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Sarajevo
Sarajevo
(Cyrillic: Сарајево, pronounced [sǎrajeʋo]; see names in other languages) is the capital [5] and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its current administrative limits.[4][6] The Sarajevo
Sarajevo
metropolitan area, including Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Canton, East Sarajevo
East Sarajevo
and nearby municipalities is home to 555,210 inhabitants.a [7] Nestled within the greater Sarajevo
Sarajevo
valley of Bosnia, it is surrounded by the Dinaric Alps
Dinaric Alps
and situated along the Miljacka
Miljacka
River in the heart of Southeastern Europe
Southeastern Europe
and the Balkans. Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is the political, social and cultural center of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a prominent center of culture in the Balkans, with its region-wide influence in entertainment, media, fashion, and the arts.[8][9] Due to its long and rich history of religious and cultural diversity, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is sometimes called the " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
of Europe"[1] or " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
of the Balkans".[2] It is the only major European city which has a mosque, Catholic church, Orthodox church and synagogue within the same neighborhood.[10] A regional center in education, the city is also home to the Balkans' first institution of tertiary education in the form of an Islamic polytechnic called the Saraybosna Osmanlı Medrese, today part of the University of Sarajevo.[11][12] Although settlement in the area stretches back to prehistoric times, the modern city arose as an Ottoman stronghold in the 15th century.[13] Sarajevo
Sarajevo
has attracted international attention several times throughout its history. In 1885, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
was the first city in Europe and the second city in the world to have a full-time electric tram network running through the city, following San Francisco.[14] In 1914, it was the site of the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, which sparked World War I, after which the city experienced a period of stagnation as part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The establishment of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina within the Second Yugoslavia
Second Yugoslavia
led to a massive expansion of Sarajevo, the constituent republic's capital, which hosted the 1984 Winter Olympics. For 1,425 days, from April 1992 to February 1996, the city suffered the longest siege of a capital city in the history of modern warfare, during the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
and the breakup of Yugoslavia.[15] Sarajevo
Sarajevo
has been undergoing post-war reconstruction, and is the fastest growing city in Bosnia and Herzegovina.[16] The travel guide series, Lonely Planet, has named Sarajevo
Sarajevo
as the 43rd best city in the world,[17] and in December 2009 listed Sarajevo
Sarajevo
as one of the top ten cities to visit in 2010.[18] In 2011, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
was nominated to be the European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
in 2014 and will be hosting the European Youth Olympic Festival in 2019.[19][20]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Environment

2.1 Geography 2.2 Cityscape 2.3 Climate 2.4 Air quality

3 History

3.1 Ancient times 3.2 Middle Ages 3.3 Ottoman era 3.4 Austria-Hungary 3.5 Yugoslavia 3.6 Siege of Sarajevo
Siege of Sarajevo
during Bosnian War 3.7 Present

4 Administration

4.1 Largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina 4.2 Municipalities and city government 4.3 Metropolis

5 Economy 6 Tourism and recreation 7 Demographics 8 Transportation

8.1 Roads and highways 8.2 Tram, bus and trolleybus 8.3 Future metro plans 8.4 Cable car (Mt. Trebević) 8.5 Airport 8.6 Railway

9 International relations

9.1 Twin towns – Sister cities 9.2 Fraternity cities

10 Communications and media 11 Education 12 Culture

12.1 Museums 12.2 Music 12.3 Festivals 12.4 Sports

13 See also 14 Historical Sarajevo
Sarajevo
gallery 15 Modern Sarajevo
Sarajevo
gallery 16 Mountains and hills surrounding Sarajevo 17 Notes 18 References

18.1 Bibliography

19 External links

Etymology[edit] The earliest known name for the large central Bosnian region of today's Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is Vrhbosna.[3] Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is a slavicized word based on saray, the Turkish word for palace[21] (the letter "j" in the Bosnian language
Bosnian language
is equivalent soundwise to the English letter "y" as in "boy" and "yet"[22]). The evo portion may come from the term saray ovası first recorded in 1455,[23] meaning "the plains around the palace" or simply "palace plains".[24] However, in his Dictionary of Turkish loanwords, Abdulah Škaljić maintains that the "evo" ending is more likely to have come from the widespread Slavic suffix "evo" used to indicate place names, than from the Turkish ending "ova", as proposed by some.[25] The first mention of name Sarajevo
Sarajevo
was in 1507 letter written by Feriz Beg.[26] The official name during the 400-year Ottoman period was Saraybosna (Palace of Bosnia), and it is still known by that name in modern Turkish. Sarajevo
Sarajevo
has had many nicknames. The earliest is Šeher, which is the term Isa-Beg Ishaković used to describe the town he was going to build. It is a Turkish word meaning an advanced city of key importance (şehir) which in turn comes from Persian: شهر‬‎ shahr (city). As Sarajevo
Sarajevo
developed, numerous nicknames came from comparisons to other cities in the Islamic world, i.e. "Damascus of the North". The most popular of these was "European Jerusalem". Some argue that a more correct translation of saray is government office or house. Saray is a common word in Turkish for a palace or mansion (from Persian word سرای‬ sarāy, means "house, palace").

Stari Grad

Ferhadija Street

Miljacka
Miljacka
river

View towards Novi Grad

Environment[edit]

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
topographic map

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
seen from SPOT Satellite

Geography[edit] Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is located near the geometric center of the triangular-shaped Bosnia-Herzegovina
Bosnia-Herzegovina
and within the historical region of Bosnia proper. It is situated 518 meters (1,699 ft) above sea level and lies in the Sarajevo
Sarajevo
valley, in the middle of the Dinaric Alps.[27] The valley itself once formed a vast expanse of greenery, but gave way to urban expansion and development in the post- World War II
World War II
era. The city is surrounded by heavily forested hills and five major mountains. The highest of the surrounding peaks is Treskavica
Treskavica
at 2,088 meters (6,850 ft), then Bjelašnica
Bjelašnica
mountain at 2,067 meters (6,781 ft), Jahorina
Jahorina
at 1,913 meters (6,276 ft), Trebević at 1,627 meters (5,338 ft), with 1,502 meters (4,928 ft) Igman
Igman
being the shortest. The last four are also known as the Olympic Mountains of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
(see also 1984 Winter Olympics). The city itself has its fair share of hilly terrain, as evidenced by the many steeply inclined streets and residences seemingly perched on the hillsides. The Miljacka
Miljacka
river is one of the city's chief geographic features. It flows through the city from east through the center of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
to west part of city where eventually meets up with the Bosna river. Miljacka
Miljacka
river is "The Sarajevo
Sarajevo
River", with its source (Vrelo Miljacke) 2 kilometres (1.2 miles) south of the town of Pale[28] at the foothills of Mount Jahorina, several kilometers to the east of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
center. The Bosna's source, Vrelo Bosne
Vrelo Bosne
near Ilidža
Ilidža
(west Sarajevo), is another notable natural landmark and a popular destination for Sarajevans and other tourists. Several smaller rivers and streams such as Koševski Potok also run through the city and its vicinity. Cityscape[edit] Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is located close to the center of the triangular shape of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
in southeastern Europe. Sarajevo
Sarajevo
city proper consists of four municipalities (or "in Bosnian and Croatian: općina, in Serbian: opština"): Centar (Center), Novi Grad (New City), Novo Sarajevo
Sarajevo
(New Sarajevo), and Stari Grad (Old City), while Metropolitan area of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
(Greater Sarajevo
Sarajevo
area) includes these and the neighbouring municipalities of Ilidža, Hadžići, Vogošća
Vogošća
and Ilijaš
Ilijaš
(before the war and new (Dayton-imposed) administrative division, Metro of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
consisted also, beside above mentioned, three municipalities today's divided between Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine and Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
– Trnovo, Federacija Bosne i Hercegovine / Trnovo, Republika Srpska, Lukavica and Pale). The city has an urban area of 1,041.5 square kilometres (402.1 sq mi). Veliki Park (Great park) is the largest green area in the center of Sarajevo. It’s nestled between Titova, Koševo, Džidžikovac, Tina Ujevića and Trampina Streets and in the lower part there is a monument dedicated to the Children of Sarajevo. Climate[edit]

Vrelo Bosne
Vrelo Bosne
park is on the city outskirts

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
has a humid continental climate/humid subtropical climate. Sarajevo's climate exhibits influences of oceanic zones, with four seasons and uniformly spread precipitation. The proximity of the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
moderates Sarajevo's climate somewhat, although the mountains to the south of the city greatly reduce this maritime influence.[29] The average yearly temperature is 10 °C (50 °F), with January (−0.5 °C (31.1 °F) on average) being the coldest month of the year and July (19.7 °C (67.5 °F) on average) the warmest. The highest recorded temperature was 40.7 °C (105 °F) on 19 August 1946, and on 23 August 2008 (41.0) while the lowest recorded temperature was −26.2 °C (−15.2 °F) on 25 January 1942. On average, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
has 46 days where the temperature exceeds 32 °C (89.6 °F) and 4 days where the temperature drops below −15 °C (5 °F) per year.[30] The city typically experiences mildly cloudy skies, with an average yearly cloud cover of 45%. The cloudiest month is December (75% average cloud cover) while the clearest is August (37%). Moderate precipitation occurs fairly consistently throughout the year, with an average 75 days of rainfall. Suitable climatic conditions have allowed winter sports to flourish in the region, as exemplified by the Winter Olympics in 1984 that were celebrated in Sarajevo. Average winds are 28–48 km/h (17–30 mph) and the city has 1,769 hours of sunshine.

A panoramic view of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
valley from "Yellow Bastion" (Žuta tabija) lookout, spring 2012.

