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Most populous cities (2011)

Chennai Bengaluru Hyderabad Trivandrum Coimbatore Madurai Mysore Ernakulam Visakhapatnam

Area

 • Total 635,780 km2 (245,480 sq mi)

Population

 • Total 253,051,953

 • Density 400/km2 (1,000/sq mi)

Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)

Official languages

Telugu Tamil Kannada Malayalam Urdu Tulu

South India
South India
is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and Telangana
Telangana
as well as the union territories of Andaman and Nicobar, Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
and Puducherry, occupying 19.31% of India's area (635,780 km2 or 245,480 sq mi). Covering the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau, South India
South India
is bounded by the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
in the east, the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
in the west and the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
in the south. The geography of the region is diverse with two mountain ranges - the Western and Eastern Ghats, bordering the plateau heartland. Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Tungabhadra
Tungabhadra
and Vaigai
Vaigai
rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Trivandrum, Bengaluru
Bengaluru
, Chennai, Hyderabad, Coimbatore
Coimbatore
and are the largest urban areas. Majority of the people in South India
South India
speak one of the four major Dravidian languages: Telugu, Tamil, Kannada
Kannada
and Malayalam. During its history, a number of dynastic kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history and culture in those regions. Major dynasties that were established in South India
South India
include the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyas, Pallavas, Satavahanas, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas and Vijayanagara. European countries entered India through Kerala
Kerala
and the region was colonised by Britain and other nations. After experiencing fluctuations in the decades immediately after Indian independence, the economies of South Indian states have registered higher than national average growth over the past three decades. While South Indian states have improved in some socio-economic metrics, poverty continues to affect the region much like the rest of the country, although it has considerably decreased over the years. HDI in the southern states is high and the economy has undergone growth at a faster rate than most northern states. Literacy rates in the southern states are higher than the national average with approximately 80% of the population capable of reading and writing. Kerala
Kerala
stands first for literacy in India with a rate of 93.91%. The fertility rate in South India
South India
is 1.9, the lowest of all regions in India.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Ancient era 2.2 Colonial era 2.3 Post Independence

3 Geography 4 Climate 5 Flora and fauna 6 Demographics

6.1 Languages 6.2 Religion

7 Economy 8 Subdivisions

8.1 States 8.2 Union territories

9 Administration 10 Politics 11 Culture and heritage

11.1 Clothing 11.2 Cuisine 11.3 Arts 11.4 Cinema 11.5 Literature 11.6 Architecture

12 Transport

12.1 Road 12.2 Rail 12.3 Air 12.4 Water

13 References 14 External links

Etymology[edit] South India
South India
also known as Peninsular India has been known by several other names. The term "Deccan" referring to the area covered by the Deccan Plateau
Deccan Plateau
that covers most of peninsular India excluding the coastal areas is an anglicised form of the word Prakrit dakkhin derived from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word dakshina meaning south.[1] Carnatic derived from "Karnād" or "Karunād" meaning high country has also been associated with South India.[2] History[edit] Main article: History of South India Ancient era[edit]

The Chola Empire
Chola Empire
during Rajendra Chola I, c. 1030

Carbon dating
Carbon dating
on ash mounds associated with Neolithic
Neolithic
cultures in South India
South India
date back to 8000 BCE. Artefacts such as ground stone axes, and minor copper objects have been found in the region. Towards the beginning of 1000 BCE, iron technology spread through the region; however, there does not appear to be a fully developed Bronze Age preceding the Iron Age
Iron Age
in South India.[3] The region was in the middle of a trade route that extended from Muziris
Muziris
to Arikamedu linking the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and East Asia.[4][5] Trade with Phoenicians, Romans, Greeks, Arabs, Syrians, Jews and Chinese began from the Sangam period (c. 3rd century BC to c. 4th century AD).[6] The region was part of the ancient Silk Road
Silk Road
connecting the Asian continent in the East and the West.[7] Several dynasties such as the Cheras of Karuvur, the Pandyas
Pandyas
of Madurai, the Cholas
Cholas
of Thanjavur, the Satavahanas
Satavahanas
of Amaravati, the Pallavas
Pallavas
of Kanchi, the Kadambas
Kadambas
of Banavasi, the Western Gangas of Kolar, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, the Chalukyas of Badami, the Hoysalas
Hoysalas
of Belur
Belur
and the Kakatiyas of Orugallu ruled over the region from 6th century B.C. to 14th century A.D. The Vijayanagara Empire, founded in 14th century A.D. was the last Indian dynasty that ruled over the region. After repeated invasions from the Sultanate of Delhi and the fall of Vijayanagara empire in 1646, the region was ruled by Deccan Sultanates, polygars and Nayak governors of Vijayanagara empire who declared independence.[8] Colonial era[edit] The Europeans arrived in the 15th century and by the middle of the 18th century, the French and the British were involved in a protracted struggle for military control over the South India. After the defeat of Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
in the Fourth Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
War in 1799 and the end of the Vellore Mutiny
Vellore Mutiny
in 1806, the British consolidated their power over much of present-day South India
South India
with the exception of French Pondichéry. The British Empire
British Empire
took control of the region from the British East India
British East India
Company in 1857.[9] During the British colonial rule, the region was divided into the Madras
Madras
Presidency, Hyderabad state, Mysore, Travancore, Kochi, Vizianagaram
Vizianagaram
and a number of other minor princely states. The region played a major role in the Indian independence movement; of the 72 delegates who participated in the first session of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
at Bombay in December 1885, 22 hailed from South India.[10] Post Independence[edit]

Map of South India
South India
(1953–1956) before the States Reorganisation Act of 1956

After the independence of India in 1947, the region was organised into four states: Madras
Madras
State, Mysore
Mysore
State, Hyderabad State
Hyderabad State
and Travancore-Cochin.[11] The States Reorganisation Act
States Reorganisation Act
of 1956 reorganised the states on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala
Kerala
and Tamil Nadu.[12][13] As a result of this Act, Madras State
Madras State
retained its name and Kanyakumari district
Kanyakumari district
was added to it from the state of Travancore-Cochin.[14] The state was subsequently renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968.[14] Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
was created through the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of the Hyderabad State
Hyderabad State
in 1956.[14] Kerala
Kerala
emerged from the merger of Malabar district
Malabar district
and the Kasaragod taluk
Kasaragod taluk
of South Canara
South Canara
districts of the Madras State
Madras State
with Travancore-Cochin.[14] Mysore
Mysore
State was re-organised with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara
South Canara
(excluding Kasaragod talukNote 1) and the Kollegal
Kollegal
taluk of Coimbatore
Coimbatore
district from the Madras
Madras
State, the districts of Belgaum, Bijapur, North Canara
North Canara
and Dharwad from the Bombay State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar, Raichur
Raichur
and Gulbarga
Gulbarga
from the Hyderabad State
Hyderabad State
and the province of Coorg.[14] Mysore
Mysore
State was renamed as Karnataka
Karnataka
in 1973. The Union territory of Puducherry
Puducherry
was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondichérry, Karaikal, Yanam and Mahé.[15] The Laccadive Islands, which were divided between South Canara
South Canara
and Malabar districts of Madras
Madras
State, were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep. Telangana
Telangana
was created on 2 June 2014 by bifurcating Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and it comprises ten districts of the erstwhile state of Andhra Pradesh.[16][17] ^ Taluk is a smaller administrative division than a district Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of South India

