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South Holland
Holland
(Dutch: Zuid- Holland
Holland
[ˌzœyt ˈɦɔlɑnt] ( listen)) is a province in the midwest region of the Netherlands. It has a population of just over 3.6 million (as of 2015)[3] and a population density of about 1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi),[4] making it the country's most populous province and one of the world's most densely populated areas. Situated on the North Sea
North Sea
in the west of the Netherlands, South Holland
Holland
covers an area of 3,403 km2 (1,314 sq mi), of which 585 km2 (226 sq mi) is water. It borders North Holland
North Holland
to the north, Utrecht and Gelderland
Gelderland
to the east, and North Brabant
North Brabant
and Zeeland
Zeeland
to the south. The provincial capital is The Hague, while its largest city is Rotterdam.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history 1.2 As a province

2 Geography

2.1 Climate 2.2 Municipalities

3 Economy 4 Notable residents 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] Early history[edit] Archaeological discoveries in Hardinxveld-Giessendam
Hardinxveld-Giessendam
indicate that the area of South Holland
Holland
has been inhabited since at least ca. 7,500 years before present, probably by nomadic hunter-gatherers. Agriculture and permanent settlements probably originated around 2,000 years later, based on excavations near Vlaardingen. In the classical antiquity, South Holland
Holland
was part of the Roman Province
Roman Province
of Germania Inferior, and the border of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
ran along the Old Rhine and reached the North Sea
North Sea
near Katwijk. The Romans built fortresses along the border, such as Praetorium Agrippinae
Praetorium Agrippinae
near modern-day Valkenburg, Matilo
Matilo
near modern-day Leiden, and Albaniana near modern-day Alphen aan den Rijn. A city was founded near modern-day Voorburg, Forum Hadriani. It was built according to the grid plan, and facilitated a square, a court, a bathhouse and several temples. After the departure of the Romans, the area belonged to the Frisian Kingdom, after which it was conquered by the Frankish king Dagobert I in 636. In 690, the Anglo-Saxon monk Willibrord
Willibrord
arrived near Katwijk and was granted permission to spread Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
by the Frankish king Pepin II. He accordingly founded a church in Oegstgeest, after which the entire area was gradually Christianised. The area was appointed to East Francia
Francia
in the Treaty of Verdun
Treaty of Verdun
in 843, after which the king granted lands to Gerolf, who had helped him claim the lands. This was the birth of the County of Holland. Gerolf was later succeeded by Dirk I, who continued to rule Holland
Holland
under the Frankish king. In 1248, count William II ordered the construction of the Ridderzaal, which was later finished by his son and successor Floris V.

The liberation of Leiden
Leiden
in 1574

The Binnenhof
Binnenhof
by the Hofvijver, 1625

The first city in South Holland
Holland
to receive city rights was Dordrecht, which did so in 1220. The city retained a dominant position in the area until it was struck by a series of floods in the late 14th century. The same century also saw a series of civil wars, the Hook and Cod wars, concerning the succession of count William IV. Both his daughter Jacqueline and his brother John, the latter supported by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, claimed the throne. The conflict ended in 1490, with John victorious. Overall, the area of South Holland
Holland
remained largely agrarian throughout the late Middle Ages. This changed around 1500, when Holland
Holland
became Europe's most urbanised area. During the Eighty Years' War, the area of South Holland
Holland
was the scene of the Capture of Brielle, the Siege of Leiden
Leiden
and the assassination of William the Silent. The United Netherlands
Netherlands
declared their independence in 1581, and Holland
Holland
quickly emerged as the country's dominant province, with important trading cities such as Leiden, Delft, Gouda and Dordrecht. In 1575, the Netherlands' first university was founded in Leiden
Leiden
by William the Silent. The Hague, which had originated around the castle of the counts of Holland, became its new political centre. Both the States of Holland
Holland
and the States General seated in the Binnenhof. The Dutch Golden Age
Dutch Golden Age
blossomed in the 17th century. The south of Holland, back then often referred to as the Zuiderkwartier (literally "South Quarter"), was the birthplace and residence of scientists such as Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
and Christiaan Huygens, philosophers such as Baruch Spinoza
Baruch Spinoza
and Pierre Bayle, and painters such as Johannes Vermeer, Rembrandt van Rijn
Rembrandt van Rijn
and Jan Steen. As a province[edit] The province of South Holland
Holland
as it is today has its origins in the period of French rule from 1795 to 1813. This was a time of bewildering changes to the Dutch system of provinces. In 1795, the Batavian Republic
Batavian Republic
was proclaimed and the old order was swept away by a series of constitutional changes in the following years. In the Constitution enacted on 23 April 1798, the old borders were radically changed. The republic was reorganised into eight departments with roughly equal populations. The south of Holland
Holland
was split up into three departments. The islands in the south were merged with Zeeland and the west of North Brabant
North Brabant
to form the Department of the Scheldt and Meuse. The north of the area became the Department of the Delf. A small region in the east of the area became part of the Department of the Rhine, which spanned much of Gelderland
Gelderland
and Utrecht. In 1801, the old borders were restored when the department of Holland
Holland
was created. The reorganisation had been short-lived, but it gave birth to the concept of a division of Holland, creating less dominant provinces. In 1807, Holland
Holland
was reorganised once again. This time, the department was split in two. The south, what would later become South Holland, was called the Department of Maasland. This also did not last long. In 1810, all the Dutch provinces were integrated into the French Empire, and Maasland
Maasland
was renamed Bouches-de-la-Meuse.

