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FLORENCE (/ˈflɒrəns/ FLOR-əns ; Italian : Firenze ( listen )) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany
Tuscany
and of the Metropolitan City of Florence
Metropolitan City of Florence
. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,083 inhabitants (as at 2013), expanding to over 1,520,000 in the metropolitan area.

Florence
Florence
was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of that era. It is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance
Renaissance
, and has been called "the Athens
Athens
of the Middle Ages ". A turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family and numerous religious and republican revolutions. From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy
Italy
. The Florentine dialect forms the base of Standard Italian and it became the language of culture throughout Italy
Italy
due to the prestige of the masterpieces by Dante Alighieri , Petrarch
Petrarch
, Giovanni Boccaccio
Giovanni Boccaccio
, Niccolò Machiavelli
Niccolò Machiavelli
and Francesco Guicciardini
Francesco Guicciardini
.

The city attracts millions of tourists each year, and the Historic Centre of Florence
Florence
was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO
UNESCO
in 1982. The city is noted for its culture, Renaissance
Renaissance
art and architecture and monuments. The city also contains numerous museums and art galleries, such as the Uffizi Gallery
Uffizi Gallery
and the Palazzo Pitti
Palazzo Pitti
, and still exerts an influence in the fields of art, culture and politics. Due to Florence's artistic and architectural heritage, it has been ranked by Forbes as one of the most beautiful cities in the world.

Florence
Florence
is an important city in Italian fashion
Italian fashion
, being ranked in the top 15 fashion capitals of the world; furthermore, it is a major national economic centre, as well as a tourist and industrial hub. In 2008, the city had the 17th highest average income in Italy
Italy
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Roman origins * 1.2 Second millennium

* 1.3 Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Renaissance
Renaissance

* 1.3.1 Rise of the Medici * 1.3.2 Savonarola and Machiavelli

* 1.4 18th and 19th centuries * 1.5 20th century

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Climate

* 3 Government

* 4 Main sights

* 4.1 Monuments, museums and religious buildings * 4.2 Squares, streets and parks

* 5 Demographics

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Industry, commerce and services * 6.2 Tourism * 6.3 Food and wine production

* 7 Culture

* 7.1 Art * 7.2 Language * 7.3 Literature * 7.4 Music * 7.5 Cinema * 7.6 Cuisine * 7.7 Research activity * 7.8 Science and discovery * 7.9 Fashion

* 7.10 Historical evocations

* 7.10.1 Scoppio del Carro * 7.10.2 Calcio Storico

* 8 Transport

* 8.1 Railway station
Railway station
* 8.2 Airport

* 9 Sport

* 10 International relations

* 10.1 Twin towns and sister cities

* 11 Other partnerships * 12 Notable residents * 13 See also * 14 References * 15 Sources * 16 External links

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Florence
History of Florence
and Timeline of Florence
Timeline of Florence
View of Florence
Florence
by Hartmann Schedel, published in 1493

Florence
Florence
originated as a Roman city, and later, after a long period as a flourishing trading and banking medieval commune , it was the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance
Renaissance
. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica , it was politically, economically, and culturally one of the most important cities in Europe
Europe
and the world from the 14th to 16th centuries.

The language spoken in the city during the 14th century was, and still is, accepted as the Italian language
Italian language
. Almost all the writers and poets in Italian literature of the golden age are in some way connected with Florence, leading ultimately to the adoption of the Florentine dialect, above all the local dialects, as a literary language of choice.

Starting from the late Middle Ages, Florentine money—in the form of the gold florin —financed the development of industry all over Europe, from Britain to Bruges, to Lyon and Hungary. Florentine bankers financed the English kings during the Hundred Years War
Hundred Years War
. They similarly financed the papacy, including the construction of their provisional capital of Avignon
Avignon
and, after their return to Rome, the reconstruction and Renaissance
Renaissance
embellishment of Rome.

Florence
Florence
was home to the Medici, one of European history's most important noble families. Lorenzo de\' Medici was considered a political and cultural mastermind of Italy
Italy
in the late 15th century. Two members of the family were popes in the early 16th century: Leo X and Clement VII . Catherine de Medici married king Henry II of France and, after his death in 1559, reigned as regent in France. Marie de\' Medici married Henry IV of France and gave birth to the future king Louis XIII . The Medici reigned as Grand Dukes of Tuscany
Tuscany
, starting with Cosimo I de\' Medici in 1569 and ending with the death of Gian Gastone de\' Medici in 1737.

ROMAN ORIGINS

Historical affiliations Roman Republic 59–27 BC

Roman Empire
Roman Empire
27 BC–285 AD Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
285–476 Kingdom of Odoacer 476–493 Ostrogothic Kingdom
Ostrogothic Kingdom
493–553 Eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire
553-568 Lombard Kingdom 570–773 Carolingian Empire 774–797 Regnum Italiae 797–1001 March of Tuscany
Tuscany
1002–1115 Republic of Florence 1115–1532 Duchy of Florence
Duchy of Florence
1532–1569 Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Tuscany
1569–1801 Kingdom of Etruria 1801–1807 First French Empire
First French Empire
1807–1815 Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Tuscany
1815–1859 United Provinces of Central Italy
Italy
1859–1860 Kingdom of Italy
Italy
1861–1946 Italian Republic
Italian Republic
1946–present

The Etruscans initially formed in 200 BC the small settlement of Fiesole (Faesulae in Latin), which was destroyed by Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 80 BC in reprisal for supporting the populares faction in Rome. The present city of Florence
Florence
was established by Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
in 59 BC as a settlement for his veteran soldiers and was named originally Fluentia, owing to the fact that it was built between two rivers, which was later changed to Florentia ("flowering"). It was built in the style of an army camp with the main streets, the cardo and the decumanus , intersecting at the present Piazza della Repubblica . Situated along the Via Cassia
Via Cassia
, the main route between Rome
Rome
and the north, and within the fertile valley of the Arno
Arno
, the settlement quickly became an important commercial centre.

In centuries to come, the city experienced turbulent periods of Ostrogothic rule, during which the city was often troubled by warfare between the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
and the Byzantines , which may have caused the population to fall to as few as 1,000 people. Peace returned under Lombard rule in the 6th century. Florence
Florence
was conquered by Charlemagne in 774 and became part of the Duchy of Tuscany, with Lucca
Lucca
as capital. The population began to grow again and commerce prospered. In 854, Florence
Florence
and Fiesole were united in one county.

SECOND MILLENNIUM

Margrave Hugo chose Florence
Florence
as his residency instead of Lucca
Lucca
at about 1000 AD. The Golden Age of Florentine art began around this time. In 1013, construction began on the Basilica di San Miniato al Monte . The exterior of the church was reworked in Romanesque style between 1059 and 1128. In 1100, Florence
Florence
was a "Commune", meaning a city state. The city's primary resource was the Arno
Arno
river, providing power and access for the industry (mainly textile industry), and access to the Mediterranean sea for international trade. Another great source of strength was its industrious merchant community. The Florentine merchant banking skills became recognised in Europe
Europe
after they brought decisive financial innovation (e.g. bill of exchange, double entry book keeping) to medieval fairs. This period also saw the eclipse of Florence's formerly powerful rival Pisa
Pisa
(defeated by Genoa in 1284 and subjugated by Florence
Florence
in 1406), and the exercise of power by the mercantile elite following an anti-aristocratic movement, led by Giano della Bella, that resulted in a set of laws called the Ordinances of Justice (1293).

MIDDLE AGES AND RENAISSANCE

Main articles: Republic of Florence and Italian Renaissance
Renaissance

Rise Of The Medici

Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
statue outside the Uffizi Gallery
Uffizi Gallery

Of a population estimated at 94,000 before the Black Death
Black Death
of 1348, about 25,000 are said to have been supported by the city's wool industry: in 1345 Florence
Florence
was the scene of an attempted strike by wool combers (ciompi), who in 1378 rose up in a brief revolt against oligarchic rule in the Revolt of the Ciompi . After their suppression, Florence
Florence
came under the sway (1382–1434) of the Albizzi family, who became bitter rivals of the Medici.

