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OSAKA (大阪市, Ōsaka-shi) (Japanese pronunciation: ; listen (help ·info )) is a designated city in the Kansai region
Kansai region
of Japan. It is the capital city of Osaka Prefecture
Osaka Prefecture
and the largest component of the Keihanshin Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Japan
Japan
and among the largest in the world with over 19 million inhabitants. Situated at the mouth of the Yodo River on Osaka Bay , Osaka
Osaka
is the second largest city in Japan
Japan
by daytime population after Tokyo\'s 23 wards and the third largest city by nighttime population after Tokyo's 23 wards and Yokohama
Yokohama
, serving as a major economic hub for the country.

Historically a merchant city, Osaka
Osaka
has also been known as the "nation's kitchen" (天下の台所, tenka no daidokoro) and served as a center for the rice trade during the Edo period
Edo period
. I

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Prehistory to the Kofun period * 1.2 Asuka and Nara period * 1.3 Heian to Edo period
Edo period
* 1.4 19th century to present

* 2 Etymology

* 3 Geography and climate

* 3.1 Geography * 3.2 Climate

* 4 Cityscape

* 4.1 Neighborhoods * 4.2 Wards

* 5 Demographics

* 5.1 Dialect

* 6 Politics * 7 Politics regarding the use of nuclear energy * 8 Economy * 9 Transportation

* 10 Culture and lifestyle

* 10.1 Shopping and culinary * 10.2 Entertainment and performing arts * 10.3 Annual festivals * 10.4 Museum and galleries * 10.5 Sports

* 10.6 Media

* 10.6.1 Newspapers * 10.6.2 Television and radio * 10.6.3 Publishing companies

* 11 Places of interest

* 11.1 Amusement parks * 11.2 Parks * 11.3 Temples, shrines, and other historical sites * 11.4 Entertainment

* 12 Education

* 12.1 Libraries * 12.2 Learned society

* 13 International relations

* 13.1 Twin towns and sister cities * 13.2 Business partner cities

* 14 See also * 15 References * 16 Further reading * 17 External links

HISTORY

See also: Timeline of Osaka

PREHISTORY TO THE KOFUN PERIOD

Some of the earliest signs of human habitation in the Osaka
Osaka
area at the Morinomiya ruins (森ノ宮遺跡, Morinomiya iseki) comprise shell mounds, sea oysters and buried human skeletons from the 6th–5th centuries BC. It is believed that what is today the Uehonmachi area consisted of a peninsular land with an inland sea in the east. During the Yayoi period
Yayoi period
, permanent habitation on the plains grew as rice farming became popular.

By the Kofun period , Osaka
Osaka
developed into a hub port connecting the region to the western part of Japan. The large numbers of increasingly larger tomb mounds found in the plains of Osaka
Osaka
are seen as evidence of political-power concentration, leading to the formation of a state.

ASUKA AND NARA PERIOD

The Kojiki
Kojiki
records that during 390–430 AD there was an imperial palace located at Osumi, in what is present day Higashiyodogawa ward, but it may have been a secondary imperial residence rather than a capital.

In 645, Emperor Kōtoku built his Naniwa Nagara-Toyosaki Palace in what is now Osaka, making it the capital of Japan. The city now known as Osaka
Osaka
was at this time referred to as Naniwa, and this name and derivations of it are still in use for districts in central Osaka
Osaka
such as Naniwa (浪速) and Namba
Namba
(難波). Although the capital was moved to Asuka (in Nara Prefecture today) in 655, Naniwa remained a vital connection, by land and sea, between Yamato (modern day Nara Prefecture ), Korea
Korea
, and China
China
.

Naniwa was declared the capital again in 744 by order of Emperor Shōmu , and remained so until 745, when the Imperial Court moved back to Heijō-kyō (now Nara ). By the end of the Nara period, Naniwa's seaport roles had been gradually taken over by neighboring areas, but it remained a lively center of river, channel, and land transportation between Heian-kyō ( Kyoto
Kyoto
today) and other destinations.

HEIAN TO EDO PERIOD

In 1496, Jōdo Shinshū
Jōdo Shinshū
Buddhists established their headquarters in the heavily fortified Ishiyama Hongan-ji , located directly on the site of the old Naniwa Imperial Palace. Oda Nobunaga began a decade-long siege campaign on the temple in 1570 which ultimately resulted in the surrender of the monks and subsequent razing of the temple. Toyotomi Hideyoshi constructed Osaka Castle
Osaka Castle
in its place in 1583.

Osaka
Osaka
was long considered Japan's primary economic center, with a large percentage of the population belonging to the merchant class (see Four divisions of society
Four divisions of society
). Over the course of the Edo
Edo
period (1603–1867), Osaka
Osaka
grew into one of Japan's major cities and returned to its ancient role as a lively and important port. Its popular culture was closely related to ukiyo-e depictions of life in Edo
Edo
. By 1780 Osaka
Osaka
had cultivated a vibrant arts culture, as typified by its famous Kabuki and Bunraku theaters. In 1837 Ōshio Heihachirō , a low-ranking samurai , led a peasant insurrection in response to the city's unwillingness to support the many poor and suffering families in the area. Approximately one-quarter of the city was razed before shogunal officials put down the rebellion, after which Ōshio killed himself. Osaka
Osaka
was opened to foreign trade by the government of the Bakufu
Bakufu
at the same time as Hyōgo (modern Kobe
Kobe
) on 1 January 1868, just before the advent of the Boshin War
Boshin War
and the Meiji Restoration .