The centre of Rotterdam
Rotterdam
in ruins after the Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Blitz in 1940

After the defeat of the French in 1813, this organisation remained unchanged for a year or so. When the 1814 Constitution was introduced, most borders were restored to their situation before the French period. The north and south of Holland
Holland
were reunited as the province of Holland. However, the division hadn't completely been undone. Since its re-establishment in 1814, Holland
Holland
had always had two King's Commissioners, one for the north and one for the south. Even though the province had been reunited, the two areas were still treated differently in some ways and the idea of dividing Holland
Holland
remained alive. In 1840, it was decided to once again split Holland
Holland
into North and South Holland, because the province of Holland
Holland
was deemed too dominant in area, population and wealth. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, three municipalities were transferred from South Holland
Holland
to Utrecht; Oudewater
Oudewater
in 1970, Woerden
Woerden
in 1989, and Vianen
Vianen
in 2002. The construction of the Nieuwe Waterweg
Nieuwe Waterweg
in 1863 marked the start of the growth of the Port of Rotterdam. On 14 May 1940, during the Second World War, the centre of Rotterdam
Rotterdam
was destroyed by a German bombardment. The subsequent German occupation of the Netherlands resulted in anti-Jewish measures, and many members of Dutch resistance were captured and executed on the Waalsdorpervlakte. At the same time, the Atlantikwall
Atlantikwall
was constructed along the coast. After the Second World War, in 1953, the south of South Holland
Holland
was heavily struck by the North Sea
North Sea
flood, which took the lives of 677 South Hollanders. After this, the Dutch government decided for the construction of the Delta Works, which came to an end with the completion of the Maeslantkering
Maeslantkering
in 1997. Geography[edit]

A topographic map of South Holland
Holland
as of 2013

South Holland
Holland
covers an area of 3,403 km2 (1,314 sq mi), of which 585 km2 (226 sq mi) is water. It borders the North Sea
North Sea
to the west, North Holland
North Holland
to the north, Utrecht and Gelderland
Gelderland
to the east, and North Brabant
North Brabant
and Zeeland
Zeeland
to the south. Beside the dunes along the North Sea
North Sea
coast, the province is almost entirely flat and mostly consists of polders. The centre of South Holland
Holland
and the area along the coast in the west are largely urban, part of the Randstad
Randstad
conurbation, while the east of the province is more agrarian and belongs to the Groene Hart, literally Green Heart. The south of the province is a collection of islands in the Rhine–Meuse– Scheldt
Scheldt
delta. For census reasons, South Holland is divided into four regions: Rijnmond, South, West and East. The Duin- en Bollenstreek
Duin- en Bollenstreek
is a region in the north-west of South Holland, around Katwijk, that features coastal dunes and the cultivation of flower bulbs. To the south of the region lie mostly pastures on sand soil, that form the transition to more urban area. This urban area runs along the Old Rhine, from Katwijk
Katwijk
via Rijnsburg to Leiden
Leiden
and Zoeterwoude-Rijndijk. South of Leiden
Leiden
and north of The Hague lies an area where a landscape of dunes bordering the North Sea in the west transitions to one of peat more to the east. The easternmost tip of South Holland
Holland
is part of De Biesbosch, one of the largest national parks of the Netherlands
Netherlands
and one of the last freshwater tide areas in Europe. Other parks in South Holland, although no national parks, include Delftse Hout east of Delft,[5] Ackerdijkse Plassen, a bird reserve north of Rotterdam,[6] and Buytenpark and Westerpark near Zoetermeer.[7] The Kagerplassen
Kagerplassen
are a collection of lakes north-east of Leiden, popular for boating, watersports, fishing, camping and walking.