Climate data for Sarajevo

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 18.2 (64.8) 21.4 (70.5) 26.6 (79.9) 30.2 (86.4) 33.2 (91.8) 35.9 (96.6) 38.2 (100.8) 40.0 (104) 37.7 (99.9) 32.2 (90) 24.7 (76.5) 18.0 (64.4) 40.0 (104)

Average high °C (°F) 3.7 (38.7) 6.0 (42.8) 10.9 (51.6) 15.6 (60.1) 21.4 (70.5) 24.5 (76.1) 27.0 (80.6) 27.2 (81) 22.0 (71.6) 17.0 (62.6) 9.7 (49.5) 4.2 (39.6) 15.8 (60.4)

Daily mean °C (°F) −0.5 (31.1) 1.4 (34.5) 5.7 (42.3) 10.0 (50) 14.8 (58.6) 17.7 (63.9) 19.7 (67.5) 19.7 (67.5) 15.3 (59.5) 11.0 (51.8) 5.4 (41.7) 0.9 (33.6) 10.1 (50.2)

Average low °C (°F) −3.3 (26.1) −2.5 (27.5) 1.1 (34) 4.8 (40.6) 9.0 (48.2) 11.9 (53.4) 13.7 (56.7) 13.7 (56.7) 10.0 (50) 6.4 (43.5) 1.9 (35.4) −1.8 (28.8) 5.4 (41.7)

Record low °C (°F) −26.8 (−16.2) −23.4 (−10.1) −26.4 (−15.5) −13.2 (8.2) −9.0 (15.8) −3.2 (26.2) −2.7 (27.1) −1.0 (30.2) −4.0 (24.8) −10.9 (12.4) −19.3 (−2.7) −22.4 (−8.3) −26.8 (−16.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 68 (2.68) 64 (2.52) 70 (2.76) 77 (3.03) 72 (2.83) 90 (3.54) 72 (2.83) 66 (2.6) 91 (3.58) 86 (3.39) 85 (3.35) 86 (3.39) 928 (36.54)

Average rainy days 8 10 13 17 17 16 14 13 15 13 12 11 159

Average snowy days 10 12 9 2 0.2 0 0 0 0 2 6 12 53

Average relative humidity (%) 79 74 68 67 68 70 69 69 75 77 76 81 73

Mean monthly sunshine hours 57.1 83.8 125.6 152.3 191.7 207.1 256.3 238.2 186.6 148.8 81.2 40.7 1,769.4

Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[31]

Source #2: NOAA
NOAA
(sun, 1961–1990)[32]

Air quality[edit] Air pollution is a major issue in Sarajevo.[33][34][35] According to the 2016 World Health Organization's Ambient Air Pollution Database,[36] the annual average PM2.5
PM2.5
concentration in 2010 was estimated to be 30 μg/m3 based on PM10 measurement, which is 3 times higher than recommended by WHO Air Quality Guidelines[37] for annual average PM2.5. Currently, there are no recent direct long-term PM2.5 measurements available in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
and only estimates can be made from PM10, which is the less health-relevant than PM2.5.[38] Currently, real-time air quality data in the form of PM10, ozone, NO2, CO and SO2 by the Federal Hydrometeorological Institute.[39] History[edit] Main articles: History of Sarajevo
History of Sarajevo
and Timeline of Sarajevo See also: History of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Historical affiliations

  Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
1461–1878 Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire
1878–1918 State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
1918 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
1918–1929 Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
1929–1941   Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
1941–1945  SFR Yugoslavia 1945–1992  Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
1992–1997   Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
1997–

Ancient times[edit] Main article: Stari Grad, Sarajevo One of the earliest findings of settlement in the Sarajevo
Sarajevo
area is that of the Neolithic
Neolithic
Butmir
Butmir
culture. The discoveries at Butmir
Butmir
were made on the grounds of the modern-day Sarajevo
Sarajevo
suburb Ilidža
Ilidža
in 1893 by Austro-Hungarian authorities during the construction of an agricultural school. The area's richness in flint was attractive to Neolithic
Neolithic
humans, and the settlement flourished. The settlement developed unique ceramics and pottery designs, which characterize the Butmir
Butmir
people as a unique culture, as described at the International Congress of Archaeologists and Anthropologists meeting in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
in 1894.[40] The next prominent culture in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
were the Illyrians. The ancient people, who considered most of the West Balkans
Balkans
as their homeland, had several key settlements in the region, mostly around the river Miljacka
Miljacka
and the Sarajevo
Sarajevo
valley. The Illyrians
Illyrians
in the Sarajevo
Sarajevo
region belonged to the Daesitiates, the last Illyrian people in Bosnia and Herzegovina to resist Roman occupation. Their defeat by the Roman emperor Tiberius
Tiberius
in 9 A.D. marks the start of Roman rule in the region. The Romans never built up the region of modern-day Bosnia, but the Roman colony of Aquae Sulphurae was located near the top of present-day Ilidža, and was the most important settlement of the time.[41] After the Romans, the Goths
Goths
settled the area, followed by the Slavs in the 7th century.[42] Middle Ages[edit] See also: Sarajevo
Sarajevo
during the Middle Ages During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
Sarajevo
Sarajevo
was part of the Bosnian province of Vrhbosna
Vrhbosna
near the traditional center of the Kingdom of Bosnia. Though a city named Vrhbosna
Vrhbosna
existed, the exact settlement in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
at this time is debated. Various documents note a place called Tornik in the region, most likely in the area of Marijin Dvor
Marijin Dvor
neighborhood. By all indications, Tornik was a very small marketplace surrounded by a proportionally small village, and was not considered very important by Ragusan merchants. Other scholars say that Vrhbosna
Vrhbosna
was a major town located in the wider area of modern-day Sarajevo. Papal documents say that in 1238, a cathedral dedicated to Saint Paul was built in the area. Disciples of the notable saints Cyril and Methodius stopped in the region, founding a church near Vrelo Bosna. Whether or not the town was located somewhere in the area of modern-day Sarajevo, the documents attest to its and the region's importance. There was also a citadel Hodidjed north-east to Old City, dating from around 1263 until it was occupied by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1429.[43]

Stećak
Stećak
inside of National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Neolithic
Neolithic
period Butmir
Butmir
vase

White fortress of the old Vratnik Town

Ottoman era[edit] See also: Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
cuisine

The Sebilj
Sebilj
is a pseudo-Ottoman style wooden fountain in the centre of Baščaršija
Baščaršija
square.

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
was founded by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in the 1450s upon its conquest of the region, with 1461 used as the city's founding date. The first Ottoman governor of Bosnia, Isa-Beg Ishaković, transformed the cluster of villages into a city and state capital by building a number of key structures, including a mosque, a closed marketplace, a public bath, a hostel, and of course the governor's castle ("Saray") which gave the city its present name. The mosque was named "Careva Džamija" (the Tsar's Mosque) in honor of the Sultan Mehmed II. With the improvements Sarajevo
Sarajevo
quickly grew into the largest city in the region. By the 15th Century
15th Century
the settlement was established as a city, named Bosna-Saraj, around the citadel in 1461. The name Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is derived from Turkish saray ovası, meaning the field around saray. Following the expulsion of Jews from Spain
Spain
at the end of the 15th century, and the invitation from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
to resettle their population, Sephardic Jews
Sephardic Jews
arrived in Sarajevo, which over time would become a leading center of Sephardic culture and the Ladino language. Though relatively small in size, a Jewish quarter would develop over several blocks in Baščaršija. Many local Christians converted to Islam at this time. To accommodate the new pilgrims on the road to Mecca, in 1541 Gazi Husrev-Bey’s quartermaster Vekil-Harrach built a Pilgrim’s mosque for which it is still known to this day Hadžijska mosque. Under leaders such as the second governor Gazi Husrev-beg, Sarajevo grew at a rapid rate. Husrev-beg greatly shaped the physical city, as most of what is now the Old Town was built during his reign. Sarajevo became known for its large marketplace and numerous mosques, which by the middle of the 16th century numbered more than 100. At the peak of the empire, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
was the biggest and most important Ottoman city in the Balkans
Balkans
after Istanbul. By 1660, the population of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
was estimated to be over 80,000. By contrast, Belgrade
Belgrade
in 1838 had 12,963 inhabitants, and Zagreb
Zagreb
as late as 1851 had 14,000 people. As political conditions changed, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
became the site of warfare. In 1697, during the Great Turkish War, a raid was led by Prince Eugene of Savoy of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
against the Ottoman Empire, which conquered Sarajevo
Sarajevo
and left it plague-infected and burned to the ground. After his men had looted thoroughly, they set the city on fire and destroyed nearly all of it in one day. Only a handful of neighborhoods, some mosques, and an Orthodox church, were left standing. Numerous other fires weakened the city, which was later rebuilt but never fully recovered from the destruction. By 1807, it had only some 60,000 residents. In the 1830s, several battles of the Bosnian uprising
Bosnian uprising
had taken place around the city. These had been led by Husein Gradaščević. Today, a major city street is named Zmaj od Bosne (Dragon of Bosnia) in his honor. The rebellion failed and for several more decades the Ottoman state remained in control of Bosnia. The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
made Sarajevo
Sarajevo
an important administrative centre by 1850. Baščaršija
Baščaršija
was built becoming an old bazaar and a historical and cultural center of the city in the 15th century when Isa-Beg Isaković founded the town .[44] The word Baščaršija
Baščaršija
derives from the Turkish language.

Baščaršija
Baščaršija
in twilight

The Gazi-Husrev-Beg-Bazaar.

Baščaršija
Baščaršija
Mosque courtyard

Pigeon Square

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Old Town souvenirs

Mosque in Sarajevo's downtown

Austria-Hungary[edit]

Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
arrives at the city hall on the day of his assassination, 28 June 1914

The Latin Bridge
Latin Bridge
was the site of the assassination of Franz Ferdinand.

