Florence (/ˈflɒrəns/ FLORR-ənss; Italian: Firenze
[fiˈrɛntse] ( listen)) is the capital city of the
Italian region of Tuscany. It is the most populous city in Tuscany,
with 383,083 inhabitants in 2013, and over 1,520,000 in its
Florence was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one
of the wealthiest cities of that era. It is considered the
birthplace of the Renaissance, and has been called "the
Athens of the
Middle Ages". A turbulent political history includes periods of
rule by the powerful Medici family and numerous religious and
republican revolutions. From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital
of the recently established Kingdom of Italy. The Florentine dialect
forms the base of Standard Italian and it became the language of
culture throughout Italy due to the prestige of the masterpieces by
Dante Alighieri, Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli
and Francesco Guicciardini.
The city attracts millions of tourists each year, and the Historic
Florence was declared a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site by
1982. The city is noted for its culture,
Renaissance art and
architecture and monuments. The city also contains numerous museums
and art galleries, such as the
Uffizi Gallery and the Palazzo Pitti,
and still exerts an influence in the fields of art, culture and
politics. Due to Florence's artistic and architectural heritage, it
has been ranked by
Forbes as one of the most beautiful cities in the
Florence is an important city in Italian fashion, being ranked in
the top 15 fashion capitals of the world; furthermore, it is a
major national economic centre, as well as a tourist and industrial
hub. In 2008, the city had the 17th highest average income in
1.1 Roman origins
1.2 Second millennium
Middle Ages and Renaissance
1.3.1 Rise of the Medici
1.3.2 Savonarola and Machiavelli
1.4 18th and 19th centuries
1.5 20th century
4 Main sights
4.1 Monuments, museums and religious buildings
4.2 Squares, streets and parks
6.1 Industry, commerce and services
6.3 Food and wine production
7.7 Research activity
7.8 Science and discovery
7.10 Historical evocations
7.10.1 Scoppio del Carro
7.10.2 Calcio Storico
Florence public transport statistics
8.5 Railway station
9 International relations
9.1 Twin towns and sister cities
10 Other partnerships
11 Notable residents
12 See also
15 External links
History of Florence
History of Florence and Timeline of Florence
Florence by Hartmann Schedel, published in 1493
Florence originated as a Roman city, and later, after a long period as
a flourishing trading and banking medieval commune, it was the
birthplace of the Italian Renaissance. According to the Encyclopædia
Britannica, it was politically, economically, and culturally one of
the most important cities in
Europe and the world from the 14th to
The language spoken in the city during the 14th century was, and still
is, accepted as the Italian language. Almost all the writers and poets
in Italian literature of the golden age are in some way connected with
Florence, leading ultimately to the adoption of the Florentine
dialect, above all the local dialects, as a literary language of
Starting from the late Middle Ages, Florentine money—in the form of
the gold florin—financed the development of industry all over
Europe, from Britain to Bruges, to Lyon and Hungary. Florentine
bankers financed the English kings during the Hundred Years War. They
similarly financed the papacy, including the construction of their
provisional capital of
Avignon and, after their return to Rome, the
Renaissance embellishment of Rome.
Florence was home to the Medici, one of European history's most
important noble families.
Lorenzo de' Medici
Lorenzo de' Medici was considered a
political and cultural mastermind of
Italy in the late 15th century.
Two members of the family were popes in the early 16th century: Leo X
and Clement VII.
Catherine de Medici
Catherine de Medici married king Henry II of France
and, after his death in 1559, reigned as regent in France. Marie de'
Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France and gave birth to the future king
Louis XIII. The Medici reigned as Grand Dukes of Tuscany, starting
Cosimo I de' Medici
Cosimo I de' Medici in 1569 and ending with the death of Gian
Gastone de' Medici in 1737.
Roman Republic 59–27 BC
Roman Empire 27 BC–AD 285
Roman Empire 285–476
Ostrogothic Kingdom 493–553
Roman Empire 553-568
Lombard Kingdom 570–773
Carolingian Empire 774–797
Regnum Italiae 797–1001
Republic of Florence
Republic of Florence 1115–1532
Duchy of Florence
Duchy of Florence 1532–1569
Grand Duchy of
Kingdom of Etruria
Kingdom of Etruria 1801–1807
First French Empire
First French Empire 1807–1815
Grand Duchy of
United Provinces of Central
Italian Republic 1946–present
Julius Caesar established
Florence in 59 BC
Totila razes the walls of
Florence during the Gothic
War: illumination from the Chigi manuscript of Villani's Cronica
The Etruscans initially formed in 200 BC the small settlement of
Fiesole (Faesulae in Latin), which was destroyed by Lucius
Cornelius Sulla in 80 BC in reprisal for supporting the populares
faction in Rome. The present city of
Florence was established by
Julius Caesar in 59 BC as a settlement for his veteran soldiers
and was named originally Fluentia, owing to the fact that it was built
between two rivers, which was later changed to Florentia
("flowering"). It was built in the style of an army camp with the
main streets, the cardo and the decumanus, intersecting at the present
Piazza della Repubblica. Situated along the Via Cassia, the main route
Rome and the north, and within the fertile valley of the Arno,
the settlement quickly became an important commercial centre.
In centuries to come, the city experienced turbulent periods of
Ostrogothic rule, during which the city was often troubled by warfare
Ostrogoths and the Byzantines, which may have caused the
population to fall to as few as 1,000 people. Peace returned under
Lombard rule in the 6th century.
Florence was conquered by Charlemagne
in 774 and became part of the Duchy of Tuscany, with
Lucca as capital.
The population began to grow again and commerce prospered. In 854,
Fiesole were united in one county.
The Basilica di San Miniato al Monte
Margrave Hugo chose
Florence as his residency instead of
about 1000 AD. The
Golden Age of Florentine art began around this
time. In 1013, construction began on the Basilica di San Miniato al
Monte. The exterior of the church was reworked in Romanesque style
between 1059 and 1128. In 1100,
Florence was a "Commune", meaning a
city state. The city's primary resource was the
Arno river, providing
power and access for the industry (mainly textile industry), and
access to the Mediterranean sea for international trade. Another great
source of strength was its industrious merchant community. The
Florentine merchant banking skills became recognised in
they brought decisive financial innovation (e.g. bill of exchange,
double-entry bookkeeping system) to medieval fairs. This period also
saw the eclipse of Florence's formerly powerful rival
Genoa in 1284 and subjugated by
Florence in 1406), and the exercise
of power by the mercantile elite following an anti-aristocratic
movement, led by Giano della Bella, that resulted in a set of laws
Ordinances of Justice (1293).
Middle Ages and Renaissance
Republic of Florence
Republic of Florence and Italian Renaissance
Rise of the Medici
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci statue outside the
Of a population estimated at 94,000 before the
Black Death of
1348, about 25,000 are said to have been supported by the city's
wool industry: in 1345
Florence was the scene of an attempted strike
by wool combers (ciompi), who in 1378 rose up in a brief revolt
against oligarchic rule in the Revolt of the Ciompi. After their
Florence came under the sway (1382–1434) of the Albizzi
family, who became bitter rivals of the Medici.
In the 15th century,
Florence was among the largest cities in Europe,
considered rich and economically successful. Life was not idyllic for
all residents though, among whom there were great disparities in
Cosimo de' Medici
Cosimo de' Medici was the first Medici family member to
essentially control the city from behind the scenes. Although the city
was technically a democracy of sorts, his power came from a vast
patronage network along with his alliance to the new immigrants, the
gente nuova (new people). The fact that the Medici were bankers to the
pope also contributed to their ascendancy. Cosimo was succeeded by his
son Piero, who was, soon after, succeeded by Cosimo's grandson,
Lorenzo in 1469. Lorenzo was a great patron of the arts, commissioning
works by Michelangelo,
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci and Botticelli. Lorenzo was
an accomplished poet and musician and brought composers and singers to
Florence, including Alexander Agricola, Johannes Ghiselin, and
Heinrich Isaac. By contemporary Florentines (and since), he was known
as "Lorenzo the Magnificent" (Lorenzo il Magnifico).