In the 15th century, Florence
Florence
was among the largest cities in Europe, considered rich and economically successful. Life was not idyllic for all residents though, among whom there were great disparities in wealth. Cosimo de\' Medici was the first Medici family member to essentially control the city from behind the scenes. Although the city was technically a democracy of sorts, his power came from a vast patronage network along with his alliance to the new immigrants, the gente nuova (new people). The fact that the Medici were bankers to the pope also contributed to their ascendancy. Cosimo was succeeded by his son Piero , who was, soon after, succeeded by Cosimo's grandson, Lorenzo in 1469. Lorenzo was a great patron of the arts, commissioning works by Michelangelo
Michelangelo
, Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
and Botticelli . Lorenzo was an accomplished poet and musician and brought composers and singers to Florence, including Alexander Agricola
Alexander Agricola
, Johannes Ghiselin , and Heinrich Isaac
Heinrich Isaac
. By contemporary Florentines (and since), he was known as "Lorenzo the Magnificent" (Lorenzo il Magnifico).

Following Lorenzo de' Medici's death in 1492, he was succeeded by his son Piero II. When the French king Charles VIII invaded northern Italy , Piero II chose to resist his army. But when he realised the size of the French army at the gates of Pisa, he had to accept the humiliating conditions of the French king. These made the Florentines rebel and they expelled Piero II. With his exile in 1494, the first period of Medici rule ended with the restoration of a republican government.

Savonarola And Machiavelli

Girolamo Savonarola
Girolamo Savonarola
being burnt at the stake in 1498

During this period, the Dominican friar Girolamo Savonarola
Girolamo Savonarola
had become prior of the San Marco monastery in 1490. He was famed for his penitential sermons, lambasting what he viewed as widespread immorality and attachment to material riches. He blamed the exile of the Medici as the work of God, punishing them for their decadence. He seized the opportunity to carry through political reforms leading to a more democratic rule. But when Savonarola publicly accused Pope Alexander VI of corruption, he was banned from speaking in public. When he broke this ban, he was excommunicated. The Florentines, tired of his extreme teachings, turned against him and arrested him. He was convicted as a heretic and burned at the stake on the Piazza della Signoria on 23 May 1498.

A second individual of unusually acute insight was Niccolò Machiavelli , whose prescriptions for Florence's regeneration under strong leadership have often been seen as a legitimisation of political expediency and even malpractice. In other words, Machiavelli was a political thinker, perhaps most renowned for his political handbook, titled The Prince
The Prince
, which is about ruling and the exercise of power. Commissioned by the Medici, Machiavelli also wrote the Florentine Histories , the history of the city. Florentines drove out the Medici for a second time and re-established a republic on 16 May 1527. Restored twice with the support of both Emperor and Pope, the Medici in 1537 became hereditary dukes of Florence, and in 1569 Grand Dukes of Tuscany
Tuscany
, ruling for two centuries. In all Tuscany, only the Republic of Lucca
Lucca
(later a Duchy ) and the Principality of Piombino were independent from Florence.

18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES

Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor and his family. Leopold was, from 1765 to 1790, the Grand Duke of Tuscany
Tuscany

The extinction of the Medici dynasty and the accession in 1737 of Francis Stephen , duke of Lorraine and husband of Maria Theresa of Austria
Austria
, led to Tuscany's temporary inclusion in the territories of the Austrian crown. It became a secundogeniture of the Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty, who were deposed for the House of Bourbon- Parma
Parma
in 1801. From 1801 to 1807 Florence
Florence
was the capital of the Napoleonic client state Kingdom of Etruria . Bourbon- Parma
Parma
were deposed in December 1807 when Tuscany
Tuscany
was annexed by France
France
. Florence was the prefecture of the French département of Arno
Arno
from 1808 to the fall of Napoleon
Napoleon
in 1814. The Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty was restored on the throne of Tuscany
Tuscany
at the Congress of Vienna but finally deposed in 1859. Tuscany
Tuscany
became a region of the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
in 1861.

Florence
Florence
replaced Turin
Turin
as Italy's capital in 1865 and, in an effort to modernise the city, the old market in the Piazza del Mercato Vecchio and many medieval houses were pulled down and replaced by a more formal street plan with newer houses. The Piazza (first renamed Piazza Vittorio Emanuele II , then Piazza della Repubblica , the present name) was significantly widened and a large triumphal arch was constructed at the west end. This development was unpopular and was prevented from continuing by the efforts of several British and American people living in the city. A museum recording the destruction stands nearby today.

The country's second capital city was superseded by Rome
Rome
six years later, after the withdrawal of the French troops made its addition to the kingdom possible.

20TH CENTURY

Porte Sante cemetery, burial place of notable figures of Florentine history.

After doubling during the 19th century, Florence's population was to triple in the 20th, resulting from growth in tourism, trade, financial services and industry.

During World War II the city experienced a year-long German occupation (1943–1944) and was declared an open city by the retreating Germans after New Zealand troops stormed the Pian dei Cerri hills overlooking the city. The Allied soldiers who died driving the Germans from Tuscany
Tuscany
are buried in cemeteries outside the city (Americans about nine kilometres (5.6 miles) south of the city, British and Commonwealth soldiers a few kilometres east of the centre on the right bank of the Arno). In 1944, the retreating Germans decided to demolish all the bridges along the Arno
Arno
linking the district of Oltrarno to the rest of the city, making it difficult for the British troops to cross. However, at the last moment Charles Steinhauslin, at the time consulate of 26 countries in Florence, convinced the German general in Italy
Italy
that the Ponte Vecchio
Ponte Vecchio
was not to be destroyed due to its historical value.

Instead, an equally historic area of streets directly to the south of the bridge, including part of the Corridoio Vasariano , was destroyed using mines. Since then the bridges have been restored to their original forms using as many of the remaining materials as possible, but the buildings surrounding the Ponte Vecchio
Ponte Vecchio
have been rebuilt in a style combining the old with modern design. Shortly before leaving Florence, as they knew that they would soon have to retreat, the Germans executed many freedom fighters and political opponents publicly, in streets and squares including the Piazza Santo Spirito.

Florence
Florence
was liberated by the New Zealand Army (2nd New Zealand Division) and South African troops on 4 August 1944.

At the end of World War II in Europe
Europe
, in May 1945, the US Army's Information and Educational Branch was ordered to establish an overseas university campus for demobilised American service men and women in Florence, Italy. The first American University for service personnel was established in June 1945 at the School of Aeronautics in Florence, Italy. Some 7,500 soldier-students were to pass through the University during its four one-month sessions (see G. I. American Universities ).

In November 1966, the Arno
Arno
flooded parts of the centre, damaging many art treasures. Around the city there are tiny placards on the walls noting where the flood waters reached at their highest point.

On 25 May 2016 the BBC
BBC
reported that a sinkhole , thought to have been caused by a bursting of a water pipe, opened up a 200-metre (660 ft) hole on the Arno
Arno
river bank in Florence.

GEOGRAPHY

November 2005 view of the city and Arno
Arno
valley, with the Apennine mountains in the background

Florence
Florence
lies in a basin formed by the hills of Careggi , Fiesole , Settignano , Arcetri
Arcetri
, Poggio Imperiale and Bellosguardo (Florence). The Arno
Arno
river, three other minor rivers (Mugnone, Ema and Greve) and some streams flow through it.

CLIMATE

Florence
Florence
with snow cover in December 2009

Florence
Florence
has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), slightly tending to Mediterranean (Csa). It has hot summers with moderate or light rainfall and cool, damp winters. As Florence
Florence
lacks a prevailing wind, summer temperatures are higher than along the coast. Rainfall in summer is convectional , while relief rainfall dominates in the winter. Snow flurries happen almost every year, but often result in no accumulation. The highest officially recorded temperature was 42.6 °C (108.7 °F) on 26 July 1983 and the lowest was −23.2 °C (−9.8 °F) on 12 January 1985.