Austria-Hungary's occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
came in 1878 as part of the Treaty of Berlin, and complete annexation followed in 1908, angering the Serbs. Sarajevo
Sarajevo
was industrialized by Austria-Hungary, who used the city as a testing area for new inventions such as tramways, which were established in 1885 before they were later installed in Vienna. Architects and engineers wanting to help rebuild Sarajevo
Sarajevo
as a modern European capital rushed to the city. A fire that burned down a large part of the central city area (čaršija) left more room for redevelopment. As a result, the city has a unique blend of the remaining Ottoman city market and contemporary western architecture. Sarajevo
Sarajevo
also has some examples of Secession- and Pseudo-Moorish styles that date from this period. The Austro-Hungarian period was one of great development for the city, as the Western power brought its new acquisition up to the standards of the Victorian age. Various factories and other buildings were built at this time,[45] and a large number of institutions were both Westernized and modernized. For the first time in history, Sarajevo's population began writing in Latin script.[42][46] For the first time in centuries, the city significantly expanded outside its traditional borders. Much of the city's contemporary central municipality (Centar) was constructed during this period. Architecture in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
quickly developed into a wide range of styles and buildings. The Cathedral of Sacred Heart, for example, was constructed using elements of neo-gothic and Romanesque architecture. The National Museum, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
brewery, and City Hall were also constructed during this period. Additionally, Austrian officials made Sarajevo
Sarajevo
the first city in this part of Europe to have a tramway. Although the Bosnia Vilayet de jure remained part of the Ottoman Empire, it was de facto governed as an integral part of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
with the Ottomans having no say in its day-to-day governance. This lasted until 1908 when the territory was formally annexed and turned into a condominium, jointly controlled by both Austrian Cisleithania
Cisleithania
and Hungarian Transleithania. In the event that triggered World War I, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Austria
was assassinated, along with his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
on 28 June 1914 by a self-declared Yugoslav, Gavrilo Princip, a member of Young Bosnia.[47] In response, many residents of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
organized riots against the Serbs, killing two and destroying their property. In the ensuing war, however, most of the Balkan
Balkan
offensives occurred near Belgrade, and Sarajevo
Sarajevo
largely escaped damage and destruction. Following the war, after the Balkans
Balkans
were unified under the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and Sarajevo
Sarajevo
became the capital of Drina Province.

Architecture from Austro-Hungarian period

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Main Post office

Sarajevo National Theatre
Sarajevo National Theatre
design by Karel Pařík

The Academy of Fine Arts was originally built to serve as an Evangelical Church in 1899.

National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina
National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina
established in 1896

Memorial of Franz Ferdinand

Yugoslavia[edit]

Vladimir "Valter" Perić plaque

After World War I
World War I
and contributions from the Serbian army alongside rebelling Slavic nations in Austria-Hungary, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
became part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Though it held some political significance as the center of first the Bosnian region and then the Drinska Banovina, the city was no longer a national capital and saw a decline in global influence.[48] During World War II
World War II
the Kingdom of Yugoslavia's army was overrun by German and Italian forces. Following a German bombing campaign, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
was captured on 15 April 1941 by the 16th Motorized infantry Division. The Axis powers created the Independent State of Croatia
Independent State of Croatia
and included Sarajevo
Sarajevo
in its territory. Immediately following the occupation, the main Sephardi Jewish synagogue, Il Kal Grande, was looted, burned, and destroyed by the Nazis with assistance from a handful of local Bosniaks. Within a matter of months, the centuries-old Sephardi and Ashkenazi Jewish communities of Sarajevo, comprising the vast majority of Bosnian Jewry, would be rounded up in the Old Synagogue (Stari hram) and deported to their deaths in Croatian concentration camps. Roughly 85% of Bosnia's Jewish population would perish at the hands of the Nazis and the Ustaše during the Holocaust. The Sarajevo Haggadah
Sarajevo Haggadah
was the most important artifact which survived this period, smuggled out of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
and saved from the Nazis and Ustaše by the chief librarian of the National Museum, Derviš Korkut. On 12 October 1941, a group of 108 notable Bosniak citizens of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
signed the Resolution of Sarajevo Muslims by which they condemned the persecution of Serbs
Serbs
organized by the Ustaše, made a distinction between the Bosniaks
Bosniaks
who participated in such persecutions and the rest of the Bosniak population, presented information about the persecutions of Bosniaks
Bosniaks
by Serbs, and requested security for all citizens of the country, regardless of their identity.[49] By mid-summer 1942, around 20,000 Serbs
Serbs
found refuge in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
from Ustaše terror.[50] The city was bombed by the Allies from 1943 to 1944.[51] The Yugoslav Partisan movement was represented in the city. In period February – May 1945 Maks Luburić
Maks Luburić
set up Ustaše headquarters in a building known as Villa Luburić
Villa Luburić
and used it as torture and execution place whose 323 victims were identified after the war. Resistance was led by Vladimir "Walter" Perić, who died while leading the liberation of the city on 6 April 1945. After the war, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
was the capital of the Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The Republic Government invested heavily in Sarajevo, building many new residential blocks in Novi Grad Municipality
Municipality
and Novo Sarajevo
Novo Sarajevo
Municipality, while simultaneously developing the city's industry and transforming Sarajevo
Sarajevo
into a modern city. Sarajevo
Sarajevo
grew rapidly as it became an important regional industrial center in Yugoslavia. Between the end of the war and the end of Yugoslavia, the city grew from a population of 115,000 to more than 600,000 people. The Vraca Memorial Park, a monument for victims of World War II, was dedicated on 25 November, the "Day of Statehood of Bosnia and Herzegovina" when the ZAVNOBIH
ZAVNOBIH
held their first meeting in 1943.[52] A crowning moment of Sarajevo's time in Socialist Yugoslavia was the 1984 Winter Olympics. Sarajevo
Sarajevo
beat out Sapporo, Japan; and Falun/Göteborg, Sweden
Sweden
to host the Olympic games. The games were followed by a tourism boom, making the 1980s one of the city's most prosperous decades.[53]

Iconic buildings of Sarajevo, Socialist Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Eternal flame symbolising World War II
World War II
victory over fascism

UNITIC
UNITIC
World Trade Towers

Holiday Inn (now Hotel Holiday)

Markale market

Siege of Sarajevo
Siege of Sarajevo
during Bosnian War[edit] Main article: Siege of Sarajevo See also: Sniper Alley

The Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Red Line, a memorial event of the Siege of Sarajevo's 20th anniversary. 11,541 empty chairs symbolized 11,541 victims of the war which were killed during the Siege of Sarajevo.[54][55]

The Bosnian War
Bosnian War
for independence resulted in large-scale destruction and dramatic population shifts during the Siege of Sarajevo
Siege of Sarajevo
between 1992 and 1996. Thousands of Sarajevans lost their lives under the constant bombardment and sniper shooting at civilians by the Serb forces during the siege,[56] the longest siege of a capital city in the history of modern warfare.[57] Serb forces of the Republika Srpska and the Yugoslav People's Army
Yugoslav People's Army
besieged Sarajevo
Sarajevo
from 5 April 1992 to 29 February 1996. When Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
declared independence from Yugoslavia and achieved United Nations recognition, Serbian leaders declared a new Serbian national state Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
(RS) which was carved out from the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[58] The Serbian Army encircled Sarajevo
Sarajevo
with a siege force of 18,000[59] stationed in the surrounding hills, from which they assaulted the city with artillery, mortars, tanks, anti-aircraft guns, heavy machine-guns, multiple rocket launchers, rocket-launched aircraft bombs, and sniper rifles.[59] From 2 May 1992, the Serbs
Serbs
blockaded the city. The Bosnian government defence forces inside the besieged city were poorly equipped and unable to break the siege. During the siege, 11,541 people lost their lives, including over 1,500 children. An additional 56,000 people were wounded, including nearly 15,000 children.[56] The 1991 census indicates that before the siege the city and its surrounding areas had a population of 525,980. When the siege ended, the concrete scars caused by mortar shell explosions left a mark that was filled with red resin. After the red resin was placed, it left a floral pattern which led to it being dubbed a Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Rose.

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
structural damage and destruction

Vedran Smailović
Vedran Smailović
playing on top of the ruins of the National library (in 1992)

Parliament building in flames May 1992

Marijin Dvor
Marijin Dvor
May 1996

Oslobođenje
Oslobođenje
building destroyed

Present[edit] Main article: History of modern Sarajevo Various modern buildings now occupy Sarajevo's skyline, most significantly the Bosmal City Center, BBI Centar, Sarajevo
Centar, Sarajevo
City Center and the Avaz Twist Tower, which is the tallest skyscraper in the Balkans. Recent years have seen population growth as well as increases in tourism.[60] In 2014 the city saw anti-government protests and riots and record rainfall that caused historic flooding.