A satellite image of the Rhine–Meuse– Scheldt
Scheldt
delta, showing the islands of South Holland

The southern part of South Holland
Holland
consists of a number of islands of the Rhine–Meuse– Scheldt
Scheldt
delta. Although technically islands in the sense that they are surrounded by rivers, canals or other bodies of water, most of these islands are well connected to the rest of the province via bridges, tunnels and dams. The southern islands, most notably Goeree-Overflakkee
Goeree-Overflakkee
(1 on the map), Tiengemeten
Tiengemeten
(2), Hoeksche Waard (6) and Voorne-Putten
Voorne-Putten
(4/5), are largely agrarian, while more to the north, the islands are more urban, such as Dordrecht
Dordrecht
(7), IJsselmonde (9) and Rozenburg
Rozenburg
(10), while other islands, like Rozenburg
Rozenburg
(10), are mostly used for petrochemical industry. Together, these cities form the Rijnmond
Rijnmond
conurbation, centred on the city of Rotterdam. Together with Haaglanden
Haaglanden
(centred on The Hague) and Delfland (centred on Delft) in the north, and the Drechtsteden
Drechtsteden
to the south-east, this conurbation in turn forms the South Wing of the Randstad
Randstad
conurbation, which spans across South Holland, North Holland and Utrecht. Other regions in South Holland
Holland
include Alblasserwaard, Gouwestreek ("The Gouwe
Gouwe
Area"), Hoeksche Waard, Krimpenerwaard, Rijnland ("Rhineland"), Rijnstreek ("The Rhine
Rhine
Area"), Vijfheerenlanden
Vijfheerenlanden
and Westland (roughly including Hoek van Holland
Holland
and the municipalities of Westland and Midden-Delfland). Climate[edit] Like the rest of the Netherlands, South Holland
Holland
experiences a temperate oceanic climate, a Cfb-class according to the Köppen climate classification. The climate is influenced by the North Sea
North Sea
and the Atlantic Ocean, which results in relatively cooler summers and milder winters. Rain showers are common in the fall and winter seasons. Because of the flat surface, wind storms are also not uncommon in the winter. Although rain occurs all year long, the first six months of the year are relatively dry. Eastern winds can result in a temporary continental climate with relatively warm and dry summers and cold and stormy winters. The temperature varies between the 2 °C and 6 °C in the winter and 17 °C and 20 °C in the summer.

Climate data for Rotterdam
Rotterdam
The Hague
The Hague
Airport

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 14.1 (57.4) 16.7 (62.1) 21.2 (70.2) 26.7 (80.1) 30.5 (86.9) 32.8 (91) 33.1 (91.6) 34.9 (94.8) 29.0 (84.2) 24.8 (76.6) 18.3 (64.9) 15.1 (59.2) 34.9 (94.8)

Average high °C (°F) 6.0 (42.8) 6.6 (43.9) 9.9 (49.8) 13.5 (56.3) 17.5 (63.5) 19.9 (67.8) 22.2 (72) 22.1 (71.8) 18.9 (66) 14.7 (58.5) 9.9 (49.8) 6.6 (43.9) 14.0 (57.2)

Daily mean °C (°F) 3.6 (38.5) 3.7 (38.7) 6.4 (43.5) 9.1 (48.4) 12.9 (55.2) 15.5 (59.9) 17.8 (64) 17.6 (63.7) 14.8 (58.6) 11.2 (52.2) 7.3 (45.1) 4.2 (39.6) 10.4 (50.7)