Osaka
Osaka
residents were stereotyped in Edo
Edo
literature from at least the 18th century. Jippensha Ikku in 1802 depicted Osakans as stingy almost beyond belief. In 1809 the derogatory term " Kamigata zeeroku" was used by Edo
Edo
residents to characterize inhabitants of the Osaka
Osaka
region in terms of calculation, shrewdness, lack of civic spirit, and the vulgarity of Osaka
Osaka
dialect. Edo
Edo
writers aspired to samurai culture, and saw themselves as poor but generous, chaste, and public spirited. Edo
Edo
writers by contrast saw "zeeroku" as obsequious apprentices, stingy, greedy, gluttonous, and lewd. To some degree, Osaka
Osaka
residents are still stigmatized by Tokyo
Tokyo
observers in the same way today, especially in terms of gluttony, evidenced in the phrase, "Residents of Osaka
Osaka
devour their food until they collapse" (大阪は食倒れ, "Ōsaka wa kuidaore").

19TH CENTURY TO PRESENT

Sennichimae area in 1916

The modern municipality was established in 1889 by government ordinance , with an initial area of 15 square kilometres (6 sq mi), overlapping today's Chūō and Nishi wards. Later, the city went through three major expansions to reach its current size of 223 square kilometres (86 sq mi). Osaka
Osaka
was the industrial center most clearly defined in the development of capitalism in Japan. It became known as the "Manchester of the Orient."

The rapid industrialization attracted many Korean immigrants, who set up a life apart for themselves. The political system was pluralistic, with a strong emphasis on promoting industrialization and modernization. Literacy was high and the educational system expanded rapidly, producing a middle class with a taste for literature and a willingness to support the arts. In 1927, General Motors
General Motors
operated a factory called Osaka
Osaka
Assembly until 1941, manufacturing Chevrolet, Pontiac, Oldsmobile, and Buick vehicles, operated and staffed by Japanese workers and managers. In the nearby city of Ikeda in Osaka Prefecture is the headquarters office of Daihatsu
Daihatsu
, one of Japan's oldest automobile manufacturers.

Like its European and American counterparts, Osaka
Osaka
displayed slums, unemployment, and poverty. In Japan
Japan
it was here that municipal government first introduced a comprehensive system of poverty relief, copied in part from British models. Osaka
Osaka
policymakers stressed the importance of family formation and mutual assistance as the best way to combat poverty. This minimized the cost of welfare programs.

During World War II
World War II
, Osaka
Osaka
came under air attacks in 1945 by the United States Army Air Forces
United States Army Air Forces
as part of the air raids on Japan
Japan
. On March 13, 1945, a total of 329 Boeing B-29 Superfortress
Boeing B-29 Superfortress
heavy bombers took part in the raid against Osaka. According to an American prisoner of war who was held in the city, the air raid took almost the entire night and destroyed 25 square miles (65 km2) of the city. The U.S. bombed the city again twice in June 1945 and again on August 14, a day before Japan\'s surrender .

ETYMOLOGY

"Osaka" literally means "large hill" or "large slope". It is unclear when this name gained prominence over Naniwa, but the oldest written evidence for the name dates back to 1496.

The name is now written 大阪 in kanji , but it was written 大坂 until 1870, when the partisans for the Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
changed it, apparently to avoid the second kanji being misinterpreted as 士反, meaning "samurai rebellion". The older kanji is still in very limited use, usually in historical contexts, but in Japanese the kanji 阪—pronounced han when standing alone—now refers exclusively to Osaka
Osaka
City or Osaka
Osaka
Prefecture.

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

GEOGRAPHY

The city's west side is open to Osaka Bay , and is otherwise completely surrounded by more than ten satellite cities, all of them in Osaka Prefecture
Osaka Prefecture
, with one exception: the city of Amagasaki
Amagasaki
, belonging to Hyōgo Prefecture
Hyōgo Prefecture
, in the northwest. The city occupies a larger area (about 13%) than any other city or village within Osaka Prefecture. When the city was established in 1889, it occupied roughly the area known today as the Chuo and Nishi wards, only 15.27 square kilometres (3,773 acres) that would eventually grow into today's 222.30 square kilometres (54,932 acres) via incremental expansions, the largest of which being a single 126.01 square kilometres (31,138 acres) expansion in 1925. Osaka's highest point is 37.5 metres (123.0 ft) Tokyo
Tokyo
Peil in Tsurumi-ku , and the lowest point is in Nishiyodogawa-ku at −2.2 metres (−7.2 ft) Tokyo
Tokyo
Peil.