Satellite image of South India

South India
South India
is a peninsula in the shape of an inverted triangle bound by the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
on the west, by the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
on the east and Vindhya
Vindhya
and Satpura
Satpura
ranges on the north.[18] The Narmada river
Narmada river
flows westwards in the depression between the Vindhya
Vindhya
and Satpura
Satpura
ranges which define the northern spur of the Deccan plateau.[19] The Western Ghats run parallel along the western coast and the narrow strip of land between the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
and the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
forms the Konkan region. The Western Ghats
Western Ghats
continue south until Kanyakumari.[20][21] The Eastern Ghats
Eastern Ghats
run parallel along the eastern coast and the strip of land between the Eastern Ghats
Eastern Ghats
and the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
forms the Coromandel region.[22] Both the ranges meet at the Nilgiri mountains. The Nilgiris run in a crescent approximately along the borders of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
with northern Kerala
Kerala
and Karnataka, encompassing the Palakkad and Wayanad
Wayanad
hills and the Sathyamangalam
Sathyamangalam
ranges, extending on to the relatively low-lying hills of the Eastern Ghats
Eastern Ghats
on the western portion of the Tamil Nadu– Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
border forming the Tirupati and Annamalai hills.[23] The low lying coral islands of Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
are situated off the south-western coast of India. The Andaman and Nicobar
Andaman and Nicobar
islands lie far off the eastern coast of India. The Palk Strait
Palk Strait
and the chain of low sandbars and islands known as Rama's Bridge
Rama's Bridge
separate the region from Sri Lanka, which lies off the south-eastern coast.[24][25] The southernmost tip of mainland India is at Kanyakumari
Kanyakumari
where the Indian Ocean meets the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
and the Arabian Sea.[26] The Deccan plateau
Deccan plateau
is the elevated region bound by the mountain ranges.[27] The plateau rises to 100 metres (330 ft) in the north and to more than 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) in the south, forming a raised triangle within the downward-pointing triangle of the Indian subcontinent's coastline.[28] It also slopes gently from West to East resulting in major rivers arising in the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
and flowing east into the Bay of Bengal.[29] The volcanic basalt beds of the Deccan were laid down in the massive Deccan Traps
Deccan Traps
eruption, which occurred towards the end of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period between 67 and 66 million years ago.[30] Layer after layer was formed by the volcanic activity that lasted 30,000 years[31] and when the volcanoes became extinct, they left a region of highlands with typically vast stretches of flat areas on top like a table.[32] The plateau is watered by east flowing rivers Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri
Kaveri
and Vaigai. The major tributaries include Pennar, Tungabhadra, Bhavani and Thamirabarani.[33] Climate[edit]

Climatic zones

South-west monsoon currents

The region has a tropical climate and depends on monsoons for rainfall. According to the Köppen climate classification, it has a non-arid climate with minimum mean temperatures of 18 °C (64 °F).[34] The most humid is the tropical monsoon climate characterised by moderate to high year-round temperatures and seasonal heavy rainfall above 2,000 mm (79 in) per year. The tropical climate is experienced in a strip of south-western lowlands abutting the Malabar Coast, the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
and the islands of Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar
Andaman and Nicobar
are also subject to this climate.[35] The tropical wet and dry climate, drier than areas with a tropical monsoon climate prevails over most of inland peninsular region except for a semi arid rain shadow east of the Western Ghats. Winter and early summer are long and dry periods with temperatures averaging above 18 °C (64 °F), summer is exceedingly hot with temperatures in low-lying areas exceeding 50 °C (122 °F) and the rainy season lasts from June to September with annual rainfall averaging between 750 and 1,500 mm (30 and 59 in) across the region. Once the dry northeast monsoon begins in September, most precipitation in India falls in Tamil Nadu, leaving other states comparatively dry.[36] The hot semi-arid climate predominates the land east of the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
and the Cardamom Hills. The region, which includes Karnataka, inland Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and western Andhra Pradesh, gets between 400 and 750 millimetres (15.7 and 29.5 in) of rainfall annually with hot summers and dry winters with temperatures around 20–24 °C (68–75 °F). The months between March and May are hot and dry with mean monthly temperatures hover around 32 °C (90 °F), with 320 millimetres (13 in) precipitation and without artificial irrigation, this region is not suitable for agriculture.[37] The south–west Monsoon
Monsoon
from June to September accounts for most of the rainfall in the region. The Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
branch of the south-west monsoon hits the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
along the coastal state of Kerala
Kerala
and moves northwards along the Konkan
Konkan
coast with precipitation on coastal areas, west of the Western Ghats. The lofty Western Ghats
Western Ghats
prevent the winds from reaching the Deccan Plateau
Deccan Plateau
- hence the leeward region (the region that deprived of winds) receives very little rainfall.[38][39] The Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
branch of south-west monsoon heads toward north east India, picking up moisture from the Bay of Bengal. The Coramandel coast does not receive much rainfall from the south-west monsoon due to the shape of the land. Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and southeast Andhra Pradesh receive rains from the north–east Monsoon.[40] The north-east monsoon take place from November to early March when the surface high-pressure system is strongest.[41] The North Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
tropical cyclones occur throughout the year in Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
and Arabian sea bringing devastating winds and heavy rainfall.[42][43][44] Flora and fauna[edit]

South India
South India
has the largest elephant population.