CLIMATE DATA FOR FLORENCE

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 21.6 (70.9) 23.4 (74.1) 28.5 (83.3) 28.7 (83.7) 33.8 (92.8) 40.0 (104) 42.6 (108.7) 39.5 (103.1) 36.4 (97.5) 30.8 (87.4) 25.2 (77.4) 20.4 (68.7) 42.6 (108.7)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 10.9 (51.6) 12.5 (54.5) 15.7 (60.3) 18.5 (65.3) 23.7 (74.7) 27.7 (81.9) 31.4 (88.5) 31.5 (88.7) 26.7 (80.1) 20.9 (69.6) 14.7 (58.5) 11.1 (52) 20.44 (68.81)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 6.5 (43.7) 7.5 (45.5) 10.3 (50.5) 13.0 (55.4) 17.7 (63.9) 21.4 (70.5) 24.6 (76.3) 24.6 (76.3) 20.5 (68.9) 15.5 (59.9) 9.9 (49.8) 6.8 (44.2) 14.86 (58.74)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 2.0 (35.6) 2.5 (36.5) 4.9 (40.8) 7.5 (45.5) 11.6 (52.9) 15.0 (59) 17.7 (63.9) 17.7 (63.9) 14.4 (57.9) 10.1 (50.2) 5.1 (41.2) 2.6 (36.7) 9.26 (48.67)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −23.2 (−9.8) −9.9 (14.2) −8.0 (17.6) −2.2 (28) 3.6 (38.5) 5.6 (42.1) 10.2 (50.4) 9.6 (49.3) 3.6 (38.5) −1.4 (29.5) −6.0 (21.2) −8.6 (16.5) −23.2 (−9.8)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 60.5 (2.382) 63.7 (2.508) 63.5 (2.5) 86.4 (3.402) 70.0 (2.756) 57.1 (2.248) 36.7 (1.445) 56.0 (2.205) 79.6 (3.134) 104.2 (4.102) 113.6 (4.472) 81.3 (3.201) 872.6 (34.355)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM) 8.3 7.1 7.5 9.7 8.4 6.3 3.5 5.4 6.2 8.5 9.0 8.3 88.2

Source #1: Servizio Meteorologico

Source #2: World Meteorological Organisation
World Meteorological Organisation
( United Nations
United Nations
)

GOVERNMENT

See also: List of mayors of Florence

*

The traditional boroughs of the whole comune of Florence
Florence
*

The 5 administrative boroughs of the whole comune of Florence
Florence

The legislative body of the municipality is the City Council (Consiglio Comunale), which is composed of 36 councillors elected every five years with a proportional system, contextually to the mayoral elections. The executive body is the City Committee (Giunta Comunale), composed by 7 assessors , that is nominated and presieded over by a directly elected Mayor . The current mayor of Florence
Florence
is Dario Nardella .

The municipality of Florence
Florence
is subdivided into five administrative Boroughs (Quartieri). Each Borough is governed by a Council (Consiglio) and a President, elected contextually to the city Mayor. The urban organisation is governed by the Italian Constitution (art. 114). The Boroughs have the power to advise the Mayor with nonbinding opinions on a large spectrum of topics (environment, construction, public health, local markets) and exercise the functions delegated to them by the City Council; in addition they are supplied with an autonomous founding in order to finance local activities. The Boroughs are:

* Centro storico (Historic Centre); population: 67,170; * Campo di Marte ; population: 88,588; * Gavinana- Galluzzo ; population: 40,907; * Isolotto- Legnaia ; population: 66,636; * Rifredi; population: 103,761.

All of the five boroughs are governed by the Democratic Party .

The former Italian Prime Minister (2014-2016), Matteo Renzi , served as mayor from 2009 to 2014.

MAIN SIGHTS

Main article: Architecture of Florence Florence Cathedral
Florence Cathedral
Palazzo Vecchio
Palazzo Vecchio
1835 City Map of Florence, still largely in the confines of its medieval city centre. Ponte Vecchio
Ponte Vecchio
, which spans the Arno
Arno
river

Florence
Florence
is known as the "cradle of the Renaissance" (la culla del Rinascimento) for its monuments, churches, and buildings. The best-known site of Florence
Florence
is the domed cathedral of the city, Santa Maria del Fiore , known as The Duomo, whose dome was built by Filippo Brunelleschi . The nearby Campanile
Campanile
(partly designed by Giotto
Giotto
) and the Baptistery buildings are also highlights. The dome, 600 years after its completion, is still the largest dome built in brick and mortar in the world. In 1982, the HISTORIC CENTRE OF FLORENCE (Italian: centro storico di Firenze) was declared a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO
UNESCO
. The centre of the city is contained in medieval walls that were built in the 14th century to defend the city. At the heart of the city, in Piazza della Signoria
Piazza della Signoria
, is Bartolomeo Ammannati 's Fountain of Neptune (1563–1565), which is a masterpiece of marble sculpture at the terminus of a still functioning Roman aqueduct .

The layout and structure of Florence
Florence
in many ways harkens back to the Roman era, where it was designed as a garrison settlement. Nevertheless, the majority of the city was built during the Renaissance. Despite the strong presence of Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture within the city, traces of medieval , Baroque , Neoclassical and modern architecture can be found. The Palazzo Vecchio
Palazzo Vecchio
as well as the Duomo, or the city's Cathedral, are the two buildings which dominate Florence's skyline.

The River Arno, which cuts through the old part of the city, is as much a character in Florentine history as many of the people who lived there. Historically, the locals have had a love-hate relationship with the Arno
Arno
– which alternated between nourishing the city with commerce, and destroying it by flood. Florence
Florence
at night from Piazzale Michelangelo
Michelangelo

One of the bridges in particular stands out — the Ponte Vecchio (Old Bridge), whose most striking feature is the multitude of shops built upon its edges, held up by stilts. The bridge also carries Vasari\'s elevated corridor linking the Uffizi to the Medici residence ( Palazzo Pitti
Palazzo Pitti
). Although the original bridge was constructed by the Etruscans , the current bridge was rebuilt in the 14th century. It is the only bridge in the city to have survived World War II intact. It is the first example in the western world of a bridge built using segmental arches , that is, arches less than a semicircle, to reduce both span-to-rise ratio and the numbers of pillars to allow lesser encumbrance in the riverbed (being in this much more successful than the Roman Alconétar Bridge ). Ponte Santa Trinita
Ponte Santa Trinita
with the Oltrarno district

The church of San Lorenzo contains the Medici Chapel , the mausoleum of the Medici family —the most powerful family in Florence
Florence
from the 15th to the 18th century. Nearby is the Uffizi Gallery, one of the finest art museums in the world – founded on a large bequest from the last member of the Medici family. Florence
Florence
Duomo as seen from Michelangelo
Michelangelo
hill.

The Uffizi is located at the corner of Piazza della Signoria
Piazza della Signoria
, a site important for being the centre of Florence's civil life and government for centuries. The Palazzo della Signoria
Palazzo della Signoria
facing it is still home of the municipal government. Many significant episodes in the history of art and political changes were staged here, such as:

* In 1301, Dante Alighieri was sent into exile from here (commemorated by a plaque on one of the walls of the Uffizi). * On 26 April 1478, Jacopo de' Pazzi and his retainers tried to raise the city against the Medici after the plot known as La congiura dei Pazzi (The Pazzi conspiracy ), murdering Giuliano di Piero de\' Medici and wounding his brother Lorenzo. All the members of the plot who could be apprehended were seized by the Florentines and hanged from the windows of the palace. * In 1497, it was the location of the Bonfire of the Vanities instigated by the Dominican friar and preacher Girolamo Savonarola
Girolamo Savonarola
* On 23 May 1498, the same Savonarola and two followers were hanged and burnt at the stake. (A round plate in the ground marks the spot where he was hanged) * In 1504, Michelangelo\'s David (now replaced by a replica, since the original was moved in 1873 to the Galleria dell\'Accademia ) was installed in front of the Palazzo della Signoria
Palazzo della Signoria
(also known as Palazzo Vecchio).