Average low °C (°F) 0.8 (33.4) 0.5 (32.9) 2.6 (36.7) 4.3 (39.7) 7.8 (46) 10.6 (51.1) 13.1 (55.6) 12.8 (55) 10.6 (51.1) 7.5 (45.5) 4.2 (39.6) 1.4 (34.5) 6.4 (43.5)

Record low °C (°F) −17.1 (1.2) −13.8 (7.2) −11.4 (11.5) −6.0 (21.2) −1.4 (29.5) 0.5 (32.9) 3.6 (38.5) 4.6 (40.3) 0.4 (32.7) −5.1 (22.8) −7.5 (18.5) −13.3 (8.1) −17.1 (1.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 69.1 (2.72) 57.9 (2.28) 64.9 (2.555) 42.6 (1.677) 58.3 (2.295) 65.2 (2.567) 74.0 (2.913) 81.0 (3.189) 87.1 (3.429) 90.1 (3.547) 87.1 (3.429) 78.3 (3.083) 855.6 (33.685)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 12 10 12 9 9 10 10 10 12 12 13 13 131

Average snowy days 6 5 4 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 22

Average relative humidity (%) 88 85 83 78 77 79 79 80 84 86 89 89 83.1

Mean monthly sunshine hours 62.5 83.8 124.0 174.9 213.9 203.6 213.1 196.6 137.6 106.9 60.4 46.7 1,623.8

Source #1: Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Meteorological Institute (1981–2010 normals, snowy days normals for 1971–2000)[8]

Source #2: Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Meteorological Institute (1971–2000 extremes)[9]

Municipalities[edit] Main article: List of municipalities in South Holland

Map of South Holland, 2015

South Holland
Holland
is divided into 60 municipalities.

Leiden
Leiden
& Bollenstreek COROP group

Hillegom Kaag en Braassem Katwijk Leiden Noordwijk Noordwijkerhout Oegstgeest Teylingen Voorschoten Zoeterwoude

The Hague
The Hague
COROP group

The Hague Leidschendam-Voorburg Pijnacker-Nootdorp Rijswijk Wassenaar Zoetermeer

Delft
Delft
& Westland COROP group

Delft Midden-Delfland Westland

East South Holland
Holland
COROP group

Alphen aan den Rijn Bodegraven-Reeuwijk Gouda Krimpenerwaard Nieuwkoop Waddinxveen

Rijnmond
Rijnmond
COROP group

Albrandswaard Barendrecht Binnenmaas Brielle Capelle aan den IJssel Cromstrijen Goeree-Overflakkee Hellevoetsluis Korendijk Krimpen aan den IJssel Lansingerland Maassluis Nissewaard Oud-Beijerland Ridderkerk Rotterdam Schiedam Strijen Vlaardingen Westvoorne Zuidplas

South West South Holland
Holland
COROP group

Alblasserdam Dordrecht Giessenlanden Gorinchem Hardinxveld-Giessendam Hendrik-Ido-Ambacht Leerdam Leiderdorp Lisse Molenwaard Papendrecht Sliedrecht Zederik Zwijndrecht

Economy[edit]

Port of Rotterdam
Rotterdam
by night

Flower fields near Lisse

Play media

Drone footage of flower fields near De Zilk

As of 2011, South Holland's gross regional product amounted €123.1 billion, or €34,883 per capita. This contributes to the gross domestic product of the Netherlands
Netherlands
for 20.9%. South Holland's labour force amounts 1,661,000 people; 47.1% of the total population. The unemployment rate is 6.1%.[10] Main sectors of economical activity in this province are among others:

Horticulture is an important sector in South Holland. The province is home to around 2550 glasshouse companies, approximately half of the Netherlands' total.[11] Specifically the Westland is well known for its intensive horticulture. The glasshouses in this region cover an area of 2,750 hectares (10.6 sq mi),[12] making it the world's largest contiguous greenhouse area.[13] Flower bulb cultivation; Port of Rotterdam; Petrochemical
Petrochemical
industry, particularly near Rotterdam
Rotterdam
neighbourhood Pernis; (Shell's refinery there is the largest oil refinery in Europe, and one of the largest in the world); The service-oriented economy of The Hague, where many jobs are offered by the national government (of which the main administrative parts are settled in this town), international institutions and headquarters of several large international businesses; Tourism related activities (among others in historic places like Delft, and in several seaside resorts); Commercial fishing; main South Holland
Holland
fishing places are Katwijk
Katwijk
and Scheveningen; Stock breeding, of which in this province dairy industry is the main sector.