Following Lorenzo de' Medici's death in 1492, he was succeeded by his
son Piero II. When the French king Charles VIII invaded
northern Italy, Piero II chose to resist his army. But when he
realised the size of the French army at the gates of Pisa, he had to
accept the humiliating conditions of the French king. These made the
Florentines rebel and they expelled Piero II. With his exile in
1494, the first period of Medici rule ended with the restoration of a
Savonarola and Machiavelli
Girolamo Savonarola being burnt at the stake in 1498
During this period, the Dominican friar
Girolamo Savonarola had become
prior of the San Marco monastery in 1490. He was famed for his
penitential sermons, lambasting what he viewed as widespread
immorality and attachment to material riches. He blamed the exile of
the Medici as the work of God, punishing them for their decadence. He
seized the opportunity to carry through political reforms leading to a
more democratic rule. But when Savonarola publicly accused Pope
Alexander VI of corruption, he was banned from speaking in public.
When he broke this ban, he was excommunicated. The Florentines, tired
of his extreme teachings, turned against him and arrested him. He was
convicted as a heretic and burned at the stake on the Piazza della
Signoria on 23 May 1498.
A second individual of unusually acute insight was Niccolò
Machiavelli, whose prescriptions for Florence's regeneration under
strong leadership have often been seen as a legitimisation of
political expediency and even malpractice. In other words, Machiavelli
was a political thinker, perhaps most renowned for his political
handbook, titled The Prince, which is about ruling and the exercise of
power. Commissioned by the Medici, Machiavelli also wrote the
Florentine Histories, the history of the city. Florentines drove out
the Medici for a second time and re-established a republic on 16 May
1527. Restored twice with the support of both Emperor and Pope, the
Medici in 1537 became hereditary dukes of Florence, and in 1569 Grand
Dukes of Tuscany, ruling for two centuries. In all Tuscany, only the
Lucca (later a Duchy) and the Principality of Piombino
were independent from Florence.
18th and 19th centuries
Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor
Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor and his family. Leopold was, from 1765
to 1790, the Grand Duke of Tuscany
The extinction of the Medici dynasty and the accession in 1737 of
Francis Stephen, duke of Lorraine and husband of Maria Theresa of
Austria, led to Tuscany's temporary inclusion in the territories of
the Austrian crown. It became a secundogeniture of the
Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty, who were deposed for the House of
Parma in 1801. From 1801 to 1807
Florence was the capital of
the Napoleonic client state Kingdom of Etruria. Bourbon-
deposed in December 1807 when
Tuscany was annexed by France. Florence
was the prefecture of the French département of
Arno from 1808 to the
Napoleon in 1814. The Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty was restored
on the throne of
Tuscany at the
Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna but finally deposed
Tuscany became a region of the Kingdom of
Italy in 1861.
Turin as Italy's capital in 1865 and, in an effort
to modernise the city, the old market in the Piazza del Mercato
Vecchio and many medieval houses were pulled down and replaced by a
more formal street plan with newer houses. The Piazza (first renamed
Piazza Vittorio Emanuele II, then Piazza della Repubblica, the
present name) was significantly widened and a large triumphal arch was
constructed at the west end. This development was unpopular and was
prevented from continuing by the efforts of several British and
American people living in the city. A museum
recording the destruction stands nearby today.
The country's second capital city was superseded by
Rome six years
later, after the withdrawal of the French troops made its addition to
the kingdom possible.
Porte Sante cemetery, burial place of notable figures of Florentine
After doubling during the 19th century, Florence's population was to
triple in the 20th, resulting from growth in tourism, trade, financial
services and industry.
World War II
World War II the city experienced a year-long German occupation
(1943–1944) and was declared an open city by the retreating Germans
after New Zealand troops stormed the Pian dei Cerri hills overlooking
the city. The Allied soldiers who died driving the Germans from
Tuscany are buried in cemeteries outside the city (Americans about
nine kilometres (5.6 miles) south of the city, British and
Commonwealth soldiers a few kilometres east of the centre on the right
bank of the Arno). In 1944, the retreating Germans decided to demolish
all the bridges along the
Arno linking the district of
Oltrarno to the
rest of the city, making it difficult for the British troops to cross.
However, at the last moment Charles Steinhauslin, at the time
consulate of 26 countries in Florence, convinced the German general in
Italy that the
Ponte Vecchio was not to be destroyed due to its
historical value.
Instead, an equally historic area of streets directly to the south of
the bridge, including part of the Corridoio Vasariano, was destroyed
using mines. Since then the bridges have been restored to their
original forms using as many of the remaining materials as possible,
but the buildings surrounding the
Ponte Vecchio have been rebuilt in a
style combining the old with modern design. Shortly before leaving
Florence, as they knew that they would soon have to retreat, the
Germans executed many freedom fighters and political opponents
publicly, in streets and squares including the Piazza Santo
Florence was liberated by the New Zealand Army (2nd New Zealand
Division) and South African troops on 4 August 1944.
At the end of
World War II
World War II in Europe, in May 1945, the US Army's
Information and Educational Branch was ordered to establish an
overseas university campus for demobilised American service men and
women in Florence, Italy. The first American University for service
personnel was established in June 1945 at the School of Aeronautics in
Florence, Italy. Some 7,500 soldier-students were to pass through the
University during its four one-month sessions (see G. I. American
In November 1966, the
Arno flooded parts of the centre, damaging many
art treasures. Around the city there are tiny placards on the walls
noting where the flood waters reached at their highest point.
On 25 May 2016 the
BBC reported that a sinkhole, thought to have been
caused by a bursting of a water pipe, opened up a 200-metre
(660 ft) hole on the
Arno river bank in Florence.
November 2005 view of the city and
Arno valley, with the Apennine
mountains in the background
Florence lies in a basin formed by the hills of Careggi, Fiesole,
Poggio Imperiale and Bellosguardo (Florence). The
Arno river, three other minor rivers (Mugnone, Ema and Greve) and some
streams flow through it.
Florence with snow cover in December 2009
Florence has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), slightly tending to
Mediterranean (Csa). It has hot summers with moderate or light
rainfall and cool, damp winters. As
Florence lacks a prevailing wind,
summer temperatures are higher than along the coast. Rainfall in
summer is convectional, while relief rainfall dominates in the winter.
Snow flurries happen almost every year, but often result in no
accumulation. The highest officially recorded temperature was
42.6 °C (108.7 °F) on 26 July 1983 and the lowest was
−23.2 °C (−9.8 °F) on 12 January 1985.
Climate data for Florence
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)
Source #1: Servizio Meteorologico 
World Meteorological Organisation
World Meteorological Organisation (United Nations) 
See also: List of mayors of Florence
The traditional boroughs of the whole comune of Florence
The 5 administrative boroughs of the whole comune of Florence
The legislative body of the municipality is the City Council
(Consiglio Comunale), which is composed of 36 councillors elected
every five years with a proportional system, contextually to the
mayoral elections. The executive body is the City Committee (Giunta
Comunale), composed by 7 assessors, that is nominated and presieded
over by a directly elected Mayor. The current mayor of
The municipality of
Florence is subdivided into five administrative
Boroughs (Quartieri). Each Borough is governed by a Council
(Consiglio) and a President, elected contextually to the city Mayor.
The urban organisation is governed by the Italian Constitution (art.