CLIMATE

Osaka
Osaka
is located in the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen Cfa), with four distinct seasons. Its winters are generally mild, with January being the coldest month having an average high of 9.3 °C (49 °F). The city rarely sees snowfall during the winter. Spring in Osaka starts off mild, but ends up being hot and humid. It also tends to be Osaka's wettest season, with the tsuyu (梅雨, tsuyu, "plum rain") — the rainy season —

occurring between early June (average:Jun.7) to late July (average:Jul.21). Summers are very hot and humid. In July and August, the average daily high temperature approaches 35 °C (95 °F), while average nighttime temperatures typically hover around 25 °C (77 °F). Fall in Osaka
Osaka
sees a cooling trend, with the early part of the season resembling summer while the latter part of fall resembles winter. Precipitation
Precipitation
is abundant, with winter being the driest season, while monthly rainfall peaks in June with the "tsuyu" rainy season, which typically ends in mid to late July. From late July through the end of August, summer's heat and humidity peaks, and rainfall decreases some. Osaka
Osaka
experiences a second rainy period in September and early October, when tropical weather systems, including typhoons, coming from the south or southwest are possible.

CLIMATE DATA FOR OSAKA, OSAKA (1981–2010)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 19.0 (66.2) 23.7 (74.7) 24.2 (75.6) 30.7 (87.3) 32.7 (90.9) 36.1 (97) 38.0 (100.4) 39.1 (102.4) 36.2 (97.2) 32.9 (91.2) 27.2 (81) 23.6 (74.5) 39.1 (102.4)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 9.5 (49.1) 10.2 (50.4) 13.7 (56.7) 19.9 (67.8) 24.5 (76.1) 27.8 (82) 31.6 (88.9) 33.4 (92.1) 29.3 (84.7) 23.3 (73.9) 17.6 (63.7) 12.3 (54.1) 21.1 (70)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 6.0 (42.8) 6.3 (43.3) 9.4 (48.9) 15.1 (59.2) 19.7 (67.5) 23.5 (74.3) 27.4 (81.3) 28.8 (83.8) 25.0 (77) 19.0 (66.2) 13.6 (56.5) 8.6 (47.5) 16.9 (62.4)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 2.8 (37) 2.9 (37.2) 5.6 (42.1) 10.7 (51.3) 15.6 (60.1) 20.0 (68) 24.3 (75.7) 25.4 (77.7) 21.7 (71.1) 15.5 (59.9) 9.9 (49.8) 5.1 (41.2) 13.3 (55.9)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −7.5 (18.5) −6.5 (20.3) −5.2 (22.6) −2.6 (27.3) 3.5 (38.3) 8.9 (48) 14.8 (58.6) 13.6 (56.5) 10.4 (50.7) 3.0 (37.4) −2.2 (28) −4.5 (23.9) −7.5 (18.5)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 45.4 (1.787) 61.7 (2.429) 104.2 (4.102) 103.8 (4.087) 145.5 (5.728) 184.5 (7.264) 157.0 (6.181) 90.9 (3.579) 160.7 (6.327) 112.3 (4.421) 69.3 (2.728) 43.8 (1.724) 1,279 (50.354)

AVERAGE SNOWFALL CM (INCHES) 1 (0.4) 1 (0.4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (1.2)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.5 MM) 6.6 7.2 11.3 10.0 11.0 12.2 11.1 7.6 10.3 8.7 7.2 6.5 109.8

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS 5.0 6.3 2.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.9 15.5

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 61 60 59 59 62 68 70 66 67 65 64 62 64

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 142.6 135.4 159.5 188.6 194.3 156.2 182.1 216.9 156.7 163.9 148.5 151.6 1,996.4

Source: Japan
Japan
Meteorological Agency

CITYSCAPE

Osaka's sprawling cityscape has been described as "only surpassed by Tokyo
Tokyo
as a showcase of the Japanese urban phenomenon." Central Osaka
Osaka
looking north from the Abeno Harukas observation deck Osaka
Osaka
skyline at night from Umeda Sky Building
Umeda Sky Building

NEIGHBORHOODS

Nakanoshima, a boundary of Kita (right) and Semba (left) A crowd in Dōtonbori Soemoncho in Minami

Central Osaka
Osaka
is roughly divided into downtown and uptown areas known as KITA (北, "north") and MINAMI (南, "south").

Kita is home to the Umeda district and its immediate surrounding neighborhoods, a major business and retail hub that plays host to Osaka
Osaka
Station City and a large subterranean network of shopping arcades. Kita and nearby Nakanoshima contain a prominent portion of the city's skyscrapers and are often featured in photographs of Osaka's skyline.

Minami, though meaning "south", is essentially in Chūō Ward (中央区, Chūō-ku) and geographically central within the city. Well known districts here include Namba
Namba
and Shinsaibashi
Shinsaibashi
shopping areas, the Dōtonbori canal entertainment area, Nipponbashi Den Den Town, as well as arts and fashion culture-oriented areas such as Amerikamura and Horie.

The business districts between Kita and Minami such as Honmachi and Yodoyabashi, called SEMBA (船場), house the regional headquarters of many large-scale banks and corporations. The Midōsuji boulevard runs through Semba and connects Kita and Minami.

Further south of Minami are neighborhoods such as Shinsekai (with its Tsūtenkaku tower), Tennoji and Abeno (with Tennoji Zoo , Shitennō-ji and Abeno Harukas ), and the Kamagasaki slum, the largest slum in Japan.