The Loggia dei Lanzi in Piazza della Signoria
Piazza della Signoria
is the location of a number of statues by other sculptors such as Donatello
Donatello
, Giambologna
Giambologna
, Ammannati and Cellini , although some have been replaced with copies to preserve the originals.

MONUMENTS, MUSEUMS AND RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS

See also: List of churches in Florence and Theatres in Florence Piazzale degli Uffizi

Florence
Florence
contains several palaces and buildings from various eras. The Palazzo Vecchio
Palazzo Vecchio
is the town hall of Florence
Florence
and also an art museum. This large Romanesque crenellated fortress-palace overlooks the Piazza della Signoria
Piazza della Signoria
with its copy of Michelangelo's David statue as well as the gallery of statues in the adjacent Loggia dei Lanzi . Originally called the Palazzo della Signoria, after the Signoria of Florence
Florence
, the ruling body of the Republic of Florence , it was also given several other names: Palazzo del Popolo, Palazzo dei Priori, and Palazzo Ducale, in accordance with the varying use of the palace during its long history. The building acquired its current name when the Medici duke's residence was moved across the Arno
Arno
to the Palazzo Pitti. It is linked to the Uffizi and the Palazzo Pitti
Palazzo Pitti
through the Corridoio Vasariano .

Palazzo Medici Riccardi , designed by Michelozzo di Bartolomeo for Cosimo il Vecchio , of the Medici family, is another major edifice, and was built between 1445 and 1460. It was well known for its stone masonry that includes rustication and ashlar. Today it is the head office of the Metropolitan City of Florence
Metropolitan City of Florence
and hosts museums and the Riccardiana Library . The Palazzo Strozzi , an example of civil architecture with its rusticated stone, was inspired by the Palazzo Medici , but with more harmonious proportions. Today the palace is used for international expositions like the annual antique show (founded as the Biennale dell'Antiquariato in 1959), fashion shows and other cultural and artistic events. Here also is the seat of the Istituto Nazionale del Rinascimento and the noted Gabinetto Vieusseux , with the library and reading room. There are several other notable places, including the Palazzo Rucellai , designed by Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti
between 1446 and 1451 and executed, at least in part, by Bernardo Rossellino
Bernardo Rossellino
; the Palazzo Davanzati , which houses the museum of the Old Florentine House; the Palazzo delle Assicurazioni Generali , designed in the Neo-Renaissance style in 1871; the Palazzo Spini Feroni
Palazzo Spini Feroni
, in Piazza Santa Trinita , a historic 13th-century private palace, owned since the 1920s by shoe-designer Salvatore Ferragamo ; as well as various others, including the Palazzo Borghese, the Palazzo di Bianca Cappello, the Palazzo Antinori , and the Royal building of Santa Maria Novella. Palazzo Pitti
Palazzo Pitti
on Boboli Gardens ' side

Florence
Florence
contains numerous museums and art galleries where some of the world's most important works of art are held. The city is one of the best preserved Renaissance
Renaissance
centres of art and architecture in the world and has a high concentration of art, architecture and culture. In the ranking list of the 15 most visited Italian art museums, ⅔ are represented by Florentine museums. The Uffizi is one of these, having a very large collection of international and Florentine art. The gallery is articulated in many halls, catalogued by schools and chronological order. Engendered by the Medici family's artistic collections through the centuries, it houses works of art by various painters and artists. The Vasari Corridor is another gallery, built connecting the Palazzo Vecchio
Palazzo Vecchio
with the Pitti Palace passing by the Uffizi and over the Ponte Vecchio. The Galleria dell'Accademia houses a Michelangelo
Michelangelo
collection, including the David . It has a collection of Russian icons and works by various artists and painters. Other museums and galleries include the Bargello
Bargello
, which concentrates on sculpture works by artists including Donatello, Giambologna
Giambologna
and Michelangelo
Michelangelo
; the Palazzo Pitti, containing part of the Medici family's former private collection. In addition to the Medici collection, the palace's galleries contain many Renaissance
Renaissance
works, including several by Raphael
Raphael
and Titian
Titian
, large collections of costumes, ceremonial carriages, silver, porcelain and a gallery of modern art dating from the 18th century. Adjoining the palace are the Boboli Gardens , elaborately landscaped and with numerous sculptures. The façade of the Cathedral

There are several different churches and religious buildings in Florence. The cathedral is Santa Maria del Fiore . The San Giovanni Baptistery located in front of the cathedral, is decorated by numerous artists, notably by Lorenzo Ghiberti
Lorenzo Ghiberti
with the Gates of Paradise. Other churches in Florence
Florence
include the Basilica of Santa Maria Novella , located in Santa Maria Novella square (near the Firenze Santa Maria Novella railway station ) which contains works by Masaccio
Masaccio
, Paolo Uccello , Filippino Lippi
Filippino Lippi
and Domenico Ghirlandaio
Domenico Ghirlandaio
; the Basilica of Santa Croce , the principal Franciscan church in the city, which is situated on the Piazza di Santa Croce, about 800 metres (2,600 feet) south east of the Duomo, and is the burial place of some of the most illustrious Italians, such as Michelangelo, Galileo, Machiavelli, Foscolo, Rossini, thus it is known also as the Temple of the Italian Glories (Tempio dell'Itale Glorie); the Basilica of San Lorenzo , which is one of the largest churches in the city, situated at the centre of Florence's main market district, and the burial place of all the principal members of the Medici family from Cosimo il Vecchio to Cosimo III; Santo Spirito , in the Oltrarno quarter, facing the square with the same name; Orsanmichele , whose building was constructed on the site of the kitchen garden of the monastery of San Michele, now demolished; Santissima Annunziata , a Roman Catholic basilica and the mother church of the Servite order ; Ognissanti , which was founded by the lay order of the Umiliati, and is among the first examples of Baroque architecture built in the city; the Santa Maria del Carmine , in the Oltrarno district of Florence, which is the location of the Brancacci Chapel , housing outstanding Renaissance
Renaissance
frescoes by Masaccio
Masaccio
and Masolino da Panicale , later finished by Filippino Lippi ; the Medici Chapel with statues by Michelangelo, in the San Lorenzo ; as well as several others, including Santa Trinita , San Marco , Santa Felicita , Badia Fiorentina , San Gaetano , San Miniato al Monte
San Miniato al Monte
, Florence Charterhouse , and Santa Maria del Carmine . The city additionally contains the Orthodox Russian church of Nativity, and the Great Synagogue of Florence , built in the 19th century.

Florence
Florence
contains various theatres and cinemas. The Odeon Cinema of the Palazzo dello Strozzino is one of the oldest cinemas in the city. Established from 1920 to 1922 in a wing of the Palazzo dello Strozzino, it used to be called the Cinema Teatro Savoia (Savoy Cinema-Theatre), yet was later called Odeon. The Teatro della Pergola , located in the centre of the city on the eponymous street, is an opera house built in the 17th century. Another theatre is the Teatro Comunale (or Teatro del Maggio Musicale Fiorentino), originally built as the open-air amphitheatre, the Politeama Fiorentino Vittorio Emanuele, which was inaugurated on 17 May 1862 with a production of Donizetti 's Lucia di Lammermoor
Lucia di Lammermoor
and which seated 6,000 people. There are several other theatres, such as the Saloncino Castinelli, the Teatro Puccini, the Teatro Verdi, the Teatro Goldoni and the Teatro Niccolini.

