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Palermo
Palermo
(Italian: [paˈlɛrmo] ( listen), Sicilian: Palermu, Latin: Panormus, from Greek: Πάνορμος, Panormos) is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily
Sicily
and the Metropolitan City of Palermo. The city is noted for its history, culture, architecture and gastronomy, playing an important role throughout much of its existence; it is over 2,700 years old. Palermo
Palermo
is located in the northwest of the island of Sicily, right by the Gulf of Palermo
Palermo
in the Tyrrhenian Sea. The city was founded in 734 BC by the Phoenicians
Phoenicians
as Ziz ('flower'). Palermo
Palermo
then became a possession of Carthage, before becoming part of the Roman Republic, the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and eventually part of the Byzantine Empire, for over a thousand years. The Greeks named the city Panormus meaning 'complete port'. From 831 to 1072 the city was under Arab
Arab
rule during the Emirate
Emirate
of Sicily
Sicily
when the city first became a capital. The Arabs
Arabs
shifted the Greek name into Bal'harm[1][2] (Arabic: بَلَرْم‎), the root for Palermo's present-day name. Following the Norman reconquest, Palermo
Palermo
became the capital of a new kingdom (from 1130 to 1816), the Kingdom of Sicily and the capital of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
under Emperor Frederick II and King Conrad IV. The population of Palermo
Palermo
urban area is estimated by Eurostat
Eurostat
to be 855,285, while its metropolitan area is the fifth most populated in Italy
Italy
with around 1.2 million people. In the central area, the city has a population of around 676,000 people. The inhabitants are known as Palermitani or, poetically, panormiti. The languages spoken by its inhabitants are the Italian language
Italian language
and the Palermitano dialect of the Sicilian language. Palermo
Palermo
is Sicily's cultural, economic and tourism capital. It is a city rich in history, culture, art, music and food. Numerous tourists are attracted to the city for its good Mediterranean
Mediterranean
weather, its renowned gastronomy and restaurants, its Romanesque, Gothic and Baroque
Baroque
churches, palaces and buildings, and its nightlife and music.[3] Palermo
Palermo
is the main Sicilian industrial and commercial center: the main industrial sectors include tourism, services, commerce and agriculture.[4] Palermo
Palermo
currently has an international airport, and a significant underground economy.[citation needed] In fact, for cultural, artistic and economic reasons, Palermo
Palermo
was one of the largest cities in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and is now among the top tourist destinations in both Italy
Italy
and Europe. It is the main seat of the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
Arab-Norman Palermo
Palermo
and the Cathedral Churches of Cefalù
Cefalù
and Monreale. The city is also going through careful redevelopment, preparing to become one of the major cities of the Euro- Mediterranean
Mediterranean
area.[5] Roman Catholicism is highly important in Palermitano culture. The Patron Saint of Palermo
Palermo
is Santa Rosalia whose Feast Day is celebrated on 15 July. The area attracts significant numbers of tourists each year and is widely known for its colourful fruit, vegetable and fish markets at the heart of Palermo, known as Vucciria, Ballarò and Capo.[6]

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Climate 1.2 Topography 1.3 Rivers 1.4 Districts 1.5 Landmarks

1.5.1 Churches 1.5.2 Palaces and museums 1.5.3 City walls 1.5.4 Opera houses 1.5.5 Squares 1.5.6 Other sights 1.5.7 UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites

2 Demographics 3 History

3.1 Early history 3.2 Ancient period 3.3 Middle Ages 3.4 Two Sicilies 3.5 Italian unification and today

4 Culture

4.1 Religion

4.1.1 Patron saints

4.2 Sports

5 Economy
Economy
and infrastructure

5.1 Public transport 5.2 Palermo
Palermo
Public Transportation Statistics 5.3 Roads 5.4 Airports 5.5 Port 5.6 National rail

6 Education 7 International relations

7.1 Twin towns and sister cities

8 Notable people 9 Gallery 10 See also 11 References 12 Sources 13 External links

Geography[edit] Palermo
Palermo
lies in a basin, formed by the Papireto, Kemonia and Oreto rivers. The basin was named the Conca d'Oro (the Golden Basin) by the Arabs
Arabs
in the 9th century. The city is surrounded by a mountain range which is named after the city itself. These mountains face the Tyrrhenian Sea. Palermo
Palermo
is home to a natural port and offers excellent views to the sea, especially from Monte Pellegrino. Climate[edit]

Gulf of Mondello
Mondello
seen from Monte Pellegrino

Palermo
Palermo
experiences a hot-summer Mediterranean
Mediterranean
climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa) that is mild with moderate seasonality. Summers are hot and dry due to the domination of subtropical high pressure system, while winters experience moderate temperatures and changeable, rainy weather due to the polar front.[7] Temperatures in autumn and spring are usually mild. Palermo
Palermo
is one of the warmest cities in Europe (mainly due to its warm nights), with an average annual air temperature of 18.5 °C (65.3 °F), it's the warmest city in Italy. It receives approximately 2,530 hours of sunshine per year. Snow is usually a rare occurrence, but it does occur occasionally during the strongest cold spells.[8] Between the 1940s and the 2000s there have been eleven times when considerable snowfall has occurred. In 1949 and in 1956, when the minimum temperature went down to 0 °C (32 °F), the city was blanketed by several centimetres of snow.[9] Snowfall also occurred in 1999, 2009 and 2015.[10] The average annual temperature of the sea is above 19 °C (66 °F); from 14 °C (57 °F) in February to 26 °C (79 °F) in August. In the period from November to May, the average sea temperature exceeds 18 °C (64 °F) and in the period from June to October, the average sea temperature exceeds 21 °C (70 °F).[11]

Climate data for Palermo-Boccadifalco Airport
Palermo-Boccadifalco Airport
on the outskirts of the city (altitude: 117 m, satellite view), Extremes 1973-2016

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 27.0 (80.6) 29.0 (84.2) 35.0 (95) 34.6 (94.3) 39.0 (102.2) 44.0 (111.2) 43.1 (109.6) 42.4 (108.3) 42.0 (107.6) 35.2 (95.4) 30.6 (87.1) 29.2 (84.6) 44.0 (111.2)

Average high °C (°F) 16.4 (61.5) 17.4 (63.3) 20.1 (68.2) 21.4 (70.5) 23.3 (73.9) 27.2 (81) 30.7 (87.3) 30.9 (87.6) 27.7 (81.9) 24.2 (75.6) 21.0 (69.8) 17.0 (62.6) 23.2 (73.8)

Daily mean °C (°F) 11.8 (53.2) 11.5 (52.7) 13.0 (55.4) 15.1 (59.2) 19.3 (66.7) 23.2 (73.8) 25.8 (78.4) 26.6 (79.9) 23.8 (74.8) 20.1 (68.2) 16.0 (60.8) 13.0 (55.4) 18.3 (64.9)

Average low °C (°F) 8.9 (48) 8.5 (47.3) 9.6 (49.3) 11.4 (52.5) 15.3 (59.5) 19.2 (66.6) 21.7 (71.1) 22.7 (72.9) 20.1 (68.2) 16.7 (62.1) 12.9 (55.2) 10.2 (50.4) 14.8 (58.6)

Record low °C (°F) −1.0 (30.2) 0.9 (33.6) −0.1 (31.8) 3.2 (37.8) 6.2 (43.2) 12.1 (53.8) 13.9 (57) 15.0 (59) 8.0 (46.4) 8.0 (46.4) 3.0 (37.4) 1.6 (34.9) −1.0 (30.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 97.5 (3.839) 109.9 (4.327) 78.2 (3.079) 65.1 (2.563) 36.2 (1.425) 17.9 (0.705) 6.7 (0.264) 31.8 (1.252) 65.3 (2.571) 105.6 (4.157) 117.5 (4.626) 123.7 (4.87) 855.4 (33.677)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 9.0 9.6 8.7 8.6 4.1 1.9 1.2 2.4 5.4 8.2 10.4 12.0 81.5

Source #1: Servizio Meteorologico[12]

Source #2: Il Meteo[13] Extreme temperatures.