The city's west side is a prominent bay area which serves as its main port as well as a tourist destination with attractions such as Kyocera Dome , Universal Studios Japan
Japan
and the Tempozan Harbour Village . East Osaka
Osaka
is zoned as a separate city, although the east side of Osaka
Osaka
city proper contains numerous residential neighborhoods including Tsuruhashi Korea
Korea
Town, as well as the Osaka Castle
Osaka Castle
Park , Osaka Business Park
Osaka Business Park
and the hub Kyōbashi
Kyōbashi
Station .

Osaka
Osaka
contains numerous urban canals and bridges, many of which serve as the namesake for their surrounding neighbourhoods. The phrase "808 bridges of Naniwa" was an expression in old Japan
Japan
used to indicate impressiveness and the "uncountable". Osaka
Osaka
numbered roughly 200 bridges by the Edo period
Edo period
and 1629 bridges by 1925. As many of the city's canals were gradually filled in, the number dropped to 872, of which 760 are currently managed by Osaka
Osaka
City.

WARDS

Osaka
Osaka
has 24 wards (区, ku):

MAP OF OSAKA

PLACE NAME

RōMAJI KANJI

1 Abeno-ku 阿倍野区

2 Asahi-ku 旭区

3 Chūō-ku 中央区

4 Fukushima-ku 福島区

5 Higashinari-ku 東成区

6 Higashisumiyoshi-ku 東住吉区

7 Higashiyodogawa-ku 東淀川区

8 Hirano-ku 平野区

9 Ikuno-ku 生野区

10 Jōtō-ku 城東区

11 Kita-ku (administrative center) 北区

12 Konohana-ku 此花区

13 Minato-ku 港区

14 Miyakojima-ku 都島区

15 Naniwa-ku 浪速区

16 Nishi-ku 西区

17 Nishinari-ku 西成区

18 Nishiyodogawa-ku 西淀川区

19 Suminoe-ku 住之江区

20 Sumiyoshi-ku 住吉区

21 Taishō-ku 大正区

22 Tennōji-ku 天王寺区

23 Tsurumi-ku 鶴見区

24 Yodogawa-ku 淀川区

DEMOGRAPHICS

OSAKA

YEAR POP. ±%

1900 881,344 —

1910 1,239,373 +40.6%

1920 1,798,295 +45.1%

1930 2,453,573 +36.4%

1940 3,252,340 +32.6%

1965 3,156,222 −3.0%

1970 2,980,487 −5.6%

1975 2,778,987 −6.8%

1980 2,648,180 −4.7%

1985 2,636,249 −0.5%

1990 2,623,801 −0.5%

1995 2,602,421 −0.8%

2000 2,598,774 −0.1%

2005 2,628,811 +1.2%

2010 2,666,371 +1.4%

According to the census in 2005, there were 2,628,811 residents in Osaka, an increase of 30,037 or 1.2% from 2000. There were 1,280,325 households with approximately 2.1 persons per household. The population density was 11,836 persons per km². The Great Kantō earthquake caused a mass migration to Osaka
Osaka
between 1920 and 1930, and the city became Japan's largest city in 1930 with 2,453,573 people, outnumbering even Tokyo, which had a population of 2,070,913. The population peaked at 3,252,340 in 1940, and had a post-war peak of 3,156,222 in 1965, but continued to decrease since, as the residents moved out to the suburbs.

There were 99,775.5 registered foreigners, the two largest groups being Korean (71,015) and Chinese (11,848). Ikuno , with its Tsuruhashi district, is the home to one of the largest population of Korean residents in Japan, with 27,466 registered Zainichi Koreans .

DIALECT

See also: Kansai dialect

The commonly spoken dialect of this area is Osaka-ben, a typical sub-dialect of Kansai-ben. Of the many other particularities that characterize Osaka-ben, examples include using the copula ya instead of da, and the suffix -hen instead of -nai in the negative of verbs.

POLITICS

LOCAL ADMINISTRATION

The Mayor and the Council

Osaka
Osaka
City Hall

MAYOR: Toru Hashimoto

VICE MAYORS: Akira Morishita, Takashi Kashiwagi

CITY COUNCIL

PRESIDENT: Toshifumi Tagaya (LDP)

MEMBERS: 89 councilors (1 vacant)

FACTIONS: Liberal Democratic Party and Citizen's Club (33), Komei Party (20), Democratic Party of Japan
Japan
and Citizens' Coalition (19), Japanese Communist Party
Japanese Communist Party
(16)

SEATS BY DISTRICTS: Ward (no. of seats)

* Abeno-ku (4), * Asahi-ku (4), * Chūō-ku (2), * Fukushima-ku (2), * Higashinari-ku (3), * Higashisumiyoshi-ku (5), * Higashiyodogawa-ku (6), * Hirano-ku (6), * Ikuno-ku (5), * Jōtō-ku (5), * Kita-ku (3), * Konohana-ku (3), * Minato-ku (3), * Miyakojima-ku (3), * Naniwa-ku (2), * Nishi-ku (2), * Nishinari-ku (5), * Nishiyodogawa-ku (3), * Suminoe-ku (4), * Sumiyoshi-ku (6), * Taishō-ku (3), * Tennōji-ku (2), * Tsurumi-ku (3), * Yodogawa-ku (5)

