RGB color model
RGB color model is an additive color model in which red, green and
blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad
array of colors. The name of the model comes from the initials of the
three additive primary colors, red, green, and blue.
The main purpose of the
RGB color model
RGB color model is for the sensing,
representation and display of images in electronic systems, such as
televisions and computers, though it has also been used in
conventional photography. Before the electronic age, the RGB color
model already had a solid theory behind it, based in human perception
RGB is a device-dependent color model: different devices detect or
reproduce a given RGB value differently, since the color elements
(such as phosphors or dyes) and their response to the individual R, G,
and B levels vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, or even in the
same device over time. Thus a RGB value does not define the same color
across devices without some kind of color management.
Typical RGB input devices are color TV and video cameras, image
scanners, and digital cameras. Typical RGB output devices are TV sets
of various technologies (CRT, LCD, plasma, OLED, quantum dots, etc.),
computer and mobile phone displays, video projectors, multicolor LED
displays and large screens such as JumboTron.
Color printers, on the
other hand are not RGB devices, but subtractive color devices
(typically CMYK color model).
This article discusses concepts common to all the different color
spaces that use the RGB color model, which are used in one
implementation or another in color image-producing technology.
1 Additive colors
2 Physical principles for the choice of red, green, and blue
3 History of
RGB color model
RGB color model theory and usage
3.3 Personal computers
4 RGB devices
4.1 RGB and displays
4.2 RGB and cameras
4.3 RGB and scanners
5 Numeric representations
6 Geometric representation
7 Colors in web-page design
9 RGB model and luminance–chrominance formats relationship
10 See also
12 External links
Additive color mixing: adding red to green yields yellow; adding red
to blue yields magenta; adding green to blue yields cyan; adding all
three primary colors together yields white.
To form a color with RGB, three light beams (one red, one green, and
one blue) must be superimposed (for example by emission from a black
screen or by reflection from a white screen). Each of the three beams
is called a component of that color, and each of them can have an
arbitrary intensity, from fully off to fully on, in the mixture.
RGB color model
RGB color model is additive in the sense that the three light
beams are added together, and their light spectra add, wavelength for
wavelength, to make the final color's spectrum. This is
essentially opposite to the subtractive color model that applies to
paints, inks, dyes, and other substances whose color depends on
reflecting the light under which we see them. Because of properties,
these three colours create white, this is in stark contrast to
physical colours, such as dyes which create black when mixed.
Zero intensity for each component gives the darkest color (no light,
considered the black), and full intensity of each gives a white; the
quality of this white depends on the nature of the primary light
sources, but if they are properly balanced, the result is a neutral
white matching the system's white point. When the intensities for all
the components are the same, the result is a shade of gray, darker or
lighter depending on the intensity. When the intensities are
different, the result is a colorized hue, more or less saturated
depending on the difference of the strongest and weakest of the
intensities of the primary colors employed.
When one of the components has the strongest intensity, the color is a
hue near this primary color (reddish, greenish or bluish), and when
two components have the same strongest intensity, then the color is a
hue of a secondary color (a shade of cyan, magenta or yellow). A
secondary color is formed by the sum of two primary colors of equal
intensity: cyan is green+blue, magenta is red+blue, and yellow is
red+green. Every secondary color is the complement of one primary
color; when a primary and its complementary secondary color are added
together, the result is white: cyan complements red, magenta
complements green, and yellow complements blue.
RGB color model
RGB color model itself does not define what is meant by red, green
and blue colorimetrically, and so the results of mixing them are not
specified as absolute, but relative to the primary colors. When the
exact chromaticities of the red, green, and blue primaries are
defined, the color model then becomes an absolute color space, such as
sRGB or Adobe RGB; see
RGB color spaces
RGB color spaces for more details.
Physical principles for the choice of red, green, and blue
A set of primary colors, such as the sRGB primaries, define a color
triangle; only colors within this triangle can be reproduced by mixing
the primary colors. Colors outside the color triangle are therefore
shown here as gray. The primaries and the D65 white point of sRGB are
The choice of primary colors is related to the physiology of the human
eye; good primaries are stimuli that maximize the difference between
the responses of the cone cells of the human retina to light of
different wavelengths, and that thereby make a large color
The normal three kinds of light-sensitive photoreceptor cells in the
human eye (cone cells) respond most to yellow (long wavelength or L),
green (medium or M), and violet (short or S) light (peak wavelengths
near 570 nm, 540 nm and 440 nm, respectively). The
difference in the signals received from the three kinds allows the
brain to differentiate a wide gamut of different colors, while being
most sensitive (overall) to yellowish-green light and to differences
between hues in the green-to-orange region.
