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Norman Conquest Of Southern Italy
The Norman conquest of southern Italy lasted from 999 to 1139, involving many battles and independent conquerors. In 1130, the territories in southern Italy united as the Kingdom of Sicily, which included the island of Sicily, the southern third of the Italian Peninsula (except Benevento, which was briefly held twice), the archipelago of Malta, and parts of North Africa. Itinerant Norman forces arrived in southern Italy as mercenaries in the service of Lombard and Byzantine factions, communicating news swiftly back home about opportunities in the Mediterranean. These groups gathered in several places, establishing fiefdoms and states of their own, uniting and elevating their status to ''de facto'' independence within 50 years of their arrival. Unlike the Norman Conquest of England (1066), which took a few years after one decisive battle, the conquest of southern Italy was the product of decades and a number of battles, few decisive. Many territories were conquered ...
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Kingdom Of Sicily 1154
Kingdom commonly refers to: * A monarchy ruled by a king or queen * Kingdom (biology), a category in biological taxonomy Kingdom may also refer to: Arts and media Television * ''Kingdom'' (British TV series), a 2007 British television drama starring Stephen Fry * ''Kingdom'' (American TV series), a 2014 US television drama starring Frank Grillo * ''Kingdom'' (South Korean TV series), a 2019 South Korean television series *'' Kingdom: Legendary War'', a 2021 South Korean television series Music * Kingdom (group), a South Korean boy group * ''Kingdom'' (Koda Kumi album), 2008 * ''Kingdom'' (Bilal Hassani album), 2019 * ''Kingdom'' (Covenant Worship album), 2014 * ''Kingdoms'' (Life in Your Way album), 2011 * ''Kingdoms'' (Broadway album), 2009 * ''Kingdom'' (EP), a 1998 EP by Vader * "Kingdom" (Dave Gahan song), 2007 * "Kingdom" (Maverick City Music and Kirk Franklin song), 2022 * "Kingdom", a song by Battle Beast on their 2013 album '' Battle Beast'' * "Kingdom", a so ...
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Dudo Of Saint-Quentin
Dudo, or Dudon, was a Picard historian, and dean of Saint-Quentin, where he was born about 965. Sent in 986 by Albert I, Count of Vermandois, on an errand to Richard I, Duke of Normandy, he succeeded in his mission, and, having made a very favorable impression at the Norman court, spent some years in that country. During a second stay in Normandy, Dudo wrote his history of the Normans, a task which Duke Richard had urged him to undertake. Very little else is known about his life, except that he died before 1043. ''Historia Normannorum'' Written between 996 and 1015, his ''Historia Normannorum''—also known as ''Libri III de moribus et actis primorum Normanniae ducum'' and ''Gesta Normannorum''—was dedicated to Adalberon, bishop of Laon. Dudo does not appear to have consulted any existing documents for his history, but to have obtained his information from oral tradition, much of it being supplied by Raoul, count of Ivry, a maternal half-brother of Duke Richard. Con ...
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Holy Sepulchre
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, hy, Սուրբ Հարության տաճար, la, Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri, am, የቅዱስ መቃብር ቤተክርስቲያን, he, כנסיית הקבר, ar, كنيسة القيامة is a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. According to traditions dating back to the 4th century, it contains the two holiest sites in Christianity: the site where Jesus was crucified, at a place known as Calvary or Golgotha, and Jesus's empty tomb, which is where he was buried and resurrected. Each time the church was rebuilt, some of the antiquities from the preceding structure were used in the newer renovation. The tomb itself is enclosed by a 19th-century shrine called the Aedicule. The Status Quo, an understanding between religious communities dating to 1757, applies to the site. Within the church proper are the last four stations of the Cross of the Via Dolorosa, representing the final episodes of the Passion of J ...
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Italy 1000 AD
Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic, ) or the Republic of Italy, is a country in Southern Europe. It is located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, and its territory largely coincides with the Italy (geographical region), homonymous geographical region. Italy is also considered part of Western Europe, and shares List of countries and territories by land borders, land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia and the Enclave and exclave, enclaved European microstates, microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. It has a territorial Enclave and exclave, exclave in Switzerland, Campione d'Italia, Campione. Italy covers an area of , with a population of over 60 million. It is the List of European Union member states by population, third-most populous member state of the European Union, the List of European countries by population, sixth-most populous country in Europe, and the List of European countries by area, tenth-largest country in the continent ...
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Italy Runestones
The Italy runestones are three or four Varangian runestones from 11th-century Sweden that tell of warriors who died in ''Langbarðaland'' ("Land of the Lombards"), the Old Norse name for Italy. On these rune stones it is southern Italy that is referred to''2. Runriket - Täby Kyrka''
, an online article at Stockholm County Museum, retrieved July 1, 2007.
