Mountains
Santa Susana Mountains
( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
& Ventura Counties) Santa Ynez Mountains
Santa Ynez Mountains
(Santa Barbara County) Santa Ynez Valley
Santa Ynez Valley
(Santa Barbara County) Scodie Mountains
Scodie Mountains
(Kern County) Sequoia National Forest
Sequoia National Forest
(Kern County) Shale Hills
Shale Hills
(Kern County) Sierra Nevada
Nevada
(Kern County) Sierra Pelona Mountains
Sierra Pelona Mountains
( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
& Kern Counties) Simi Hills
Simi Hills
( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
& Ventura Counties) Simi Valley
Simi Valley
(Ventura County) Sweetwater River ( San Diego
San Diego
County) Tehachapi Mountains
Tehachapi Mountains
(Kern & Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Counties) Tejon Hills
Tejon Hills
(Kern County) Temescal Mountains (Riverside County) Telephone Hills
Telephone Hills
(Kern County) Temblor Range
Temblor Range
(Kern & San Luis Obispo Counties) Tijuana
Tijuana
River ( San Diego
San Diego
County) Topatopa Mountains
Topatopa Mountains
(Ventura County) Turtle Mountains ( San Bernardino
San Bernardino
County) Ventura River
Ventura River
(Ventura County) Verdugo Mountains
Verdugo Mountains
( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County) Victor Valley
Victor Valley
( San Bernardino
San Bernardino
County)

Geology[edit] Earthquakes[edit]

Northridge earthquake shake map

Each year, southern California
California
has about 10,000 earthquakes. Nearly all of them are so small that they are not felt. Only several hundred have been greater than magnitude 3.0, and only about 15–20 have been greater than magnitude 4.0.[22] The magnitude 6.7 1994 Northridge earthquake was particularly destructive, causing a substantial number of deaths, injuries, and structural collapses as well as the most property damage of any earthquake in U.S. history at an estimated $20 billion.[23] Many faults are able to produce a magnitude greater than 6.7 earthquake, such as the San Andreas Fault, which can produce a magnitude 8.0 event. Other faults include the San Jacinto Fault, the Puente Hills
Puente Hills
Fault, and the Elsinore Fault Zone. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has released a California
California
earthquake forecast,[24] which models earthquake occurrence in California. Regions[edit] Divisions[edit]

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Salton Sea
Salton Sea
in the Coachella Valley.

The Oceanside Pier
Oceanside Pier
on the San Diego
San Diego
County coast.

Southern California
California
is divided culturally, politically, and economically into distinct regions, each containing its own culture and atmosphere, anchored usually by a city with both national and sometimes global recognition, which is often the hub of economic activity for its respective region and being home to many tourist destinations. Each region is further divided into many culturally distinct areas but as a whole, combine to create the southern California
California
atmosphere.

Coastal southern California

Southern Central Coast Ventura County

Oxnard Plain

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Basin Orange County San Diego
San Diego
County

Inland southern California

Kern County Imperial Valley Inland Empire

San Bernardino
San Bernardino
County

High Desert (Section)* Morongo Basin* San Bernardino
San Bernardino
Valley

Riverside County

Coachella Valley* Low Desert
Low Desert
(Section)*

Deserts of California

High Desert*

Antelope Valley Morongo Basin* eastern Kern County

Low Desert*

Coachella Valley* Lower Colorado River
Colorado River
Valley Imperial County

Imperial Valley

Palo Verde Valley

*Part of multiple regions Population[edit]