Bosmal City Center
Bosmal City Center
Towers, erected 2001

Avaz Twist Tower, erected 2008

BBI Centar, erected 2009

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
City Center, erected 2014

Administration[edit] Largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Parliament Building

Building of the Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is the capital[61] of the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina and its sub-entity, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as of the Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Canton. It is also the de jure capital of another entity, Republika Srpska.[62] Each of these levels of government has its parliament or council, as well as judicial courts, in the city. In addition many foreign embassies are located in Sarajevo. Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is home to the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Parliamentary Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and the operational command of the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina.[63] Bosnia and Herzegovina's Parliament office in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
was damaged heavily in the Bosnian War. Due to damage the staff and documents were moved to a nearby ground level office to resume the work. In late 2006, reconstruction work started on the Parliament and was finished in 2007. The cost of reconstruction is supported 80% by the Greek Government through the Hellenic Program of Balkans
Balkans
Reconstruction (ESOAV) and 20% by Bosnia-Herzegovina. Municipalities and city government[edit]

The four municipalities, Stari Grad, Centar, Novo Sarajevo
Novo Sarajevo
and Novi Grad

The city comprises four municipalities Centar, Novi Grad, Novo Sarajevo, and Stari Grad. Each operate their own municipal government, united they form one city government with its own constitution. The executive branch (Bosnian: Gradska Uprava) consists of a mayor, with two deputies and a cabinet. The legislative branch consists of the City Council, or Gradsko Vijeće. The council has 28 members, including a council speaker, two deputies, and a secretary. Councilors are elected by the municipality in numbers roughly proportional to their population. The city government also has a judicial branch based on the post-transitional judicial system as outlined by the High Representative's "High Judicial and Prosecutorial Councils".[64] Sarajevo's Municipalities are further split into "local communities" (Bosnian, Mjesne zajednice). Local communities have a small role in city government and are intended as a way for ordinary citizens to get involved in city government. They are based on key neighborhoods in the city. Metropolis[edit]

View west toward Novi Grad

Due to being political, economic, cultural, social, university and scientific infrastructure centre of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo is with over 688,354[7] inhabitants on its metropolitan area the only metropolis of the country. Not only the importance, size and opulence but also the panorama of Sarajevo, its skyscrapers like Avaz Twist Tower, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
City Center, Bosmal City Center, or Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Tower (which is under construction),[65] and worldwide famous festivals like Sarajevo Film Festival
Sarajevo Film Festival
give Sarajevo
Sarajevo
the flair of a metropolis. With possible construction of in 2015 announced urban district Nova Ilidža (€2.2 billion),[66] Tourist district Trnovo (€2.4 billion),[67] other neighbourhoods like Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Waves and buildings which are under construction (only in 2014 over 700 million KM were invested in real estates),[68] Also, the proposed tram network extension to neighborhoods Hrasnica[69] and Dobrinja
Dobrinja
as well as metro[70] from Baščaršija
Baščaršija
to Otoka (1. phase) will improve the city´s infrastructure and attract new investments. Between 2015 and 2017 Sarajevo
Sarajevo
will reconstruct the whole tram line from Marijin Dvor
Marijin Dvor
to Ilidža
Ilidža
with estimated costs of 25 million KM.[71] Due to this, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
will become the only city in the Balkans with a completely reconstructed tram network. In 2015 the city will also get fully renovated trams from Konya
Konya
and new trolleybuses from Geneva. Also, the direct connection from Stup Interchange
Stup Interchange
to the Sarajevo Bypass and thus to A1 (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
A1 (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
will be finished by the end of 2015. Therefore, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
will have three direct connections to the motorway. Sarajevo Beltway was already finished in 2005.

A panoramic view of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
from the 36th-floor observation deck of the Avaz Twist Tower, spring 2011

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Sarajevo

Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Sarajevo's large manufacturing, administrative, and tourism sectors make it the strongest economic region of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Indeed, Sarajevo Canton
Sarajevo Canton
generates almost 25% of the country's GDP.[72] After years of war, Sarajevo's economy saw reconstruction and rehabilitation programs.[73] The Central Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina opened in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
in 1997 and the Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Stock Exchange began trading in 2002. While Sarajevo
Sarajevo
had a large industrial base during its communist period, only a few pre-existing businesses have successfully adapted to the market economy. Sarajevo
Sarajevo
industries now include tobacco products, furniture, hosiery, automobiles, and communication equipment.[42] Companies based in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
include BH Telecom, Bosnalijek, Energopetrol, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Tobacco Factory, and Sarajevska Pivara ( Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Brewery). In 2002 the total export for the greater Sarajevo
Sarajevo
region was worth about 259,569,000KM. Most of Sarajevo's exports (28.2%) head to Germany, with Great Britain
Great Britain
following behind at 16.8% and Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro
Montenegro
third with 12.8%. The largest amount of imported goods come from Germany, at 15.8%. With a worth of total import at about 1,322,585,000KM, the total import is almost 5.1 times the total export. In 1981 Sarajevo's GDP per capita was 133% of the Yugoslav average.[74] Gross pay in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
in February 2015 was KM 1,578 or €790, while net salary was KM 1,020 or €521.[75] Sarajevo is after Ljubljana
Ljubljana
and Zagreb
Zagreb
the richest city in former Yugoslavia and one of the richest cities in the Balkans.

A panoramic view of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
from Koševsko Hill (Koševsko Brdo), summer 2010.

Tourism and recreation[edit] Sarajevo
Sarajevo
has a wide tourist industry and a fast expanding service sector thanks to the strong annual growth in tourist arrivals. Sarajevo
Sarajevo
also benefits from being both a summer and winter destination with continuity in its tourism throughout the year. The travel guide series, Lonely Planet
Lonely Planet
named Sarajevo
Sarajevo
as the 43rd best city in the world,[17] and in December 2009 listed Sarajevo
Sarajevo
as one of the top ten cities to visit in 2010.[18] In 2013 302.570 tourists visited Sarajevo, up 17.9% compared to 2012, giving 595.637 overnight stays, which is 18% more than in 2012.[76][77] Sports-related tourism uses the legacy facilities of the 1984 Winter Olympics, especially the skiing facilities on the nearby mountains of Bjelašnica, Igman, Jahorina, Trebević, and Treskavica. Sarajevo's 600 years of history, influenced by both Western and Eastern empires, makes it a tourist attraction with splendid variations. Sarajevo
Sarajevo
has hosted travellers for centuries, because it was an important trading center during the Ottoman and Austria-Hungarian empires. Examples of popular destinations in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
include the Vrelo Bosne
Vrelo Bosne
park, the Sarajevo
Sarajevo
cathedral, and the Gazi Husrev-beg's Mosque. Tourism in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is chiefly focused on historical, religious, cultural sites and winter sports. Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is host to many parks throughout the city and on the outskirts of city. A popular activity among Sarajevo
Sarajevo
citizens is street chess, usually played at Trg oslobođenja Alija Izetbegović. Veliki Park is the largest green area in the center of Sarajevo. It’s nestled between Titova, Koševo, Džidžikovac, Tina Ujevića and Trampina Streets and in the lower part there is a monument dedicated to the Children of Sarajevo. Hastahana skate park is a popular place to relax in the Austro-Hungarian neighborhood of Marijin Dvor.[78] Goat's Bridge, locally known as Kozija Ćuprija, in the Miljacka
Miljacka
Canyon is also a popular park destination along the Dariva walkway and river Miljacka.[79][80] Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is also famous for its city lookouts; including an observation deck on Avaz Twist Tower, Park Prinčeva restaurant, Vidikovac lookout (Mt. Trebević), Zmajevac lookout and Yellow/White fortresses lookouts (in Vratnik) as well as numerous other rooftops throughout the city (i.e. Alta Shopping Center, BBI Center, Hotel Hecco Deluxe).

Parks, rivers and public spaces in Sarajevo

Great Park (Veliki Park)

Koševo Park

Vilsonovo šetalište (Wilson's Promenade) around Miljacka

Great Lane (Velika aleja), Ilidža

River Bosna at Vrelo Bosne
Vrelo Bosne
Park

Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Sarajevo

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
at twilight

Ethnic composition of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
city proper, by municipalities, 2013 census

Municipality Total Bosniaks Serbs Croats Others

Centar 55,181 41,702 (75.57%) 2,186 (3.96%) 3,333 (6.04%) 7,960 (14.42%)

Novi Grad 118,553 99,773 (84.16%) 4,367 (3.68%) 4,947 (4.17%) 9,466 (7.98%)

Novo Sarajevo 64,814 48,188 (74.35%) 3,402 (5.25%) 4,639 (7.16%) 8,585 (13.24%)

Stari Grad 36,976 32,794 (88.69%) 467 (1.3%) 685 (1.85%) 3,030 (8.19%)

Total 275,524 222,457 (80.74%) 10,422 (3.78%) 13,604 (4.94%) 29,041 (10.54%)

Ethnic structure of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
by settlements 1991

Ethnic structure of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
by settlements 2013

The last official Yugoslav census took place 1991 and recorded 527,049 people living in the city of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
(ten municipalities). In the settlement of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
proper, there were 416,497 inhabitants.[81] The war displaced hundreds of thousands of people, a large majority of whom have not returned. The first census since Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
became an independent country was not taken until 2013 and as a result, for many years Sarajevo's population was not known clearly and statistics were based on estimates contributed by the United Nations Statistics Division and the Federal Office of Statistics of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, among other national and international non-profit organizations. As of June 2011[update], the population of the city's four municipalities was estimated to be 411,161, whereas the Sarajevo Canton population was estimated at 578,757.[82] With an area of 1,280 square kilometres (490 sq mi), Sarajevo
Sarajevo
has a population density of about 2,173 inhabitants per square kilometre (5,630/sq mi). According to these estimates, the Novo Sarajevo municipality is the most densely populated part of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
with about 7,524 inhabitants per square kilometre (19,490/sq mi), while the least densely populated is the Stari Grad, with 2,742 inhabitants per square kilometre (7,100/sq mi).[83] In June 2016, the final results of the 2013 census were published. According to the census, the population of the Sarajevo Canton
Sarajevo Canton
was 413,593, with 55,181 residents in Centar Sarajevo, 118,553 in Novi Grad, 64,814 in Novo Sarajevo
Novo Sarajevo
and 36,976 in Stari Grad.[84] The war changed the ethnic and religious profile of the city. It had long been a multicultural city,[85] and often went by the nickname of "Europe's Jerusalem".[1] At the time of the 1991 census, 49.2 per cent of the city's population of 527,049 were Bosniaks, 29.8 percent Serbs, 10.7 percent Yugoslavs, 6.6 percent Croats
Croats
and 3.6 percent other ethnicities (Jews, Romas, etc.). By 2002, 79.6 per cent of the canton's population of 401,118 were Bosniak, 11.2 percent Serb, 6.7 percent Croat and 2.5 percent others (Jews, Romas, etc.).[86] According to academic Fran Markowitz there is a number of "administrative apparatuses and public pressures that push people who might prefer to identify as flexible, multiply constituted hybrids or with one of the now unnamed minority groups into one of the three Bosniac-Croat-Serb constituent nations".[87] These include respondents being encouraged by census interviewers to identity as belonging to one of the three constituent peoples.[88] Her analysis of marriage registration data shows, for instance, that 67 per cent of people marrying in 2003 identified as Bosniak or Muslim, which is significantly lower than the 79.6 per cent census figure from 2002 (unlike the census, where people respond to an interviewer, applicants to the marriage registry fill in the form themselves).