Topography[edit]

Monte Pellegrino
Monte Pellegrino
pictured at the end of the 19th century; the mountain is visible from everywhere in the city

Palermo
Palermo
is surrounded by mountains, which form a cirque around the city. Some districts of the city are divided by the mountains themselves. Historically, it was relatively difficult to reach the inner part of Sicily
Sicily
from the city because of the mounts. The tallest peak of the range is La Pizzuta, about 1,333 metres (4,373 ft) high. However, historically, the most important mount is Monte Pellegrino, which is geographically separated from the rest of the range by a plain. The mount lies right in front of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Monte Pellegrino's cliff was described in the 19th century by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, as "the most beautiful promontory in the world", in his essay "Italian Journey". Rivers[edit] Today both the Papireto river and the Kemonia are covered up by buildings. However, the shape of the former watercourses can still be recognised today, because the streets that were built on them follow their shapes. Today the only waterway not drained yet is the Oreto river that divides the downtown of the city from the western uptown and the industrial districts. In the basins there were, though, many seasonal torrents that helped formed swampy plains, reclaimed during history; a good example of which can be found in the borough of Mondello.

View of Palermo
Palermo
from Monte Pellegrino

Districts[edit] See also: Mayor of Palermo
Mayor of Palermo
and Boroughs of Palermo

Municipality Quarters

I Kalsa, Albergheria, Seralcadio & La Loggia

II Settecannoli, Brancaccio & Ciaculli-Oreto

III Villagrazia-Falsomiele & Stazione-Oreto

IV Montegrappa, S. Rosalia, Cuba, Calafatimi, Mezzomonreale, Villa Tasca-Altarello & Boccadifalco

V Zisa, Noce, Uditore-Passo di Rigano & Borgo Nuovo

VI Cruillas, S. Giovanni Apostolo, Resuttana & San Lorenzo

VII Pallavicino, Tommaso Natale, Sferracavallo, Partanna Mondello, Arenella, Vergine Maria & San Filippo Neri (formerly known as ZEN)

VIII Politeama, Malaspina-Palagonia, Libertà & Monte Pellegrino

Shown above are the thirty five quarters of Palermo: these thirty five neighbourhoods or "quartiere" as they are known, are further divided into eight governmental community boards.[14] Landmarks[edit]

Palermo
Palermo
Cathedral

Palermo
Palermo
has a large architectural heritage and is notable for its many Norman buildings. Churches[edit] Main article: Churches in Palermo

San Cataldo's Church.

Chiesa della Martorana.

Church of Saint Catherine.

Church of San Francesco d'Assisi.

Palermo
Palermo
Cathedral: Located at Corso Vittorio Emanuele, corner Via Matteo Bonello, its long history has led to an accumulation of different architectural styles, the latest being the 18th century. Cappella Palatina, the 12th century chapel of the Palazzo dei Normanni, has outstanding mosaics in both Western and the Eastern traditions and a roof by Saracen craftsmen. San Giovanni dei Lebbrosi San Giovanni degli Eremiti
San Giovanni degli Eremiti
(St. John of the Hermit Order): Located near the Palazzo dei Normanni, a 12th-century church notable for its bright red domes, a remnant of Arab
Arab
influence in Sicily. In his Diary of an Idle Woman in Sicily, F. Elliot described it as "... totally oriental... it would fit well in Baghdad
Baghdad
or Damascus". The bell tower is an example of Gothic architecture. Chiesa della Martorana: Also known as Santa Maria dell'Ammiraglio (St Mary of the Admiral), the church is annexed to the next-door church of San Cataldo and overlooks the Piazza Bellini in central Palermo. The original layout was a compact cross-in-square ("Greek cross plan"), a common south Italian and Sicilian variant of the middle Byzantine period church style. Three eastern apses adjoin directly to the naos, instead of being separated by an additional bay, as was usual in eastern Byzantine architecture.[15] The bell tower, lavishly decorated, still serves as the main entrance to the church. The interior decoration is elaborate, and includes Byzantine mosaics. San Cataldo: Church, on the central Piazza Bellini, which is a good example of Norman architecture. Santa Maria della Gancia Santa Caterina: This church is located behind Piazza Pretoria
Piazza Pretoria
and built between 1566 and 1596 in the baroque style. Santa Maria della Catena: This church was built between 1490-1520. Designed by Matteo Carnilivari: The name derives from chains that were once attached to one of the walls. San Domenico: Located near Via Roma, it is known as the “Pantheon of illustrious Sicilians”. San Giuseppe dei Teatini: Located near the Quattro Canti, it is an example of Sicilian Baroque. Oratorio di San Lorenzo
Oratorio di San Lorenzo
Working in stucco, Rococo sculptor Giacomo Serpotta, his brother Giuseppe and his son Procopio, decorated the church (1690/98–1706) with such a profusion of statuary, and an abundance of putti, the walls appear alive. In October 1969, two thieves removed Caravaggio's Nativity with St. Francis and St. Lawrence from its frame. It has never been recovered.[16][17] Oratorio del Rosario: Completed by Giacomo Serpotta
Giacomo Serpotta
in (1710–17) Santa Teresa alla Kalsa, which derives its name from Al-Khalisa, an Arabic term meaning elected, was constructed between 1686-1706 over the former Emir's residence, is one of the best examples of Sicilian Baroque. It has a single, airy nave, with stucco decorations from the early 18th century. Santa Maria dello Spasimo
Santa Maria dello Spasimo
was built in 1506 and later turned into a hospital. This church inspired Raphael
Raphael
to paint his famous Sicilia's Spasimo, now in the Museo del Prado. The church today is a fascinating open-air auditorium, which occasionally houses exhibitions and musical shows. Church of the Gesu (Church of Jesus): Located in the city centre, the church was built in 1564 in the late- Renaissance
Renaissance
style by the Jesuits. It was built over a pre-existing convent of Basilian monks. Alterations in 1591 were completed in a Sicilian Baroque. The church was heavily damaged after the 1943 bombings, which destroyed most of the frescos. The interior has a Latin cross plan with a nave and two aisles, and has a particularly rich decoration of marbles, intarsia and stuccoes, especially in St Anne's Chapel. At the right is the Casa Professa, with a 1685 portal and a precious 18th century cloister. The building has been home to the Municipal Library since 1775. San Francesco di Assisi: this church was built between 1255 and 1277 in what was once the market district of the city, at the site of two pre-existing churches and was largely renovated in the 15th, 16th, 18th and 19th centuries, the last after an earthquake. After the 1943 bombings, the church was restored to its Medieval appearance, which now includes part of the original building such as part of the right side, the apses and the Gothic portal in the façade. The interior has a typical Gothic flavour, with a nave and two aisles separated by two rows of cylindrical pilasters. Some of the chapels are in Renaissance style, as well as the late 16th century side portals. The church includes precious sculptures by Antonio, Giacomo Gagini and Francesco Laurana. Of note are also statues built by Giacomo Serpotta
Giacomo Serpotta
in 1723. Church of the Magione: Officially known as the church of the Holy Trinity. This church was built in the Norman style in 1191 by Matteo d'Ajello, who donated it to the Cistercian monks.