Main articles: Wildlife of Karnataka, Wildlife of Tamil Nadu, Wildlife of Kerala, and List of birds of South India There is a wide diversity of plants and animals in South India, resulting from its varied climates and geography. Deciduous forests are found along the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
while tropical dry forests and scrub lands are common in the interior Deccan plateau. The southern Western Ghats have rainforests located at high altitudes called the South Western Ghats
Western Ghats
montane rain forests and the Malabar Coast
Malabar Coast
moist forests are found on the coastal plains.[45] The Western Ghats
Western Ghats
is one of the eight hottest biodiversity hotspots in the world and a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site.[46][47] Important ecological regions of South India
South India
are the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, located at the conjunction of the borders of Karnataka, Kerala
Kerala
and Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
in the Nilgiri Hills
Nilgiri Hills
and the Anamalai Hills
Anamalai Hills
in the Western Ghats. Bird sanctuaries including Vedanthangal, Ranganathittu, Kumarakom, Neelapattu and Pulicat are home to numerous migratory and local birds.[48][49] Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
has been declared a bird sanctuary by the Wildlife Institute of India.[50] Other protected ecological sites include the mangrove forests of Pichavaram
Pichavaram
in Tamil Nadu, the backwaters of Pulicat lake in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and Vembanad, Ashtamudi, Paravur and Kayamkulam
Kayamkulam
lakes in Kerala. The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve covers an area of 10,500 km² of ocean, islands and the adjoining coastline including coral reefs, salt marshes and mangroves. It is home to Endangered
Endangered
aquatic species including dolphins, dugongs, whales and sea cucumbers.[51][52] The region is home to one of the largest populations of endangered Indian elephant
Indian elephant
and Bengal Tiger
Bengal Tiger
in India. Elephant populations are found in eight fragmented sites in South India; in northern Karnataka, along the Western Ghats, in Bhadra–Malnad, in Brahmagiri–Nilgiris–Eastern Ghats, in Nilambur–Silent Valley–Coimbatore, in Anamalai–Parambikulam, in Periyar– Srivilliputhur
Srivilliputhur
and Agasthyamalai[53] The region is home to one-third of the tiger population and more than half of the elephant population of India.[54][55] There are 14 Project Tiger
Project Tiger
reserves and 11 Project Elephant
Project Elephant
reserves in the region.[56][57] Other threatened and endangered species found in the region include grizzled giant squirrel,[58] grey slender loris,[59] sloth bear,[60] nilgiri tahr,[61] nilgiri langur,[62] lion-tailed macaque,[63] and Indian leopard.[64]

Symbols of States of South India

Name Animal Bird Tree Fruit Flower

Andaman and Nicobar
Andaman and Nicobar
Islands[65] Dugong
Dugong
( Dugong
Dugong
dugon) Andaman wood pigeon
Andaman wood pigeon
(Columba palumboides) Andaman padauk (Pterocarpus dalbergioides)

Andaman crape myrtle ( Lagerstroemia
Lagerstroemia
hypoleuca)

Andhra Pradesh[66] Blackbuck
Blackbuck
(Antilope cervicapra) Indian roller
Indian roller
(Coracias indica) Neem
Neem
(Azadirachta indica) Mango
Mango
(Mangifera indica) Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)

Karnataka[67] Indian Elephant
Indian Elephant
(Elephas maximus) Indian roller
Indian roller
(Coracias indica) Sandalwood (Santalum album)

Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)

Kerala[68][69] Indian Elephant
Indian Elephant
(Elephas maximus) Great hornbill
Great hornbill
(Buceros bicornis) Coconut
Coconut
(Cocos nucifera) Jackfruit
Jackfruit
(Artocarpus heterophyllus) Cana fistula (Cassia fistula)

Lakshadweep[70][71] Butterfly fish
Butterfly fish
(Chaetodon falcula) Noddy tern (Anous stolidus) Bread fruit (Artocarpus incisa)

Puducherry[72] Indian palm squirrel
Indian palm squirrel
(Funambulus palmarum) Koel (Eudynamys scolopaceus) Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos)

Cannonball (Couroupita guianensis)

Tamil Nadu[73][74] Nilgiri tahr
Nilgiri tahr
(Nilgiritragus hylocrius) Emerald dove (Chalcophaps indica) Palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer) Jackfruit
Jackfruit
(Artocarpus heterophyllus) Glory lily (Gloriosa superba)

Telangana[75] Deer
Deer
(Axis axis) Indian roller
Indian roller
(Coracias indica) Khejri (Prosopis cineraria) Mango
Mango
(Mangifera indica) Tanner's Cassia (Senna auriculata)

Demographics[edit] Main articles: Dravidian peoples, Tamils, Telugus, Kannadigas, and Malayalis

Population Pyramid in South India

As per the 2011 census of India, the estimated population of South India is 252 million, around one fifth of the total population of India. The region's total fertility rate (TFR) was less than the population replacement level of 2.1 for all states with Kerala
Kerala
and Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
having the lowest TFRs in India at 1.7.[76][77] As a result, the proportion of the population of South India
South India
to India's total population has declined from 1981 to 2011.[78][79] The population density of the region is approximately 463. Scheduled Castes and Tribes form 18% of the population of the region. Agriculture is the major employer in the region with 47.5% of the population is involved in agrarian activities.[80] About 60% of the population lives in permanent housing structures.[81] 67.8% of South India has access to tap water with wells and springs forming other major sources of water supply.[82] After experiencing fluctuations in the decades immediately after the independence of India, the economies of South Indian states have registered growth higher than the national average over the past three decades. While South Indian states have improved in some of the socio-economic metrics,[83][84] poverty continues to affect the region as it does the rest of the country, although it has considerably decreased over the years. Basis the 2011 census, HDI in the southern states is high and the economy has grown at a faster rate than most northern states.[85] As per the 2011 census, the average literacy rate in South India
South India
is approximately 80%, considerably higher than the Indian national average of 74% with Kerala
Kerala
having the highest literacy rate of 93.91%.[86][87] South India
South India
has the highest sex ratio with Kerala
Kerala
and Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
being the top two states.[88] The South Indian states rank amongst the top 10 in economic freedom, life expectancy, access to drinking water, house ownership and TV ownership.[89][90][91][92][93] Poverty rate is at 19% while that in the other Indian states is at 38%. The per capita income is ₹19,531 (US$300), which is more than double of the other Indian states (₹8,951 (US$140)).[94][95] Of the three demographic related targets of the Millennium Development Goals set by the United Nations
United Nations
expected to be achieved by 2015, Kerala
Kerala
and Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
achieved the goals related to improvement of maternal health and of reducing infant mortality and child mortality by 2009.[96][97] Languages[edit] Main article: Dravidian languages