114). The Boroughs have the power to advise the Mayor with nonbinding
opinions on a large spectrum of topics (environment, construction,
public health, local markets) and exercise the functions delegated to
them by the City Council; in addition they are supplied with an
autonomous founding in order to finance local activities. The Boroughs
Centro storico (Historic Centre); population: 67,170;
Campo di Marte; population: 88,588;
Gavinana-Galluzzo; population: 40,907;
Isolotto-Legnaia; population: 66,636;
Rifredi; population: 103,761.
All of the five boroughs are governed by the Democratic Party.
The former Italian Prime Minister (2014-2016), Matteo Renzi, served as
mayor from 2009 to 2014.
Main article: Architecture of Florence
1835 City Map of Florence, still largely in the confines of its
medieval city centre.
Ponte Vecchio, which spans the
Florence is known as the "cradle of the Renaissance" (la culla del
Rinascimento) for its monuments, churches, and buildings. The
best-known site of
Florence is the domed cathedral of the city, Santa
Maria del Fiore, known as The Duomo, whose dome was built by Filippo
Brunelleschi. The nearby
Campanile (partly designed by Giotto) and the
Baptistery buildings are also highlights. The dome, 600 years after
its completion, is still the largest dome built in brick and mortar in
the world. In 1982, the historic centre of
centro storico di Firenze) was declared a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site by the
UNESCO. The centre of the city is contained in medieval walls that
were built in the 14th century to defend the city. At the heart of the
city, in Piazza della Signoria, is Bartolomeo Ammannati's Fountain of
Neptune (1563–1565), which is a masterpiece of marble sculpture at
the terminus of a still functioning Roman aqueduct.
The layout and structure of
Florence in many ways harkens back to the
Roman era, where it was designed as a garrison settlement.
Nevertheless, the majority of the city was built during the
Renaissance. Despite the strong presence of Renaissance
architecture within the city, traces of medieval, Baroque,
Neoclassical and modern architecture can be found. The Palazzo Vecchio
as well as the Duomo, or the city's Cathedral, are the two buildings
which dominate Florence's skyline.
The river Arno, which cuts through the old part of the city, is as
much a character in Florentine history as many of the people who lived
there. Historically, the locals have had a love-hate relationship with
Arno – which alternated between nourishing the city with
commerce, and destroying it by flood.
Florence at night from Piazzale Michelangelo
One of the bridges in particular stands out — the
Ponte Vecchio (Old
Bridge), whose most striking feature is the multitude of shops built
upon its edges, held up by stilts. The bridge also carries Vasari's
elevated corridor linking the
Uffizi to the Medici residence (Palazzo
Pitti). Although the original bridge was constructed by the Etruscans,
the current bridge was rebuilt in the 14th century. It is the only
bridge in the city to have survived World War II intact. It is
the first example in the western world of a bridge built using
segmental arches, that is, arches less than a semicircle, to reduce
both span-to-rise ratio and the numbers of pillars to allow lesser
encumbrance in the riverbed (being in this much more successful than
the Roman Alconétar Bridge).
Ponte Santa Trinita
Ponte Santa Trinita with the
The church of San Lorenzo contains the Medici Chapel, the mausoleum of
the Medici family—the most powerful family in
Florence from the 15th
to the 18th century. Nearby is the
Uffizi Gallery, one of the finest
art museums in the world – founded on a large bequest from the last
member of the Medici family.
Florence Duomo as seen from
Uffizi is located at the corner of Piazza della Signoria, a site
important for being the centre of Florence's civil life and government
for centuries. The
Palazzo della Signoria
Palazzo della Signoria facing it is still home of
the municipal government. Many significant episodes in the history of
art and political changes were staged here, such as:
Dante Alighieri was sent into exile from here (commemorated
by a plaque on one of the walls of the Uffizi).
On 26 April 1478, Jacopo de' Pazzi and his retainers tried to raise
the city against the Medici after the plot known as La congiura dei
Pazzi (The Pazzi conspiracy), murdering Giuliano di Piero de' Medici
and wounding his brother Lorenzo. All the members of the plot who
could be apprehended were seized by the Florentines and hanged from
the windows of the palace.
In 1497, it was the location of the
Bonfire of the Vanities
Bonfire of the Vanities instigated
by the Dominican friar and preacher Girolamo Savonarola
On 23 May 1498, the same Savonarola and two followers were hanged and
burnt at the stake. (A round plate in the ground marks the spot where
he was hanged)
In 1504, Michelangelo's David (now replaced by a replica, since the
original was moved in 1873 to the Galleria dell'Accademia) was
installed in front of the
Palazzo della Signoria
Palazzo della Signoria (also known as
Loggia dei Lanzi
Loggia dei Lanzi in
Piazza della Signoria
Piazza della Signoria is the location of a
number of statues by other sculptors such as Donatello, Giambologna,
Ammannati and Cellini, although some have been replaced with copies to
preserve the originals.
Monuments, museums and religious buildings
List of churches in Florence
List of churches in Florence and Theatres in Florence
Piazzale degli Uffizi
Florence contains several palaces and buildings from various eras. The
Palazzo Vecchio is the town hall of
Florence and also an art museum.
This large Romanesque crenellated fortress-palace overlooks the Piazza
della Signoria with its copy of Michelangelo's David statue as well as
the gallery of statues in the adjacent Loggia dei Lanzi. Originally
called the Palazzo della Signoria, after the Signoria of Florence, the
ruling body of the Republic of Florence, it was also given several
other names: Palazzo del Popolo, Palazzo dei Priori, and Palazzo
Ducale, in accordance with the varying use of the palace during its
long history. The building acquired its current name when the Medici
duke's residence was moved across the
Arno to the Palazzo Pitti. It is
linked to the
Uffizi and the
Palazzo Pitti through the Corridoio
Palazzo Medici Riccardi, designed by
Michelozzo di Bartolomeo for
Cosimo il Vecchio, of the Medici family, is another major edifice, and
was built between 1445 and 1460. It was well known for its stone
masonry that includes rustication and ashlar. Today it is the head
office of the
Metropolitan City of Florence
Metropolitan City of Florence and hosts museums and the
Riccardiana Library. The Palazzo Strozzi, an example of civil
architecture with its rusticated stone, was inspired by the Palazzo
Medici, but with more harmonious proportions. Today the palace is used
for international expositions like the annual antique show (founded as
the Biennale dell'Antiquariato in 1959), fashion shows and other
cultural and artistic events. Here also is the seat of the Istituto
Nazionale del Rinascimento and the noted Gabinetto Vieusseux, with the
library and reading room.
There are several other notable places, including the Palazzo
Rucellai, designed by
Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti between 1446 and 1451 and
executed, at least in part, by Bernardo Rossellino; the Palazzo
Davanzati, which houses the museum of the Old Florentine House; the
Palazzo delle Assicurazioni Generali, designed in the Neo-Renaissance
style in 1871; the Palazzo Spini Feroni, in Piazza Santa Trinita, a
historic 13th-century private palace, owned since the 1920s by
shoe-designer Salvatore Ferragamo; as well as various others,
including the Palazzo Borghese, the Palazzo di Bianca Cappello, the
Palazzo Antinori, and the Royal building of Santa Maria Novella.
Palazzo Pitti on Boboli Gardens' side
Florence contains numerous museums and art galleries where some of the
world's most important works of art are held. The city is one of the
Renaissance centres of art and architecture in the
world and has a high concentration of art, architecture and
culture. In the ranking list of the 15 most visited Italian art
museums, ⅔ are represented by Florentine museums. The
one of these, having a very large collection of international and
Florentine art. The gallery is articulated in many halls, catalogued
by schools and chronological order. Engendered by the Medici family's
artistic collections through the centuries, it houses works of art by
various painters and artists. The
Vasari Corridor is another gallery,
built connecting the
Palazzo Vecchio with the Pitti Palace passing by
Uffizi and over the Ponte Vecchio. The Galleria dell'Accademia
Michelangelo collection, including the David. It has a
collection of Russian icons and works by various artists and painters.