Palaces and museums[edit]

Palazzo dei Normanni, seat of the Sicilian Regional Assembly.

Palazzo dei Normanni
Palazzo dei Normanni
(the Norman Palace), one of the most beautiful Italian palaces and a notable example of Norman architecture. It houses the famous Cappella Palatina. Zisa (1160) and Cuba, magnificent castles/houses historically used by the kings of Palermo
Palermo
for hunting. The Zisa today houses the Islamic museum. The Cuba
Cuba
was once encircled by water. Palazzo Natoli Palazzo Chiaramonte Palazzo Abatellis. Built at the end of the 15th century for the prefect of the city, Francesco Abatellis. It is a massive though elegant construction, in typical Catalan Gothic style, with Renaissance
Renaissance
influences. The Gallery houses an Eleonora of Aragon bust by Francesco Laurana (1471) and the Malvagna Triptych (c. 1510), by Jan Gossaert and the famous Annunziata by Antonello da Messina. The Regional Archeological Museum Antonio Salinas
Regional Archeological Museum Antonio Salinas
is one of the main museums of Italy: it includes numerous remains from Etruscan, Carthaginian, Roman and Hellenistic civilisations. It houses all the decorative remains from the Sicilian temples of Segesta
Segesta
and Selinunte. Palazzina Cinese, royal residence of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies and location of the Ethnografic Museum of Sicily.

City walls[edit]

The Palazzo dei Normanni

Palermo
Palermo
has at least two rings of city walls, many pieces of which still survive. The first ring surrounded the ancient core of the Phoenician city – the so-called Palaeopolis (in the area east of Porta Nuova) and the Neapolis. Via Vittorio Emanuele was the main road east–west through this early walled city. The eastern edge of the walled city was on Via Roma and the ancient port in the vicinity of Piazza Marina. The wall circuit was approximately Porto Nuovo, Corso Alberti, Piazza Peranni, Via Isodoro, Via Candela, Via Venezia, Via Roma, Piazza Paninni, Via Biscottari, Via Del Bastione, Palazzo dei Normanni and back to Porto Nuovo. In the medieval period the walled city was expanded. Via Vittorio Emanuele continued to be the main road east–west through the walled city. The west gate was still Porta Nuova, the walls continued to Corso Alberti, to Piazza Vittorio Emanuele Orlando where it turned east along Via Volturno to Piazza Verdi and along the line of Via Cavour. At this northeast corner there was a defence, Castello a Mare, to protect the port at La Cala. A huge chain was used to block La Cala with the other end at Santa Maria della Catena (St Mary of the Chain). The sea-side wall was along the western side of Foro Italico Umberto. The wall turns west along the northern side of Via Abramo Lincoln, continues along Corso Tukory. The wall turns north approximately on Via Benedetto, to Palazzo dei Normanni
Palazzo dei Normanni
and back to Porta Nuova.[18] Several gates in the city wall survive. Images of the wall can be seen here.[19] Opera houses[edit]

Teatro Massimo
Teatro Massimo
opera house.

Teatro Politeama.

Up until the beginning of 20th century there were hundreds of small opera theatres known as magazzeni in the city of Palermo.

The Teatro Massimo
Teatro Massimo
("Greatest Theatre") was opened in 1897. It is the biggest in Italy
Italy
(8,000 m2, 86,000 sq ft), and one of the largest of Europe (the third after the Paris Opera
Paris Opera
and the Vienna State Opera), renowned for its perfect acoustics. Enrico Caruso
Enrico Caruso
sang in a performance of La Gioconda during the opening season, returning for Rigoletto
Rigoletto
at the very end of his career. Closed for renovation from 1974 until 1997, it is now restored and has an active schedule. The Teatro Politeama was built between 1867 and 1874.

Squares[edit]

Quattro Canti.

Piazza Pretoria.

Quattro Canti
Quattro Canti
is a small square at the crossing of the ancient main roads (now: Corso Vittorio Emanuele and Via Maqueda) dividing the town into its quarters (mandamenti). The buildings at the corner have diagonal baroque façades so the square has an almost octagonal form. Piazza Pretoria
Piazza Pretoria
was planned in the 16th century near the Quattro Canti as the site of a fountain by Francesco Camilliani, the Fontana Pretoria

Other sights[edit]

Palermo
Palermo
Botanical Garden: the Winter Garden greenhouses.

The cathedral has a heliometer (solar observatory) dating to 1690, one of a number[20] built in Italy
Italy
in the 17th and 18th centuries. The device itself is quite simple: a tiny hole in one of the minor domes acts as pinhole camera, projecting an image of the sun onto the floor at solar noon (12:00 in winter, 13:00 in summer). There is a bronze line, la Meridiana, on the floor, running precisely north–south. The ends of the line mark the positions as at the summer and winter solstices; signs of the zodiac show the various other dates throughout the year. The purpose of the instrument was to standardise the measurement of time and the calendar. The convention in Sicily
Sicily
had been that the (24‑hour) day was measured from the moment of dawn, which of course meant that no two locations had the same time and, more importantly, did not have the same time as in St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica
in Rome. It was also important to know when the vernal equinox occurred, to provide the correct date for Easter. The Orto botanico di Palermo
Orto botanico di Palermo
( Palermo
Palermo
Botanical Garden), founded in 1785, is the largest in Italy
Italy
with a surface of 10 hectares (25 acres). One site of interest is the Capuchin Catacombs, with many mummified corpses in varying degrees of preservation. Close to the city is the 600-metre-high (2,000 ft) Monte Pellegrino, offering a panorama of the city, its surrounding mountains and the sea. Another good panoramic viewpoint is the promontory of Monte Gallo (586 m, 1,923 ft), near Mondello
Mondello
Beach.[21] UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites[edit] UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites include the Palazzo Reale with the Cappella Palatina, the Chiesa di San Giovanni degli Eremiti, the Chiesa di Santa Maria dell’Ammiraglio, the Chiesa di San Cataldo, the Cattedrale di Palermo, the Palazzo della Zisa and the Ponte dell’Ammiraglio.[22][23][24] This makes Italy
Italy
the country with the most UNESCO
UNESCO
world heritage sites,[25][26] and Sicily
Sicily
the region hosting the most within Italy.[27]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1861 199,911 —    