WEBSITE Osaka
Osaka
City Council

Note: As of March 10, 2009

See also: Local Autonomy Law , Municipalities of Japan
Japan
, and Politics of Osaka
Osaka
City

The Osaka
Osaka
City Council is the city's local government formed under the Local Autonomy Law . The Council has eighty-nine seats, allocated to the twenty-four wards proportional to their population and re-elected by the citizens every four years. The Council elects its President and Vice President. Toshifumi Tagaya (LDP ) is the current and 104th President since May 2008. The Mayor of the city is directly elected by the citizens every four years as well, in accordance with the Local Autonomy Law. Tōru Hashimoto , former governor of Osaka Prefecture is the 19th mayor of Osaka
Osaka
since 2011. The mayor is supported by two Vice Mayors, currently Akira Morishita and Takashi Kashiwagi, who are appointed by him in accordance with the city bylaw.

Osaka
Osaka
also houses several agencies of the Japanese Government. Below is a list of Governmental Offices housed in Osaka.

* Japan
Japan
Coast Guard, Fifth Regional Headquarters * Japan
Japan
Fair Trade Commission; Kinki, Chugoku, Shikoku Office * Kinki Regional Finance Bureau * Kinki Regional Economy, Trade and Industry Bureau * Kinki Regional Transportation Bureau * Kinki Communications Bureau * Kinki Regional Development Bureau * Kinki Regional Police Bureau * Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Osaka
Osaka
Office * Osaka
Osaka
Customs * Osaka
Osaka
District Court

* Osaka
Osaka
Family Court * Osaka
Osaka
High Court * Osaka
Osaka
Immigration * Osaka
Osaka
Labour Bureau * Osaka
Osaka
Meteorological Observatory * Osaka
Osaka
Public Prosecutors Office * Osaka
Osaka
Regional Aerospace Bureau * Osaka
Osaka
Regional Law Bureau * Osaka
Osaka
Regional Taxation Bureau * Osaka
Osaka
Summary Court

In July 2012, a joint multi-party bill was submitted to the Diet that would allow for implementation of the Osaka Metropolis plan
Osaka Metropolis plan
as pursued by the mayor of Osaka
Osaka
city, the governor of Osaka
Osaka
and their party . If implemented, Osaka
Osaka
City, neighbouring Sakai City and possibly other surrounding municipalities would dissolve and be reorganized as special wards of Osaka
Osaka
prefecture – similar to former Tokyo City
Tokyo City
's successor wards within Tokyo
Tokyo
prefecture. Special
Special
wards are municipal-level administrative units that leave some otherwise municipal administrative responsibilities and revenues to the prefectural administration.

POLITICS REGARDING THE USE OF NUCLEAR ENERGY

On February 27, 2012 three Kansai cities, Kyoto
Kyoto
, Osaka
Osaka
and Kobe
Kobe
, jointly asked Kansai Electric Power Company to break its dependence on nuclear power. In a letter to KEPCO they also requested to disclose information on the demand and supply of electricity, and for lower and stable prices. The three cities were stockholders of the plant: Osaka owned 9% of the shares, while Kobe
Kobe
had 3% and Kyoto
Kyoto
0.45%. Toru Hashimoto, the mayor of Osaka, announced a proposal to minimize the dependence on nuclear power for the shareholders meeting in June 2012.

On March 18, 2012 the city of Osaka
Osaka
decided as largest shareholder of Kansai Electric Power Co, that at the next shareholders-meeting in June 2012 it would demand a series of changes:

* that Kansai Electric would be split into two companies, separating power generation from power transmission * a reduction of the number of the utility's executives and employees. * the implementation of absolutely secure measurements to ensuring the safety of the nuclear facilities. * the disposing of spent fuel. * the installation of new kind of thermal power generation to secure non-nuclear supply of energy. * selling all unnecessary assets including the stock holdings of KEPCO.

In this action Osaka
Osaka
had secured the support of two other cities and shareholders: Kyoto
Kyoto
and Kobe
Kobe
, but with their combined voting-rights of 12.5 percent they were not certain of the ultimate outcome, because for this two-thirds of the shareholders would be needed to agree to revise the corporate charter.

At a meeting held on April 10, 2012 by the "energy strategy council", formed by the city of Osaka
Osaka
and the governments of the prefectures, it became clear that at the end of the fiscal year 2011 some 69 employees of Kansai Electric Power Company were former public servants. " Amakudari " was the Japanese name for this practice of rewarding by hiring officials that formerly controlled and supervised the firm. Such people included the following:

* 13 ex-officials of the: Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism * 3 ex-officials of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, * 2 ex-officials of the Ministry of the Environment, * 16 former policemen, * 10 former fire-fighters, * 13 former civil engineers.