SQUARES, STREETS AND PARKS

See also: Squares of Florence Piazza della Repubblica Panorama composite, overview of Firenze, taken from the Giardino Bardini viewpoint.

Aside from such monuments, Florence
Florence
contains numerous major squares (piazze) and streets. The Piazza della Repubblica is a square in the city centre, location of the cultural cafés and bourgeois palaces. Among the square's cafés (like Caffè Gilli, Paszkowski or the Hard Rock Cafè), the Giubbe Rosse café has long been a meeting place for artists and writers, notably those of Futurism
Futurism
. The Piazza Santa Croce is another; dominated by the Basilica of Santa Croce , it is a rectangular square in the centre of the city where the Calcio Fiorentino is played every year. Furthermore, there is the Piazza Santa Trinita , a square near the Arno
Arno
that mark the end of the Via de\' Tornabuoni street. Replica of David and other statues, Piazza della Signoria
Piazza della Signoria

Other squares include the Piazza San Marco, the Piazza Santa Maria Novella, the Piazza Beccaria
Piazza Beccaria
and the Piazza della Libertà . The centre additionally contains several streets. Such include the Via Camillo Cavour , one of the main roads of the northern area of the historic centre; the Via Ghibellina, one of central Florence's longest streets; the Via dei Calzaiuoli, one of the most central streets of the historic centre which links Piazza del Duomo to Piazza della Signoria , winding parallel to via Roma and Piazza della Repubblica; the Via de\' Tornabuoni , a luxurious street in the city centre that goes from Antinori square to ponte Santa Trinita , across Piazza Santa Trinita , characterised by the presence of fashion boutiques; the Viali di Circonvallazione , 6-lane boulevards surrounding the northern part of the historic centre; as well as others, such as Via Roma, Via degli Speziali, Via de' Cerretani, and the Viale dei Colli.

Florence
Florence
also contains various parks and gardens. Such include the Boboli Gardens, the Parco delle Cascine , the Giardino Bardini and the Giardino dei Semplici , amongst others.

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1200 50,000 —

1300 120,000 +140.0%

1500 70,000 −41.7%

1650 70,000 +0.0%

1861 150,864 +115.5%

1871 201,138 +33.3%

1881 196,072 −2.5%

1901 236,635 +20.7%

1911 258,056 +9.1%

1921 280,133 +8.6%

1931 304,160 +8.6%

1936 321,176 +5.6%

1951 374,625 +16.6%

1961 436,516 +16.5%

1971 457,803 +4.9%

1981 448,331 −2.1%

1991 403,294 −10.0%

2001 356,118 −11.7%

2011 358,079 +0.6%

Source: ISTAT 2011

In 1200 the city was home to 50,000 people. By 1300 the population of the city proper was 120,000, with an additional 300,000 living in the Contado . Between 1500 and 1650 the population was around 70,000.

As of 31 October 2010 , the population of the city proper is 370,702, while Eurostat
Eurostat
estimates that 696,767 people live in the urban area of Florence. The Metropolitan Area of Florence, Prato
Prato
and Pistoia, constituted in 2000 over an area of roughly 4,800 square kilometres (1,853 sq mi), is home to 1.5 million people. Within Florence
Florence
proper, 46.8% of the population was male in 2007 and 53.2% were female. Minors (children aged 18 and less) totalled 14.10 percent of the population compared to pensioners, who numbered 25.95 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age of Florence
Florence
resident is 49 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Florence
Florence
grew by 3.22 percent, while Italy
Italy
as a whole grew by 3.56 percent. The birth rate of Florence
Florence
is 7.66 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births.

As of 2009 , 87.46% of the population was Italian. An estimated 6,000 Chinese live in the city. The largest immigrant group came from other European countries (mostly Romanians and Albanians ): 3.52%, East Asia (mostly Chinese and Filipino ): 2.17%, the Americas: 1.41%, and North Africa (mostly Moroccan ): 0.9%.

ECONOMY

Tourism is, by far, the most important of all industries and most of the Florentine economy relies on the money generated by international arrivals and students studying in the city. The value tourism to the city totalled some €62.5 billion in 2015 and the number of visitors had increased by 5.5% from the previous year.

In 2013, Florence
Florence
was listed as the second best world city by Condé Nast Traveler.

Manufacturing and commerce, however, still remain highly important. Florence
Florence
is also Italy's 17th richest city in terms of average workers' earnings, with the figure being €23,265 (the overall city's income is €6,531,204,473), coming after Mantua , yet surpassing Bolzano
Bolzano
.

INDUSTRY, COMMERCE AND SERVICES

Florence
Florence
is a major production and commercial centre in Italy, where the Florentine industrial complexes in the suburbs produce all sorts of goods, from furniture, rubber goods, chemicals, and food. However, traditional and local products, such as antiques, handicrafts, glassware, leatherwork, art reproductions, jewellery, souvenirs, elaborate metal and iron-work, shoes, accessories and high fashion clothes also dominate a fair sector of Florence's economy. The city's income relies partially on services and commercial and cultural interests, such as annual fairs, theatrical and lyrical productions, art exhibitions, festivals and fashion shows, such as the Calcio Fiorentino . Heavy industry and machinery also take their part in providing an income. In Nuovo Pignone, numerous factories are still present, and small-to medium industrial businesses are dominant. The Florence-Prato-Pistoia industrial districts and areas were known as the 'Third Italy' in the 1990s, due to the exports of high-quality goods and automobile (especially the Vespa ) and the prosperity and productivity of the Florentine entrepreneurs. Some of these industries even rivalled the traditional industrial districts in Emilia-Romagna and Veneto due to high profits and productivity.

In the fourth quarter of 2015, manufacturing increased by 2.4% and exports increased by 7.2%. Leading sectors included mechanical engineering, fashion, pharmaceutics, food and wine. During 2015, permanent employment contracts increased by 48.8 percent, boosted by nationwide tax break.

TOURISM

Tourists flock to the Fontana del Porcellino .

Tourism is the most significant industry in central Florence. From April to October, tourists outnumber local population. Tickets to the Uffizi and Accademia museums are regularly sold out and large groups regularly fill the basilicas of Santa Croce and Santa Maria Novella , both of which charge for entry. Tickets for The Uffizi and Accademia can be purchased online prior to visiting. In 2010, readers of Travel + Leisure magazine ranked the city as their third favourite tourist destination. In 2015, Condé Nast Travel readers voted Florence
Florence
as the best city in Europe.

Studies by Euromonitor International have concluded that cultural and history-oriented tourism is generating significantly increased spending throughout Europe.

Florence
Florence
is believed to have the greatest concentration of art (in proportion to its size) in the world. Thus, cultural tourism is particularly strong, with world-renowned museums such as the Uffizi selling over 1.93 million tickets in 2014. The city's convention centre facilities were restructured during the 1990s and host exhibitions, conferences, meetings, social forums, concerts and other events all year. Tourists and restaurant in the Piazza del Duomo

In 2016, Florence
Florence
had 20,588 hotel rooms in 570 facilities. International visitors use 75% of the rooms; some 18% of those were from the U.S. In 2014, the city had 8.5 million overnight stays. A Euromonitor report indicates that in 2015 the city ranked as the world's 36th most visited in the world, with over 4.95 million arrivals for the year.

Tourism brings revenue to Florence, but it creates certain problems. The Ponte Vecchio, The San Lorenzo Market and Santa Maria Novella are plagued by pickpockets. The province of Florence
Florence
receives roughly 13 million visitors per year and in peak seasons, that can lead to over crowding at popular locations. Mayor Dario Nardella is particularly concerned about visitors who arrive on buses, stay only a few hours, spend litlle money but contribute significantly to overcrowding. "No museum visit, just a photo from the square, the bus back and then on to Venice... We don’t want tourists like that," he said.