1871 223,689 +11.9%

1881 244,898 +9.5%

1901 309,566 +26.4%

1911 339,465 +9.7%

1921 397,486 +17.1%

1931 379,905 −4.4%

1936 411,879 +8.4%

1951 490,692 +19.1%

1961 587,985 +19.8%

1971 642,814 +9.3%

1981 701,782 +9.2%

1991 698,556 −0.5%

2001 686,722 −1.7%

2008 (Est.) 659,623 −3.9%

Source: ISTAT 2001

In 2010, there were 1.2 million people living in the greater Palermo
Palermo
area, 655,875 of which resided in the City boundaries, of whom 47.4% were male and 52.6% were female. People under age 15 totalled 15.6% compared to pensioners who composed 17.2% of the population. This compares with the Italian average of 14.1% people under 15 years and 20.2% pensioners. The average age of a Palermo
Palermo
resident is 40.4 compared to the Italian average of 42.8. In the ten years between 2001 and 2010, the population of Palermo
Palermo
declined by 4.5%, while the population of Italy, as a whole, grew by 6.0%. The reason for Palermo's decline is a population flight to the suburbs, and to Northern Italy.[28] The current birth rate of Palermo
Palermo
is 10.2 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.3 births. As of 2006[update], 97.79% of the population was of Italian descent. The largest immigrant group came from South Asia
South Asia
(mostly from Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Sri Lanka): 0.80%, other European countries (mostly from Albania, Romania, Serbia, Macedonia and Ukraine): 0.3%, and North Africa (mostly from Tunisia): 0.28%.[29]

2015 largest resident foreign-born groups[30]

Country of birth Population

 Bangladesh 5,567

 Sri Lanka 3,846

 Romania 3,056

 Ghana 2,803

 Philippines 1,757

 Morocco 1,295

 Tunisia 1,184

 China 1,135

 Mauritius 1,034

other countries each <600

History[edit] Main articles: History
History
of Palermo
Palermo
and Timeline of Palermo Early history[edit]

Mesolithic
Mesolithic
cave art at Addaura.

Evidence of human settlement in the area now known as Palermo
Palermo
goes back to at least the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
period, perhaps around 8000 BC, where a group of cave drawings at nearby Addaura
Addaura
from that period have been found.[31] The original inhabitants were Sicani
Sicani
people who, according to Thucydides, arrived from the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
(perhaps Catalonia).[32][33] Ancient period[edit]

A brief stretch of Palermo's Phoenician defence wall, now enclosed in the Santa Caterina Monastery.

During 734 BC the Phoenicians, a sea trading people from the north of ancient Canaan, built a small settlement on the natural harbor of Palermo. Some sources suggest they named the settlement Ziz.[34] It became one of the three main Phoenician colonies of Sicily, along with Motya
Motya
and Soluntum. However, the remains of the Phoenician presence in the city are few and mostly preserved in the very populated center of the downtown area, making any excavation efforts costly and logistically difficult. The site chosen by the Phoenicians
Phoenicians
made it easy to connect the port to the mountains with a straight road that today has become Corso Calatifimi. This road helped the Phoenicians
Phoenicians
in trading with the populations that lived beyond the mountains that surround the gulf. The first settlement is known as Paleapolis (Παλεάπολις), the Ancient Greek word for "old city", in order to distinguish it from a second settlement built during the 5th century BC, called Neapolis (Νεάπολις), "new city". Neapolis was erected towards the east and along with it, monumental walls around the whole settlement were built to prevent attacks from foreign threats. Some part of this structure can still be seen in the Cassaro district. This district was named after the walls themselves; the word Cassaro deriving from the Arab
Arab
al-qaṣr (castle, stronghold, see also alcázar). Along the walls there were few doors to access and exit the city, suggesting that trade even toward the inner part of the island occurred frequently. Moreover, according to some studies, it may be possible that there were some walls that divided the old city from the new one too. The colony developed around a central street (decumanus), cut perpendicularly by minor streets. This street today has become Corso Vittorio Emanuele. Carthage
Carthage
was Palermo’s major trading partner under the Phoenicians and the city enjoyed a prolonged peace during this period. Palermo came into contact with the Ancient Greeks
Greeks
between the 6th and the 5th centuries BC which preceded the Sicilian Wars, a conflict fought between the Greeks
Greeks
of Syracuse and the Phoenicians
Phoenicians
of Carthage
Carthage
for control over the island of Sicily. During this war the Greeks
Greeks
named the settlement Panormos (Πάνορμος) from which the current name is derived, meaning "all port" due to the shape of its coast. It was from Palermo
Palermo
that Hamilcar I's fleet (which was defeated at the Battle of Himera) was launched.[35] In 409 BC the city was looted by Hermocrates
Hermocrates
of Syracuse. The Sicilian Wars
Sicilian Wars
ended in 265 BC when Carthage
Carthage
and Syracuse stopped warring and united in order to stop the Romans from gaining full control of the island during the First Punic War. In 276 BC,[36] during the Pyrrhic War, Panormos briefly became a Greek colony after being conquered by Pyrrhus of Epirus, but returned to Phoenician Carthage
Carthage
in 275 BC. In 254 BC Panormos was besieged and conquered by the Romans in the first battle of Panormus (the name Latin name). Carthage
Carthage
attempted to reconquer Panormus in 251 BC but failed. Middle Ages[edit]

San Giovanni degli Eremiti, a church showing elements of Byzantine, Arabic, and Norman architecture.

See also: Byzantine Empire, Emirate
Emirate
of Sicily, and Kingdom of Sicily As the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
was falling apart, Palermo
Palermo
fell under the control of several Germanic tribes. The first were the Vandals
Vandals
in 440 AD under the rule of their king Geiseric. The Vandals
Vandals
had occupied all the Roman provinces in North Africa by 455 establishing themselves as a significant force.[37] They acquired Corsica, Sardinia
Sardinia
and Sicily shortly afterwards. However, they soon lost these newly acquired possessions to the Ostrogoths. The Ostrogothic conquest under Theodoric the Great
Theodoric the Great
began in 488; Theodoric supported Roman culture and government unlike the Germanic Goths.[38] The Gothic War took place between the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
and the Eastern Roman Empire, also known as the Byzantine Empire. Sicily
Sicily
was the first part of Italy
Italy
to be taken under control of General Belisarius
Belisarius
who was commissioned by Eastern Emperor. Justinian I
Justinian I
solidified his rule in the following years.[39][40]

Cappella Palatina, decorated with Byzantine, Arabic and Norman elements.