Other museums and galleries include the Bargello, which concentrates
on sculpture works by artists including Donatello,
Michelangelo; the Palazzo Pitti, containing part of the Medici
family's former private collection. In addition to the Medici
collection, the palace's galleries contain many
including several by
Raphael and Titian, large collections of
costumes, ceremonial carriages, silver, porcelain and a gallery of
modern art dating from the 18th century. Adjoining the palace are the
Boboli Gardens, elaborately landscaped and with numerous sculptures.
The façade of the Cathedral
There are several different churches and religious buildings in
Florence. The cathedral is Santa Maria del Fiore. The San Giovanni
Baptistery located in front of the cathedral, is decorated by numerous
artists, notably by
Lorenzo Ghiberti with the Gates of Paradise. Other
Florence include the Basilica of Santa Maria Novella,
located in Santa Maria Novella square (near the Firenze Santa Maria
Novella railway station) which contains works by Masaccio, Paolo
Filippino Lippi and Domenico Ghirlandaio; the Basilica of
Santa Croce, the principal Franciscan church in the city, which is
situated on the Piazza di Santa Croce, about 800 metres (2,600 feet)
south east of the Duomo, and is the burial place of some of the most
illustrious Italians, such as Michelangelo, Galileo, Machiavelli,
Foscolo, Rossini, thus it is known also as the Temple of the Italian
Glories (Tempio dell'Itale Glorie); the Basilica of San Lorenzo, which
is one of the largest churches in the city, situated at the centre of
Florence's main market district, and the burial place of all the
principal members of the Medici family from Cosimo il Vecchio to
Cosimo III; Santo Spirito, in the
Oltrarno quarter, facing the square
with the same name; Orsanmichele, whose building was constructed on
the site of the kitchen garden of the monastery of San Michele, now
demolished; Santissima Annunziata, a Roman Catholic basilica and the
mother church of the Servite order; Ognissanti, which was founded by
the lay order of the Umiliati, and is among the first examples of
Baroque architecture built in the city; the Santa Maria del Carmine,
Oltrarno district of Florence, which is the location of the
Brancacci Chapel, housing outstanding
Renaissance frescoes by Masaccio
and Masolino da Panicale, later finished by Filippino Lippi; the
Medici Chapel with statues by Michelangelo, in the San Lorenzo; as
well as several others, including Santa Trinita, San Marco, Santa
Felicita, Badia Fiorentina, San Gaetano, San Miniato al Monte,
Florence Charterhouse, and Santa Maria del Carmine. The city
additionally contains the Orthodox Russian church of Nativity, and the
Great Synagogue of Florence, built in the 19th century.
Florence contains various theatres and cinemas. The Odeon Cinema of
the Palazzo dello Strozzino is one of the oldest cinemas in the city.
Established from 1920 to 1922 in a wing of the Palazzo dello
Strozzino, it used to be called the Cinema Teatro Savoia (Savoy
Cinema-Theatre), yet was later called Odeon. The Teatro della Pergola,
located in the centre of the city on the eponymous street, is an opera
house built in the 17th century. Another theatre is the Teatro
Comunale (or Teatro del Maggio Musicale Fiorentino), originally built
as the open-air amphitheatre, the Politeama Fiorentino Vittorio
Emanuele, which was inaugurated on 17 May 1862 with a production of
Lucia di Lammermoor
Lucia di Lammermoor and which seated 6,000 people. There
are several other theatres, such as the Saloncino Castinelli, the
Teatro Puccini, the Teatro Verdi, the Teatro Goldoni and the Teatro
Squares, streets and parks
See also: Squares of Florence
Piazza della Repubblica
Panorama composite, overview of Firenze, taken from the Giardino
Aside from such monuments,
Florence contains numerous major squares
(piazze) and streets. The Piazza della Repubblica is a square in the
city centre, location of the cultural cafés and bourgeois palaces.
Among the square's cafés (like Caffè Gilli, Paszkowski or the Hard
Rock Cafè), the Giubbe Rosse café has long been a meeting place for
artists and writers, notably those of Futurism. The Piazza Santa Croce
is another; dominated by the Basilica of Santa Croce, it is a
rectangular square in the centre of the city where the Calcio
Fiorentino is played every year. Furthermore, there is the Piazza
Santa Trinita, a square near the
Arno that mark the end of the Via de'
Replica of David and other statues, Piazza della Signoria
Other squares include the Piazza San Marco, the Piazza Santa Maria
Piazza Beccaria and the Piazza della Libertà. The centre
additionally contains several streets. Such include the Via Camillo
Cavour, one of the main roads of the northern area of the historic
centre; the Via Ghibellina, one of central Florence's longest streets;
the Via dei Calzaiuoli, one of the most central streets of the
historic centre which links Piazza del Duomo to Piazza della Signoria,
winding parallel to via Roma and Piazza della Repubblica; the Via de'
Tornabuoni, a luxurious street in the city centre that goes from
Antinori square to ponte Santa Trinita, across Piazza Santa Trinita,
characterised by the presence of fashion boutiques; the Viali di
Circonvallazione, 6-lane boulevards surrounding the northern part of
the historic centre; as well as others, such as Via Roma, Via degli
Speziali, Via de' Cerretani, and the Viale dei Colli.
Florence also contains various parks and gardens. Such include the
Boboli Gardens, the Parco delle Cascine, the
Giardino Bardini and the
Giardino dei Semplici, amongst others.
Source: ISTAT 2011
In 1200 the city was home to 50,000 people. By 1300 the population
of the city proper was 120,000, with an additional 300,000 living in
the Contado. Between 1500 and 1650 the population was around
As of 31 October 2010[update], the population of the city
proper is 370,702, while
Eurostat estimates that 696,767 people live
in the urban area of Florence. The Metropolitan Area of Florence,
Prato and Pistoia, constituted in 2000 over an area of roughly 4,800
square kilometres (1,853 sq mi), is home to 1.5 million
Florence proper, 46.8% of the population was male in
2007 and 53.2% were female. Minors (children aged 18 and less)
totalled 14.10 percent of the population compared to pensioners, who
numbered 25.95 percent. This compares with the Italian average of
18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age
Florence resident is 49 compared to the Italian average of 42. In
the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of
by 3.22 percent, while
Italy as a whole grew by 3.56 percent. The
birth rate of
Florence is 7.66 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared
to the Italian average of 9.45 births.
As of 2009[update], 87.46% of the population was Italian. An estimated
6,000 Chinese live in the city. The largest immigrant group came
from other European countries (mostly
Romanians and Albanians): 3.52%,
East Asia (mostly Chinese and Filipino): 2.17%, the Americas: 1.41%,
and North Africa (mostly Moroccan): 0.9%.
Tourism is, by far, the most important of all industries and most of
the Florentine economy relies on the money generated by international
arrivals and students studying in the city. The value tourism to
the city totalled some €62.5 billion in 2015 and the number of
visitors had increased by 5.5% from the previous year.
Florence was listed as the second best world city by Condé
Manufacturing and commerce, however, still remain highly important.
Florence is also Italy's 17th richest city in terms of average
workers' earnings, with the figure being €23,265 (the overall city's
income is €6,531,204,473), coming after Mantua, yet surpassing
Industry, commerce and services
Florence is a major production and commercial centre in Italy, where
the Florentine industrial complexes in the suburbs produce all sorts
of goods, from furniture, rubber goods, chemicals, and food.