As an example, suppose that light in the orange range of wavelengths
(approximately 577 nm to 597 nm) enters the eye and strikes
the retina. Light of these wavelengths would activate both the medium
and long wavelength cones of the retina, but not equally—the
long-wavelength cells will respond more. The difference in the
response can be detected by the brain, and this difference is the
basis of our perception of orange. Thus, the orange appearance of an
object results from light from the object entering our eye and
stimulating the different cones simultaneously but to different
Use of the three primary colors is not sufficient to reproduce all
colors; only colors within the color triangle defined by the
chromaticities of the primaries can be reproduced by additive mixing
of non-negative amounts of those colors of light.[page needed]
RGB color model
RGB color model theory and usage
RGB color model
RGB color model is based on the
Young–Helmholtz theory of
trichromatic color vision, developed by Thomas Young and Hermann
Helmholtz in the early to mid nineteenth century, and on James Clerk
Maxwell's color triangle that elaborated that theory (circa 1860).
Early color photographs
The first permanent color photograph, taken by J.C. Maxwell in 1861
using three filters, specifically red, green, and violet-blue.
A photograph of
Mohammed Alim Khan
Mohammed Alim Khan (1880–1944), Emir of Bukhara,
taken in 1911 by
Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky using three exposures with
blue, green, and red filters.
The first experiments with RGB in early color photography were made in
1861 by Maxwell himself, and involved the process of combining three
color-filtered separate takes. To reproduce the color photograph,
three matching projections over a screen in a dark room were
The additive RGB model and variants such as orange–green–violet
were also used in the
Autochrome Lumière color plates and other
screen-plate technologies such as the
Joly color screen and the Paget
process in the early twentieth century.
Color photography by taking
three separate plates was used by other pioneers, such as the Russian
Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky in the period 1909 through 1915. Such
methods lasted until about 1960 using the expensive and extremely
complex tri-color carbro
When employed, the reproduction of prints from three-plate photos was
done by dyes or pigments using the complementary CMY model, by simply
using the negative plates of the filtered takes: reverse red gives the
cyan plate, and so on.
Before the development of practical electronic TV, there were patents
on mechanically scanned color systems as early as 1889 in Russia. The
color TV pioneer
John Logie Baird
John Logie Baird demonstrated the world's first RGB
color transmission in 1928, and also the world's first color broadcast
in 1938, in London. In his experiments, scanning and display were done
mechanically by spinning colorized wheels.
The Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) began an experimental RGB
field-sequential color system in 1940. Images were scanned
electrically, but the system still used a moving part: the transparent
RGB color wheel rotating at above 1,200 rpm in synchronism with the
vertical scan. The camera and the cathode-ray tube (CRT) were both
Color was provided by color wheels in the camera and
the receiver. More recently, color wheels have been used in
field-sequential projection TV receivers based on the Texas
Instruments monochrome DLP imager.
The modern RGB shadow mask technology for color CRT displays was
patented by Werner Flechsig in Germany in 1938.
Early personal computers of the late 1970s and early 1980s, such as
those from Apple, Atari and Commodore, did not use RGB as their main
method to manage colors, but rather composite video.
IBM introduced a
16-color scheme (four bits—one bit each for red, green, blue, and
intensity) with the
Color Graphics Adapter (CGA) for its first
(1981), later improved with the
Enhanced Graphics Adapter
Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA) in
1984. The first manufacturer of a truecolor graphic card for PCs (the
Truevision in 1987, but it was not until the arrival of the
Video Graphics Array
Video Graphics Array (VGA) in 1987 that RGB became popular, mainly due
to the analog signals in the connection between the adapter and the
monitor which allowed a very wide range of RGB colors. Actually, it
had to wait a few more years because the original VGA cards were
palette-driven just like EGA, although with more freedom than VGA, but
because the VGA connectors were analogue, later variants of VGA (made
by various manufacturers under the informal name Super VGA) eventually
added truecolor. In 1992, magazines heavily advertised truecolor Super
RGB and displays
Cutaway rendering of a color CRT: 1.
Electron beams 3. Focusing coils 4. Deflection coils
5. Anode connection 6. Mask for separating beams for red,
green, and blue part of displayed image 7.