The Arabs
Arabs
took control of the island in 904, and the Emirate
Emirate
of Sicily was established.[41] Muslim
Muslim
rule on the island lasted for about 120 years [clarification needed].[42][page needed] Palermo (Bal'harm during Arab
Arab
rule) displaced Syracuse as the capital of Sicily. It was said to have then begun to compete with Córdoba and Cairo
Cairo
in terms of importance and splendor.[43] For more than a hundred years Palermo
Palermo
was the capital of a flourishing emirate.[44] The Arabs also introduced many agricultural crops which remain a mainstay of Sicilian cuisine.[37]

Arabesque
Arabesque
on a wall of the Cuba
Cuba
Palace.

After dynastic quarrels however, there was a Christian reconquest in 1072. The family who returned the city to Christianity
Christianity
were called the Hautevilles, including Robert Guiscard
Robert Guiscard
and his army, who is regarded as a hero by the natives.[41][45] It was under Roger II of Sicily
Sicily
that Norman holdings in Sicily
Sicily
and the southern part of the Italian Peninsula were promoted from the County of Sicily
Sicily
into the Kingdom of Sicily. The kingdom's capital was Palermo, with the King's Court held at the Palazzo dei Normanni. Much construction was undertaken during this period, such as the building of Palermo
Palermo
Cathedral. The Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
became one of the wealthiest states in Europe.[46] Sicily
Sicily
fell under the control of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in 1194. Palermo
Palermo
was the preferred city of the Emperor Frederick II. Muslims of Palermo
Palermo
emigrated or were expelled during Holy Roman rule. After an interval of Angevin rule (1266–1282), Sicily
Sicily
came under control of the Aragon and Barcelona dynasties. By 1330, Palermo's population had declined to 51,000.[47] From 1479 until 1713 Palermo
Palermo
was ruled by the Kingdom of Spain, and again between 1717 and 1718. Palermo
Palermo
was also under Savoy
Savoy
control between 1713 and 1717 and 1718–1720 as a result of the Treaty of Utrecht. It was also ruled by Austria
Austria
between 1720 and 1734. Two Sicilies[edit] After the Treaty of Utrecht
Treaty of Utrecht
(1713), Sicily
Sicily
was handed over to the House of Savoy, but by 1734 it was in Bourbon possession. Charles III chose Palermo
Palermo
for his coronation as King of Sicily. Charles had new houses built for the growing population, while trade and industry grew as well. However, by now Palermo
Palermo
was now just another provincial city as the Royal Court resided in Naples. Charles' son Ferdinand, though disliked by the population, took refuge in Palermo
Palermo
after the French Revolution in 1798. His son Alberto died on the way to Palermo
Palermo
and is buried in the city. When the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
was founded, the original capital city was Palermo
Palermo
(1816) but a year later moved to Naples.

The revolution in Palermo
Palermo
(12 January 1848).

From 1820 to 1848 Sicily
Sicily
was shaken by upheavals, which culminated on 12 January 1848, with a popular insurrection, the first one in Europe that year, led by Giuseppe La Masa. A parliament and constitution were proclaimed. The first president was Ruggero Settimo. The Bourbons reconquered Palermo
Palermo
in 1849, and remained under their rule until the time of Giuseppe Garibaldi. The famous general entered Palermo
Palermo
with his troops (the “Thousands”) on 27 May 1860. After the plebiscite later that year Palermo, along with the rest of Sicily, became part of the new Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(1861). Italian unification and today[edit]

Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi
entering Palermo
Palermo
on 27 May 1860

The majority of Sicilians
Sicilians
preferred independence to the Savoy
Savoy
kingdom; in 1866, Palermo
Palermo
became the seat of a week-long popular rebellion, which was finally crushed after Martial law
Martial law
was declared.[48] The Italian government blamed anarchists and the Church, specifically the Archbishop of Palermo, for the rebellion and began enacting anti-Sicilian and anti-clerical policies.[48] A new cultural, economic and industrial growth was spurred by several families, like the Florio, the Ducrot, the Rutelli, the Sandron, the Whitaker, the Utveggio, and others. In the early twentieth century, Palermo
Palermo
expanded outside the old city walls, mostly to the north along the new boulevards Via Roma, Via Dante, Via Notarbartolo, and Viale della Libertà. These roads would soon boast a huge number of villas in the Art
Art
Nouveau style. Many of these were designed by the famous architect Ernesto Basile. The Grand Hotel Villa Igiea, designed by Ernesto Basile for the Florio family, is a good example of Palermitan Art Nouveau. The huge Teatro Massimo
Teatro Massimo
was designed in the same period by Giovan Battista Filippo Basile, and built by the Rutelli
Rutelli
& Machì building firm of the industrial and old Rutelli
Rutelli
Italian family in Palermo, and was opened in 1897. During the Second World War, Palermo
Palermo
was untouched until the Allied invasion of Sicily
Sicily
in 1943. In July, the harbour and the surrounding quarters were heavily bombed by the Allied forces and were all but destroyed. In 1946 the city was declared the seat of the Regional Parliament, as capital of a Special
Special
Status Region (1947) whose seat is in the Palazzo dei Normanni. A theme in the city's modern age has been the struggle against the Mafia, Red Brigades
Red Brigades
and outlaws such as Salvatore Giuliano, who controlled the neighbouring area of Montelepre. The Italian state effectively has had to share control of the territory, economically and administratively, with the Mafia. The so-called "Sack of Palermo" is one of the major visible faces of the problem. The term is used to indicate the speculative building practices that have filled the city with poor buildings, mainly during the 1950s to the 1980s. The reduced importance of agriculture in the Sicilian economy has led to a massive migration to the cities, especially Palermo, which swelled in size, leading to rapid expansion towards the north. The regulatory plans for expansion was largely ignored in the boom. New parts of town appeared almost out of nowhere, but without parks, schools, public buildings, proper roads and the other amenities that characterise a modern city. Culture[edit] Religion[edit] Patron saints[edit]

Genius of Palermo, the ancient patron of the city.

The patron saint of Palermo
Palermo
is Saint Rosalia, who is widely revered. On 14 July, people in Palermo
Palermo
celebrate the annual Festino, the most important religious event of the year. The Festino is a procession which goes through the main street of Palermo
Palermo
to commemorate the miracle attributed to Saint Rosalia
Saint Rosalia
who, it is believed, freed the city from the Black Death
Black Death
in 1624. Her remains were discovered in a cave on Monte Pellegrino, and her remains were carried around the city three times, banishing the plague. There is a sanctuary marking the spot where her remains were found which can be reached via a scenic bus ride from the city. Before 1624 Palermo
Palermo
had four patron saints, one for each of the four major parts of the city. They were Saint Agatha, Saint Christina, Saint Nympha and Saint Olivia. Saint Lucy
Saint Lucy
is also honoured with a peculiar celebration, during which the inhabitants of Palermo
Palermo
do not eat anything made with flour, but boil wheat in its natural state and use it to prepare a special dish called cuccìa. This commemorates the saving of the city from famine due to a miracle attributed to Saint Lucy; A ship full of grain mysteriously arrived in the city's harbour and the hungry population wasted no time in making flour but ate the grain as it arrived. Saint Benedict the Moor
Saint Benedict the Moor
is the heavenly protector of the city of Palermo. The ancient patron of the city was the Genius of Palermo, genius loci and numen protector of the place, that became the laic patron of the modern Palermo.[49] Sports[edit]