Downtown San Bernardino

As of the 2010 United States
United States
Census, southern California
California
has a population of 22,680,010. Despite a reputation for high growth rates, southern California's rate grew less than the state average of 10.0 percent in the 2000s. This was due to California's growth becoming concentrated in the northern part of the state as result of a stronger, tech-oriented economy in the Bay Area and an emerging Greater Sacramento
Greater Sacramento
region. Southern California
California
consists of one Combined Statistical Area, eight Metropolitan Statistical Areas, one international metropolitan area, and multiple metropolitan divisions. The region is home to two extended metropolitan areas that exceed five million in population. These are the Greater Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Area at 17,786,419, and San Diego– Tijuana
Tijuana
at 5,105,768.[25][26] Of these metropolitan areas, the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana metropolitan area, Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario metropolitan area, and Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura metropolitan area form Greater Los Angeles;[27] while the El Centro metropolitan area and San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos metropolitan area form the Southern Border Region.[28][29] North of Greater Los Angeles are the Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, and Bakersfield metropolitan areas. Cities[edit] See also: Largest cities in southern California Los Angeles
Los Angeles
(with a 2017 census-estimated population of 4.0 million people) and San Diego
San Diego
(at 1.4 million people) are the two largest cities in all of California
California
and are in the top eight largest cities in the United States. In southern California, there are also 12 cities with more than 200,000 residents and 34 cities over 100,000 residents. Many of southern California's most developed cities lie along or in close proximity to the coast, with the exception of San Bernardino
San Bernardino
and Riverside. Counties[edit]

Imperial Kern Los Angeles Orange Riverside San Bernardino San Diego San Luis Obispo Santa Barbara Ventura

Economy[edit] Industries[edit] Southern California
California
has a diverse economy and is one of the largest economies in the United States. It is dominated and heavily dependent upon the abundance of petroleum, as opposed to other regions where automobiles are not nearly as dominant, due to the vast majority of transport that runs on this fuel. Southern California
California
is famous for tourism and the entertainment industry. Other industries include software, automotive, ports, finance, biomedical, and regional logistics. The region was a leader in the housing bubble from 2001 to 2007 and has been heavily impacted by the housing crash. Since the 1920s, motion pictures, petroleum, and aircraft manufacturing have been major industries. In one of the richest agricultural regions in the U.S., cattle and citrus were major industries until farmlands were turned into suburbs. Although military spending cutbacks have had an impact, aerospace continues to be a major factor.[30] Major central business districts[edit]

Irvine Taco Bell Headquarters

Southern California
California
is home to many major business districts. Central business districts (CBD) include Downtown Los Angeles, Downtown San Diego, Downtown San Bernardino
Downtown San Bernardino
and South Coast Metro. Within the Los Angeles Area are the major business districts of Downtown Burbank, Downtown Santa Monica, Downtown Glendale and Downtown Long Beach. Los Angeles itself has many business districts, such as Downtown Los Angeles and those lining the Wilshire Boulevard
Wilshire Boulevard
Miracle Mile, including Century City, Westwood, and Warner Center in the San Fernando Valley. The area of Santa Monica and Venice (and perhaps some of Culver City) is informally referred to as "Silicon Beach" because of the concentration of financial and marketing technology-centric firms located in the region. The San Bernardino-Riverside area maintains the business districts of Downtown San Bernardino, Hospitality Business/Financial Centre, University Town which are in San Bernardino
San Bernardino
and Downtown Riverside. Orange County is a rapidly developing business center that includes Downtown Santa Ana, the South Coast Metro, and Newport Center districts, as well as the Irvine business centers of The Irvine Spectrum, West Irvine, and international corporations headquartered at the University of California, Irvine. West Irvine includes the Irvine Tech Center and Jamboree Business Parks. Downtown San Diego
San Diego
is the CBD of San Diego, though the city is filled with business districts. These include Carmel Valley, Del Mar Heights, Mission Valley, Rancho Bernardo, Sorrento Mesa, and University City. Most of these districts are located in Northern San Diego
San Diego
and some within North County regions. Theme parks and waterparks[edit]

Disneyland
Disneyland
in Anaheim.