( Langobardia), but the project renders it rather anachronistically as (see the translations of the individual stones, below). The rune st ...
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Varangians
The Varangians (; non, Væringjar; gkm, Βάραγγοι, ''Várangoi'';Varangian
" Online Etymology Dictionary
: варяже, varyazhe or варязи, varyazi) were , conquerors, traders and settlers, mostly from . Between the 9th and 11th centuries, Varangians ruled the state of



Austrvegr
The trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks was a medieval trade route that connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus' and the Eastern Roman Empire. The route allowed merchants along its length to establish a direct prosperous trade with the Empire, and prompted some of them to settle in the territories of present-day Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. The majority of the route comprised a long-distance waterway, including the Baltic Sea, several rivers flowing into the Baltic Sea, and rivers of the Dnieper river system, with portages on the drainage divides. An alternative route was along the Dniestr river with stops on the Western shore of Black Sea. These more specific sub-routes are sometimes referred to as the Dnieper trade route and Dniestr trade route, respectively. The route began in Scandinavian trading centers such as Birka, Hedeby, and Gotland, the eastern route crossed the Baltic Sea, entered the Gulf of Finland, and followed the Neva River into Lake Ladoga. Then it followe ...
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Hastein
Hastein (Old Norse: ''Hásteinn'', also recorded as ''Hastingus'', ''Anstign'', ''Haesten'', ''Hæsten'', ''Hæstenn'' or ''Hæsting'' and alias ''Alsting''Jones, Aled (2003). ''Transactions of the Royal Historical Society: Sixth Series'' Cambridge University Press p24) was a notable Viking chieftain of the late 9th century who made several raiding voyages. Early life Little is known of Hastein's early life. He is described as a Dane in the ''Anglo-Saxon Chronicle''. Hastein is credited with being involved with various raids on the Frankish Empire. He also led a great raid into the Mediterranean in 859. For indeed the Frankish nation, which was crushed by the avenger Anstign astein was very full of filthy uncleanness. Treasonous and oath-breaking, they were deservedly condemned; unbelievers and faithless, they were justly punished ... '' Dudo of St. Quentin's. Gesta Normannorum. Book 1. Chapter 3.'' Spain and the Mediterranean During 859–862, Hastein jointly led an ex ...
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Björn Ironside
according to Norse legends, was a Norse Viking chief and Swedish king. According to the 12th- and 13th-century Scandinavian histories, he was the son of notorious Viking king Ragnar Lodbrok and lived in the 9th century, between 855 and 858. Björn Ironside is said to have been the first ruler of the Swedish Munsö dynasty. In the early 18th century, a barrow on the island of Munsö was claimed by antiquarians to be ''Björn Järnsidas hög'' or Björn Ironside's barrow.Lagerquist 1997:24 Medieval sources refer to Björn Ironside's sons and grandsons, including Erik Björnsson and Björn at Haugi. Icelandic sagas claim that Björn was the ancestor of the house of Munsö, the line of kings that ruled in Sweden until c. 1060. Björn in Frankish sources "Berno" was a powerful Viking chieftain and naval commander. He appears in contemporary sources such as ''Annales Bertiniani'' and the '' Chronicon Fontanellense''. He is first mentioned in the summer of 855. The oldest text t ...
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Florence
Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central Italy and the capital city of the Tuscany Regions of Italy, region. It is the most populated city in Tuscany, with 383,083 inhabitants in 2016, and over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area.Bilancio demografico anno 2013, datISTAT/ref> Florence was a centre of Middle Ages, medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of that era. It is considered by many academics to have been the birthplace of the Renaissance, becoming a major artistic, cultural, commercial, political, economic and financial center. During this time, Florence rose to a position of enormous influence in Italy, Europe, and beyond. Its turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful House of Medici, Medici family and numerous religious and republican revolutions. From 1865 to 1871 the city served as the capital of the Kingdom of Italy (established in 1861). The Florentine dialect forms the base of Italian language, Stan ...
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Fiesole
Fiesole () is a town and ''comune'' of the Metropolitan City of Florence in the Italian region of Tuscany, on a scenic height above Florence, 5 km (3 miles) northeast of that city. It has structures dating to Etruscan and Roman times. Since the fourteenth century, the city has always been considered a getaway for members of the upper class of Florence and, up to this day, Fiesole remains noted for its very expensive residential properties, just as well as its centuries-old villas and their formal gardens. The city is generally considered to be the wealthiest and most affluent suburb of Florence. In 2016, the city had the highest median family income in the whole of Tuscany. Fiesole is a centre of higher education. The campus of the European University Institute is situated in the suburb and uses several historical buildings including the Badia Faesolina and the Villa Schifanoia. Additionally, the American universities, Harvard, Georgetown, and Saint Mary's of Minnesota ...
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