Besides this, it became known that Kansai Electric had done about 600 external financial donations, to a total sum of about 1.695 billion yen:

* 70 donations were paid to local governments: to a total of 699 million yen * 100 donations to public-service organizations: 443 million yen, * 430 donations to various organizations and foundations: a total of 553 million yen

During this meeting some 8 conditions were compiled, that needed to be fulfilled before a restart of the No.3 and No.4 reactors Oi Nuclear Power Plant:

* the consent of the local people and government within 100 kilometer from the plant * the installation of a new independent regulatory agency * a nuclear safety agreement * the establishment of new nuclear safety standards * stress tests and evaluations based on these new safety rules

ECONOMY

Main articles: Hanshin Industrial Region and Keihanshin industrial region Greater Osaka
Osaka
Area

The gross city product of Osaka
Osaka
in fiscal year 2004 was ¥21.3 trillion, an increase of 1.2% over the previous year. The figure accounts for about 55% of the total output in the Osaka Prefecture
Osaka Prefecture
and 26.5% in the Kinki region. In 2004, commerce, services, and manufacturing have been the three major industries, accounting for 30%, 26%, and 11% of the total, respectively. The per capita income in the city was about ¥3.3 million, 10% higher than that of the Osaka Prefecture. MasterCard Worldwide reported that Osaka
Osaka
ranks 19th among the world's leading cities and plays an important role in the global economy. Osaka Securities Exchange in the Kitahama district of Osaka
Osaka
A map showing Osaka
Osaka
Metropolitan Employment Area .

The GDP in the greater Osaka
Osaka
area ( Osaka
Osaka
and Kobe
Kobe
) is $341 billion. Osaka, along with Paris
Paris
and London, has one of the most productive hinterlands in the world.

Historically, Osaka
Osaka
was the center of commerce in Japan, especially in the middle and pre-modern ages. Nomura Securities , the first brokerage firm in Japan, was founded in the city in 1925, and Osaka still houses a leading futures exchange. Many major companies have since moved their main offices to Tokyo. However, several major companies, such as Panasonic
Panasonic
, Sharp , and Sanyo , are still headquartered in Osaka. Recently, the city began a program, headed by mayor Junichi Seki, to attract domestic and foreign investment. In the 2017 Global Financial Centres Index , Osaka
Osaka
was ranked as having the 15th most competitive financial center in the world and fifth most competitive in Asia (after Singapore
Singapore
, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
, Tokyo
Tokyo
, and Shanghai
Shanghai
).

The Osaka Securities Exchange , specializing in derivatives such as Nikkei 225
Nikkei 225
futures, is based in Osaka. The merger with JASDAQ will help the Osaka Securities Exchange become the largest exchange in Japan
Japan
for start-up companies.

According to global consulting firm Mercer, Osaka
Osaka
was the second most expensive city for expatriate employees in the world in 2009. It jumped up nine places from 11th place in 2008 and was the eighth most expensive city in 2007. However, it was not ranked in the top ten places of the list in 2013. The Economist Intelligence Unit
Economist Intelligence Unit
(EIU) ranked Osaka
Osaka
as the second most expensive city in the world in its 2013 Cost of Living study.

TRANSPORTATION

Main article: Transport in Keihanshin Map of Osaka
Osaka
subway system

Greater Osaka
Osaka
has an extensive network of railway lines, comparable to that of Greater Tokyo. Major stations within the city include Umeda (梅田), Namba
Namba
(難波), Shinsaibashi
Shinsaibashi
(心斎橋), Tennōji (天王寺), Kyōbashi
Kyōbashi
(京橋), and Yodoyabashi (淀屋橋).

Osaka
Osaka
connects to its surrounding cities and suburbs via the JR West Urban Network as well as numerous private lines such as Keihan Electric Railway , Hankyu Railway , Hanshin Electric Railway
Hanshin Electric Railway
, Kintetsu Railway , and Nankai Electric Railway .

The Osaka Municipal Subway
Osaka Municipal Subway
system alone ranks 8th in the world by annual passenger ridership, serving over 912 million people annually (a quarter of Greater Osaka
Osaka
Rail System's 4 billion annual riders), despite being only 8 of more than 70 lines in the metro area.

All Shinkansen trains including Nozomi stop at Shin- Osaka
Osaka
Station and provide access to other major cities in Japan, such as Kobe, Kyoto, Nagoya, Yokohama, and Tokyo.

Regular bus services are provided by Osaka
Osaka
Municipal Transportation Bureau (the City Bus), as well Hankyu, Hanshin and Kintetsu, providing a dense network covering most parts of the city.

Osaka
Osaka
is served by two airports outside of the city, Kansai International Airport (IATA: KIX) which handles primarily international passenger flights and Osaka
Osaka
International Airport (IATA:ITM) which handles mostly domestic services and some international cargo flights.

Due to its geographical position, Osaka's international ferry connections are far greater than that of Tokyo, with international service to Shanghai
Shanghai
, Tianjin
Tianjin
, Korea
Korea
along with domestic routes to Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu
, Kagoshima
Kagoshima
, Miyazaki and Okinawa
Okinawa
.

CULTURE AND LIFESTYLE

A chef prepares for the evening rush in Umeda The Glico man among numerous signboards at Dōtonbori Grand Front Osaka
Osaka
Chayamachi district in Kita-ku

SHOPPING AND CULINARY

Osaka
Osaka
has a large number of wholesalers and retail shops: 25,228 and 34,707 respectively in 2004, according to the city statistics. Many of them are concentrated in the wards of Chuō (10,468 shops) and Kita (6,335 shops). Types of shops vary from malls to conventional shōtengai shopping arcades, built both above- and underground. Shōtengai are seen across Japan, and Osaka
Osaka
has the longest one in the country. The Tenjinbashi-suji arcade stretches from the road approaching the Tenmangū shrine and continues for 2.6 km (1.6 miles) going north to south. The stores along the arcade include commodities, clothing, and catering outlets.