Some tourists are less than respectful of the city's cultural heritage, according to Nardella. In June 2017, he instituted a programme of spraying church steps with water to prevent tourists from using such areas as picnic spots. While he values the benefits of tourism, there has been "an increase among those who sit down on church steps, eat their food and leave rubbish strewn on them," he explained. To boost the sale of traditional foods, the mayor had introduced legislation (enacted in 2016) that requires restaurants to use typical Tuscan products and rejected McDonald's application to open a location in the Piazza del Duomo.

FOOD AND WINE PRODUCTION

Fiascos of basic Chianti.

Food and wine have long been an important staple of the economy. The Chianti
Chianti
region is just south of the city, and its Sangiovese grapes figure prominently not only in its Chianti
Chianti
Classico wines but also in many of the more recently developed Supertuscan blends. Within 32 km (20 mi) to the west is the Carmignano area, also home to flavourful sangiovese-based reds. The celebrated Chianti
Chianti
Rufina district, geographically and historically separated from the main Chianti region, is also few kilometres east of Florence. More recently, the Bolgheri region (about 150 km (93 mi) southwest of Florence) has become celebrated for its " Super Tuscan " reds such as Sassicaia
Sassicaia
and Ornellaia .

CULTURE

ART

Main article: Art in Florence See also: Guilds of Florence Botticelli\'s Venus , stored in the Uffizi Sculptures in the Loggia dei Lanzi

Cimabue and Giotto
Giotto
, the fathers of Italian painting, lived in Florence
Florence
as well as Arnolfo and Andrea Pisano , renewers of architecture and sculpture; Brunelleschi, Donatello
Donatello
and Masaccio, forefathers of the Renaissance, Ghiberti and the Della Robbias, Filippo Lippi
Filippo Lippi
and Angelico; Botticelli, Paolo Uccello
Paolo Uccello
and the universal genius of Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
and Michelangelo.

Their works, together with those of many other generations of artists, are gathered in the several museums of the town: the Uffizi Gallery, the Palatina gallery with the paintings of the "Golden Ages", the Bargello
Bargello
with the sculptures of the Renaissance, the museum of San Marco with Fra Angelico
Fra Angelico
's works, the Academy, the chapels of the Medicis Buonarroti's house with the sculptures of Michelangelo, the following museums: Bardini, Horne, Stibbert, Romano, Corsini, The Gallery of Modern Art, the Museo dell\'Opera del Duomo , the museum of Silverware and the museum of Precious Stones . Several monuments are located in Florence: the Florence Baptistery
Florence Baptistery
with its mosaics; the Cathedral with its sculptures, the medieval churches with bands of frescoes; public as well as private palaces: Palazzo Vecchio
Palazzo Vecchio
, Palazzo Pitti, Palazzo Medici Riccardi , Palazzo Davanzati ; monasteries, cloisters, refectories; the "Certosa". In the archaeological museum includes documents of Etruscan civilisation. In fact the city is so rich in art that some first time visitors experience the Stendhal syndrome as they encounter its art for the first time. Uffizi hallway

Florentine architects such as Filippo Brunelleschi (1377–1466) and Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti
(1404–1472) were among the fathers of both Renaissance
Renaissance
and Neoclassical architecture
Neoclassical architecture
.

The cathedral, topped by Brunelleschi's dome, dominates the Florentine skyline. The Florentines decided to start building it – late in the 13th century, without a design for the dome. The project proposed by Brunelleschi in the 14th century was the largest ever built at the time, and the first major dome built in Europe
Europe
since the two great domes of Roman times – the Pantheon in Rome, and Hagia Sophia in Constantinople
Constantinople
. The dome of Santa Maria del Fiore remains the largest brick construction of its kind in the world. In front of it is the medieval Baptistery. The two buildings incorporate in their decoration the transition from the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
to the Renaissance. In recent years, most of the important works of art from the two buildings – and from the nearby Giotto\'s Campanile
Campanile
, have been removed and replaced by copies. The originals are now housed in the Museum dell'Opera del Duomo, just to the east of the Cathedral.

Florence
Florence
has large numbers of art-filled churches, such as San Miniato al Monte, San Lorenzo, Santa Maria Novella, Santa Trinita, Santa Maria del Carmine, Santa Croce, Santo Spirito, the Annunziata, Ognissanti and numerous others. The Palazzo della Signoria, better known as the Palazzo Vecchio
Palazzo Vecchio
(English:The Old Palace)

Artists associated with Florence
Florence
range from Arnolfo di Cambio and Cimabue to Giotto, Nanni di Banco, and Paolo Uccello; through Lorenzo Ghiberti, and Donatello
Donatello
and Massaccio and the della Robbia family; through Fra Angelico
Fra Angelico
and Botticelli and Piero della Francesca, and on to Michelangelo
Michelangelo
and Leonardo da Vinci. Others include Benvenuto Cellini, Andrea del Sarto, Benozzo Gozzoli, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Filippo Lippi, Bernardo Buontalenti, Orcagna, Pollaiuolo, Filippino Lippi, Verrocchio, Bronzino, Desiderio da Settignano, Michelozzo, the Rossellis, the Sangallos, and Pontormo. Artists from other regions who worked in Florence
Florence
include Raphael, Andrea Pisano, Giambologna, Il Sodoma and Peter Paul Rubens. Brunelleschi's dome

Picture galleries in Florence
Florence
include the Uffizi and the Pitti Palace. Two superb collections of sculpture are in the Bargello
Bargello
and the Museum of the Works of the Duomo. They are filled with the creations of Donatello, Verrochio, Desiderio da Settignano, Michelangelo
Michelangelo
and others. The Galleria dell'Accademia has Michelangelo's David – perhaps the best-known work of art anywhere, plus the unfinished statues of the slaves Michelangelo
Michelangelo
created for the tomb of Pope
Pope
Julius II . Other sights include the medieval city hall, the Palazzo della Signoria
Palazzo della Signoria
(also known as the Palazzo Vecchio), the Archeological Museum , the Museum of the History of Science , the Garden of Archimedes , the Palazzo Davanzatti, the Stibbert Museum, St. Marks, the Medici Chapels, the Museum of the Works of Santa Croce, the Museum of the Cloister of Santa Maria Novella, the Zoological Museum (" La Specola "), the Bardini, and the Museo Horne. There is also a collection of works by the modern sculptor, Marino Marini , in a museum named after him. The Strozzi Palace is the site of special exhibits.

LANGUAGE

Main article: Florentine dialect See also: Tuscan language
Tuscan language

Florentine (fiorentino), spoken by inhabitants of Florence
Florence
and its environs, is a Tuscan dialect and the immediate parent language to modern Italian.

Its vocabulary and pronunciation are largely identical to standard Italian, though the hard c between two vowels (as in ducato) is pronounced as a fricative , similar to an English h. This gives Florentines a highly recognisable accent (the so-called gorgia toscana ). Other traits include using a form of the subjunctive mood last commonly used in medieval times , a frequent usage in everyday speech of the modern subjunctive, and a shortened pronunciation of the definite article , instead of "il".

Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio pioneered the use of the vernacular instead of the Latin
Latin
used for most literary works at the time.

LITERATURE

The introduction of the Decameron (1350–1353) by Giovanni Boccaccio .

Despite Latin
Latin
being the main language of the courts and the Church in the Middle Ages, writers such as Dante Alighieri and many others used their own language, the Florentine vernacular descended from Latin, in composing their greatest works. The oldest literary pieces written in Florentine go as far back as the 13th century. Florence's literature fully blossomed in the 14th century, when not only Dante with his Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
(1306–1321) and Petrarch, but also poets such as Guido Cavalcanti and Lapo Gianni composed their most important works. Dante's masterpiece is the Divine Comedy, which mainly deals with the poet himself taking an allegoric and moral tour of Hell, Purgatory and finally Heaven, during which he meets numerous mythological or real characters of his age or before. He is first guided by the Roman poet Virgil
Virgil
, whose non-Christian beliefs damned him to Hell. Later on he is joined by Beatrice , who guides him through Heaven.