Heralded as the 'European Jerusalem' due to city's diverse ethnic and religious makeup

Emperor's Mosque

Catholic Cathedral Sacred Heart

Orthodox Cathedral

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Synagogue

Transportation[edit] Roads and highways[edit]

Dragon of Bosnia street

Sarajevo's location in a valley between mountains makes it a compact city. Narrow city streets and a lack of parking areas restrict automobile traffic but allow better pedestrian and cyclist mobility. The two main roads are Titova Ulica (Street of Marshal Tito) and the east-west Zmaj od Bosne (Dragon of Bosnia) highway (E761). Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is Bosnia's main intersection and the most passable city in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the third in region. The city is connected to all the other major cities by highway or national road like Zenica, Banja Luka, Tuzla, Mostar, Goražde
Goražde
and Foča. Tourists from Central Europe and elsewhere visiting Dalmatia
Dalmatia
driving via Budapest
Budapest
through Sarajevo also contribute to the traffic congestion in and around Sarajevo. The trans-European highway, Corridor 5C, runs through Sarajevo
Sarajevo
connecting it to Budapest
Budapest
in the north, and Ploče
Ploče
at the Adriatic sea in the south.[89] The highway is built by the government and should cost 3.5 billion Euro. Up until March 2012, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina invested around 600 million Euro
Euro
in the A1. In 2014 the sections Sarajevo- Zenica
Zenica
and Sarajevo-Tarcin were completed including the Sarajevo Beltway ring road. Tram, bus and trolleybus[edit]

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
tram

Sarajevo's electric tramways, in operation since 1885, are the oldest form of public transportation in the city.[90] Sarajevo
Sarajevo
had the first full-time (dawn to dusk) tram line in Europe, and the second in the world.[14] Opened on New Year's Day
New Year's Day
in 1885, it was the testing line for the tram in Vienna
Vienna
and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and operated by horses. Originally built to 760 mm (2 ft 5 15⁄16 in) Bosnian gauge, the present system in 1960 was upgraded to 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge. The trams played a pivotal role in the growth of the city in the 20th century. There are seven tramway lines supplemented by five trolleybus lines and numerous bus routes. The main railroad station in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is located in the north-central area of the city. From there, the tracks head west before branching off in different directions, including to industrial zones in the city. Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is currently undergoing a major infrastructure renewal; many highways and streets are being repaved, the tram system is undergoing modernization, and new bridges and roads are under construction. Future metro plans[edit] In order to solve traffic congestion in the city, Sarajevo-based architect Muzafer Osmanagić has proposed a study called "Eco Energy 2010–2015", idealizing a subway system underneath the bed of the river Miljacka. The first line of Metro Sarajevo
Sarajevo
would connect Baščaršija
Baščaršija
with Otoka. This line would cost some 150 million KM and be financed by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.[91] Cable car (Mt. Trebević)[edit] Trebević
Trebević
Cable Car, Sarajevo’s key landmark during 1984 Winter Olympic Games, was rebuilt by JKP GRAS Sarajevo
Sarajevo
and Sarajevo Canton
Sarajevo Canton
as one of the new transportation systems in 2017 and it reopened on 6th April 2018 at 11:00 AM. The cable car runs from Sarajevo
Sarajevo
at Bistrik station to the slopes of Trebević
Trebević
at Vidikovac station.[92] Airport[edit]

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
International Airport

Sarajevo International Airport
Sarajevo International Airport
(IATA: SJJ), also called Butmir, is located just a few kilometers southwest of the city and was voted Best European Airport With Under 1,000,000 Passengers at the 15th Annual ACI-Europe in Munich in 2005. During the war the airport was used for UN flights and humanitarian relief. Since the Dayton Accord in 1996, the airport has welcomed a thriving commercial flight business. In 2011 Sarajevo International Airport
Sarajevo International Airport
had 599,996 passengers which is more than all of the airports in Bosnia-Herzegovina
Bosnia-Herzegovina
had together and 6.5% more than in 2010. The growth rate in 2012 is expected to be around 10%.[93] Plans for extension of the passenger terminal, together with upgrading and expanding the taxiway and apron, are planned to start in fall 2012. The existing terminal will be expanded by approximately 7,000 square metres (75,347 square feet).[94] The upgraded airport will also be directly linked to the commercial retail center Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Airport Center, making it easier for tourists and travellers to spend their time before flight boarding shopping and enjoying the many amenities that will be offered.[95] Between 2015 and 2018 the airport will be upgraded for more than 25 Million €. Railway[edit] Sarajevo
Sarajevo
has only two daily international connections to Zagreb
Zagreb
and Ploče. There are also connections between Sarajevo
Sarajevo
and all major cities within Bosnia and Herzegovina. Once, the East Bosnian railway connected Sarajevo
Sarajevo
to Belgrade. The Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Main Railway Station is among the biggest in Europe.

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Railway

A locomotive hauled train at Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Railway Station

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
train station in 2011

ŽFBH 441-047 at Sarajevo
Sarajevo
train station

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina Twin towns – Sister cities[edit] Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is twinned with:[96]

Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
Spain
(since 2000)[96] Zagreb, Croatia
Croatia
(since 2001)[96][97] Ljubljana, Slovenia
Slovenia
(since 2002)[96][98] Salt Lake City, UT, United States
United States
(since 2002)[96]

Cairo, Egypt
Egypt
(since 2006)[96] Dubrovnik, Croatia
Croatia
(since 2006)[96] Lillehammer, Norway
Norway
(since 2006)

Skopje, Macedonia (since 2006)[96][99] Konya, Turkey
Turkey
(since 2007)[96] Rasht, Iran
Iran
(since 2008)[96] Tehran, Iran
Iran
(since 2016)[100]

Fraternity cities[edit] Sarajevo's fraternity cities include:[101]

Bursa
Bursa
in Turkey
Turkey
(since 1979)[102] Akhisar
Akhisar
in Turkey Istanbul
Istanbul
in Turkey
Turkey
(since 1997)[103][104] Ankara
Ankara
in Turkey
Turkey
(since 2007)[105] Tianjin
Tianjin
in China
China
(since 1981) Shanghai
Shanghai
in China Venice
Venice
in Veneto, Italy
Italy
(since 1994) Collegno
Collegno
in Turin, Piedmont, Italy
Italy
(since 1994) Ferrara
Ferrara
in Ferrara, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
Italy
(since 1978) Naples
Naples
in Campania, Italy
Italy
(since 1976) Prato
Prato
in Prato, Tuscany, Italy
Italy
(since 1995) Budapest
Budapest
in Hungary
Hungary
(since 1995)[106][107]

Karlovac
Karlovac
in Croatia Coventry
Coventry
in West Midlands, England, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(since 1957)[108][109] Wolfsburg
Wolfsburg
in Lower Saxony, Germany
Germany
(since 1985) Magdeburg
Magdeburg
in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
Germany
(since 1972)[110] Friedrichshafen
Friedrichshafen
in Baden-Württemberg, Germany
Germany
(since 1972) Madrid
Madrid
in Spain
Spain
(since 2007)[111] Barcelona
Barcelona
in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
Spain
(since 1986)[112] Innsbruck
Innsbruck
in Tyrol, Austria
Austria
(since 1980) Amsterdam
Amsterdam
in North Holland, Netherlands Serre Chevalier
Serre Chevalier
in Hautes-Alpes, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France (since 1995)

Skopje
Skopje
in Macedonia (since 2007) Stockholm
Stockholm
in Sweden
Sweden
(since 1997) Tábor
Tábor
in Czech Republic Tirana
Tirana
in Albania
Albania
(since 1996) Dayton in Ohio, United States
United States
(since 1999) Baku
Baku
in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(since 1972)[113] Kuwait
Kuwait
City in Kuwait
Kuwait
(since 1998) Algiers
Algiers
in Algeria Tlemcen
Tlemcen
in Algeria
Algeria
(since 1964) Tripoli
Tripoli
in Libya
Libya
(since 1976)

Communications and media[edit] Main article: Communications and media in Sarajevo

Observation deck top of Avaz Twist Tower, Dnevni avaz
Dnevni avaz
headquarters.

As the largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is the main center of the country's media. Most of the communications and media infrastructure was destroyed during the war but reconstruction monitored by the Office of the High Representative has helped to modernize the industry as a whole.[114] For example, internet was first made available to the city in 1995.[115] Oslobođenje
Oslobođenje
(Liberation), founded in 1943, is Sarajevo's longest running continuously circulating newspaper and the only one to survive the war. However, this long running and trusted newspaper has fallen behind Dnevni Avaz
Dnevni Avaz
(Daily Voice), founded in 1995, and Jutarnje Novine (Morning News) in circulation in Sarajevo.[116] Other local periodicals include the Croatian newspaper Hrvatska riječ and the Bosnian magazine Start, as well as weekly newspapers Slobodna Bosna (Free Bosnia) and BH Dani (BH Days). Novi Plamen, a monthly magazine, is the most left-wing publication currently. The Radiotelevision of Bosnia-Herzegovina
Bosnia-Herzegovina
is Sarajevo's public television station, one of three in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Other stations based in the city include NRTV "Studio 99", NTV Hayat, TV 1, Open Broadcast Network, TV Kantona Sarajevo
Sarajevo
and Televizija Alfa. The headquarters of Al Jazeera Balkans
Balkans
are also located in Sarajevo, with a broadcasting studio at the top of the BBI Center. The news channel covers Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Croatia
Croatia
and Montenegro and the surrounding Balkan
Balkan
states.[117] Many small independent radio stations exist, including established stations such as Radio M, Radio Stari Grad (Radio Old Town), Studentski eFM Radio,[118] Radio 202, Radio BIR,[119] and RSG. Radio Free Europe, as well as several American and Western European stations are available.