Stadio Renzo Barbera

Palermo
Palermo
hosts a professional football team, U.S. Citta di Palermo, commonly referred to as simply Palermo, who compete in Serie B, having been relegated to Serie B
Serie B
after the 2016-2017 season. The Targa Florio was an open road endurance car race held near Palermo. Founded in 1906, it used to be one of the oldest sports car racing events until it was discontinued in 1977 due to safety concerns but has since run as a rallying event. Palermo
Palermo
was home to the grand depart of the 2008 Giro d'Italia. The initial stage was a 28.5-kilometre-long (17.7 mi) TTT (Team Time Trial). The Internazionali Femminili di Palermo is an annual ladies professional tennis event held in the city, which is part of the WTA Tour. Economy
Economy
and infrastructure[edit] Being Sicily's administrative capital, Palermo
Palermo
is a centre for much of the region's finance, tourism and commerce. The city currently hosts an international airport,[50] and Palermo's economic growth over the years has brought the opening of many new businesses. The economy mainly relies on tourism and services, but also has commerce, shipbuilding and agriculture.[51] The city, however, still has high unemployment levels, high corruption and a significant black market empire ( Palermo
Palermo
being the home of the Sicilian Mafia). Even though the city still suffers from widespread corruption, inefficient bureaucracy and organized crime, the level of crime in Palermo
Palermo
has gone down dramatically, unemployment has been decreasing and many new, profitable opportunities for growth (especially regarding tourism) have been introduced, making the city safer and better to live in.[51] Public transport[edit] Palermo
Palermo
has a local railway called the Palermo
Palermo
metropolitan railway service.[52]

Trains at Punta Raisi

Palermo's public bus system is operated by AMAT which covers a net area of 340 km (211 mi). About 90 different routes reach every part of the city.[53] Palermo
Palermo
has a public tram system finalized in 2015 and operated by AMAT. There are 4 lines:

Roccella — Central Station Borgo Nuovo — Notarbartolo Station CEP — Notarbartolo Station Corso Calatafimi — Notarbartolo Station

The local coach company, AST, with its coaches totalling 35 lines, links Palermo
Palermo
to all of the main cities in Sicily. Palermo
Palermo
Public Transportation Statistics[edit] The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Palermo, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 63 min. 14.% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 23 min, while 48% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 4.4 km, while 3% travel for over 12 km in a single direction. [54] Roads[edit]

A20 that connects Palermo
Palermo
to Catania

Palermo
Palermo
is a key intersection on the Sicilian road network, being the junction between the eastern A19 motorway to Trapani, the southeastern A29 to airport and Mazzara del Vallo
Mazzara del Vallo
and the southwestern A19 to Messina
Messina
and A20 to Catania. Palermo
Palermo
is one of the main cities on European route E90. The three main national roads starting from Palermo
Palermo
are the SS113, SS121, SS186 and the SS624. Airports[edit] Palermo
Palermo
International Airport, known as Falcone-Borsellino Airport (formerly Punta Raisi
Punta Raisi
Airport), is located 32 km (20 mi) west of Palermo. It is dedicated to Giovanni Falcone
Giovanni Falcone
and Paolo Borsellino, two anti-mafia judges killed by the mafia in the early 1990s. The airport's rail facility, known as Punta Raisi
Punta Raisi
railway station, can be reached from Palermo
Palermo
Centrale, Palermo
Palermo
Notarbartolo and Palermo Francia railway stations. Palermo-Boccadifalco Airport
Palermo-Boccadifalco Airport
is the second airport of the city. Port[edit]

The port of Palermo

The port of Palermo, founded by the Phoenicians
Phoenicians
over 2,700 years ago, is, together with the port of Messina, the main port of Sicily. From here ferries link Palermo
Palermo
to Cagliari, Genoa, Livorno, Naples, Tunis
Tunis
and other cities and carry a total of almost 2 million passengers annually. It is also an important port for cruise ships. Traffic includes also almost 5 million tonnes (5.5 million short tons) of cargo and 80,000 TEUs yearly.[55] The port also has links to minor Sicilian islands such as Ustica
Ustica
and the Aeolian Islands (via Cefalù
Cefalù
in summer). Inside the Port of Palermo
Port of Palermo
there is a section known as "tourist marina" for sailing yachts and catamarans. National rail[edit] The main railway station of Palermo
Palermo
is Palermo
Palermo
Centrale which links to the other cities of Sicily, including Agrigento, Trapani
Trapani
and Catania, and through Messina
Messina
and the strait to the rest of Italy. The railways also connect to the Palermo
Palermo
airport with departures every thirty minutes. Education[edit] The local university is the University of Palermo, the island's second oldest university. It was officially founded in 1806, although historical records indicate that medicine and law have been taught there since the late 15th century. The Orto botanico di Palermo ( Palermo
Palermo
botanical gardens) is home to the university's Department of Botany and is also open to visitors. International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Palermo
Palermo
is twinned with:

Bizerte, Tunisia Bukavu, Democratic Republic of the Congo Chengdu, China Gdańsk, Poland Hanoi, Vietnam Khan Younis, Gaza, Palestine Miami, Florida, United States[56] Monterey, California, United States Montpellier, France Palermo, Colombia Pistoia, Tuscany, Italy Rijeka, Croatia Samara, Russia Santiago de Cuba, Cuba Tbilisi, Georgia[57] Timișoara, Romania Utica, New York, United States Valletta, Malta Vilnius, Lithuania Yaroslavl, Russia Zagreb, Croatia

Notable people[edit]

Mario Balotelli, footballer Mario Bardi, painter Paolo Borsellino, judge Giovanni Falcone, judge Ugo La Malfa, politician Sergio Mattarella, politician Salvatore Schillaci, footballer

Gallery[edit]

This section contains what may be an unencyclopedic or excessive gallery of images. Galleries containing indiscriminate images of the article subject are discouraged; please improve or remove the section accordingly. (January 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

See also[edit]

Italy
Italy
portal

Outline of Palermo Arab-Norman Palermo
Palermo
and the Cathedral Churches of Cefalù
Cefalù
and Monreale List of mayors of Palermo Hugo Falcandus

References[edit]