Notable residents[edit] Two well known scientists originating from South Holland
Holland
are:

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
(1632–1723), father of microbiology and developer of the microscope Desiderius Erasmus, philosopher and humanist.

As far as art concerns, several famous painters originate from this province; such as:

Rembrandt, (Leiden) Jan Steen, (Leiden) Johannes Vermeer, (Delft)

See also[edit]

List of cities, towns and villages in South Holland Politics of South Holland The Gorzen, a nature park

References[edit]

^ http://statline.cbs.nl/StatWeb/publication/?VW=T&DM=SLEN&PA=82801ENG&LA=EN ^ XE.com average EUR/ USD
USD
ex. rate in 2014 ^ "Regionale kerncijfers Nederland" (in Dutch). CBS. Retrieved 30 May 2015.  ^ "Bevolking; kerncijfers" (in Dutch). CBS. Retrieved 24 March 2014.  ^ Delftse Hout images on Commons ^ Ackerdijkse plassen web page in Dutch ^ Page in Dutch about Westerpark on site Zoetermeer
Zoetermeer
municipality Archived 2013-12-12 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Klimaattabel Rotterdam, langjarige gemiddelden, tijdvak 1981–2010" (PDF) (in Dutch). Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 10 September 2013.  ^ "Klimaattabel Rotterdam, langjarige extremen, tijdvak 1971–2000" (PDF) (in Dutch). Royal Netherlands
Netherlands
Meteorological Institute. Retrieved 10 September 2013. [permanent dead link] ^ "Regio's in economisch perspectief 2013" (PDF) (in Dutch). 30 November 2012. Retrieved 15 April 2014.  ^ "'Leegstand van kassen in Westland dreigt'" (in Dutch). Nu.nl. 22 October 2012. Retrieved 29 April 2014.  ^ "De Kracht van het Westland" (PDF) (in Dutch). 2008. Retrieved 29 April 2014.  ^ "GLASTUINBOUW" (in Dutch). Westland.nl. 22 October 2012. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to South Holland.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for South Holland.

Province of South Holland
Holland
website (in Dutch) English home page on Province of South Holland
Holland
website (limited info in English) Deltaworks Online Website on flood protection in South Holland
Holland
river delta

v t e

Municipalities of South Holland

Alblasserdam Albrandswaard Alphen aan den Rijn Barendrecht Binnenmaas Bodegraven-Reeuwijk Brielle Capelle aan den IJssel Cromstrijen Delft Dordrecht Giessenlanden Goeree-Overflakkee Gorinchem Gouda Hardinxveld-Giessendam Hellevoetsluis Hendrik-Ido-Ambacht Hillegom Kaag en Braassem Katwijk Korendijk Krimpen aan den IJssel Krimpenerwaard Lansingerland Leerdam Leiden Leiderdorp Leidschendam-Voorburg Lisse Maassluis Midden-Delfland Molenwaard Nieuwkoop Nissewaard Noordwijk Noordwijkerhout Oegstgeest Oud-Beijerland Papendrecht Pijnacker-Nootdorp Ridderkerk Rijswijk Rotterdam Schiedam Sliedrecht Strijen Teylingen The Hague Vlaardingen Voorschoten Waddinxveen Wassenaar Westland Westvoorne Zederik Zoetermeer Zoeterwoude Zuidplas Zwijndrecht

See also Netherlands Provinces Municipalities

v t e

Provinces of the Netherlands

Coats of arms Flags

Drenthe Flevoland Friesland Gelderland Groningen Limburg North Brabant North Holland Overijssel South Holland Utrecht Zeeland

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 244993536 LCCN: n79055104 GND: 4078025-9 BNF:

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