Education[edit] Higher Education

Rectorate and the Faculty of Law, University of Sarajevo

National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Higher education has a long and rich tradition in Sarajevo. The first institution that can be classified as a tertiary educational institution was a school of Sufi philosophy established by Gazi Husrev-beg in 1531; numerous other religious schools have been established over time. In 1887, under the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a Sharia
Sharia
Law School began a five-year program.[120] In the 1940s the University of Sarajevo
University of Sarajevo
became the city's first secular higher education institute, effectively building upon the foundations established by the Saraybosna Hanıka in 1531. In the 1950s, post-bachelor graduate degrees became available.[121] Severely damaged during the war, it was recently rebuilt in partnership with more than 40 other universities. There are also several universities located in Sarajevo, including:

University of Sarajevo Sarajevo
Sarajevo
School of Science and Technology International University of Sarajevo American University in Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Graduate School of Business International Burch University

Primary and Secondary Education As of 2005[update], in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
there are 46 elementary schools (Grades 1–9) and 33 high schools (Grades 10–13), including three schools for children with special needs,[122] There are also several international schools in Sarajevo, catering to the expatriate community; some of which are Sarajevo
Sarajevo
International School and the French International School[123] of Sarajevo, established in 1998.

Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Sarajevo

The National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
houses many important historical items from BiH

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
has been home to many different religions for centuries, giving the city a range of diverse cultures. In the time of Ottoman occupation of Bosnia, Muslims, Serbian Orthodox, Roman Catholics, and Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews
all shared the city while maintaining distinctive identities. They were joined during the brief occupation by Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
by a smaller number of Germans, Hungarians, Slovaks, Czechs
Czechs
and Ashkenazi Jews. By 1909, about 50% of the city's inhabitants were Muslim, 25% were Catholic, 15% were Orthodox, and 10% were Jewish.[124] Historically, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
has been home to several famous Bosnian poets, scholars, philosophers, and writers during the Ottoman Empire. To list only a very few; Nobel Prize-winner Vladimir Prelog
Vladimir Prelog
is from the city, as is Academy Award-winning director Danis Tanović, famous multiple award-winning writer and screenwriter Zlatko Topčić and prominent poet and screenwriter Abdulah Sidran. Nobel Prize-winner Ivo Andrić attended high school in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
for two years. Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is also the home of the East West Theatre Company, the only independent theater company in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Sarajevo National Theatre
Sarajevo National Theatre
is the oldest professional theater in Bosnia and Herzegovina, having been established in 1921.

A panoramic view of the ruined castle of Bijela Tabija
Bijela Tabija
"White Bastion" in the very east of Sarajevo.

Museums[edit]

Copies of the Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Haggadah

The city is rich in museums, including the Museum of Sarajevo, the Ars Aevi Museum of Contemporary Art, Historical Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina, The Museum of Literature and Theatre Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina (established in 1888) home to the Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Haggadah,[125] an illuminated manuscript and the oldest Sephardic Jewish
Sephardic Jewish
document in the world[citation needed] issued in Barcelona
Barcelona
around 1350, containing the traditional Jewish Haggadah, is on permanent display at the museum. It is the only remaining illustrated Sephardic Haggadah
Haggadah
in the world.[126] The National Museum also hosts year-round exhibitions pertaining to local, regional and international culture and history, and exhibits over 5,000 artefacts from Bosnia's history. The Alija Izetbegović
Alija Izetbegović
Museum was opened on 19 October 2007 and is located in the old town fort, more specifically in the Vratnik Kapija towers Ploča and Širokac. The museum is a commemoration to the influence and body of work of Alija Izetbegović, the first president of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The city also hosts the Sarajevo
Sarajevo
National Theater, established in 1919, as well as East West Theatre Company
East West Theatre Company
and the Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Youth Theatre. Some other cultural institutions include the Center for Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Culture, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
City Library, Art Gallery of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the Bosniak Institute, a privately owned library and art collection focusing on Bosniak history. Demolitions associated with the war, as well as reconstruction, destroyed several institutions and cultural or religious symbols including the Gazi Husrev-beg
Gazi Husrev-beg
library, the national library, the Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Oriental Institute, and a museum dedicated to the 1984 Olympic games. Consequently, the different levels of government established strong cultural protection laws and institutions.[127] Bodies charged with cultural preservation in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
include the Institute for the Protection of the Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(and their Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Canton counterpart), and the Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Commission to Preserve National Monuments.

Museums of Sarajevo

Bosniak Institute, containing collections of the history of Bosnia and Bosniaks

Museum " Sarajevo
Sarajevo
1878 – 1918"

Alija Izetbegović
Alija Izetbegović
museum

Medieval tombstones around National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Sarajevo Tunnel
Sarajevo Tunnel
Museum

Music[edit] See also: List of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
patriotic songs Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is and has historically been one of the most important musical enclaves in the region. The Sarajevo
Sarajevo
school of pop rock developed in the city between 1961 and 1991. This type of music began with bands like Indexi, Pro Arte, and singer-songwriter Kemal Monteno. It continued into the 1980s, with bands such as Plavi Orkestar, Crvena Jabuka, and Divlje Jagode, by most accounts, pioneering the regional rock and roll movement. Sarajevo
Sarajevo
was also the home and birthplace of arguably the most popular and influential Yugoslav rock band of all time, Bijelo Dugme, somewhat of a Bosnian parallel to the Rolling Stones, in both popularity and influence. Sarajevo
Sarajevo
was also the home of a very notable post-punk urban subculture known as the New Primitives, which began during the early 1980s with the Baglama Band which was banned shortly after first LP and was brought into the mainstream through bands such as Zabranjeno Pušenje
Zabranjeno Pušenje
and Elvis J. Kurtović & His Meteors, as well as the Top Lista Nadrealista radio, and later television show. Other notable bands considered to be part of this subculture are Bombaj Štampa. Besides and separately from the New Primitives, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is the hometown to one of the most significant ex-Yugoslavian alternative industrial-noise bands, SCH (1983–current). Perhaps more importantly, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
in the late 19th and throughout the 20th century was home to a burgeoning and large center of Sevdalinka record-making and contributed greatly to bringing this historical genre of music to the mainstream, which had for many centuries been a staple of Bosnian culture. Songwriters and musicians such as Himzo Polovina, Safet Isović, Zaim Imamović, Zehra Deović, Halid Bešlić, Hanka Paldum, Nada Mamula, Meho Puzić
Meho Puzić
and many more composed and wrote some of their most important pieces in the city. Sarajevo
Sarajevo
also greatly influenced the pop scene of Yugoslavia with musicians like Dino Merlin, Hari Mata Hari, Tifa, Kemal Monteno, Željko Bebek, and many more. Many newer Sarajevo-based bands have also found a name and established themselves in Sarajevo, such as Regina who also had two albums out in Yugoslavia and Letu Štuke, who actually formed their band in Yugoslavia with the famous Bosnian-American writer Aleksandar Hemon and got their real breakthrough later in the 2000s. Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is now home to an important and eclectic mix of new bands and independent musicians, which continue to thrive with the ever-increasing number of festivals, creative showcases and concerts around the country. The city is also home to the region's largest jazz festival, the Sarajevo Jazz Festival (see "Festival" section below this). American heavy metal Savatage, released a song entitled "Christmas Eve ( Sarajevo
Sarajevo
12/24)" on their 1995 album Dead Winter Dead, which was about a cello player playing a forgotten Christmas carol
Christmas carol
in war-torn Sarajevo. The song was later re-released by the same band under the name Trans-Siberian Orchestra
Trans-Siberian Orchestra
on their 1996 debut album Christmas Eve and Other Stories, which the song gave them instant success. Festivals[edit]

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
National Theatre, where the annual hosting of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Film Festival is held

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is internationally renowned for its eclectic and diverse selection of festivals. The Sarajevo Film Festival
Sarajevo Film Festival
was established in 1995 during the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
and has become the premier and largest film festival in South-East Europe.[128] It has been hosted at the National Theater, with screenings at the Open-air theater Metalac and the Bosnian Cultural Center, all located in downtown Sarajevo. The MESS International Festival is an experimental theatre festival and the oldest living theatre festival in the Balkans.[129] The annual Sarajevo Youth Film Festival
Sarajevo Youth Film Festival
showcases feature, animated and short films from around the world and is the premier student film festival in the Balkans.[130] The Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Winter Festival, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Jazz Festival and Sarajevo
Sarajevo
International Music Festival are well-known, as is the Baščaršija
Baščaršija
Nights festival, a month-long showcase of local culture, music, and dance.[citation needed] The first incarnation of the Sarajevo Film Festival
Sarajevo Film Festival
was hosted in still-warring Sarajevo
Sarajevo
in 1995, and has now progressed into being the biggest and most significant festival in south-eastern Europe. [131] A talent campus is also held during the duration of the festival, with lecturers speaking on behalf of world cinematography and holding workshops for film students from across South-Eastern Europe.[132] The Sarajevo Jazz Festival
Sarajevo Jazz Festival
is the region's largest and most diverse of its kind. The festival takes place at the Bosnian Cultural Center (aka "Main Stage"), just down the street from the SFF, at the Sarajevo Youth Stage Theater (aka "Strange Fruits Stage"), at the Dom Vojske Federacije (aka "Solo Stage"), and at the CDA (aka "Groove Stage"). Sports[edit]

Postage stamps depicting 1984 Winter Olympics
1984 Winter Olympics
in Sarajevo.