Other shopping areas include Den Den Town , the electronic and manga/anime district, which is comparable to Akihabara; the Umeda district, which has the Hankyu Sanbangai shopping mall and Yodobashi Camera , a huge electrical appliance store that offers a vast range of fashion stores, restaurants, and a Shonen Jump store.

Osaka
Osaka
is known for its food, in Japan
Japan
and abroad. Author Michael Booth and food critic François Simon of Le Figaro
Le Figaro
have suggested that Osaka
Osaka
is the food capital of the world. Osakans' love for the culinary is made apparent in the old saying "Kyotoites are financially ruined by overspending on clothing, Osakans are ruined by spending on food." Regional cuisine includes okonomiyaki (お好み焼き, pan-fried batter cake), takoyaki (たこ焼き, octopus in fried batter), udon (うどん, a noodle dish), as well as the traditional oshizushi (押し寿司, pressed sushi), particularly battera (バッテラ, pressed mackerel sushi).

Osaka
Osaka
is known for its fine sake, which is made with fresh water from the prefecture's mountains. Osaka's culinary prevalence is the result of a location that has provided access to high quality ingredients, a high population of merchants, and proximity to the ocean and waterway trade. In recent years, Osaka
Osaka
has started to garner more attention from foreigners with the increased popularity of cooking and dining in popular culture.

Other shopping districts include:

* American Village (Amerika-mura or "Ame-mura") – fashion for young people * Dōtonbori – part of Namba
Namba
district and considered heart of the city * Namba
Namba
– main shopping, sightseeing, and restaurant area * Shinsaibashi
Shinsaibashi
– luxury goods and department stores * Umeda – theaters, boutiques, and department stores near the train station

ENTERTAINMENT AND PERFORMING ARTS

See also: Kamigata The National Museum of Art , a subterranean museum for Japanese and international arts

* Osaka
Osaka
is home to the National Bunraku Theatre , where traditional puppet plays, bunraku , are performed. * At Osaka
Osaka
Shochiku-za , close to Namba
Namba
station, kabuki can be enjoyed as well as manzai . * At Shin-kabuki-za , formerly near Namba
Namba
and now near Uehommachi area, enka concerts and Japanese dramas are performed. * Yoshimoto Kogyo , a Japanese entertainment conglomarate operates a hall in the city for manzai and other comedy shows: the Namba
Namba
Grand Kagetsu hall. * The Hanjō-tei opened in 2006, dedicated to rakugo . The theatre is in the Ōsaka Tenman-gū area. * Umeda Arts Theater opened in 2005 after relocating from its former 46-year-old Umeda Koma Theater. The theater has a main hall with 1,905 seats and a smaller theater-drama hall with 898 seats. Umeda Arts Theatre stages various type of performances including musicals, music concerts, dramas, rakugo, and others. * The Symphony Hall , built in 1982, is the first hall in Japan designed specially for classical music concerts. The Hall was opened with a concert by the Osaka Philharmonic Orchestra , which is based in the city. Orchestras such as the Berlin Philharmonic
Berlin Philharmonic
and Vienna Philharmonic have played here during their world tours as well. * Osaka-jō Hall is a multi-purpose arena in Osaka-jō park with a capacity for up to 16,000 people. The hall has hosted numerous events and concerts including both Japanese and international artists. * Near City Hall in Nakanoshima Park , is Osaka
Osaka
Central Public Hall , a Neo-Renaissance -style building first opened in 1918. Re-opened in 2002 after major restoration, it serves as a multi-purpose rental facility for citizen events. * The Osaka
Osaka
Shiki Theatre is one of the nine private halls operated nationwide by the Shiki Theatre , staging straight plays and musicals. * Festival Hall was a hall hosting various performances including noh , kyōgen , kabuki, ballets as well as classic concerts. The Bolshoi Ballet and the Philharmonia are among the many that were welcomed on stage in the past. The hall has closed at the end of 2008, planned to re-open in 2013 in a new facility.

ANNUAL FESTIVALS

Tenjin Matsuri The Sumiyoshi-matsuri festival in the 16th century

One of the most famous festivals held in Osaka, the Tenjin Matsuri, is held on July 24 and 25 ( Ikukunitama Shrine ). Other festivals in Osaka
Osaka
include the Aizen Matsuri (June 30–July 2, Shouman'in Temple), the Sumiyoshi Matsuri (July 30–August 1, Sumiyoshi Taisha ), Shōryō-e (April 22, Shitennō-ji ) and Tōka-Ebisu (January 9–10, Imamiya Ebisu Jinja). The annual Osaka
Osaka
Asian Film Festival takes place in Osaka
Osaka
every March.