In the 14th century, Petrarch
Petrarch
and Giovanni Boccaccio
Giovanni Boccaccio
led the literary scene in Florence
Florence
after Dante's death in 1321. Petrarch
Petrarch
was an all-rounder writer, author and poet, but was particularly known for his Canzoniere , or the Book of Songs, where he conveyed his unremitting love for Laura. His style of writing has since become known as Petrarchism. Boccaccio was better known for his Decameron , a slightly grim story of Florence
Florence
during the 1350s bubonic plague, known as the Black Death
Black Death
, when some people fled the ravaged city to an isolated country mansion, and spent their time there recounting stories and novellas taken from the medieval and contemporary tradition. All of this is written in a series of 100 distinct novellas.

In the 16th century, during the Renaissance, Florence
Florence
was the home town of political writer and philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli, whose ideas on how rulers should govern the land, detailed in The Prince, spread across European courts and enjoyed enduring popularity for centuries. These principles became known as Machiavellianism .

MUSIC

Main article: Music of Florence See also: Music of Tuscany
Tuscany

Florence
Florence
became a musical centre during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and music and the performing arts remain an important part of its culture. During the Renaissance
Renaissance
there were four kinds of musical patronage in the city with respect to both sacred and secular music: state, corporate, church, and private. and it was here that the Florentine Camerata convened in the mid-16th century and experimented with setting tales of Greek mythology to music and staging the result—in other words, the first operas, setting the wheels in motion not just for the further development of the operatic form, but for later developments of separate "classical" forms such as the symphony.

Opera was invented in Florence
Florence
in the late 16th century.

Composers and musicians who have lived in Florence
Florence
include Piero Strozzi (1550 – after 1608), Giulio Caccini (1551–1618) and Mike Francis (1961–2009).

CINEMA

Florence
Florence
has been a setting for numerous works of fiction and movies, including the novels and associated films, such as Light in the Piazza , Calmi Cuori Appassionati , Hannibal , A Room with a View , Tea with Mussolini , Virgin Territory and Inferno . The city is home to renowned Italian actors and actresses, such as Roberto Benigni , Leonardo Pieraccioni and Vittoria Puccini .

CUISINE

Florentine steak in Florence.

Florentine food grows out of a tradition of peasant eating rather than rarefied high cooking. The majority of dishes are based on meat. The whole animal was traditionally eaten; tripe (trippa) and stomach (lampredotto ) were once regularly on the menu and still are sold at the food carts stationed throughout the city. Antipasti include crostini toscani, sliced bread rounds topped with a chicken liver-based pâté , and sliced meats (mainly prosciutto and salame , often served with melon when in season). The typically saltless Tuscan bread, obtained with natural levain frequently features in Florentine courses, especially in its soups, ribollita and pappa al pomodoro , or in the salad of bread and fresh vegetables called panzanella that is served in summer. The bistecca alla fiorentina is a large (the customary size should weigh around 1.2 to 1.5 kg ) – the "date" steak – T-bone steak of Chianina
Chianina
beef cooked over hot charcoal and served very rare with its more recently derived version, the tagliata, sliced rare beef served on a bed of arugula , often with slices of Parmesan cheese on top. Most of these courses are generally served with local olive oil , also a prime product enjoying a worldwide reputation. Among the desserts, "schiacciata alla fiorentina" ("white flatbread cake") is one of the most popular; it is a very soft cake, prepared with extremely simple ingredients as it is peculiar of the florentine cuisine, and it is typically eaten on Carnival time.

RESEARCH ACTIVITY

UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre

Research institutes and university departments are located within the Florence
Florence
area and within two campuses at Polo di Novoli and Polo Scientifico di Sesto Fiorentino
Sesto Fiorentino
as well as in the Research Area of Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche .

SCIENCE AND DISCOVERY

A display of proboscideans in the Museo di Storia Naturale di Firenze , or the Natural History Museum of Florence
Florence

Florence
Florence
has been an important scientific centre for centuries, notably during the Renaissance
Renaissance
with scientists such as Leonardo da Vinci.

Florentines were one of the driving forces behind the Age of Discovery . Florentine bankers financed Henry the Navigator and the Portuguese explorers who pioneered the route around Africa to India and the Far East. It was a map drawn by the Florentine Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli , a student of Brunelleschi, that Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
used to sell his "enterprise" to the Spanish monarchs, and which he used on his first voyage. Mercator's "Projection" is a refined version of Toscanelli's – taking into account the Americas, of which the Florentine was, obviously, ignorant.

Galileo and other scientists pioneered the study of optics, ballistics, astronomy, anatomy, and so on. Pico della Mirandola, Leonardo Bruni, Machiavelli, and many others laid the groundwork for our understanding of science.

FASHION

Main article: Italian fashion
Italian fashion
See also: Fashion designers of Florence
Florence
and Polimoda Luxury boutiques along Florence's prestigious Via de' Tornabuoni.

By the year 1300 Florence
Florence
had become a centre of textile production in Europe. Many of the rich families in Renaissance
Renaissance
Florence
Florence
were major purchasers of locally produced fine clothing, and the specialists of fashion in the economy and culture of Florence
Florence
during that period is often underestimated. Florence
Florence
is regarded by some as the birthplace and earliest centre of the modern (post World War Two) fashion industry in Italy. The Florentine "soirées" of the early 1950s organised by Giovanni Battista Giorgini were events where several Italian designers participated in group shows and first garnered international attention. Florence
Florence
has served as the home of the Italian fashion
Italian fashion
company Salvatore Ferragamo since 1928. Gucci , Roberto Cavalli , and Emilio Pucci are also headquartered in Florence. Other major players in the fashion industry such as Prada
Prada
and Chanel have large offices and stores in Florence
Florence
or its outskirts. Florence's main upscale shopping street is Via de\' Tornabuoni , where major luxury fashion houses and jewellery labels, such as Armani
Armani
and Bulgari , have their elegant boutiques. Via del Parione and Via Roma are other streets that are also well known for their high-end fashion stores.

HISTORICAL EVOCATIONS

Scoppio Del Carro

The Scoppio del Carro ("Explosion of the Cart") is a celebration of the First Crusade . During the day of Easter, a cart, which the Florentines call the Brindellone and which is led by four white oxen, is taken to the Piazza del Duomo between the Baptistery of St. John the Baptist (Battistero di San Giovanni) and the Florence
Florence
Cathedral (Santa Maria del Fiore). The cart is connected by a rope to the interior of the church. Near the cart there is a model of a dove, which, according to legend, is a symbol of good luck for the city: at the end of the Easter mass, the dove emerges from the nave of the Duomo and ignites the fireworks on the cart.

Calcio Storico

Calcio Storico See also: Calcio Fiorentino

Calcio Storico Fiorentino ("Historic Florentine Football "), sometimes called Calcio in costume, is a traditional sport, regarded as a forerunner of soccer, though the actual gameplay most closely resembles rugby. The event originates from the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, when the most important Florentine nobles amused themselves playing while wearing bright costumes. The most important match was played on 17 February 1530, during the siege of Florence
Florence
. That day Papal troops besieged the city while the Florentines, with contempt of the enemies, decided to play the game notwithstanding the situation. The game is played in the Piazza di Santa Croce . A temporary arena is constructed, with bleachers and a sand-covered playing field. A series of matches are held between four teams representing each quartiere (quarter) of Florence
Florence
during late June and early July. There are four teams: Azzurri (light blue), Bianchi (white), Rossi (red) and Verdi (green). The Azzurri are from the quarter of Santa Croce, Bianchi from the quarter of Santo Spirito, Verdi are from San Giovanni and Rossi from Santa Maria Novella.