Phosphor layer with
red, green, and blue zones 8. Close-up of the phosphor-coated
inner side of the screen
Color wheel with RGB pixels of the colors
RGB phosphor dots in a CRT monitor
RGB sub-pixels in an LCD TV (on the right: an orange and a blue color;
on the left: a close-up)
One common application of the
RGB color model
RGB color model is the display of colors
on a cathode ray tube (CRT), liquid crystal display (LCD), plasma
display, or organic light emitting diode (OLED) display such as a
television, a computer’s monitor, or a large scale screen. Each
pixel on the screen is built by driving three small and very close but
still separated RGB light sources. At common viewing distance, the
separate sources are indistinguishable, which tricks the eye to see a
given solid color. All the pixels together arranged in the rectangular
screen surface conforms the color image.
During digital image processing each pixel can be represented in the
computer memory or interface hardware (for example, a graphics card)
as binary values for the red, green, and blue color components. When
properly managed, these values are converted into intensities or
voltages via gamma correction to correct the inherent nonlinearity of
some devices, such that the intended intensities are reproduced on the
Quattron released by Sharp uses RGB color and adds yellow as a
sub-pixel, supposedly allowing an increase in the number of available
RGB is also the term referring to a type of component video signal
used in the video electronics industry. It consists of three
signals—red, green, and blue—carried on three separate
cables/pins. RGB signal formats are often based on modified versions
of the RS-170 and RS-343 standards for monochrome video. This type of
video signal is widely used in
Europe since it is the best quality
signal that can be carried on the standard
needed] This signal is known as
RGBS (4 BNC/
RCA terminated cables
exist as well), but it is directly compatible with
RGBHV used for
computer monitors (usually carried on 15-pin cables terminated with
D-sub or 5 BNC connectors), which carries separate horizontal
and vertical sync signals.
Outside Europe, RGB is not very popular as a video signal format;
Video takes that spot in most non-European regions. However, almost
all computer monitors around the world use RGB.
A framebuffer is a digital device for computers which stores data in
the so-called video memory (comprising an array of
Video RAM or
similar chips). This data goes either to three digital-to-analog
converters (DACs) (for analog monitors), one per primary color, or
directly to digital monitors. Driven by software, the CPU (or other
specialized chips) write the appropriate bytes into the video memory
to define the image. Modern systems encode pixel color values by
devoting eight bits to each of the R, G, and B components. RGB
information can be either carried directly by the pixel bits
themselves or provided by a separate color look-up table (CLUT) if
indexed color graphic modes are used.
A CLUT is a specialized RAM that stores R, G, and B values that define
specific colors. Each color has its own address (index)—consider it
as a descriptive reference number that provides that specific color
when the image needs it. The content of the CLUT is much like a
palette of colors. Image data that uses indexed color specifies
addresses within the CLUT to provide the required R, G, and B values
for each specific pixel, one pixel at a time. Of course, before
displaying, the CLUT has to be loaded with R, G, and B values that
define the palette of colors required for each image to be rendered.
Some video applications store such palettes in
PAL files (Microsoft
AOE game, for example uses over half-a-dozen) and can combine
CLUTs on screen.
RGB24 and RGB32
This indirect scheme restricts the number of available colors in an
image CLUT —typically 256-cubed (8 bits in three color channels with
values of 0–255)— although each color in the RGB24 CLUT table has
only 8 bits representing 256 codes for each of the R, G, and B
primaries combinatorial math theory says this means that any given
color can be one of 16,777,216 possible colors. However, the advantage
is that an indexed-color image file can be significantly smaller than
it would be with only 8 bits per pixel for each primary.
Modern storage, however, is far less costly, greatly reducing the need
to minimize image file size. By using an appropriate combination of
red, green, and blue intensities, many colors can be displayed.
Current typical display adapters use up to 24-bits of information for
each pixel: 8-bit per component multiplied by three components (see
the Digital representations section below (24bits = 2563, each primary
value of 8 bits with values of 0–255). With this system, 16,777,216
(2563 or 224) discrete combinations of R, G, and B values are allowed,
providing millions of different (though not necessarily
distinguishable) hue, saturation and lightness shades. Increased
shading has been implemented in various ways, some formats such as
.tga files among others using a fourth greyscale color
channel as a masking layer, often called RGB32.