Los Angeles

Universal Studios Hollywood Six Flags Magic Mountain Six Flags Hurricane Harbor Raging Waters San Dimas Pacific Park Dry Town Water Park

Orange County

Disneyland Disney California
California
Adventure Knott's Berry Farm Knott's Soak City

Riverside & San Bernardino

Castle Park Wet'n'Wild Palm Springs Splash Kingdom Waterpark Scandia

San Diego

Legoland California SeaWorld San Diego Belmont Park Aquatica San Diego Legoland Waterpark San Diego
San Diego
Zoo San Diego
San Diego
Wild Animal Park

Vinyard-Winery American Viticultural Area
American Viticultural Area
(AVA) districts[edit]

California
California
wine AVA-American Viticultural Areas in southern California:

South Coast AVA

Cucamonga Valley
Cucamonga Valley
AVA Malibu-Newton Canyon AVA Ramona Valley AVA Saddle Rock-Malibu AVA Temecula Valley AVA

Leona Valley AVA

Central Coast AVA

Arroyo Grande Valley AVA Edna Valley AVA San Pasqual Valley AVA Santa Maria Valley AVA Santa Ynez Valley
Santa Ynez Valley
AVA Sta. Rita Hills AVA York Mountain AVA

Transportation[edit]

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See: Category: Transportation in Southern California

Southern California
California
is home to Los Angeles
Los Angeles
International Airport, the second-busiest airport in the United States
United States
by passenger volume (see World's busiest airports by passenger traffic) and the third-busiest by international passenger volume (see Busiest airports in the United States by international passenger traffic); San Diego
San Diego
International Airport, the busiest single-runway airport in the world; Van Nuys Airport, the world's busiest general aviation airport; major commercial airports at Orange County, Bakersfield, Ontario, Burbank and Long Beach; and numerous smaller commercial and general aviation airports. Six of the seven lines of the commuter rail system, Metrolink, run out of Downtown Los Angeles, connecting Los Angeles, Ventura, San Bernardino, Riverside, Orange, and San Diego
San Diego
counties with the other line connecting San Bernardino, Riverside, and Orange counties directly. Southern California
California
is also home to the Port of Los Angeles, the country's busiest commercial port; the adjacent Port of Long Beach, the country's second busiest container port; and the Port of San Diego. Airports[edit] The following table shows all airports listed by the Federal Aviation Association (FAA) as a hub airport:[31]

Airport ID City (Metro area) Category Enplanements (2011) (mil)

Los Angeles
Los Angeles
International Airport LAX Los Angeles Large Hub 30.5m

San Diego
San Diego
International Airport SAN San Diego Large Hub 8.5m

John Wayne Airport SNA Orange County Medium Hub 4.2m

Ontario International Airport ONT San Bernardino, Riverside Medium hub 2.3m

Hollywood
Hollywood
Burbank Airport BUR Burbank (LA) Medium Hub 2.1m

Long Beach Airport LGB Long Beach (LA) Small Hub 1.5m

Palm Springs
Palm Springs
International Airport PSP Palm Springs Small Hub 0.8m

Santa Barbara Municipal Airport SBA Santa Barbara Small Hub 0.4m

Sign at the Century Blvd. entrance to Los Angeles
Los Angeles
International Airport greets visitors

I-10, 215 Interchange traffic, downtown San Bernardino.

Freeways and highways[edit] Main article: Southern California
California
freeways Sections of the southern California
California
freeway system are often referred to by names rather than by the official numbers.

Interstate Highways

Sign Interstate Freeway name

Interstate 5 Golden State Freeway Santa Ana Freeway San Diego
San Diego
Freeway Montgomery Freeway

Interstate 8 Ocean Beach Freeway Mission Valley Freeway

Interstate 10 Santa Monica (Rosa Parks) Freeway Golden State Freeway San Bernardino
San Bernardino
Freeway Indio (Dr. June McCarroll) Freeway Blythe Freeway

Interstate 15 Mojave Freeway Barstow Freeway Ontario Freeway Corona Freeway Temecula Valley Freeway Escondido Freeway

Interstate 105 Century (Glenn Anderson) Freeway

Interstate 110 Harbor Freeway

Interstate 210 Foothill Freeway

Interstate 215 Barstow Freeway San Bernardino
San Bernardino
Freeway Moreno Valley Freeway Escondido Freeway

Interstate 405 San Diego
San Diego
Freeway

Interstate 605 San Gabriel River Freeway

Interstate 710 Long Beach Freeway

Interstate 805 Jacob Dekema Freeway

Future Interstate 905

U.S. Highway system

Sign U.S. Route Freeway name

U.S. Route 95

U.S. Route 101 Ventura Freeway Hollywood
Hollywood
Freeway Santa Ana Freeway El Camino Real

U.S. Route 395

Public transportation[edit]

Union Station is southern California's busiest rail station.