Dravidian language tree

The largest linguistic group in South India
South India
is the Dravidian family of languages, a family of approximately 73 languages[98] The major languages spoken include Telugu, Tamil, Kannada
Kannada
and Malayalam.[99] Tulu is spoken by about 1.5 million people in coastal Kerala
Kerala
and Karnataka
Karnataka
and Konkani, an Indo-Aryan language, is spoken by half a million people in the Konkan
Konkan
coast. English is also widely spoken in urban areas of South India.[100] Urdu
Urdu
is spoken by around 12 million Muslims in southern India.[101][102][103] Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Urdu
Urdu
and Konkani are listed amongst the 22 official languages of India as per the Official Languages Act (1963). Tamil was the first language to be granted classical language status by the Government of India
Government of India
in 2004.[104][105] Other major languages declared classical were Kannada
Kannada
(in 2008), Telugu (in 2008) and Malayalam
Malayalam
(in 2013)[106][107]

S.No. Language Number of speakers[108] Official in States

1 Telugu 74,002,856 Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Yanam (Puducherry)

2 Tamil 60,793,814 Tamil Nadu, Puducherry

3 Kannada 37,924,011 Karnataka

4 Malayalam 33,066,392 Kerala, Lakshadweep, Mahé, Puducherry

5 Konkani 2,489,015 Not Official in any South Indian State

Religion[edit]

Religion

Religion

Percent(%)

Hinduism

80%

Islam

11%

Christianity

8%

Other

1%

Hinduism
Hinduism
is the major religion with about 80% of the population adhering to it. About 11% of the population follow Islam
Islam
and 8% follow Christianity.[109] Evidence of prehistoric religion in South India comes from scattered Mesolithic
Mesolithic
rock paintings depicting dances and rituals in Stone Age sites such as the Kupgal petroglyphs
Kupgal petroglyphs
of eastern Karnataka.[110] Hinduism, often regarded as the oldest religion in the world, traces its roots to prehistoric times in India.[111] The main spiritual traditions of South India
South India
include both Shaivite and Vaishnavite branches of Hinduism, although Buddhist
Buddhist
and Jain philosophies had been influential several centuries earlier.[112] Ayyavazhi
Ayyavazhi
is spread significantly across the southern parts of South India.[113][self-published source][114] Islam
Islam
was introduced to South India in the early 7th century by Arab
Arab
traders in Malabar Coast
Malabar Coast
of Kerala
Kerala
and spread during the rule of Deccan Sultanates
Deccan Sultanates
from 17th to 18th century and the Muslims in Kerala
Kerala
of Arab
Arab
descent are called Jonaka Mappila.[115] Christianity
Christianity
was introduced to South India
South India
by Thomas the Apostle, who visited Muziris
Muziris
in Kerala
Kerala
in 52 CE and baptised Kerala's Jewish settlements.[116][117] Kerala
Kerala
is also home to one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world who are supposed to have arrived in the Malabar coast during the reign of King Solomon.[118][119] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of South India

Major crop areas

The growth of information technology hubs in the region have spurred economic growth. Pictured is Tidel Park
Tidel Park
in Chennai

The economy of South India
South India
after the independence of the nation conformed to a socialist framework, with strict governmental control over private sector participation, foreign trade and foreign direct investment. Through 1960 to 1990, the South Indian economies experienced mixed economic growth. In the 1960s, Kerala
Kerala
achieved above average economic growth while Andhra Pradesh's economy declined during this period. Kerala
Kerala
experienced an economic decline in the 1970s while the economies of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Karnataka
Karnataka
consistently exceeded national average growth rates after 1970 due to reform-oriented economic policies compared to other Indian states.[120] As of 2013–14, the total Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
of the region is ₹27.1 trillion (US$420 billion). Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
has the second highest GDP and is the second most industrialised state in the country after Maharashtra.[121] As of March 2015, there are 109 operational Special
Special
Economic Zones in South India, which is about 60% of the country's total.[122] Over 48% of South India's population is engaged in agriculture, which is largely dependent on seasonal monsoons. Some of the main crops cultivated in South India
South India
include paddy, sorghum, pearl millet, pulses, sugarcane, cotton, chilli and ragi. Areca, coffee, tea, rubber and spices are cultivated on the hilly regions. The staple food is rice; the delta regions of Godavari, Krishna
Krishna
and Kaveri
Kaveri
are amongst the top rice producing areas in the country.[123] Frequent droughts have left farmers debt-ridden, forcing them to sell their livestock and sometimes to commit suicide.[124] The region accounts for 92% of the total Coffee
Coffee
production in India.[125] South India
South India
is also a major producer of cotton, tea, rubber, turmeric, mangoes and spices.[122][126][127][128] Other major agriculture related produce include silk and poultry.[129][130] Trivandrum, Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad, Coimbatore
Coimbatore
and are amongst the major IT hubs of India and Bangalore
Bangalore
is also known as the Silicon Valley of India. The growth of information technology (IT) hubs in the Trivandrum
Trivandrum
city have spurred economic growth and attracted foreign investments and job seekers from other parts of the country. Nissan’s digital global hub is aimed at developing driverless vehicles and electric cars.The Nissan
Nissan
is planning to establish a Global Digital Hub in Technopark Trivandrum
Trivandrum
for researching about the driverless cars( Nissan
Nissan
Easy Ride) [131] Software exports from South India grossed over ₹640 billion (US$9.8 billion) in fiscal 2005–06.[132] Chennai, known as the "Detroit of Asia", accounts for about 35% of India's overall automotive components and automobile output.[133] The region supplies two-thirds of India's requirements of motors and pumps and is one of the largest exporters of jewellery, wet grinders and auto components.[134] The other major industry is textiles[135] with the region being home to nearly 60% of the fibre textile mills in India.[136] Tourism contributes significantly to the GDP of the region with four states - Kerala
Kerala
, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Telangana
Telangana
- among the top 10 states for tourist arrivals and accounting for more than 50% of domestic tourist visits.[137]

Economic and demographic indicators[84]

Parameter South India National

Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
(GDP) ₹27.1 trillion (US$420 billion) ₹104.7 trillion (US$1.6 trillion)

Net state domestic product (SDP) ₹27,027 (US$410) ₹23,222 (US$360)

Population below poverty line 17.4% 26.1%

Urban population 32.8% 27.8%

Households with electricity 89.3% 67.9%

Literacy rate 80% 74%[138]

Subdivisions[edit] South India
South India
consists of the five southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala
Kerala
and Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
as well as the union territories of Puducherry, Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
and Andaman and Nicobar.[139] Puducherry
Puducherry
and the five states have an elected state government each, while the Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
and Andaman islands are centrally administered by the President of India.[140][141] Each sub-region is further divided into districts.[142] Each state is headed by a Governor, who is a direct appointee of the President of India, while the Chief Minister is the elected head of the state government and represents the state's ruling party or coalition.[143] States[edit]