For images with a modest range of brightnesses from the darkest to the
lightest, eight bits per primary color provides good-quality images,
but extreme images require more bits per primary color as well as
advanced display technology. For more information see High Dynamic
Range (HDR) imaging.
Main article: Gamma correction
In classic cathode ray tube (CRT) devices, the brightness of a given
point over the fluorescent screen due to the impact of accelerated
electrons is not proportional to the voltages applied to the electron
gun control grids, but to an expansive function of that voltage. The
amount of this deviation is known as its gamma value (
), the argument for a power law function, which closely describes this
behavior. A linear response is given by a gamma value of 1.0, but
actual CRT nonlinearities have a gamma value around 2.0 to 2.5.
Similarly, the intensity of the output on TV and computer display
devices is not directly proportional to the R, G, and B applied
electric signals (or file data values which drive them through
Digital-to-Analog Converters). On a typical standard 2.2-gamma CRT
display, an input intensity RGB value of (0.5, 0.5, 0.5)
only outputs about 22% of full brightness (1.0, 1.0, 1.0),
instead of 50%. To obtain the correct response, a gamma correction
is used in encoding the image data, and possibly further corrections
as part of the color calibration process of the device. Gamma affects
black-and-white TV as well as color. In standard color TV, broadcast
signals are gamma corrected.
RGB and cameras
Bayer filter arrangement of color filters on the pixel array of a
digital image sensor
In color television and video cameras manufactured before the 1990s,
the incoming light was separated by prisms and filters into the three
RGB primary colors feeding each color into a separate video camera
tube (or pickup tube). These tubes are a type of cathode ray tube, not
to be confused with that of CRT displays.
With the arrival of commercially viable charge-coupled device (CCD)
technology in the 1980s, first the pickup tubes were replaced with
this kind of sensor. Later, higher scale integration electronics was
applied (mainly by Sony), simplifying and even removing the
intermediate optics, thereby reducing the size of home video cameras
and eventually leading to the development of full camcorders. Current
webcams and mobile phones with cameras are the most miniaturized
commercial forms of such technology.
Photographic digital cameras that use a
CMOS or CCD image sensor often
operate with some variation of the RGB model. In a Bayer filter
arrangement, green is given twice as many detectors as red and blue
(ratio 1:2:1) in order to achieve higher luminance resolution than
chrominance resolution. The sensor has a grid of red, green, and blue
detectors arranged so that the first row is RGRGRGRG, the next is
GBGBGBGB, and that sequence is repeated in subsequent rows. For every
channel, missing pixels are obtained by interpolation in the
demosaicing process to build up the complete image. Also, other
processes used to be applied in order to map the camera RGB
measurements into a standard
RGB color space
RGB color space as sRGB.
RGB and scanners
In computing, an image scanner is a device that optically scans images
(printed text, handwriting, or an object) and converts it to a digital
image which is transferred to a computer. Among other formats, flat,
drum and film scanners exist, and most of them support RGB color. They
can be considered the successors of early telephotography input
devices, which were able to send consecutive scan lines as analog
amplitude modulation signals through standard telephonic lines to
appropriate receivers; such systems were in use in press since the
1920s to the mid-1990s.
Color telephotographs were sent as three
separated RGB filtered images consecutively.
Currently available scanners typically use charge-coupled device (CCD)
or contact image sensor (CIS) as the image sensor, whereas older drum
scanners use a photomultiplier tube as the image sensor. Early color
film scanners used a halogen lamp and a three-color filter wheel, so
three exposures were needed to scan a single color image. Due to
heating problems, the worst of them being the potential destruction of
the scanned film, this technology was later replaced by non-heating
light sources such as color LEDs.
A typical RGB color selector in graphic software. Each slider ranges
from 0 to 255.
Hexadecimal 8-bit RGB representations of the main 125 colors
A color in the
RGB color model
RGB color model is described by indicating how much of
each of the red, green, and blue is included. The color is expressed
as an RGB triplet (r,g,b), each component of which can vary from zero
to a defined maximum value. If all the components are at zero the
result is black; if all are at maximum, the result is the brightest
These ranges may be quantified in several different ways:
From 0 to 1, with any fractional value in between. This representation
is used in theoretical analyses, and in systems that use floating
Each color component value can also be written as a percentage, from
0% to 100%.
In computers, the component values are often stored as integer numbers
in the range 0 to 255, the range that a single 8-bit byte can offer.
These are often represented as either decimal or hexadecimal numbers.