However, traditional and local products, such as antiques,
handicrafts, glassware, leatherwork, art reproductions, jewellery,
souvenirs, elaborate metal and iron-work, shoes, accessories and high
fashion clothes also dominate a fair sector of Florence's economy.
The city's income relies partially on services and commercial and
cultural interests, such as annual fairs, theatrical and lyrical
productions, art exhibitions, festivals and fashion shows, such as the
Calcio Fiorentino. Heavy industry and machinery also take their part
in providing an income. In Nuovo Pignone, numerous factories are still
present, and small-to medium industrial businesses are dominant. The
Florence-Prato-Pistoia industrial districts and areas were known as
the 'Third Italy' in the 1990s, due to the exports of high-quality
goods and automobile (especially the Vespa) and the prosperity and
productivity of the Florentine entrepreneurs. Some of these industries
even rivalled the traditional industrial districts in Emilia-Romagna
Veneto due to high profits and productivity.
In the fourth quarter of 2015, manufacturing increased by 2.4% and
exports increased by 7.2%. Leading sectors included mechanical
engineering, fashion, pharmaceutics, food and wine. During 2015,
permanent employment contracts increased by 48.8 percent, boosted by
nationwide tax break.
Tourists flock to the Fontana del Porcellino.
Tourism is the most significant industry in central Florence. From
April to October, tourists outnumber local population. Tickets to the
Uffizi and Accademia museums are regularly sold out and large groups
regularly fill the basilicas of Santa Croce and Santa Maria Novella,
both of which charge for entry. Tickets for The
Uffizi and Accademia
can be purchased online prior to visiting. In 2010, readers of
Travel + Leisure
Travel + Leisure magazine ranked the city as their third favourite
tourist destination. In 2015, Condé Nast Travel readers voted
Florence as the best city in Europe.
Studies by Euromonitor International have concluded that cultural and
history-oriented tourism is generating significantly increased
spending throughout Europe.
Florence is believed to have the greatest concentration of art (in
proportion to its size) in the world. Thus, cultural tourism is
particularly strong, with world-renowned museums such as the Uffizi
selling over 1.93 million tickets in 2014. The city's
convention centre facilities were restructured during the 1990s and
host exhibitions, conferences, meetings, social forums, concerts and
other events all year.
Tourists and restaurant in the Piazza del Duomo
Florence had 20,588 hotel rooms in 570 facilities.
International visitors use 75% of the rooms; some 18% of those were
from the U.S. In 2014, the city had 8.5 million overnight
stays. A Euromonitor report indicates that in 2015 the city ranked
as the world's 36th most visited in the world, with over
4.95 million arrivals for the year.
Tourism brings revenue to Florence, but it creates certain problems.
The Ponte Vecchio, The San Lorenzo Market and Santa Maria Novella are
plagued by pickpockets. The province of
Florence receives roughly
13 million visitors per year and in peak seasons, that can lead to
over crowding at popular locations. Mayor
Dario Nardella is
particularly concerned about visitors who arrive on buses, stay only a
few hours, spend little money but contribute significantly to
overcrowding. "No museum visit, just a photo from the square, the bus
back and then on to Venice... We don’t want tourists like that," he
Some tourists are less than respectful of the city's cultural
heritage, according to Nardella. In June 2017, he instituted a
programme of spraying church steps with water to prevent tourists from
using such areas as picnic spots. While he values the benefits of
tourism, there has been "an increase among those who sit down on
church steps, eat their food and leave rubbish strewn on them," he
explained. To boost the sale of traditional foods, the mayor had
introduced legislation (enacted in 2016) that requires restaurants to
use typical Tuscan products and rejected McDonald's application to
open a location in the Piazza del Duomo.
Food and wine production
Fiascos of basic Chianti.
Food and wine have long been an important staple of the economy. The
Chianti region is just south of the city, and its
figure prominently not only in its
Chianti Classico wines but also in
many of the more recently developed Supertuscan blends. Within
32 km (20 mi) to the west is the Carmignano area, also home
to flavourful sangiovese-based reds. The celebrated
district, geographically and historically separated from the main
Chianti region, is also few kilometres east of Florence. More
recently, the Bolgheri region (about 150 km (93 mi)
southwest of Florence) has become celebrated for its "Super Tuscan"
reds such as
Sassicaia and Ornellaia.
Main article: Art in Florence
See also: Guilds of Florence
Botticelli's Venus, stored in the Uffizi
Sculptures in the Loggia dei Lanzi
Cimabue and Giotto, the fathers of Italian painting, lived in Florence
as well as Arnolfo and Andrea Pisano, renewers of architecture and
Donatello and Masaccio, forefathers of the
Renaissance, Ghiberti and the Della Robbias,
Filippo Lippi and
Paolo Uccello and the universal genius of
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo.
Their works, together with those of many other generations of artists,
are gathered in the several museums of the town: the
the Palatina gallery with the paintings of the "Golden Ages", the
Bargello with the sculptures of the Renaissance, the museum of San
Marco with Fra Angelico's works, the Academy, the chapels of the
Medicis Buonarroti's house with the sculptures of Michelangelo,
the following museums: Bardini, Horne, Stibbert, Romano, Corsini, The
Gallery of Modern Art, the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, the museum of
Silverware and the museum of Precious Stones. Several monuments
are located in Florence: the
Florence Baptistery with its mosaics; the
Cathedral with its sculptures, the medieval churches with bands of
frescoes; public as well as private palaces: Palazzo Vecchio, Palazzo
Pitti, Palazzo Medici Riccardi, Palazzo Davanzati; monasteries,
cloisters, refectories; the "Certosa". In the archaeological museum
includes documents of Etruscan civilisation. In fact the city is
so rich in art that some first time visitors experience the Stendhal
syndrome as they encounter its art for the first time.
Florentine architects such as
Filippo Brunelleschi (1377–1466) and
Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti (1404–1472) were among the fathers of both
Renaissance and Neoclassical architecture.
The cathedral, topped by Brunelleschi's dome, dominates the Florentine
skyline. The Florentines decided to start building it – late in the
13th century, without a design for the dome. The project proposed by
Brunelleschi in the 14th century was the largest ever built at the
time, and the first major dome built in
Europe since the two great
domes of Roman times – the Pantheon in Rome, and
Hagia Sophia in
Constantinople. The dome of Santa Maria del Fiore remains the largest
brick construction of its kind in the world. In front of it is
the medieval Baptistery. The two buildings incorporate in their
decoration the transition from the
Middle Ages to the Renaissance. In
recent years, most of the important works of art from the two
buildings – and from the nearby Giotto's Campanile, have been
removed and replaced by copies. The originals are now housed in the
Museum dell'Opera del Duomo, just to the east of the Cathedral.
Florence has large numbers of art-filled churches, such as San Miniato
al Monte, San Lorenzo, Santa Maria Novella, Santa Trinita, Santa Maria
del Carmine, Santa Croce, Santo Spirito, the Annunziata, Ognissanti
and numerous others.
The Palazzo della Signoria, better known as the Palazzo Vecchio
(English: The Old Palace)
Artists associated with
Florence range from
Arnolfo di Cambio
Arnolfo di Cambio and
Cimabue to Giotto, Nanni di Banco, and Paolo Uccello; through Lorenzo
Donatello and Massaccio and the della Robbia family;
Fra Angelico and Botticelli and Piero della Francesca, and on
Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci. Others include Benvenuto
Cellini, Andrea del Sarto, Benozzo Gozzoli, Domenico Ghirlandaio,
Filippo Lippi, Bernardo Buontalenti, Orcagna, Pollaiuolo, Filippino
Lippi, Verrocchio, Bronzino, Desiderio da Settignano, Michelozzo, the
Rossellis, the Sangallos, and Pontormo. Artists from other regions who
Florence include Raphael, Andrea Pisano, Giambologna, Il
Sodoma and Peter Paul Rubens.