S.No. Name ISO 3166-2 code[144][145] Date of formation[14] Population[146] Area (km2)[147] Official language(s)[148] Capital Population density (per km2)[147] Sex Ratio[147] Literacy Rate (%)[86] % of urban population[149]

1 Andhra Pradesh AP 1 Oct 1953 49,506,799[150] 160,205[150] Telugu HyderabadNote 1 308[150] 996[150] 67.41[151] 29.4[150]

2 Karnataka KA 1 Nov 1956 61,095,297 191,791 Kannada Bengaluru 319 973 75.36 34.0

3 Kerala KL 1 Nov 1956 33,406,061 38,852 Malayalam Thiruvananthapuram 860 1084 94.00 26.0

4 Tamil Nadu TN 26 Jan 1950 72,147,030 130,060 Tamil Chennai 555 996 80.09 44.0

5 Telangana TS 2 Jun 2014[152] 35,193,978[152] 114,840[152] Telugu, Urdu[152] HyderabadNote 1 307[153] 988[152] 66.50[153] 38.7[152]

^Note 1 Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
was divided into two states, Telangana
Telangana
and a residual Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
on 2 June 2014.[154][155][156] Hyderabad, located entirely within the borders of Telangana, is to serve as joint capital for both states for a period of time not exceeding ten years.[157]

Union territories[edit]

S.No. Name ISO 3166-2 code[144][145] Population[146] Area (km2)[147] Official language[148] Capital Population density (per km2)[147] Sex Ratio[147] Literacy Rate(%)[86] % of urban population[149]

1 Andaman and Nicobar AN 380,581 8,249 English, Hindi Port Blair 46 876 86.27 32.6

2 Lakshadweep LD 64,473 30 English, Malayalam Kavaratti 2,013 946 92.28 44.5

3 Puducherry PY 1,247,953 490 Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu Puducherry 2,598 1037 86.55 66.6

Administration[edit]

Legislative assemblies of states

Fort St. George (Tamil Nadu)

Vidhan Bhavan (Telangana)

Vidhan Soudha
Vidhan Soudha
(Karnataka)

Niyamasabha Mandiram
Niyamasabha Mandiram
(Kerala)

South India
South India
elects 132 members to the Lok Sabha
Lok Sabha
accounting for roughly one-fourth of the total strength.[158] The region has an allocation of 58 seats in Rajya Sabha
Rajya Sabha
out of the total 245.[159] Each state is headed by a Governor, who is a direct appointee of the President of India; the Chief Minister is the elected head of the state government and represents the ruling party or coalition.[160] Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Puducherry
Puducherry
follow unicameral legislature while Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka
Karnataka
and Telangana
Telangana
follow bicameral legislature.[161][162] State legislatures elect members for terms of five years.[163] States with bicameral legislatures have an upper house (Legislative Council) with members not more than one-third the size of the Assembly. Governors may suspend or dissolve assemblies and can administer when no party is able to form a government.[163] Each state is organised into a number of districts, which are further subdivided into revenue divisions and taluks (or tehsils) for administration.[163] Local bodies govern respective cities, towns and villages with each electing a mayor, municipal chairman and panchayat chairman respectively to head the same.[163]

State/UT Lok Sabha[158] Rajya Sabha[159] Vidhan Sabha[161] Governor/Lieutenant Governor Chief Minister

Andaman and Nicobar 1 N/A N/A A. K. Singh N/A

Andhra Pradesh 25 11 175 E. S. L. Narasimhan N. Chandrababu Naidu

Karnataka 28 12 224 Vajubhai Vala Siddaramaiah

Kerala 20 9 140 P. Sathasivam Pinarayi Vijayan

Lakshadweep 1 N/A N/A H. Rajesh Prasad N/A

Puducherry 1 1 30 Kiran Bedi V. Narayanasamy

Tamil Nadu 39 18 234 Banwarilal Purohit Edappadi K. Palaniswami

Telangana 17 7 119 E. S. L. Narasimhan K. Chandrashekar Rao

Total 132 58 922

Politics[edit] Main article: Politics in South India Politics in South India
Politics in South India
is characterised by a mix of regional and national political parties. Justice Party and Swaraj Party were the two major parties in the erstwhile Madras
Madras
Presidency.[164] The Justice Party eventually lost the 1937 elections to the Indian National Congress and Chakravarti Rajagopalachari
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari
became the Chief Minister of the Madras
Madras
Presidency.[164] During the 1920s and 1930s, the Self-Respect Movement
Self-Respect Movement
emerged in the Madras Presidency
Madras Presidency
spearheaded by Theagaroya Chetty and E. V. Ramaswamy Naicker
E. V. Ramaswamy Naicker
(commonly known as Periyar).[165] In 1944 Periyar, who had started the Self-Respect Movement transformed the party into a social organisation, renaming the party Dravidar Kazhagam, and withdrew from electoral politics. The initial aim was the secession of Dravida Nadu
Dravida Nadu
from the rest of India on independence. After Independence, C. N. Annadurai, a follower of Periyar formed the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
in 1948. The Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
led to the rise of Dravidian parties
Dravidian parties
which formed its first government in 1967 in Tamil Nadu. In 1972, a split in the DMK resulted in the formation of the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam led by M. G. Ramachandran. Dravidian parties continue to dominate Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
electoral politics; the national parties usually aligned as junior partners to the major Dravidian parties, AIADMK and DMK.[166][167] Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
dominated the political scene in Tamil Nadu in 1950s and 1960s under the leadership of K. Kamaraj, who led the party after the death of Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
and ensured the selection of Prime Ministers Lal Bahadur Shastri
Lal Bahadur Shastri
and Indira Gandhi.[168] Congress continues to be a major party in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka
Karnataka
and Kerala. The party ruled with minimal opposition for 30 years in Andhra Pradesh before the formation of Telugu Desam Party
Telugu Desam Party
by Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao in 1982.[169] Two prominent party systems in Kerala
Kerala
are the United Democratic Front, led by the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
and the Left Democratic Front, led by the Communist Party of India (Marxist). For the past fifty years, these two coalitions have been alternately in power and E. M. S. Namboodiripad, the first elected chief minister of Kerala
Kerala
in 1957 is credited as the leader of the first democratically elected communist government in the world.[170][171] Bharatiya Janata Party and Janata Dal
Janata Dal
are significant parties in Karnataka.[172] C. Rajagopalachari, the first Indian Governor General of India post independence, was from South India. The region has produced six Indian Presidents namely Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan,[173] V. V. Giri,[174] Neelam Sanjiva Reddy,[175] R. Venkataraman,[176] K. R. Narayanan[177] and APJ Abdul Kalam.[178] Prime Ministers P. V. Narasimha Rao
P. V. Narasimha Rao
and H. D. Deve Gowda were from the region.[179] Culture and heritage[edit] Main article: South Indian culture Clothing[edit] South Indian women traditionally wear a sari, a garment that consists of a drape varying from 5 yards (4.6 m) to 9 yards (8.2 m) in length and 2 feet (0.61 m) to 4 feet (1.2 m) in breadth that is typically wrapped around the waist, with one end draped over the shoulder, baring the midriff.[180][181] Ancient Tamil poetry such as the Silappadhikaram
Silappadhikaram
describes women in exquisite drapery or sari.[182] The sari is to be wrapped around the waist, with the loose end of the drape to be worn over the shoulder, baring the midriff as according to Indian philosophy, the navel is considered as the source of life and creativity.[180] Madisar
Madisar
is a typical style worn by Brahmin ladies from Tamil Nadu.[183] Women wear colourful silk sarees on special occasions such as marriages.[184] The men wear a dhoti, a 4.5 metres (15 ft) long, white rectangular piece of non-stitched cloth often bordered in brightly coloured stripes. It is usually wrapped around the waist and the legs and knotted at the waist.[185] A colourful lungi with typical batik patterns is the most common form of male attire in the countryside.[186] People in urban areas generally wear tailored clothing and western dress is popular in urban areas.[186] Western-style school uniforms are worn by both boys and girls in schools even in rural areas.[186]