See: Category: Public transportation in Southern California

Antelope Valley
Antelope Valley
Transit Authority Metrolink Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County Metropolitan Transportation Authority San Diego
San Diego
trolley and San Diego
San Diego
County MTS Orange County Transportation Authority Omnitrans
Omnitrans
(southwestern San Bernardino
San Bernardino
County) Golden Empire Transit
Golden Empire Transit
(Bakersfield) Santa Barbara MTD San Luis Obispo Regional Transit Authority Gold Coast Transit (Ventura County) North County Transit District
North County Transit District
(northern San Diego
San Diego
County) San Diego
San Diego
Coaster (Oceanside to San Diego) Big Blue Bus
Big Blue Bus
(Santa Monica) Riverside Transit Agency
Riverside Transit Agency
(western Riverside County)

Communication[edit]

Map of some major area codes in Greater Los Angeles

Telephone area codes[edit]

213 – Downtown Los Angeles 323 – Hollywood, South Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire, and East Los Angeles 310 – West Los Angeles, Inglewood, Santa Monica, South Bay and Catalina Island 424 – Overlay with 310 442 – Overlay with 760 562 – Long Beach and the Gateway Cities 619 – San Diego
San Diego
including downtown, East County San Diego
San Diego
and the South Bay 626 – Pasadena, San Gabriel Valley
San Gabriel Valley
and Covina Valley 657 – Overlay with 714 661 – Bakersfield, Santa Clarita, Antelope Valley
Antelope Valley
and California City 714 – Santa Ana, Anaheim, Huntington Beach and northern Orange County 760 – Oceanside, Escondido, Palm Springs, El Centro, Victorville, Barstow, Ridgecrest, Hesperia, Apple Valley, Blythe, Adelanto and Indio 805 – Santa Barbara, Ventura and San Luis Obispo Counties 818 – San Fernando Valley, Glendale and Burbank. 858 – Northern San Diego
San Diego
(including La Jolla) and its suburbs (including Del Mar and Poway) 909 – Southwestern San Bernardino
San Bernardino
County, eastern Los Angeles County, and portions of northwestern Riverside County 949 – Southern Orange County (Irvine, Newport Beach, Laguna Niguel & San Clemente) 951 – Riverside, Temecula and western Riverside County

Colleges and universities[edit] Main article: List of colleges and universities in southern California

University of California, Santa Barbara

The Tech Coast is a moniker that has gained use as a descriptor for the region's diversified technology and industrial base as well as its multitude of prestigious and world-renowned research universities and other public and private institutions. Amongst these include five University of California
California
campuses (Irvine, Los Angeles, Riverside, Santa Barbara, and San Diego), 12 California
California
State University campuses (Bakersfield, Channel Islands, Dominguez Hills, Fullerton, Los Angeles, Long Beach, Northridge, Pomona, San Bernardino, San Diego, San Marcos, and San Luis Obispo); and private institutions such as the California
California
Institute of Technology, Azusa Pacific University, Chapman University, the Claremont Colleges
Claremont Colleges
(Claremont McKenna College, Harvey Mudd College, Pitzer College, Pomona College, and Scripps College), Loma Linda University, Loyola Marymount University, Occidental College, Pepperdine University, University of Redlands, University of San Diego, and the University of Southern California. Medical Facilities[edit] Maximum cities of the region have world class medical facilities such as Imperial, Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara, and Ventura. Parks and recreation areas[edit]