Picture galleries in
Florence include the
Uffizi and the Pitti Palace.
Two superb collections of sculpture are in the
Bargello and the Museum
of the Works of the Duomo. They are filled with the creations of
Donatello, Verrochio, Desiderio da Settignano,
Galleria dell'Accademia has Michelangelo's David –
perhaps the best-known work of art anywhere, plus the unfinished
statues of the slaves
Michelangelo created for the tomb of
II. Other sights include the medieval city hall, the Palazzo
della Signoria (also known as the Palazzo Vecchio), the Archeological
Museum, the Museum of the History of Science, the Garden of
Archimedes, the Palazzo Davanzatti, the Stibbert Museum, St. Marks,
the Medici Chapels, the Museum of the Works of Santa Croce, the Museum
of the Cloister of Santa Maria Novella, the Zoological Museum ("La
Specola"), the Bardini, and the Museo Horne. There is also a
collection of works by the modern sculptor, Marino Marini, in a museum
named after him. The Strozzi Palace is the site of special
Main article: Florentine dialect
See also: Tuscan language
Florentine (fiorentino), spoken by inhabitants of
Florence and its
environs, is a Tuscan dialect and the immediate parent language to
Its vocabulary and pronunciation are largely identical to standard
Italian, though the hard c [k] between two vowels (as in ducato) is
pronounced as a fricative [h], similar to an English h. This gives
Florentines a highly recognisable accent (the so-called gorgia
toscana). Other traits include using a form of the subjunctive mood
last commonly used in medieval times, a frequent
usage in everyday speech of the modern subjunctive, and a shortened
pronunciation of the definite article, [i] instead of "il".
Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio pioneered the use of the vernacular
instead of the Latin used for most literary works at the time.
The introduction of the Decameron (1350–1353) by Giovanni Boccaccio.
Despite Latin being the main language of the courts and the Church in
the Middle Ages, writers such as Dante Alighieri and many others
used their own language, the Florentine vernacular descended from
Latin, in composing their greatest works. The oldest literary pieces
written in Florentine go as far back as the 13th century. Florence's
literature fully blossomed in the 14th century, when not only Dante
Divine Comedy (1306–1321) and Petrarch, but also poets such
Guido Cavalcanti and
Lapo Gianni composed their most important
works. Dante's masterpiece is the Divine Comedy, which mainly
deals with the poet himself taking an allegoric and moral tour of
Hell, Purgatory and finally Heaven, during which he meets numerous
mythological or real characters of his age or before. He is first
guided by the Roman poet Virgil, whose non-Christian beliefs damned
him to Hell. Later on he is joined by Beatrice, who guides him through
In the 14th century, Petrarch and Giovanni Boccaccio led the
literary scene in
Florence after Dante's death in 1321.
an all-rounder writer, author and poet, but was particularly known for
his Canzoniere, or the Book of Songs, where he conveyed his
unremitting love for Laura. His style of writing has since become
known as Petrarchism. Boccaccio was better known for his
Decameron, a slightly grim story of
Florence during the 1350s bubonic
plague, known as the Black Death, when some people fled the ravaged
city to an isolated country mansion, and spent their time there
recounting stories and novellas taken from the medieval and
contemporary tradition. All of this is written in a series of 100
In the 16th century, during the Renaissance,
Florence was the home
town of political writer and philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli, whose
ideas on how rulers should govern the land, detailed in The Prince,
spread across European courts and enjoyed enduring popularity for
centuries. These principles became known as Machiavellianism.
Main article: Music of Florence
See also: Music of Tuscany
Florence became a musical centre during the
Middle Ages and music and
the performing arts remain an important part of its culture. The
growth of Northern Italian Cities in the 1500s likely contributed to
its increased prominence. During the Renaissance, there were four
kinds of musical patronage in the city with respect to both sacred and
secular music: state, corporate, church, and private. It was here
Florentine Camerata convened in the mid-16th century and
experimented with setting tales of Greek mythology to music and
staging the result—in other words, the first operas, setting the
wheels in motion not just for the further development of the operatic
form, but for later developments of separate "classical" forms such as
the symphony and concerto. After the year 1600, Italian trends
prevailed across Europe, by 1750 it was the primary musical language.
The genre of the Madrigal, born in Italy, gained popularity in Britain
and elsewhere. Several Italian cities were "larger on the musical map
than their real-size for power suggested. Florence, was once such city
which experienced a fantastic period in the early seventeenth Century
of musico-theatrical innovation, including the beginning and
flourishing of opera.
Opera was invented in
Florence in the late 16th century when Jacobo
Peri's Dafne an opera in the style of monody, was premiered. Opera
Italy and eventually Europe. Vocal
Music in the choir setting was also taking new identity at this time.
At the beginning of the 17th century, two practices for writing music
were devised, one the first practice or Stile Antico/Prima Prattica
the other the Stile Moderno/Secondo Prattica. The
Stile Antico was
more prevalent in Northern
Stile Moderno was practiced more
by the Italian Composers of the time.
Composers and musicians who have lived in
Florence include Piero
Strozzi (1550 – after 1608), Giulio Caccini (1551–1618) and Mike
Francis (1961–2009). Giulio Caccini's book Le Nuove Musiche was
significant in performance practice technique instruction at the
time. The book specified a new term, in use by the 1630s, called
monody which indicated the combination of voice and basso continuo and
connoted a practice of stating text in a free, lyrical, yet
speech-like manner. This would occur while an instrument, usually a
keyboard type such as harpsichord, played and held chords while the
singer sang/spoke the monodic line.
Florence has been a setting for numerous works of fiction and movies,
including the novels and associated films, such as Light in the
Piazza, Calmi Cuori Appassionati, Hannibal, A Room with a View, Tea
Virgin Territory and Inferno. The city is home to
renowned Italian actors and actresses, such as Roberto Benigni,
Leonardo Pieraccioni and Vittoria Puccini.
Florentine steak in Florence.
Florentine food grows out of a tradition of peasant eating rather than
rarefied high cooking. The majority of dishes are based on meat. The
whole animal was traditionally eaten; tripe (trippa) and stomach
(lampredotto) were once regularly on the menu and still are sold at
the food carts stationed throughout the city. Antipasti include
crostini toscani, sliced bread rounds topped with a chicken
liver-based pâté, and sliced meats (mainly prosciutto and salame,
often served with melon when in season). The typically saltless Tuscan
bread, obtained with natural levain frequently features in Florentine
courses, especially in its soups, ribollita and pappa al pomodoro, or
in the salad of bread and fresh vegetables called panzanella that is
served in summer. The bistecca alla fiorentina is a large (the
customary size should weigh around 1.2 to 1.5 kg [40 to
50 oz]) – the "date" steak –
T-bone steak of
cooked over hot charcoal and served very rare with its more recently
derived version, the tagliata, sliced rare beef served on a bed of
arugula, often with slices of Parmesan cheese on top. Most of these
courses are generally served with local olive oil, also a prime
product enjoying a worldwide reputation.
Among the desserts, "schiacciata alla fiorentina" (white flatbread
cake) is one of the most popular; it is a very soft cake, prepared
with extremely simple ingredients as it is peculiar of the florentine
cuisine, and it is typically eaten on Carnival time.
UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre
Research institutes and university departments are located within the
Florence area and within two campuses at Polo di Novoli and Polo
Scientifico di Sesto Fiorentino as well as in the Research Area of
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche.