A traditional meal served on a banana leaf

Cuisine[edit] Main article: South Indian cuisine Rice
Rice
is the staple diet, while fish is an integral component of coastal South Indian meals.[187] Coconut
Coconut
and spices are used extensively in South Indian cuisine. The region has a rich cuisine involving both traditional non-vegetarian and vegetarian dishes comprising rice, legumes and lentils. Its distinct aroma and flavour is achieved by the blending of flavourings and spices including curry leaves, mustard seeds, coriander, ginger, garlic, chili, pepper, cinnamon, cloves, green cardamom, cumin, nutmeg, coconut and rosewater.[188][189] The traditional way of eating a meal involves being seated on the floor, having the food served on a banana leaf[190] and using clean fingers of the right hand to take the food into the mouth.[191] After the meal, the fingers are washed; the easily degradable banana leaf is discarded or becomes fodder for cattle.[192] Eating on banana leaves is a custom thousands of years old, imparts a unique flavor to the food and is considered healthy.[193] Idli, dosa, uthappam, appam, pongal and paniyaram are popular dishes for breakfast.[194][195] Rice
Rice
is served with sambar, rasam and poriyal for lunch. Andhra cuisine is characterised by pickles and spicy curries.[196] Chettinad cuisine
Chettinad cuisine
is famous for non-vegetarian items and Hyderabadi cuisine
Hyderabadi cuisine
is popular for its biryani.[197] Arts[edit]

South Indian dance forms

Bharatanatyam
Bharatanatyam
(Tamil Nadu)

Kathakali
Kathakali
(Kerala)

Kuchipudi
Kuchipudi
(Andhra Pradesh)

Yakshagana
Yakshagana
(Karnataka)

The traditional music of South India
South India
is known as Carnatic music, which includes rhythmic and structured music by composers like Purandara Dasa, Kanaka Dasa, Tyagayya, Annamacharya, Bhakta Ramadasu, Muthuswami Dikshitar, Shyama Shastri, Kshetrayya, Mysore
Mysore
Vasudevachar and Swathi Thirunal.[198] The main instrument that is used in South Indian Hindu temples is the nadaswaram, a reed instrument played along with thavil, a type of drum instrument to create an ensemble.[199] The motion picture industry has emerged as an important platform in South India over the years, portraying the cultural changes, trends, aspirations and developments experienced by its people. South India
South India
is home to several distinct dance forms such as Bharatanatyam, Kathakali, Kerala Natanam, Koodiyattam, Kuchipudi, Margamkali, Mohiniaattam, Oppana, Ottamthullal, Theyyam, Vilasini Natyam and Yakshagana.[200][201][202][203][204] The dance, clothing and sculptures of South India
South India
exemplify the beauty of the body and motherhood.[180][205][206][207][208] Cinema[edit] Films in regional languages are prevalent; this includes Kannada cinema (Karnataka), Malayalam
Malayalam
cinema (Kerala), Tamil cinema
Tamil cinema
(Tamil Nadu) and Telugu cinema
Telugu cinema
( Telangana
Telangana
and Andhra Pradesh). The first silent film in South India, Keechaka Vadham, was made by R. Nataraja Mudaliar in 1916.[209] In South India, the first Tamil talkie, Kalidas, was released on 31 October 1931, barely seven months after India's first talking picture Alam Ara[210] Mudaliar also established South India's first film studio in Madras.[211] Swamikannu Vincent built the first cinema of South India
South India
in Coimbatore
Coimbatore
and introduced the concept of "tent cinema", the first of whose kind was established in Madras
Madras
and was known as "Edison's Grand Cifnemamegaphone".[212] Filmmakers K Balachandar, Balu Mahendra, Bharathiraaja
Bharathiraaja
and Mani Ratnam in Tamil cinema, Adoor Gopalakrishnan, Shaji N. Karun, John Abraham and G. Aravindan in Malayalam
Malayalam
cinema, and K. N. T. Sastry and B. Narsing Rao in Telugu cinema
Telugu cinema
produced realistic parallel cinema throughout the 1970s,[213] Cinema has also exerted its influence on politics;[214] prominent film personalities like C N Annadurai, M G Ramachandran, M Karunanidhi, N. T. Rama Rao
N. T. Rama Rao
and Jayalalithaa
Jayalalithaa
have become Chief Ministers.[215] As of 2014, South Indian film industry contribute to 53% of the total films produced in India.[216]

Table: Feature films certified by the Central Board of Film Certification (2017)[216]

Language No. of films

Telugu 294

Tamil 304

Malayalam 156

Kannada 220

Tulu 9

Konkani 13

Total 996

Literature[edit]

The large gopuram is a hallmark of Dravidian architecture.