High-end digital image equipment are often able to deal with larger
integer ranges for each primary color, such as 0..1023 (10 bits),
0..65535 (16 bits) or even larger, by extending the 24-bits (three
8-bit values) to 32-bit, 48-bit, or
64-bit units (more or less
independent from the particular computer's word size).
For example, brightest saturated red is written in the different RGB
(1.0, 0.0, 0.0)
(100%, 0%, 0%)
Digital 8-bit per channel
(255, 0, 0) or sometimes
Digital 12-bit per channel
(4095, 0, 0)
Digital 16-bit per channel
(65535, 0, 0)
24-bit per channel
(16777215, 0, 0)
32-bit per channel
(4294967295, 0, 0)
In many environments, the component values within the ranges are not
managed as linear (that is, the numbers are nonlinearly related to the
intensities that they represent), as in digital cameras and TV
broadcasting and receiving due to gamma correction, for example.
Linear and nonlinear transformations are often dealt with via digital
image processing. Representations with only 8 bits per component are
considered sufficient if gamma encoding is used.
Following is the mathematical relationship between RGB space to HSI
space (hue, saturation, and intensity: HSI color space):
displaystyle begin aligned I&= frac R+G+B 3 \S&=1,-,
frac 3 (R+G+B) ,min(R,G,B)\H&=cos ^ -1 sqrt frac frac 1 2
((R-G)+(R-B)) (R-G)^ 2 +(R-B)(G-B) end aligned
RGB color model
RGB color model is one of the most common ways to encode color in
computing, and several different binary digital representations are in
use. The main characteristic of all of them is the quantization of the
possible values per component (technically a
Sample (signal) ) by
using only integer numbers within some range, usually from 0 to some
power of two minus one (2n – 1) to fit them into some bit
groupings. Encodings of 1, 2, 4, 5, 8 and 16 bits per color are
commonly found; the total number of bits used for an RGB color is
typically called the color depth.
RGB color model
RGB color model mapped to a cube. The horizontal x-axis as red
values increasing to the left, y-axis as blue increasing to the lower
right and the vertical z-axis as green increasing towards the top. The
origin, black is the vertex hidden from view.
See also RGB color space
Since colors are usually defined by three components, not only in the
RGB model, but also in other color models such as CIELAB and Y'UV,
among others, then a three-dimensional volume is described by treating
the component values as ordinary cartesian coordinates in a euclidean
space. For the RGB model, this is represented by a cube using
non-negative values within a 0–1 range, assigning black to the
origin at the vertex (0, 0, 0), and with increasing intensity values
running along the three axes up to white at the vertex (1, 1, 1),
diagonally opposite black.
An RGB triplet (r,g,b) represents the three-dimensional coordinate of
the point of the given color within the cube or its faces or along its
edges. This approach allows computations of the color similarity of
two given RGB colors by simply calculating the distance between them:
the shorter the distance, the higher the similarity. Out-of-gamut
computations can also be performed this way.
Colors in web-page design
Main article: Web colors
RGB color model
RGB color model for
HTML was formally adopted as an Internet
HTML 3.2, though it had been in use for some time before
that. Initially, the limited color depth of most video hardware led to
a limited color palette of 216 RGB colors, defined by the Netscape
Color Cube. With the predominance of
24-bit displays, the use of the
full 16.7 million colors of the
HTML RGB color code no longer poses
problems for most viewers.
The web-safe color palette consists of the 216 (63) combinations of
red, green, and blue where each color can take one of six values (in
hexadecimal): #00, #33, #66, #99, #CC or #FF (based on the 0 to 255
range for each value discussed above). These hexadecimal values = 0,
51, 102, 153, 204, 255 in decimal, which = 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%,
100% in terms of intensity. This seems fine for splitting up 216
colors into a cube of dimension 6. However, lacking gamma correction,
the perceived intensity on a standard 2.5 gamma CRT / LCD is only: 0%,
2%, 10%, 28%, 57%, 100%. See the actual web safe color palette for a
visual confirmation that the majority of the colors produced are very
dark or see Xona.com
Color List for a side-by-side comparison of
proper colors next to their equivalent lacking proper gamma
The syntax in
where # equals the proportion of red, green, and blue respectively.
This syntax can be used after such selectors as "background-color:" or
(for text) "color:".