Numerous parks provide recreation and open space, locations include:

National Park Service

Cabrillo National Monument Carrizo Plain National Monument Castle Mountains National Monument Cesar E. Chavez National Monument Channel Islands National Park Death Valley
Death Valley
National Park Joshua Tree National Park Mojave National Preserve Santa Monica Mountains
Santa Monica Mountains
National Recreation Area

Major State Parks – including:

Anza-Borrego Desert State Park Crystal Cove State Park Cuyamaca Rancho State Park Chino Hills
Chino Hills
State Park Fort Tejon State Historic Park Kenneth Hahn State Recreation Area Mount San Jacinto State Park Malibu Creek State Park Red Rock Canyon State Park (California) Topanga State Park

Major State Historic Parks – including:

California
California
Citrus State Historic Park El Presidio de Santa Barbara State Historic Park La Purísima Mission State Historic Park Los Encinos State Historic Park Old Town San Diego
San Diego
State Historic Park Rancho Los Encinos Santa Susana Pass State Historic Park Tule Elk State Natural Reserve Watts Towers Will Rogers State Historic Park

Sports[edit] See also: Freeway Series, Lakers–Clippers rivalry, and Sports in California
California
§ Northern California–Southern California
California
rivalry Professional sports teams in southern California
California
include teams from the NFL ( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Rams, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Chargers), NBA (Los Angeles Lakers, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Clippers); MLB ( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Dodgers, Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim, San Diego
San Diego
Padres), NHL ( Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Kings, Anaheim Ducks), and MLS (LA Galaxy, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
FC). Southern California
California
also is home to a number of popular NCAA sports programs such as the UCLA Bruins, the USC Trojans, and the San Diego State Aztecs. The Bruins and the Trojans both field teams in NCAA Division I in the Pac-12 Conference, and there is a longtime rivalry between the schools. See also[edit]

California
California
portal

Category: History of Southern California Category: California
California
ranchos – Southern California
California
Counties categories Category: Public transportation in Southern California California
California
earthquake forecast California
California
megapolitan areas Geography of southern California Largest cities in southern California Megaregions of the United States San Angeles South Coast Southern California
California
Association of Governments

References[edit]

^ a b "Figures Show California's Motoring Supremacy". Touring Topics. Los Angeles, California: Automobile Club of Southern California. 8 (2): 38–9. March 1916.  ^ Cooley, Timothy J. (2014). Surfing about Music. University of California
California
Press. p. 46. ISBN 9780520957213.  ^ [1970 Census of Population and Housing: Final Report. General demographic trends for metropolitan areas, California, p. 7] ^ "Megaregions". Retrieved October 1, 2014.  ^ The three metropolitan areas are:

Los Angeles–Long Beach–Santa Ana (the second largest in the US), Riverside–San Bernardino–Ontario (the Inland Empire) and San Diego–Carlsbad–San Marcos – see: United States
United States
metropolitan areas