South India
South India
has an independent literary tradition dating back over 2500 years ago. The first known literature of South India
South India
is the poetic Sangam literature, written in Tamil 2500 to 2100 years ago. The literature was composed in three successive poetic assemblies known as Tamil Sangams that were held in the ancient times on a now vanished continent far to the south of India.[217] This literature includes the oldest grammar treatise Tholkappiyam and epics Silappatikaram and Manimekalai
Manimekalai
written in Tamil.[218] References to Kannada
Kannada
literature appear from fourth century CE.[219][220] Telugu literature
Telugu literature
adopted a form of Prakrit which in course of development became the immediate ancestor of Telugu.[221] Distinct Malayalam
Malayalam
literature came later in the 13th century.[222] Architecture[edit] South India
South India
has two distinct styles of rock architecture, the Dravidian style of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and the Vesara
Vesara
style of Karnataka.[223] The temples considered of porches or mantapas preceding the door leading to the sanctum, gate-pyramids or gopurams, which are the principal features in the quadrangular enclosures that surround the more notable temples and pillared halls used for many purposes and are the invariable accompaniments of these temples. Besides these, a South Indian temple typically has a tank called the Kalyani or Pushkarni.[224] The gopuram is a monumental tower, usually ornate at the entrance of any temple in Southern India. This forms a prominent feature of koils, Hindu temples of the Dravidian style.[225] They are topped by the kalasam, a spherical stone finial, and function as gateways through the walls that surround the temple complex.[226] The origins of the gopuram can be traced back to early structures of the Pallavas
Pallavas
and by the twelfth century, under the Pandya rulers, these gateways became a dominant feature of a temple's outer appearance, eventually overshadowing the inner sanctuary which became obscured from view by the colossal size of the gopuram.[227][228] Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in South India

Map showing highway distribution with population density

Road[edit] South India
South India
has an extensive road network with 20,573 km (12,783 mi) of National Highways and 46,813 km (29,088 mi) of State Highways. The Golden Quadrilateral
Golden Quadrilateral
connects Chennai
Chennai
in the region with Mumbai
Mumbai
via Bangalore
Bangalore
and Kolkata via Visakhapatnam.The NH66 Connects Trivandrum
Trivandrum
city with Mumbai
Mumbai
[229][230] Bus services are provided by state run transport corporations namely Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
State Transport Corporation,[231] Karnataka
Karnataka
State Road Transport Corporation ( Karnataka
Karnataka
RTC),[232] Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
State Road Transport Corporation,[233] Telangana
Telangana
State Road Transport Corporation,[234] Kerala
Kerala
State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC)[235] and Puducherry
Puducherry
Road Transport Corporation.[236] The Kerala
Kerala
State Road Transportation is the oldest public transportation system in India started in 1937 by King Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma as Travancore State Transport Department later it changed to KSRTC. The first service held in Kowdiar Square of the Trivandrum
Trivandrum
City.

State National Highway [237] State Highway[238] Motor vehicles per 1000 pop.[239]

Andhra Pradesh 7,356 km (4,571 mi) 10,650 km (6,620 mi) 145

Karnataka 6,432 km (3,997 mi) 20,774 km (12,908 mi) 182

Tamil Nadu 5,006 km (3,111 mi) 10,764 km (6,688 mi) 257

Telangana 2,635 km (1,637 mi) 3,152 km (1,959 mi) N/A

Kerala 1,811 km (1,125 mi) 4,341 km (2,697 mi) 207

Andaman and Nicobar 330 km (210 mi) 38 km (24 mi) 152

Puducherry 64 km (40 mi) 246 km (153 mi) 521

Total 22,635 km (14,065 mi) 49,965 km (31,047 mi)

Rail[edit]

Indian Railway zonal map

The Great Southern India Railway Company was founded in England in 1853 and registered in 1859.[240] Construction of track in Madras Presidency began in 1859 and the 80 miles (130 km) link from Trichinopoly to Negapatam was opened in 1861. The Carnatic Railway Company was founded in 1864 and opened a Madras-Arakkonam-Conjeevaram line in 1865. The Great Southern India Railway was subsequently merged with the Carnatic Railway in 1874 to form the South Indian Railway Company.[241] In 1880, the Great Indian Peninsula
Peninsula
Railway established by the British, built a railway network radiating inward from Madras.[242] In 1879, the Madras
Madras
Railway constructed a railway line from Royapuram
Royapuram
to Bangalore
Bangalore
and the Maharaja of Mysore
Mysore
established Mysore
Mysore
State Railway to carryout extension from Bangalore
Bangalore
to Mysore.[243] Madras
Madras
and Southern Mahratta Railway was founded on 1 January 1908 by merging the Madras
Madras
Railway and the Southern Mahratta Railway.[244][245] On 14 April 1951, the Madras
Madras
and Southern Mahratta Railway, the South Indian Railway and the Mysore
Mysore
State Railway were merged to form the Southern Railway, the first zone of Indian Railways.[246] The South Central zone was created on 2 October 1966 as the ninth zone of Indian Railways and the South Western zone was created on 1 April 2003.[247] Most of the region is covered by the three zones with small portions of coasts covered by East Coast Railway and Konkan
Konkan
Railway. Metro rail is operated by Namma Metro
Namma Metro
in Bangalore, Chennai
Chennai
Metro in Chennai, Kochi Metro
Kochi Metro
in Kochi
Kochi
and Hyderabad
Hyderabad
Metro in Hyderabad
Hyderabad
. Chennai
Chennai
MRTS provides suburban rail services in Chennai
Chennai
and was the first elevated railway line in India.[248] The Nilgiri Mountain Railway
Nilgiri Mountain Railway
is a UNESCO World Heritage site.[249]

Sl. No Name of the Railway zone[250] Abbr. Route length (in Km)[251] Headquarters[250] Founded[252] Divisions Major Stations[253]

1. Southern SR 5,098 Chennai 14 April 1951 Chennai,[254] Tiruchirappalli,[255] Madurai,[256] Palakkad,[257] Salem,[258] Thiruvananthapuram[259] Chennai
Chennai
Central, Coimbatore
Coimbatore
Main, Ernakulam, Erode, Katpadi, Kollam, Kozhikode, Madurai, Mangalore
Mangalore
Central, Palakkad, Salem, Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
Central, Thrissur, Tiruchirappalli, Tirunelveli

2. South Central SCR 5,803 Secunderabad 2 October 1966 Secunderabad,[260] Vijayawada, Hyderabad, Guntakal, Guntur, Nanded Guntur, Nellore, Secunderabad, Tirupati Main, Vijayawada

3. South Western SWR 3,177 Hubli 1 April 2003 Hubli, Bangalore, Mysore, Gulbarga[261] Bangalore
Bangalore
City, Hubli, Mysore