^ Trabia, Carlo. "Discovering the Kalsa". Best of Sicily. Retrieved December 26, 2017.  ^ Mendola, L. "Sicilian Peoples: The Arabs". The Muslim
Muslim
Times. Retrieved December 26, 2017.  ^ "Travel: Palermo, Sicily". Sicilian Culture. 2002-03-09. Archived from the original on 2010-11-28. Retrieved 2010-04-20.  ^ "Sicily". europa.eu. Retrieved 2017-08-01.  ^ php Capital dell'euromediterraneo for redevelopment, development and promotion of the metropolitan area of Palermo[dead link] ^ Pergament, Danielle (8 January 2008). "In Palermo, Life Vibrates in a Fading Market". NYTimes.com. Retrieved 21 May 2010.  ^ http://www.palermo.climatemps.com/ ^ http://www.meteoservice.net/dossier-neve-a-palermo-nel-1986-nevico-persino-a-natale/ ^ http://www.italyheritage.com/magazine/articles/history/1956-snow.htm ^ http://meteolive.leonardo.it/news/In-primo-piano/2/tutte-le-nevicate-su-palermo-/364/ ^ " Palermo
Palermo
Climate Guide".  ^ "Palermo/Boccadifalco (PA) 117 m. - Servizio Meteorologico dell'Aeronautica Militare, 1971-2000" (PDF).  ^ "Archivio Meteo Palermo". www.ilmeteo.it. Retrieved September 5, 2017.  ^ "Quartieri". Palapa.it. 8 January 2008.  ^ Kitzinger, Mosaics, 29–30. ^ "Theft of Caravaggio's Nativity with San Lorenzo and San Francesco". Fbi.gov. 2012-09-17. Retrieved 2017-05-09.  ^ Sooke, Alastair (23 December 2013). "Caravaggio's Nativity: Hunting a stolen masterpiece". BBC website. Retrieved 24 December 2013.  ^ Palermo
Palermo
- City Guide by Adriana Chirco, 1998, Dario Flaccovio Editore. ^ "Picasa Web Albums - Kevin Flude - Palermo
Palermo
City". Picasaweb.google.com. 2012-04-01. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  ^ "A paper from University of Bologna
Bologna
describing Heliometers in Italian Cathedrals". Cis.alma.unibo.it. 1995-12-06. Archived from the original on 2011-04-13. Retrieved 2011-04-03.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2015-05-02.  ^ " Palermo
Palermo
and its Arab- Norman architecture
Norman architecture
become UNESCO
UNESCO
heritage site". Retrieved 2015-07-08.  ^ Centre, UNESCO. "Sites in Italy, Jordan and Saudi Arabia inscribed on UNESCO's World Heritage List". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2015-07-08.  ^ Centre, UNESCO. "Arab-Norman Palermo
Palermo
and the Cathedral Churches of Cefalú and Monreale
Monreale
- UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 2015-07-08.  ^ http://www.thesalmons.org/lynn/world.heritage.html ^ https://top5ofanything.com/list/28beede4/Countries-with-the-Most-UNESCO-World-Heritage-Sites- ^ http://www.touringclub.it/notizie-di-viaggio/nuovi-siti-unesco-per-litalia-diventano-patrimonio-dellumanita-la-palermo-arabo ^ "Informazioni, CAP e dati utili". Comuni-Italiani.it. Retrieved 2011-08-29.  ^ http://demo.istat.it/str2006/dati/Palermo.zip ^ "Cittadini Stranieri - Palermo". Comuni-Italiani.it. Retrieved 25 March 2018. Residenti Stranieri per Nazionalità (2015)  ^ Sandars, Nancy K., Prehistoric Art
Art
in Europe, Penguin (Pelican, now Yale, History
History
of Art), 1968 (nb 1st edn.), pp. 85-86 ^ "Sicily: Encyclopedia II – Sicily
Sicily
– History". Experience Festival. 7 October 2007. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013.  ^ "Aapologetico de la literatura española contra los opiniones". Ensayo historico. 7 October 2007.  ^ " History
History
of Palermo". ItalyTravelEscape.com. 7 October 2007.  ^ "Destiny of a King's Capital". BestofSicily.com. 7 October 2007.  ^ "Panormos Info". Bio.vu.nl. 7 October 2007. Archived from the original on 24 November 2004.  ^ a b Privitera, Joseph. Sicily: An Illustrated History. Hippocrene Books. ISBN 978-0-7818-0909-2.  ^ "Theodoric". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 October 2007.  ^ Hearder, Harry. Italy: A Short History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-33719-9.  ^ "The Greek and Byzantine Roots of Palermo". HellenicComserve.com. 7 October 2007.  ^ a b "Brief history of Sicily" (PDF). Archaeology. Stanford.edu. 7 October 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 9, 2007.  ^ https://archive.org/details/storiadeimusulm01amargoog ^ Of Italy, Touring Club (2005). Authentic Sicily. Touring Editore. ISBN 88-365-3403-1.  ^ Joseph Strayer, Dictionary of the Middle Ages, Scribner, 1987, t.9, p.352 ^ Appleton, The World in the Middle Ages, 100. ^ John Julius, Norwich. The Normans in Sicily: The Normans in the South 1016–1130 and the Kingdom in the Sun 1130–1194. Penguin Global. ISBN 978-0-14-015212-8.  ^ J. Bradford De Long and Andrei Shleifer (October 1993). "Princes and Merchants: European City Growth before the Industrial Revolution" (PDF). The Journal of Law and Economics. University of Chicago Press. 36 (2): 671–702 [678]. doi:10.1086/467294  ^ a b Lucy Riall (12 March 1998). Sicily
Sicily
and the Unification of Italy : Liberal Policy and Local Power, 1859-1866: Liberal Policy and Local Power, 1859-1866. Clarendon Press. pp. 198–. ISBN 978-0-19-154261-9.  ^ (in Italian) Alberto Samonà. Il Genio di Palermo
Palermo
e il Monte Pellegrino. Retrieved 2 September 2010. ^ " Palermo
Palermo
Falcone Borsellino Airport (PMO) Information: Airport in Punta Raisi
Punta Raisi
Area, Italy". Palermo-pmo.airports-guides.com. Retrieved 2010-04-20.  ^ a b "The Sunday Times guide: Palermo". Bcg.thetimes.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2013-01-09. Retrieved 2011-04-03.  ^ " Palermo
Palermo
Subway Metro Light Rail". Subways.net. Retrieved 2010-04-20.  ^ See (in Italian) Transport net by AMAT ^ " Palermo
Palermo
Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, 2017.  Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. ^ See (in Italian) table from assoporti.it[permanent dead link] ^ "Sister Cities: Miami
Miami
Florida, Palermo
Palermo
Italy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 28 February 2015.  ^ " Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Sister Cities". Tbilisi
Tbilisi
City Hall. Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Municipal Portal. Archived from the original on 2013-07-24. Retrieved 2013-08-05.  External link in work= (help)

Sources[edit] See also: Bibliography of Palermo (it)