Science and discovery
A display of proboscideans in the Museo di Storia Naturale di Firenze,
or the Natural History Museum of Florence
Florence has been an important scientific centre for centuries,
notably during the
Renaissance with scientists such as Leonardo da
Florentines were one of the driving forces behind the Age of
Discovery. Florentine bankers financed Henry the Navigator and the
Portuguese explorers who pioneered the route around Africa to India
and the Far East. It was a map drawn by the Florentine Paolo dal Pozzo
Toscanelli, a student of Brunelleschi, that
Christopher Columbus used
to sell his "enterprise" to the Spanish monarchs, and which he used on
his first voyage. Mercator's "Projection" is a refined version of
Toscanelli's – taking into account the Americas, of which the
Florentine was, obviously, ignorant.
Galileo and other scientists pioneered the study of optics,
ballistics, astronomy, anatomy, and so on. Pico della Mirandola,
Leonardo Bruni, Machiavelli, and many others laid the groundwork for
our understanding of science.
Main article: Italian fashion
Fashion designers of Florence and Polimoda
Luxury boutiques along Florence's prestigious Via de' Tornabuoni.
By the year 1300
Florence had become a centre of textile production in
Europe. Many of the rich families in
Florence were major
purchasers of locally produced fine clothing, and the specialists of
fashion in the economy and culture of
Florence during that period is
Florence is regarded by some as the
birthplace and earliest centre of the modern (post World War Two)
fashion industry in Italy. The Florentine "soirées" of the early
1950s organised by Giovanni Battista Giorgini were events where
several Italian designers participated in group shows and first
garnered international attention.
Florence has served as the home
Italian fashion company
Salvatore Ferragamo since 1928. Gucci,
Roberto Cavalli, and
Emilio Pucci are also headquartered in Florence.
Other major players in the fashion industry such as
Prada and Chanel
have large offices and stores in
Florence or its outskirts. Florence's
main upscale shopping street is Via de' Tornabuoni, where major luxury
fashion houses and jewellery labels, such as
Armani and Bulgari, have
their elegant boutiques. Via del Parione and Via Roma are other
streets that are also well known for their high-end fashion
Scoppio del Carro
The Scoppio del Carro ("Explosion of the Cart") is a celebration of
the First Crusade. During the day of Easter, a cart, which the
Florentines call the Brindellone and which is led by four white oxen,
is taken to the Piazza del Duomo between the Baptistery of St. John
the Baptist (Battistero di San Giovanni) and the
(Santa Maria del Fiore). The cart is connected by a rope to the
interior of the church. Near the cart there is a model of a dove,
which, according to legend, is a symbol of good luck for the city: at
the end of the Easter mass, the dove emerges from the nave of the
Duomo and ignites the fireworks on the cart.
See also: Calcio Fiorentino
Calcio Storico Fiorentino ("Historic Florentine Football"), sometimes
called Calcio in costume, is a traditional sport, regarded as a
forerunner of soccer, though the actual gameplay most closely
resembles rugby. The event originates from the Middle Ages, when the
most important Florentine nobles amused themselves playing while
wearing bright costumes. The most important match was played on 17
February 1530, during the siege of Florence. That day Papal troops
besieged the city while the Florentines, with contempt of the enemies,
decided to play the game notwithstanding the situation. The game is
played in the Piazza di Santa Croce. A temporary arena is constructed,
with bleachers and a sand-covered playing field. A series of matches
are held between four teams representing each quartiere (quarter) of
Florence during late June and early July. There are four teams:
Azzurri (light blue), Bianchi (white), Rossi (red) and Verdi (green).
The Azzurri are from the quarter of Santa Croce, Bianchi from the
quarter of Santo Spirito, Verdi are from San Giovanni and Rossi from
Santa Maria Novella.
Stadio Artemio Franchi
In association football
Florence is represented by ACF Fiorentina,
which plays in Serie A, the top league of Italian league system. AFC
Fiorentina has won two Italian Championships since their formation in
1926. They play their games at the Stadio Artemio Franchi, which
currently holds 47,282. The female squad of
ACF Fiorentina have won
the women's association football Italian Championship of the 2016-17
The city is home of Coverciano, the main training ground of the
Italian national team, and the technical department of the Italian
Florence was selected to host the 2013 UCI World Road Cycling
Florence is also represented in Eccellenza, the top tier of
rugby union league system in Italy, by I Medicei, which is a club
established in 2015 by the merging of the senior squads of I Cavalieri
(of Prato) and Firenze Rugby 1931. I Medicei won the Serie A
Championship in 2016-17 and were promoted to Eccellenza for the
Rari Nantes Florentia is a successful water polo club based in
Florence; both its male and female squads have won several Italian
Championship and the femal squad has also European titles in their
This article needs to be updated. Please update this section to
reflect recent events or newly available information. (April 2013)
See also: Trams in Florence
Route map of the tramway
The centre of
Florence is closed to through-traffic, although buses,
taxis and residents with appropriate permits are allowed in. This area
is commonly referred to as the ZTL (Zona Traffico Limitato), which is
divided into several subsections. Residents of one section,
therefore, will only be able to drive in their district and perhaps
some surrounding ones. Cars without permits are allowed to enter after
7.30 pm, or before 7.30 am. The rules shift during the
tourist-filled summers, putting more restrictions on where one can get
in and out.
Sirio in Florence
The principal public transit network in the city is run by the ATAF
and Li-nea bus company. Individual tickets, or a pass called Carta
Agile with multiple rides, should be purchased in advance and are
available at local tobacconists, bars and newspaper stalls and must be
validated once on board. These tickets may be used on ATAF and Li-nea
busses, Tramvia and second-class local trains only within city railway
stations. Train tickets must be validated before boarding.The main bus
station is next to Santa Maria Novella railway station. Trenitalia
runs trains between the railway stations within the city, and to other
Italy and Europe. The central railway station,
Santa Maria Novella, is about 500 m (1,600 ft) northwest of
the Piazza del Duomo. There are two other important stations: Campo di
Marte and Rifredi. Most bundled routes are Firenze—Pisa,
Firenze—Viareggio and Firenze-
Arezzo (along the main line to Rome).
Other local railways connect
Borgo San Lorenzo
Borgo San Lorenzo in the
Mugello area (Faentina railway) and Siena.
Long distance 10 km (6.21 mi) buses are run by the SITA,
Copit, CAP companies. The transit companies also accommodate
travellers from the
Amerigo Vespucci Airport, which is 5 km
(3.1 mi) west of the city centre, and which has scheduled
services run by major European carriers.
In an effort to reduce air pollution and car traffic in the city, a
multi-line tram network called Tramvia is under construction. The
first line began operation on 14 February 2010 and connects Florence's
primary intercity railway station (Santa Maria Novella) with the
southwestern suburb of Scandicci. This line is 7.4 km
(4.6 mi) long and has 14 stops. The construction of a second line
began on 5 November 2011, construction was stopped due to contractors'
difficulties and restarted in 2014, completion is now scheduled for
2018. This second line will connect Florence's airport with the city
centre. A third line (from Santa Maria Novella to the Careggi area,
where are the most important hospitals of Florence) is also under
Florence public transport statistics
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit
in Firenze, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 59 min. 13%
of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The
average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public
transit is 14 min, while 22% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on
average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a
single trip with public transit is 4.1 km, while 3% travel for
over 12 km in a single direction.
Firenze Santa Maria Novella railway station
Firenze Santa Maria Novella railway station is the main national and
international railway station in
Florence and is used by
59 million people every year. The building, designed by
Giovanni Michelucci, was built in the Italian Rationalism style and it
is one of the major rationalist buildings in Italy. It is located in
Piazza della Stazione, near the
Fortezza da Basso
Fortezza da Basso (a masterpiece of
Renaissance architecture) and the Viali di
Circonvallazione, and in front of the Basilica of Santa Maria
Novella's apse from which it takes its name. As well as numerous high
speed trains to major Italian cities
Florence is served by
international overnight sleeper services to Munich and Vienna operated
by Austrian railways ÖBB.