^ " California
California
County Population Estimates" (PDF). California Department of Finance. 2009-01-07. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-29. Retrieved 2016-10-17.  ^ Yoon, Peter (August 7, 2006). " X Games
X Games
Take a Turn for the Better". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Retrieved May 23, 2010.  ^ Higgins, Matt (September 13, 2006). "Construction Stirs Debate on Effects on 'Perfect Wave'". The New York Times. Retrieved September 13, 2008.  ^ DiLeo, Michael; Smith, Eleanor (1983). Two Californias: The Myths And Realities Of A State Divided Against Itself. Covelo, California: Island Press. p. 30. ISBN 9780933280168. Retrieved 17 October 2016.  ^ California, Historical Society of Southern; California, Los Angeles County Pioneers of Southern (1901). The Quarterly. Retrieved 17 October 2016.  ^ Bernstein, Leilah (31 December 1999). "L.A. Then AND NOW". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2017.  ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009  ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), San Diego
San Diego
County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009  ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Orange County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009  ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Riverside County
Riverside County
QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009  ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), San Bernardino County
San Bernardino County
QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009  ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Kern County
Kern County
QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009  ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Ventura County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009  ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Santa Barbara County
Santa Barbara County
QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009  ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), San Luis Obispo County
San Luis Obispo County
QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009  ^ U.S. Census Bureau (July 1, 2008), Imperial County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau: State and County QuickFacts., retrieved November 19, 2009  ^ "USGS facts". data from southern California
California
Earthquake Center. Archived from the original on February 26, 2009. Retrieved March 18, 2009.  ^ "Northridge Earthquake". 2005. Archived from the original on July 12, 2006. Retrieved December 11, 2013.  ^ "UCERF3: A New Earthquake Forecast for California's Complex Fault System" (PDF). USGS. 2015-03-03. Retrieved 2016-10-17.  ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population of Combined Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009". 2009 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 23, 2010. Archived from the original (CSV) on March 27, 2010. Retrieved March 29, 2010.  ^ "World Gazetteer; San Diego-Tijuana". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on October 1, 2007. Retrieved March 20, 2011.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 17, 2011. Retrieved December 7, 2017.  ^ " California
California
Coast, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
to San Diego
San Diego
Bay".  ^ Loucky, James, ed. (2008). Transboundary policy challenges in the Pacific border regions of North America. University of Calgary Press. p. 8. ISBN 1-55238-223-0. Retrieved February 19, 2011.  ^ Peter J. Westwick, ed. Blue Sky Metropolis: The Aerospace Century in Southern California
California
Huntington Library/University of California
California
Press ^ "Calendar Year 2011 Primary Airports" (PDF). 2012-09-27. Retrieved 2016-10-17. 

Further reading[edit]

Castillo-Munoz, Veronica. The Other California: Land, Identity, and Politics on the Mexican Borderlands (University of California
California
Press, 2016), 171 pp. $70.00.) Deverell, William, and David Igler, eds. A companion to California history (John Wiley & Sons, 2013). Fogelson, Robert M. The Fragmented Metropolis: Los Angeles, 1850–1930 (1967), focus on planning, infrastructure, water, and business Friedricks, William. Henry E. Huntington and the Creation of Southern California
California
(1992), on Henry Edwards Huntington (1850–1927), railroad executive and collector, who helped build LA and southern California through the Southern Pacific railroad and also trolleys. Garcia, Matt. A World of Its Own: Race, Labor, and Citrus in the Making of Greater Los Angeles, 1900–1970. (2001). 330 pp. Garcia, Mario T. "A Chicano Perspective on San Diego
San Diego
History," Journal of San Diego
San Diego
History (1972) 18#4 pp 14–21 online Lotchin, Roger. Fortress California, 1910–1961 (2002) excerpt and text search, covers military and industrial roles Mills, James R. San Diego: Where California
California
Began (San Diego: San Diego Historical Society, 1960), revised edition online O'Flaherty, Joseph S. An End and a Beginning: The South Coast and Los Angeles, 1850–1887. (1972). 222 pp. O'Flaherty, Joseph S. Those Powerful Years: The South Coast and Los Angeles, 1887–1917 (1978). 356 pp. Pryde, Philip R. San Diego: An Introduction to the Region (4th ed. 2004), a historical geography Shragge, Abraham. "'A new federal city': San Diego
San Diego
during World War II," Pacific Historical Review (1994) 63#3 pp 333–61 in JSTOR Starr, Kevin. The Dream Endures: California
California
Enters the 1940s (1997) pp 90–114, covers 1880s–1940 Starr, Kevin. Golden Dreams: California
California
in an Age of Abundance, 1950–1963 (2011) pp 57–87 Starr, Kevin. Coast of Dreams: California
California
on the Edge, 1990–2003 (2004) 372-81

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Southern California.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Southern California.

California
California
Historical Society Collection, 1860–1960 – USC Libraries Digital Collections Historical Society of Southern California

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Coordinates: 34°00′N 117°00′W / 34.000°N 117.000°W

.