Fabbri, Patrizia (2005). Palermo
Palermo
e Monreale. Florence: Bonechi.  Almsaodi, Aymn. The Desert Race.  Appleton, D (2005). The World in the Middle Ages. University of Michigan.  Langdale, Allan (2015). Palermo: Travels in the City of Happiness. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutPalermoat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Official website (in Italian) Tourist Information Centre Palermo
Palermo
Tourist Board Palermo
Palermo
Coupon Things to do in Palermo Palermo
Palermo
capitale italiana della cultura 2018

v t e

Comuni of the Metropolitan City of Palermo

Alia Alimena Aliminusa Altavilla Milicia Altofonte Bagheria Balestrate Baucina Belmonte Mezzagno Bisacquino Blufi Bolognetta Bompietro Borgetto Caccamo Caltavuturo Campofelice di Fitalia Campofelice di Roccella Campofiorito Camporeale Capaci Carini Castelbuono Casteldaccia Castellana Sicula Castronovo di Sicilia Cefalà Diana Cefalù Cerda Chiusa Sclafani Ciminna Cinisi Collesano Contessa Entellina Corleone Ficarazzi Gangi Geraci Siculo Giardinello Giuliana Godrano Gratteri Isnello Isola delle Femmine Lascari Lercara Friddi Marineo Mezzojuso Misilmeri Monreale Montelepre Montemaggiore Belsito Palazzo Adriano Palermo Partinico Petralia Soprana Petralia Sottana Piana degli Albanesi Polizzi Generosa Pollina Prizzi Roccamena Roccapalumba San Cipirello San Giuseppe Jato San Mauro Castelverde Santa Cristina Gela Santa Flavia Sciara Scillato Sclafani Bagni Termini Imerese Terrasini Torretta Trabia Trappeto Ustica Valledolmo Ventimiglia di Sicilia Vicari Villabate Villafrati

v t e

Regional capitals of Italy

   

L'Aquila, Abruzzo Aosta, Aosta
Aosta
Valley Bari, Apulia Potenza, Basilicata

Catanzaro, Calabria Naples, Campania Bologna, Emilia-Romagna Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia

Rome, Lazio Genoa, Liguria Milan, Lombardy Ancona, Marche

Campobasso, Molise Turin, Piedmont Cagliari, Sardinia Palermo, Sicily

Trento, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol Florence, Tuscany Perugia, Umbria Venice, Veneto

v t e

Cities in Italy
Italy
by population

1,000,000+

Rome Milan

500,000+

Naples Turin Palermo Genoa

200,000+

Bari Bologna Catania Florence Messina Padua Trieste Venice Verona

100,000+

Ancona Andria Arezzo Bergamo Bolzano Brescia Cagliari Ferrara Foggia Forlì Giugliano Latina Livorno Modena Monza Novara Parma Perugia Pescara Piacenza Prato Ravenna Reggio Calabria Reggio Emilia Rimini Salerno Sassari Syracuse Taranto Terni Trento Udine Vicenza

v t e

Phoenician cities and colonies

Algeria

Cirta Malaca Igigili Hippo Regius Icosium Iol Tipasa Timgad

Cyprus

Kition Dhali Marion

Greece

Callista Paxi Rhodes

Italy

Karalis Lilybaeum Motya Neapolis Nora Olbia Panormus Solki Soluntum Tharros

Lebanon

Amia Ampi Arqa Baalbek Berut Botrys Gebal Sarepta Sur Sydon Tripolis

Libya

Leptis Magna Oea Sabratha

Malta

Gozo Għajn Qajjet Mtarfa Maleth Ras il-Wardija Tas-Silġ

Mauritania / Morocco

Cerne  /  Arambys Caricus Murus Chellah Lixus Tingis

Israel

Achziv Acre Arsuf Caesarea

Portugal

Olissipona Ossonoba

Spain

Abdera Abyla Akra Leuke Gadir Herna Ibossim Sa Caleta, Ibiza Mahón Malaca Onoba Qart Hadašt Rusadir Sexi Tyreche

Syria

Amrit Arwad Safita Shuksi Ugarit

Tunisia

Carthage Hadrumetum Hippo Diarrhytus Kelibia Kerkouane Leptis Parva Sicca Thanae Thapsus Utica

Turkey / others

Myriandrus Phoenicus  /  Gibraltar

v t e

Cities in Italy
Italy
by population

1,000,000+

Rome Milan

500,000+

Naples Turin Palermo Genoa

200,000+

Bari Bologna Catania Florence Messina Padua Trieste Venice Verona

100,000+

Ancona Andria Arezzo Bergamo Bolzano Brescia Cagliari Ferrara Foggia Forlì Giugliano Latina Livorno Modena Monza Novara Parma Perugia Pescara Piacenza Prato Ravenna Reggio Calabria Reggio Emilia Rimini Salerno Sassari Syracuse Taranto Terni Trento Udine Vicenza

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Italy

Northwest

Crespi d'Adda Genoa Mantua
Mantua
and Sabbioneta Monte San Giorgio1 Porto Venere, Palmaria, Tino and Tinetto, Cinque Terre

Corniglia Manarola Monterosso al Mare Riomaggiore Vernazza

Residences of the Royal House of Savoy

Castle of Moncalieri Castle of Racconigi Castle of Rivoli Castello del Valentino Royal Palace
Palace
of Turin Palazzo Carignano Palazzo Madama, Turin Palace
Palace
of Venaria Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi Villa della Regina

Rhaetian Railway
Rhaetian Railway
in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes1 Rock Drawings in Valcamonica Sacri Monti of Piedmont
Piedmont
and Lombardy Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan Vineyard Landscape of Piedmont: Langhe- Roero
Roero
and Monferrato

Northeast

Aquileia The Dolomites Ferrara Modena
Modena
Cathedral, Torre della Ghirlandina
Torre della Ghirlandina
and Piazza Grande, Modena Orto botanico di Padova Ravenna Venice Verona City of Vicenza
Vicenza
and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto

Central

Assisi Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi Etruscan Necropolises of Cerveteri
Cerveteri
and Tarquinia Florence Hadrian's Villa Medici villas Piazza del Duomo, Pisa Pienza Rome2 San Gimignano Siena Urbino Val d'Orcia Villa d'Este

South

Alberobello Amalfi Coast Castel del Monte, Apulia Cilento
Cilento
and Vallo di Diano
Vallo di Diano
National Park, Paestum
Paestum
and Velia, Certosa di Padula Herculaneum Oplontis
Oplontis
and Villa Poppaea Naples Palace
Palace
of Caserta, Aqueduct of Vanvitelli
Aqueduct of Vanvitelli
and San Leucio
San Leucio
Complex Pompeii Sassi di Matera

Islands

Aeolian Islands Arab-Norman Palermo
Palermo
and the Cathedral Churches of Cefalù
Cefalù
and Monreale Archaeological Area of Agrigento Barumini nuraghes Mount Etna Syracuse and Necropolis of Pantalica Val di Noto

Caltagirone Catania Militello in Val di Catania Modica Noto Palazzolo Acreide Ragusa Scicli

Villa Romana del Casale

Countrywide

Longobards in Italy, Places of Power (568–774 A.D.)

Brescia Cividale del Friuli Castelseprio Spoleto Temple of Clitumnus
Temple of Clitumnus
located at Campello sul Clitunno Santa Sofia located at Benevento Sanctuary
Sanctuary
of Monte Sant'Angelo
Monte Sant'Angelo
located at Monte Sant'Angelo

Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3 Primeval Beech Forests of Europe4 Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries5

Bergamo Palmanova Peschiera del Garda

1 Shared with Switzerland 2 Shared with the Holy See 3 Shared with Austria, France, Germany, Slovenia, and Switzerland 4 Shared with Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain
Spain
and Ukraine 5 Shared with Croatia
Croatia
and Montenegro

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 126655748 LCCN: n79043

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