TRANSPORT

This article needs to be UPDATED. Please update this section to reflect recent events or newly available information. (April 2013)

See also: Trams in Florence Route map of the tramway Tramway Sirio in Florence
Florence

The principal public transport network within the city is run by the ATAF and Li-nea bus company, with tickets available at local tobacconists, bars and newspaper stalls. Individual tickets, or a pass called the Carta Agile with multiple rides (10, 21 or 35), may be used on ATAF"> Residents of one section, therefore, will only be able to drive in their district and perhaps some surrounding ones. Cars without permits are allowed to enter after 7.30 pm, or before 7.30 am. The rules shift during the tourist-filled summers, putting more restrictions on where one can get in and out.

In an effort to reduce air pollution and car traffic in the city, a multi-line tram network called Tramvia is under construction. The first line began operation on 14 February 2010 and connects Florence's primary intercity railway station (Santa Maria Novella ) with the southwestern suburb of Scandicci . This line is 7.4 km (4.6 mi) long and has 14 stops. The construction of a second line began on 5 November 2011, construction was stopped due to contractors' difficulties but should restart in a few months, completion is now previewed in 2017. This second line will connect Florence's airport with the city centre. A third line (from Santa Maria Novella to the Careggi area, where are the most important hospitals of Florence) has gained governmental approval, its construction will follow the second line's timeline.

RAILWAY STATION

Firenze Santa Maria Novella railway station is the main national and international railway station in Florence
Florence
and is used by 59 million people every year. The building, designed by Giovanni Michelucci, was built in the Italian Rationalism style and it is one of the major rationalist buildings in Italy. It is located in Piazza della Stazione, near the Fortezza da Basso (a masterpiece of the military Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture ) and the Viali di Circonvallazione , and in front of the Basilica of Santa Maria Novella 's apse from which it takes its name.

A new high-speed rail station is under construction and is contracted to be operational by 2015. It is planned to be connected to Vespucci airport, Santa Maria Novella railway station, and to the city centre by the second line of Tramvia. The architectural firms Foster + Partners and Lancietti Passaleva Giordo and Associates designed this new rail station.

AIRPORT

Florence Airport

Florence Airport , Peretola, is one of two main airports in the Tuscany
Tuscany
region, the other being Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
International Airport in Pisa.

SPORT

Florence
Florence
is represented by ACF Fiorentina , which plays in Serie A , the top league of Italian football . They play their games at the Stadio Artemio Franchi , which currently holds 47,282. The city is home of Coverciano , the main training ground of the Italian national team , and the technical department of the Italian Football Federation .

Florence
Florence
was selected to host the 2013 UCI World Road Cycling Championships.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy
Italy

TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES

Florence
Florence
is twinned with:

* Bethlehem
Bethlehem
, israel * Budapest
Budapest
, Hungary
Hungary
* Dresden
Dresden
, Germany
Germany
* Edinburgh
Edinburgh
, Scotland
Scotland
, United Kingdom * Fes
Fes
, Morocco
Morocco
* Isfahan
Isfahan
, Iran
Iran
* Kassel
Kassel
, Germany
Germany
* Kiev
Kiev
, Ukraine
Ukraine
* Kuwait City
Kuwait City
, Kuwait
Kuwait
* Kyoto
Kyoto
, Japan
Japan
* Nanjing
Nanjing
, China
China
* Nazareth
Nazareth
, Israel
Israel
* Philadelphia
Philadelphia
, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, United States * Puebla
Puebla
, Mexico
Mexico
* Reims
Reims
, France
France
* Riga
Riga
, Latvia
Latvia
* Salvador , Brazil
Brazil
* Sydney
Sydney
, Australia
Australia
* Tirana
Tirana
, Albania
Albania
* Turku
Turku
, Finland
Finland
* Valladolid
Valladolid
, Spain
Spain

OTHER PARTNERSHIPS

* Arequipa
Arequipa
, Peru
Peru
* Cannes
Cannes
, France
France
* Gifu, Gifu
Gifu, Gifu
Japan
Japan
* Kraków
Kraków
, Poland
Poland
* Malmö , Sweden
Sweden
* Mauthausen , Austria
Austria
* Ningbo
Ningbo
, China
China
* Porto-Vecchio
Porto-Vecchio
, Corsica
Corsica
* Providence , Rhode Island , United States * Tallinn
Tallinn
, Estonia
Estonia

NOTABLE RESIDENTS

See also: Category:People from Florence
Florence
Niccolò Machiavelli
Niccolò Machiavelli
Lorenzo de\' Medici Dante Alighieri

* Sir Harold Acton , author and aesthete * John Argyropoulos , scholar * Leone Battista Alberti , polymath * Dante Alighieri , poet * Giovanni Boccaccio
Giovanni Boccaccio
, poet * Baldassarre Bonaiuti , 14th-century chronicler * Sandro Botticelli
Sandro Botticelli
, painter * Aureliano Brandolini , agronomist and development cooperation scholar * Robert Browning and Elizabeth Barrett Browning
Elizabeth Barrett Browning
, 19th-century English poets * Filippo Brunelleschi , architect * Michelangelo
Michelangelo
Buonarroti, sculptor, painter, author of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and David * Francesco Casagrande
Francesco Casagrande
, cyclist * Roberto Cavalli , fashion designer * Carlo Collodi , writer * Enrico Coveri , fashion designer * Donatello
Donatello
, sculptor * Oriana Fallaci
Oriana Fallaci
, journalist and author * Salvatore Ferragamo , fashion designer and shoemaker * Mike Francis (musician) born Francesco Puccioni, singer and composer * Silpa Bhirasri (born Corrado Feroci), sculptor, founder of Silpakorn University (University of Art). And also credited as the principal figure of modern art in Thailand. * Frescobaldi
Frescobaldi
Family , notable bankers and wine producers * Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
, Italian physicist, astronomer, and philosopher * Giotto
Giotto
, early 14th-century painter, sculptor and architect * Lorenzo Ghiberti
Lorenzo Ghiberti
, sculptor * Guccio Gucci , founder of the Gucci label * Robert Lowell
Robert Lowell
, poet * Niccolò Machiavelli
Niccolò Machiavelli
, poet, philosopher and political thinker, author of The Prince
The Prince
and The Discourses * Masaccio
Masaccio
, painter * Rose McGowan
Rose McGowan
, Florence-born actress * Medici family * Girolamo Mei , historian and humanist * Antonio Meucci
Antonio Meucci
, inventor of the telephone * Florence Nightingale
Florence Nightingale
, pioneer of modern nursing, and statistician * Virginia Oldoini , Countess of Castiglione, early photographic artist, secret agent and courtesan * Valerio Profondavalle , Flemish painter * Raphael
Raphael
, painter * Anna Sarfatti , children's author * Girolamo Savonarola
Girolamo Savonarola
, reformist * Adriana Seroni , politician * Giovanni Spadolini , politician * Antonio Squarcialupi , organist and composer * Evangelista Torricelli
Evangelista Torricelli
, Italian physicist * Giorgio Vasari
Giorgio Vasari
, painter, architect, and historian * Amerigo Vespucci
Amerigo Vespucci
, explorer and cartographer, namesake of the Americas * Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
, polymath * Lisa del Giocondo , model of the Mona Lisa

SEE ALSO

* Italy
Italy
portal

* Category:Buildings and structures in Florence
Florence
* Chancellor of Florence * Cronaca fiorentina * European University Institute
European University Institute
* Florentine School
Florentine School
* Historical states of Italy
Italy
* List of squares in Florence * University of Florence
University of Florence

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SOURCES

* Niccolò Machiavelli. Florentine Histories * Brucker, Gene A. (1983). Renaissance
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Florence. * Brucker, Gene A. (1971). The Society of Renaissance
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Florence: A Documentary Study. * Chamberlin, Russell (22 May 2008). Travellers Florence
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1200–1575. * Schevill, Ferdinand (1936). History of Florence: From the Founding of the City Through the Renaissance. * Trexler, Richard C. (1991). Public Life in Renaissance
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