A new high-speed rail station is under construction and is contracted
to be operational by 2015. It is planned to be connected to
Vespucci airport, Santa Maria Novella railway station, and to the city
centre by the second line of Tramvia. The architectural firms
Foster + Partners and Lancietti Passaleva Giordo and Associates
designed this new rail station.
Florence Airport, Peretola, is one of two main airports in the
Tuscany region though it is not widely used by popular airlines. The
other airport in the
Tuscany region is the Galileo Galilei
International Airport in Pisa.
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy
Twin towns and sister cities
Florence is twinned with:
Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
Kuwait City, Kuwait
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
Gifu, Gifu Japan
Providence, Rhode Island, United States
See also: Category:People from Florence
Lorenzo de' Medici
Sir Harold Acton, author and aesthete
John Argyropoulos, scholar
Leone Battista Alberti, polymath
Dante Alighieri, poet
Giovanni Boccaccio, poet
Baldassarre Bonaiuti, 14th-century chronicler
Sandro Botticelli, painter
Aureliano Brandolini, agronomist and development cooperation scholar
Robert Browning and Elizabeth Barrett Browning, 19th-century English
Filippo Brunelleschi, architect
Michelangelo Buonarroti, sculptor, painter, author of the ceiling of
the Sistine Chapel and David
Francesco Casagrande, cyclist
Roberto Cavalli, fashion designer
Carlo Collodi, writer
Enrico Coveri, fashion designer
Oriana Fallaci, journalist and author
Salvatore Ferragamo, fashion designer and shoemaker
Mike Francis (born Francesco Puccioni), singer and composer
Silpa Bhirasri (born Corrado Feroci), sculptor, credited as the
principal figure of modern art in Thailand.
Frescobaldi Family, notable bankers and wine producers
Galileo Galilei, Italian physicist, astronomer, and philosopher
Giotto, early 14th-century painter, sculptor and architect
Lorenzo Ghiberti, sculptor
Guccio Gucci, founder of the
Robert Lowell, poet
Niccolò Machiavelli, poet, philosopher and political thinker, author
The Prince and The Discourses
Rose McGowan, Florence-born actress
Girolamo Mei, historian and humanist
Antonio Meucci, inventor of the telephone
Florence Nightingale, pioneer of modern nursing, and statistician
Virginia Oldoini, Countess of Castiglione, early photographic artist,
secret agent and courtesan
Valerio Profondavalle, Flemish painter
Anna Sarfatti, children's author
Girolamo Savonarola, reformist
Adriana Seroni, politician
Giovanni Spadolini, politician
Antonio Squarcialupi, organist and composer
Evangelista Torricelli, Italian physicist
Giorgio Vasari, painter, architect, and historian
Amerigo Vespucci, explorer and cartographer, namesake of the Americas
Leonardo da Vinci, polymath
Lisa del Giocondo, model of the Mona Lisa
Giorgio Antonucci, physician, psychoanalyst and an international
reference on the questioning of the basis of psychiatry
Category:Buildings and structures in Florence
Chancellor of Florence
European University Institute
Historical states of Italy
List of squares in Florence
Outline of Florence
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Definitions from Wiktionary
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Learning resources from Wikiversity
Florence Art Museums
Florence – Video
Tourism in Florence
Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore
Baroncelli and Pazzi Chapels
S Maria Novella
S Miniato al Monte
S Maria del Carmine
Bartolini Salimbeni Chapel
Battistero di San Giovanni
S Mary of the Angels
Oratorio dei Vanchetoni
Oratory of Gesù Pellegrino
Oratory of S Thomas Aquinas
San Frediano in Cestello
S Giovannino degli Scolopi
S Giovannino dei Cavalieri
S Jacopo sopr'Arno
S Salvatore al Vescovo
Santa Maria Maddalena dei Pazzi
S Maria Maggiore
S Martino del Vescovo
Ss Simone e Giuda
S Stefano al Ponte
Garden of Archimedes
Loggia del Bigallo
Loggia del Mercato Nuovo
Loggia del Pesce
Museo dell'Opera del Duomo
Museo Nazionale Alinari della Fotografia
Museo Nazionale di San Marco
Museo di Storia Naturale di Firenze
National Archaeological Museum
Ospedale degli Innocenti
Palazzo dell'Arte dei Beccai
Palazzo Medici Riccardi
Museo delle Porcellane
Studiolo of Francesco I
Palazzo Spini Feroni
Loggia dei Lanzi
dei Della Bella
Biblioteca Riccardiana at Palazzo Medici Riccardi
British Institute of Florence
Gabinetto Vieusseux (Palazzo Strozzi)
National Central Library
Fountain of Neptune
Monument to Dante
Teatro Comunale Florence
Teatro della Pergola
Squares of Florence
Piazza del Duomo
Piazza della Repubblica
Piazza della Signoria
Piazza Santa Croce
Via de' Tornabuoni
Fortezza da Basso
Gardens and parks
Giardino delle rose
Orto Botanico di Firenze
Parco delle Cascine
del Poggio Imperiale
Events and traditions
Maggio Musicale Fiorentino
Scoppio del carro
Florence • Trams in Florence
Regional capitals of Italy
Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Trento, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
World Heritage Sites in Italy
Mantua and Sabbioneta
Monte San Giorgio1
Porto Venere, Palmaria, Tino and Tinetto, Cinque Terre
Monterosso al Mare
Residences of the Royal House of Savoy
Castle of Moncalieri
Castle of Racconigi
Castle of Rivoli
Castello del Valentino
Royal Palace of Turin
Palazzo Madama, Turin
Palace of Venaria
Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi
Villa della Regina
Rhaetian Railway in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes1
Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
Sacri Monti of
Piedmont and Lombardy
Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
Vineyard Landscape of Piedmont: Langhe-
Roero and Monferrato
Torre della Ghirlandina
Torre della Ghirlandina and Piazza Grande, Modena
Orto botanico di Padova
Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto
Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi
Etruscan Necropolises of
Cerveteri and Tarquinia
Piazza del Duomo, Pisa
Castel del Monte, Apulia
Vallo di Diano
Vallo di Diano National Park,
Paestum and Velia, Certosa
Oplontis and Villa Poppaea
Palace of Caserta,
Aqueduct of Vanvitelli
Aqueduct of Vanvitelli and
San Leucio Complex
Sassi di Matera
Palermo and the Cathedral Churches of Cefalù and Monreale
Archaeological Area of Agrigento
Syracuse and Necropolis of Pantalica
Val di Noto
Militello in Val di Catania
Villa Romana del Casale
Longobards in Italy, Places of Power (568–774 A.D.)
Cividale del Friuli
Temple of Clitumnus
Temple of Clitumnus located at Campello sul Clitunno
Santa Sofia located at Benevento
Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo
Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo located at Monte Sant'Angelo
Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3
Primeval Beech Forests of Europe4
Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries5
Peschiera del Garda
1 Shared with Switzerland
2 Shared with the Holy See
3 Shared with Austria, France, Germany, Slovenia, and Switzerland
4 Shared with Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany,
Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Spain and Ukraine
5 Shared with
Croatia and Montenegro
European Capitals of Culture
Santiago de Compostela
Luxembourg City and Greater Region
Comuni of the Metropolitan City of Florence
Bagno a Ripoli
Barberino Val d'Elsa
Barberino di Mugello
Borgo San Lorenzo
Capraia e Limite
Greve in Chianti
Incisa in Val d'Arno
Lastra a Signa
Palazzuolo sul Senio
San Casciano in Val di Pesa
Scarperia e San Piero
Tavarnelle Val di Pesa
Italy by population
BNF: cb11931414h (data)