4. East Coast ECoR 2,572 Bhubaneswar 1 April 2003 Khurda Road, Sambalpur, Waltair[262] Visakhapatnam

5. Konkan KR 741 Navi Mumbai 26 January 1988 Karwar, Ratnagiri Madgaon

Air[edit] In March 1930, a discussion initiated by pilot G. Vlasto led to the founding of Madras
Madras
Flying Club which became a pioneer in pilot training South India.[263] On 15 October 1932, Indian aviator J. R. D. Tata flew a Puss Moth aircraft carrying mail from Karachi to Bombay (currently Mumbai) and the aircraft continued to Madras
Madras
(currently Chennai) piloted by Neville Vincent, a former Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
pilot and friend of Tata.[264] There are 9 international airports, 2 customs airports, 15 domestic airports and 11 air bases in South India. Chennai
Chennai
airport serves as the regional headquarters of the Airports Authority of India
Airports Authority of India
for the southern region of India comprising the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and Telangana
Telangana
and the union territories of Puducherry
Puducherry
and Lakshadweep.[265] Bangalore, Chennai, Trivandrum, Hyderabad
Hyderabad
and Kochi
Kochi
are amongst the top 10 busiest airports in the country.[266][267][268] The Southern Air Command of Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force
is headquartered at Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
and the Training Command is headquartered at Bangalore. The Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force
operates eleven air bases in Southern India including two in the Andaman and Nicobar
Andaman and Nicobar
Islands.[269] The Indian Navy
Indian Navy
operates airbases at Kochi, Arakkonam, Uchipuli, Vizag, Campbell Bay and Diglipur in the region.[270][271]

State/UT International CustomsNote 1 Domestic Military

Andaman and Nicobar 1 0 0 4

Andhra Pradesh 1 1 4 1

Karnataka 2 0 2 3

Kerala 4 0 0 1

Lakshadweep 0 0 1 0

Puducherry 0 0 1 0

Tamil Nadu 4 1 2 6

Telangana 1 0 3 2

Total 10 2 14 16

^ Restricted international airport

Rank Name City State IATA Code Total Passengers (2015)

1 Kempegowda International Airport Bangalore Karnataka BLR 18,971,149

2 Chennai
Chennai
International Airport Chennai Tamil Nadu MAA 15,218,017

3 Rajiv Gandhi International Airport Hyderabad Telangana HYD 12,388,159

4 Trivandrum
Trivandrum
International Airport Trivandrum Kerala TRV 7,749,901

5 Cochin International Airport Kochi Kerala COK 3,470,788

6 Kozhikode
Kozhikode
International Airport Kozhikode Kerala CCJ 2,305,547

7 Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam
Airport Visakhapatnam Andhra Pradesh VTZ 1,804,634

8 Coimbatore
Coimbatore
International Airport Coimbatore Tamil Nadu CJB 1,691,553

9 Mangalore
Mangalore
International Airport Mangalore Karnataka IXE 1,674,251

10 Tiruchirappalli
Tiruchirappalli
International Airport Tiruchirappalli Tamil Nadu TRZ 1,297,212

11 Madurai
Madurai
International Airport Madurai Tamil Nadu IXM 1,012,212

Water[edit] A total of 89 ports are situated along the coast: Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
(15), Karnataka
Karnataka
(10), Kerala
Kerala
(17), Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
(12), Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
(10), Pondicherry
Pondicherry
(2) and Andaman & Nicobar (23).[272] Major ports include Chennai, Visakhapatnam, Mangalore, Tuticorin, Ennore and Kochi.[273]

Name State Cargo Handled (FY2014–15)[274]

'000 tonnes % Increase (over previous FY)

Visakhapatnam Andhra Pradesh 58,004 -0.85% ↓

Chennai Tamil Nadu 52,541 2.81% ↑

Mangalore Karnataka 36,566 -7.11% ↓

Tuticorin Tamil Nadu 32,414 13.17% ↑

Ennore Tamil Nadu 30,251 10.66% ↑

Kochi Kerala 21,595 3.39% ↑

The Kerala
Kerala
backwaters are a network of interconnected canals, rivers, lakes and inlets, a labyrinthine system formed by more than 900 km of waterways. In the midst of this landscape, there are a number of towns and cities, which serve as the starting and end points of transportation services and backwater cruises.[275] The Eastern Naval Command
Eastern Naval Command
and Southern Naval Command
Southern Naval Command
of the Indian Navy are headquartered at Visakhapatnam
Visakhapatnam
and Kochi respectively.[276][277] Indian Navy
Indian Navy
has its major operational bases in Visakhapatnam, Chennai, Kochi, Karwar
Karwar
and Kavaratti
Kavaratti
in the region.[278][279][280] References[edit]

^ Yule, Henry; Burnell, A. C. Hobson-Jobson: The Definitive Glossary of British India. Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-164583-9.  ^ "Origins of the word 'Carnatic' in the Hobson Jobson Dictionary". University of Chicago. Retrieved 15 September 2006.  ^ Agarwal, D.P. (2006). Urban Origins in India (PDF). Uppsala University.  ^ Schoff, Wilfred (1912). The Periplus Of The Erythraean Sea: Travel And Trade In The Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
By A Merchant Of The First Century. South Asia
South Asia
Books. ISBN 978-81-215-0699-1.  ^ J. Innes, Miller (1998) [1969]. The Spice Trade of The Roman Empire: 29 B.C. to A.D. 641. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-814264-5.  ^ Landstrom, Bjorn (1964). The Quest for India. Allwin and Unwin. ISBN 978-0-04-910016-9.  ^ Elisseeff, Vadime (2001). The Silk
Silk
Roads: Highways of Culture and Commerce. UNESCO
UNESCO
Publishing / Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-92-3-103652-1.  ^ "They administered our region". The Hindu. 4 June 2007. Retrieved 6 April 2014.  ^ Hibbert, Christopher (1 March 2000). Great Mutiny: India 1857. Penguin. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-14-004752-3.  ^ Indian National Evolution: A Brief Survey of the Origin and Progress of the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
and the Growth of Indian Nationalism. Cornell University Press. 22 September 2009. p. 59. ISBN 978-1-112-45184-3.  ^ "Article 1". Constitution of India. Law Ministry, Government of India. Retrieved 31 December 2015.  ^ "Reorganisation of states" (PDF). Economic Weekly. Retrieved 20 March 2016.  ^ "Seventh Amendment". Indiacode.nic.in. Retrieved 19 March 2016.  ^ a b c d e f "States Reorganisation Act, 1956" (PDF). indiaenvironmentportal.org.in. Retrieved 19 March 2016.  ^ "Reorganisation of states" (PDF). Economic Weekly. Retrieved 31 December 2015.  ^ "The Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
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