Proper reproduction of colors, especially in professional
environments, requires color management of all the devices involved in
the production process, many of them using RGB.
results in several transparent conversions between device-independent
and device-dependent color spaces (RGB and others, as CMYK for color
printing) during a typical production cycle, in order to ensure color
consistency throughout the process. Along with the creative
processing, such interventions on digital images can damage the color
accuracy and image detail, especially where the gamut is reduced.
Professional digital devices and software tools allow for 48 bpp (bits
per pixel) images to be manipulated (16 bits per channel), to minimize
any such damage.
ICC-compliant applications, such as Adobe Photoshop, use either the
Lab color space
Lab color space or the
CIE 1931 color space
CIE 1931 color space as a Profile Connection
Space when translating between color spaces.
RGB model and luminance–chrominance formats relationship
All luminance–chrominance formats used in the different TV and video
standards such as
YIQ for NTSC,
YUV for PAL, YDBDR for SECAM, and
YPBPR for component video use color difference signals, by which RGB
color images can be encoded for broadcasting/recording and later
decoded into RGB again to display them. These intermediate formats
were needed for compatibility with pre-existent black-and-white TV
formats. Also, those color difference signals need lower data
bandwidth compared to full RGB signals.
Similarly, current high-efficiency digital color image data
compression schemes such as
MPEG store RGB color internally
in YCBCR format, a digital luminance-chrominance format based on
YPBPR. The use of YCBCR also allows computers to perform lossy
subsampling with the chroma channels (typically to 4:2:2 or 4:1:1
ratios), which reduces the resultant file size.
List of color palettes
RG color space
RGBA color space
Adobe RGB color space
ProPhoto RGB color space
^ Charles A. Poynton (2003). Digital
Video and HDTV: Algorithms and
Interfaces. Morgan Kaufmann. ISBN 1-55860-792-7.
^ Nicholas Boughen (2003). Lightwave 3d 7.5 Lighting. Wordware
Publishing, Inc. ISBN 1-55622-354-4.
^ a b c R. W. G. Hunt (2004). The Reproduction of Colour (6th ed.).
Chichester UK: Wiley–IS&T Series in Imaging Science and
Technology. ISBN 0-470-02425-9.
^ Robert Hirsch (2004). Exploring Colour Photography: A Complete
Guide. Laurence King Publishing. ISBN 1-85669-420-8.
^ Photographer to the Tsar: Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii
Library of Congress.
^ "The Evolution of
Color Pigment Printing". Artfacts.org. Retrieved
^ John Logie Baird, Television Apparatus and the Like, U.S. patent,
filed in U.K. in 1928.
^ Baird Television: Crystal Palace Television Studios. Previous color
television demonstrations in the U.K. and U.S. had been via closed
Color Television Success in Test". NY Times. 1940-08-30.
p. 21. Retrieved 2008-05-12.
CBS Demonstrates Full
Color Television," Wall Street Journal, Sept.
5, 1940, p. 1.
^ "Television Hearing Set". NY Times. 1940-11-13. p. 26.
^ Morton, David L. (1999). "Television Broadcasting". A History of
Electronic Entertainment Since 1945 (PDF). IEEE.
ISBN 0-7803-9936-6. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 6,
^ By directory search
^ Steve Wright (2006). Digital Compositing for Film and Video. Focal
Press. ISBN 0-240-80760-X.
^ Edwin Paul J. Tozer (2004). Broadcast Engineer's Reference Book.
Elsevier. ISBN 0-240-51908-6.
^ John Watkinson (2008). The art of digital video. Focal Press.
p. 272. ISBN 978-0-240-52005-6.
^ ICC. "Why
Color Management?" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-04-16. The two
PCS's in the ICC system are CIE-XYZ and CIELAB
Wikimedia Commons has media related to RGB color model.
HEX to RGB conversion
RGB to HEX conversion
Demonstrative color conversion applet
RGB color codes
List of color spaces
RGB color space
Colour Index International
CI list of dyes
Federal Standard 595
For the vision capacities of organisms or machines, see Color
35 mm equivalent focal length
Angle of view
Black and white
Circle of confusion
Depth of field
Depth of focus
Science of photography
Intentional camera movement
Rule of thirds
Golden triangle (composition)
Timeline of photography technology
Painted photography backdrops
Photography and the law
Digital versus film photography
Foveon X3 sensor
CMYK color model
RGB color model
Digital image processing
Gelatin silver process
Most expensive photographs
Perception as interpretation
Higher nervous activity