Bosnian football player Edin Džeko
Edin Džeko
was born in Sarajevo. He is the all-time leading goalscorer of the BiH national football team.[133][134]

Damir Džumhur, a Sarajevo
Sarajevo
born multi-Grand Slam tennis player.

Asim Ferhatović Hase Stadium, home to FK Sarajevo, is largest stadium in Bosnia and Herz.[135]

The city was the location of the 1984 Winter Olympics. Yugoslavia won one medal, a silver in men's giant slalom awarded to Jure Franko.[136] Many of the Olympic facilities survived the war or were reconstructed, including Olympic Hall Zetra
Olympic Hall Zetra
and Asim Ferhatović Stadion. In an attempt to bring back some of Sarajevo's lost Olympic glory,[137] the original Olympic luge and bobsled tracks are being repaired, due to the efforts of both the National Olympic Committee of Bosnia and Herzegovina[138] and local sports enthusiasts.[139] After co-hosting the Southeast Europe Friendship games, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
was awarded the 2009 Special
Special
Olympic winter games,[140] but cancelled these plans.[141][142] The ice arena for the 1984 Olympics, Zetra Stadium, was used during the war as a temporary hospital and, later, for housing NATO troops of the IFOR. In 2011 Sarajevo
Sarajevo
was the host city of the 51st World Military Skiing Championship with over 350 participants from 23 different nations. This was the first international event of such standing since the 1984 Olympics.[143]

Stadion Grbavica

Football (soccer) is popular in Sarajevo; the city hosts FK Sarajevo and FK Željezničar, which both compete in European and international cups and tournaments and have a very large trophy cabinet in the former Yugoslavia as well as independent Bosnia and Herzegovina. Other notable soccer clubs are FK Olimpik and SAŠK. The only stadium in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
that has UEFA category 3 is the stadium Grbavica, stadium of FK Željezničar. Another popular sport is basketball; the basketball club KK Bosna Sarajevo
Sarajevo
won the European Championship in 1979 as well as many Yugoslav and Bosnian national championships making it one of the greatest basketball clubs in the former Yugoslavia. The chess club, Bosna Sarajevo, has been a championship team since the 1980s and is the third ranked chess club in Europe, having won four consecutive European championships in the nineties. RK Bosna also competes in the European Champions League and is considered one of the most well organised handball clubs in South-Eastern Europe with a very large fan base and excellent national, as well as international results. Sarajevo
Sarajevo
often holds international events and competitions in sports such as tennis and kickboxing. The popularity of tennis has been picking up in recent years. Since 2003, BH Telecom
BH Telecom
Indoors is an annual tennis tournament in Sarajevo. Since 2007, the Sarajevo Marathon is being organized in late September. Giro di Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is also run in the city with over 2,200 cyclists taking part in 2015.[144] In 2019, Sarajevo
Sarajevo
and East Sarajevo
East Sarajevo
will host the European Youth Olympic Winter Festival (EYOWF).

Club Sport Leagues Venue Est.

Željezničar Football Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina Grbavica Stadium 1921

Sarajevo Football Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina Asim Ferhatović Hase 1946

Olimpik Football Premier League of Bosnia and Herzegovina Otoka Stadion 1993

RK Bosna Handball Handball Championship of Bosnia and Herzegovina Dvorana Mirza Delibašić 1948

KK Bosna Basketball Premier League of Basketball of Bosnia and Herzegovina Dvorana Mirza Delibašić 1951

HK Bosna Ice Hockey Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Hockey League Olympic Hall Zetra 1980

VK Bosna Waterpolo Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Waterpolo League Olimpijski Bazen Otoka 1984

SDI Spid Volleyball Bosnia Sitting Volleyball Championships Dvorana Ramiz Salčin 1994

Fantomi Volleyball Bosnia Sitting Volleyball Championships Dvorana Ramiz Salčin 1995

See also[edit]

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
portal

Architecture of Bosnia and Herzegovina Folklore of Sarajevo Istočno Sarajevo List of Sarajevans List of shopping malls in Sarajevo Music of Bosnia and Herzegovina Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vrhbosna Sarajevo
Sarajevo
International Culture Exchange Sites of interest in Sarajevo Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Historical Sarajevo
Sarajevo
gallery[edit]

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
in 1897

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
1900.

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Tram
Tram
in 1901

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
market (in 1914)

Miljacka
Miljacka
River Sarajevo
Sarajevo
in 1914

Memorial of Franz Ferdinand

Modern Sarajevo
Sarajevo
gallery[edit]

Inside BBI Center

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
City Center

Hotel Europe next to medieval ruins

Bosmal City Center

UNITIC
UNITIC
twin towers

Mountains and hills surrounding Sarajevo[edit]

Hum Hill to North-NW

Inter-valley headlands (capes) to Northeast

Mount Trebević
Trebević
to Southeast

Mount Bjelašnica
Bjelašnica
(snow peaks) to Southwest

Mount Igman
Igman
(foreground) to Southwest

Notes[edit]

a.^ Sarajevo metropolitan area
Sarajevo metropolitan area
includes Sarajevo Canton
Sarajevo Canton
with 413,593 inhabitants, East Sarajevo
East Sarajevo
with 61,516 inhabitants as well as municipalities of Breza (14,564), Kiseljak
Kiseljak
(21,919), Kreševo
Kreševo
(5,638) and Visoko
Visoko
(41,352).

References[edit]

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City Council. Archived from the original on 12 April 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-06.  ^ Griffin, Mary (2011-08-02). "Coventry's twin towns". Coventry Telegraph. Archived from the original on 6 August 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-06.  ^ Zachert, Uwe; Annica Kunz. "Twin cities". Landeshauptstadt Magdeburg [City of Magdeburg]. Archived from the original on 1 September 2012. Retrieved 2013-08-07.  ^ "Official agreement paper between Sarajevo
Sarajevo
and Madrid
Madrid
(Spanish and Bosnian languages)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2013.  ^ "Official Barcelona
Barcelona
Website: Sister Cities". Ajuntament de Barcelona 1995–2008. Archived from the original on 16 February 2009. Retrieved 11 November 2008.  ^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09.  ^ European Journalism Centre (November 2002). The Bosnia-Herzegovina media landscape. Archived 15 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine. European Media Landscape. Retrieved on 5 August 2006. ^ Vockic-Avdagic, Jelenka. The Internet and the Public in Bosnia-Herzegovina
Bosnia-Herzegovina
in Spassov, O., and Todorov Ch. (eds.) (2003), New Media in Southeast Europe. SOEMZ, European University "Viadrina" (Frankfurt – Oder) and Sofia University
Sofia University
"St. Kliment Ohridski". ^ Udovicic, Radenko (2002 May 3). What is Happening with the Oldest Bosnian-Herzegovinian Daily: Oslobođenje
Oslobođenje
to be sold for 4.7 Million Marks Mediaonline.ba: Southeast European Media Journal. ^ "Al Jazeera makes its Balkan
Balkan
debut Europe Deutsche Welle 22 September 2010". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 15 September 2011.  ^ "eFM – Naslovnica". efm.ba. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ "Radio BIR". Bir.ba. Retrieved 5 April 2012.  ^ University of Sarajevo
University of Sarajevo
on Sarajevo
Sarajevo
official web site ^ History of University of Sarajevo
University of Sarajevo
Archived 4 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Canton, 2000 "Primary Education & Secondary Education" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 November 2009.  (1.28 MB). Sarajevo
Sarajevo
2000, p 107–08. ^ "Ecole française MLF de Sarajevo : News". École française MLF de Sarajevo. Archived from the original on 24 February 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2010.  ^ The New York Times, 3 April 1909, p. 19. Quote: "Of the 40,000 inhabitants of Sarajevo, the present capital of Bosnia, nearly one-half are Mohammedan, about one-quarter Roman Catholic, 6,000 followers of the Greek Orthodox or Serb faith, and 4,000 Jews..." (Newspapers.com) ^ "Sarajevo.net Museum: The Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Haggadah". Archived from the original on 25 April 2010. Retrieved 13 April 2016.  ^ "Haggadah.ba – About the Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Haggadah". Haggadah.ba. Retrieved 28 March 2012.  ^ Perlez, Jane (12 August 1996). Ruins of Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Library Is Symbol of a Shattered Culture The New York Times. ^ "About the Festival". Sarajevo Film Festival
Sarajevo Film Festival
Official Website.  ^ "MESS International Theatre Festival". befestival.org.  ^ "Omladinski filmski festival Sarajevo
Sarajevo
predstavlja nove mlade autore". Al Jazeera Balkans.  ^ "About the Festival". Sarajevo Film Festival
Sarajevo Film Festival
Official Website.  ^ " Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Film Festival — Filmski Festivali — Filmski.Net". Filmski.net. Retrieved 1 November 2008.  ^ "FIFA.com: Edin DZEKO Profile". fifa.com. 15 June 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2014.  ^ markbooth_mcfc (21 August 2014). "Dzeko signs four-year deal at City". mcfc.co.uk. Manchester. Retrieved 21 August 2014.  ^ "Olimpijski stadion Asim Ferhatović – Hase". rekreacija.ba. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ IOC (2006). Jure Franko
Jure Franko
Athlete: Profiles. Retrieved on 5 August 2006. ^ Return the Olympics to Sarajevo. [returntheolympicstosarajevo.org] Retrieved on 26 January 2017. ^ Winter Olympic host city Sarajevo
Sarajevo
to stage course for luge trainers. [1] Retrieved on 26 January 2017. ^ Sports enthusiasts repair devastated Winter Olympic tracks [2] Retrieved on 26 January 2017. ^ Special
Special
Olympics, (2005 – Quarter 2). "2009 Games in Sarajevo" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 March 2009.  (277 kB) Spirit. Retrieved on 5 August 2006. ^ Hem, Brad (29 July 2006). Idaho may be in the running to host the 2009 Special
Special
Olympics[dead link] Idaho Statesman. ^ Special Olympics
Special Olympics
(May 2006). Boise, Idaho (USA) Awarded 2009 Special Olympics World Winter Games Global News. ^ Phone Web (9 June 2011). "CISM — Conseil International du Sport Militaire — International Military Sports Council". www.keezmovies.com. Retrieved 15 September 2011.  ^ klix.ba (6 September 2015). "Giro di Sarajevo
Sarajevo
via drone". klix.ba. Retrieved 6 September 2015. 

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Sarajevo

Bollens, Scott A. (2007). Cities, Nationalism, and Democratization. Abingdon: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-41947-6.  Donia, Robert J. Sarajevo: A Biography. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, (2006). Gumz, Jonathan (1998). "German Counterinsurgency Policy in Independent Croatia, 1941–1944". The Historian. 61 (1): 33–50. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6563.1998.tb01422.x.  Halligan, Benjamin. (2010). "Idylls of Socialism: The Sarajevo Documentary School and the Problem of the Bosnian Sub-proletariat". Studies in Eastern European Cinema (Autumn 2010). <https://web.archive.org/web/20130226221204/http://usir.salford.ac.uk/11571/3/visualrecollectivisationpostcopyedit.pdf> Tanzer, Kim; Longoria, Rafael (11 April 2007). The Green Braid: Towards an Architecture of Ecology, Economy and Equity. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-12058-1.  Maniscalco, Fabio (1997). Sarajevo. Itinerari artistici perduti (Sarajevo. Artistic Itineraries Lost). Naples: Guida Markowitz, Fran (2007). "Census and sensibilities in Sarajevo". Comparative Studies in Society and History. 49 (1): 40–73. doi:10.1017/S0010417507000400.  Markowitz, Fran (2010). Sarajevo: A Bosnian Kaleidoscope. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-07713-X.  Prstojević, Miroslav (1992). Zaboravljeno Sarajevo
Sarajevo
(Forgotten Sarajevo). Sarajevo: Ideja Valerijan, Žujo; Imamović, Mustafa; Ćurovac, Muhamed (1997). Sarajevo. Sarajevo: Svjetlost My Life in Fire (a non-fiction story of a child in a Sarajevo
Sarajevo
war) Mehmedinović, Semezdin (1998). Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Blues. San Francisco: City Lights.

External links[edit]

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Sarajevo

History of Sarajevo

Ancient times Middle Ages Early Ottoman Late Ottoman Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
(Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand) Yugoslav era (1984 Winter Olympics) Modern era (Siege of Sarajevo) Mayors Timeline

Municipalities

City proper: Centar Novi Grad Novo Sarajevo Stari Grad

Urban area: Ilidža Vogošća Istočna Ilidža Istočno Novo Sarajevo Istočni Stari Grad

Metro area: Hadžići Ilijaš Trnovo FBiH Pale Sokolac Trnovo RS Breza Visoko Kiseljak Kreševo Olovo

Neighborhoods

Alipašino polje, Babića bašća, Baščaršija, Čengić vila, Dobrinja, Grbavica, Džidžikovac, Hrasno, Koševo, Mejtaš, Marijin dvor, Otoka, Višnjik

Buildings and landmarks

Avaz Twist Tower BBI Centar Bijela Tabija Bosmal City Center Despić House Eternal flame Goat's Bridge Greek-Bosnian Friendship Building Latin Bridge Morića Han Presidency Building Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Rose Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Tunnel Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Zoo Šeher-Ćehaja Bridge Skakavac Waterfall Svrzo's House UNIS Towers Vraca Memorial Park Vrbanja bridge Vrelo Bosne

Places of worship

Muslim: Ali Pasha's Emperor's Ferhat-Pasha's Gazi Husrev-Bey's Istiqlal King Fahd's Catholic: Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Cathedral St. Anthony's St. Joseph's Orthodox: Serbian Orthodox Cathedral Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Old Orthodox Church Church of the Holy Transfiguration Jewish: Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Synagogue

Culture

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
National Theatre Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Philharmonic Orchestra Vijećnica Gazi Husrev-beg
Gazi Husrev-beg
Library

Galleries and museums

Ars Aevi Museum of Contemporary Art Historical Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina National Museum National Gallery Sarajevo
Sarajevo
City Museum War Childhood Museum

Education

Public: University of Sarajevo
University of Sarajevo
(Academy of Performing Arts, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Political Science, Law School, Music Academy) Private: American University in Bosnia and Herzegovina International University of Sarajevo Sarajevo
Sarajevo
School of Science and Technology

Sports venues

Stadiums: Koševo Stadium Grbavica Stadium Otoka Stadium Indoor arenas: Skenderija Hall Zetra Hall

Transport

Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Airport Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Tramway

Events

Baščaršija
Baščaršija
Nights Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Winter Festival Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Jazz Festival Sarajevo
Sarajevo
Film Festival

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Neighborhoods of Sarajevo

Stari Grad

Babića bašća Baščaršija Bistrik Ferhadija Hrid – Jarčedoli Kovači Logavina Mahmutovac Medrese Mjedenica Mošćanica Sedrenik Sumbuluša Širokača Toka–Džeka Vratnik

Centar

Bardakčije Betanija Breka Centar Ciglane Crni vrh Gorica Donji Velešići Džidžikovac Hrastovi Koševo Koševo 2 Koševsko brdo Marijin dvor Mejtaš Mrkovići Nahorevo Bjelave Park Pionirska dolina Podtekija Skenderija Soukbunar Trg Oslobođenja Šip Velešići Donji Višnjik

Novo Sarajevo

Čengić vila I Čengić vila II Dolac Hrasno Hrasno brdo Gornji Kovačići Gornji Velešići Grbavica I Grbavica II Kovačići Kvadrant Malta Pofalići I Pofalići II Trg Heroja Velešići Vraca Željeznička

Novi Grad

Ali-pašin most I Ali-pašin most II Ali-pašino polje A I Ali-pašino polje A II Ali-pašino polje B I Ali-pašino polje B II Ali-pašino polje C I Ali-pašino polje C II Aneks Briješće Buča potok Čengić vila Dobrinja
Dobrinja
A Dobrinja
Dobrinja
B Dobrinja
Dobrinja
C Dobrinja
Dobrinja
D Dobroševići Dolac Staro Hrasno Olimpijsko selo Otoka Neđarići Reljevo Saraj-polje Sokolje Stup, Sarajevo Švrakino selo I Švrakino selo II Švrkino selo III

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Political divisions of Bosnia and Herzegovina

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Entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Republika Srpska

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Cantons of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

   

 Una-Sana  Central Bosnia

 Posavina  Herzegovina-Neretva

 Tuzla  West Herzegovina

 Zenica-Doboj  Sarajevo

 Bosnian Podrinje  Canton 10

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Districts of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Brčko
Brčko
distrikt

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Municipalities and cities in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Cities

Bihać Mostar Sarajevo
Sarajevo
(capital) Široki Brijeg Tuzla Zenica

Municipalities

Banovići Bosanska Krupa Bosanski Petrovac Bosansko Grahovo Breza Brčko Bugojno Busovača Bužim Čapljina Cazin Čelić Čitluk Drvar Doboj
Doboj
East Doboj
Doboj
South Dobretići Domaljevac-Šamac Donji Vakuf Foča-Ustikolina Fojnica Glamoč Goražde Gornji Vakuf-Uskoplje Gračanica Gradačac Grude Hadžići Ilidža Ilijaš Jablanica Jajce Kakanj Kalesija Kiseljak Kladanj Ključ Konjic Kreševo Kupres Livno Ljubuški Lukavac Maglaj Neum Novi Travnik Odžak Olovo Orašje Pale-Prača Posušje Prozor-Rama Ravno Sanski Most Sapna Sarajevo

Centar Novi Grad Novo Sarajevo Stari Grad

Srebrenik Stolac Teočak Tešanj Tomislavgrad Travnik Trnovo Usora Vareš Velika Kladuša Visoko Vitez Vogošća Zavidovići Žepče Živinice

Republika Srpska

Cities

Banja Luka Bijeljina Doboj Istočno Sarajevo Prijedor Trebinje

Municipalities

Berkovići Bileća Brod Bratunac Brčko Čajniče Čelinac Derventa Donji Žabar Foča Gacko Gradiška Han Pijesak Istočni Drvar Istočni Mostar Istočno Sarajevo

Istočna Ilidža Istočno Novo Sarajevo Istočni Stari Grad Pale Sokolac Trnovo

Jezero Kalinovik Kneževo Kostajnica Kozarska Dubica Kotor Varoš Krupa na Uni Kupres Laktaši Ljubinje Lopare Milići Modriča Mrkonjić Grad Nevesinje Novi Grad Novo Goražde Osmaci Oštra Luka Pelagićevo Petrovac Petrovo Prnjavor Ribnik Rogatica Rudo Stanari Šamac Šekovići Šipovo Srbac Srebrenica Teslić Ugljevik Višegrad Vlasenica Vukosavlje Zvornik

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Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Western

Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)

Northern

Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

Central

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

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Winter Olympic Games
Winter Olympic Games
host cities

1924: Chamonix 1928: St. Moritz 1932: Lake Placid 1936: Garmisch-Partenkirchen 1940: Cancelled due to World War II 1944: Cancelled due to World War II 1948: St. Moritz 1952: Oslo 1956: Cortina d'Ampezzo 1960: Squaw Valley 1964: Innsbruck 1968: Grenoble 1972: Sapporo 1976: Innsbruck 1980: Lake Placid 1984: Sarajevo 1988: Calgary 1992: Albertville 1994: Lillehammer 1998: Nagano 2002: Salt Lake City 2006: Turin 2010: Vancouver 2014: Sochi 2018: Pyeongchang 2022: Beijing 2026: TBD 2030: TBD

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 159404628 LCCN: n80090352 GND: 4077016-3 BNF: cb12121110v (data) NDL: 0062

.