MUSEUM AND GALLERIES

See also: Museums in Osaka
Osaka

The National Museum of Art (NMAO) is a subterranean Japanese and international art museum, housing mainly collections from the post-war era and regularly welcoming temporary exhibitions. Osaka
Osaka
Science Museum is in a five storied building next to the National Museum of Art, with a planetarium and an OMNIMAX
OMNIMAX
theatre. The Museum of Oriental Ceramics holds more than 2,000 pieces of ceramics, from China, Korea, Japan
Japan
and Vietnam, featuring displays of some of their Korean celadon under natural light. Osaka Municipal Museum of Art is inside Tennōji park , housing over 8,000 pieces of Japanese and Chinese paintings and sculptures. The Osaka
Osaka
Museum of History , opened in 2001, is located in a 13-story modern building providing a view of Osaka Castle
Osaka Castle
. Its exhibits cover the history of Osaka
Osaka
from pre-history to the present day. Osaka
Osaka
Museum of Natural History houses a collection related to natural history and life.

SPORTS

The Osaka Dome
Osaka Dome
, home to the Orix Buffaloes and Hanshin Tigers

Osaka
Osaka
hosts four professional sport teams: one of them is the Orix Buffaloes , a Nippon Professional Baseball
Nippon Professional Baseball
team, playing its home games at Kyocera Dome Osaka
Osaka
. Another baseball team, the Hanshin Tigers , although based in Nishinomiya, Hyōgo , plays a part of its home games in Kyocera Dome Osaka
Osaka
as well, when their homeground Koshien Stadium is occupied with the annual National High School Baseball Championship games during summer season. There are two J.League clubs, Gamba Osaka , plays its home games at Suita
Suita
City Football Stadium . Another club Cerezo Osaka , plays its home games at Kincho Stadium . The city is home to Osaka Evessa
Osaka Evessa
, a basketball team that plays in the B.League
B.League
. Evessa has won the first three championships of the league since its establishment. Kintetsu Liners
Kintetsu Liners
, a rugby union team, play in the Top League . After winning promotion in 2008-09, they will again remain in the competition for the 2009-10 season. Their base is the Hanazono Rugby Stadium .

The Haru Basho (春場所, "Spring Tournament"), one of the six regular tournaments of professional sumo , is held annually in Osaka at Osaka Prefectural Gymnasium
Osaka Prefectural Gymnasium
.

Another major annual sporting event that takes place is Osaka
Osaka
is Osaka International Ladies Marathon . Held usually at the end of January every year, the 42.195 km (26.219 miles) race starts from Nagai Stadium, runs through Nakanoshima , Midōsuji and Osaka
Osaka
castle park, and returns to the stadium. Another yearly event held at Nagai Stadium is the Osaka
Osaka
Gran Prix Athletics games operated by the International Association of Athletics Federations
International Association of Athletics Federations
(IAAF) in May. The Osaka
Osaka
GP is the only IAAF games annually held in Japan.

Osaka
Osaka
was one of the host cities of the official Women\'s Volleyball World Championship for its 1998 , 2006 and 2010 editions.

Osaka
Osaka
is the home of the 2011 created Japan
Japan
Bandy Federation and the introduction of bandy , in the form of rink bandy , was made in the city. In July 2012 the first Japan
Japan
Bandy Festival was organised.

MEDIA

NHK
NHK
Osaka
Osaka

Osaka
Osaka
serves as one of the media hubs for Japan, housing headquarters of many media-related companies. Abundant television production takes place in the city and every nationwide TV network (with the exception of TXN network) registers its secondary-key station in Osaka. All five nationwide newspaper majors also house their regional headquarters, and most local newspapers nationwide have branches in Osaka. However major film productions are uncommon in the city. Most major films are produced in nearby Kyoto
Kyoto
or in Tokyo
Tokyo
. The Ad Council Japan
Japan
is based in Osaka.

Newspapers

All the five nationwide newspaper majors of Japan, the Asahi Shimbun , Mainichi Shimbun , Nihon Keizai Shimbun , Sankei Shimbun
Sankei Shimbun
and Yomiuri Shimbun , have their regional headquarters in Osaka
Osaka
and issue their regional editions. Furthermore, Osaka
Osaka
houses Osaka
Osaka
Nichi-nichi Shimbun, its newspaper press. Other newspaper related companies located in Osaka
Osaka
include, the regional headquarters of FujiSankei Business i.;Houchi Shimbunsha; Nikkan Sports
Nikkan Sports
; Sports Nippon
Sports Nippon
, and offices of Kyodo News
Kyodo News
Jiji Press ; Reuters
Reuters
; Bloomberg L.P. .

Television And Radio

The five TV networks are represented by Asahi Broadcasting Corporation (ANN ), Kansai Telecasting Corporation
Kansai Telecasting Corporation
(FNN ), Mainichi Broadcasting System, Inc. (JNN ), Television Osaka, Inc. (TXN ) and Yomiuri Telecasting Corporation
Yomiuri Telecasting Corporation
(NNN ), headquartered in Osaka. NHK has also its regional station based in the city. AM Radio services are provided by NHK
NHK
as well as the ABC Radio (Asahi Broadcasting Corporation), MBS Radio (Mainichi Broadcasting System, Inc.) and Radio Osaka
Osaka
( Osaka Broadcasting Corporation ) and headquartered in the city. FM services are available from NHK, FM OSAKA , FM802 and FM Cocolo , the last providing programs in multiple languages including English.

As of February 2009, the city is fully covered by terrestrial digital TV broadcasts

Publishing Companies

Osaka
Osaka
is home to many publishing companies including: Examina, Izumi Shoin, Kaihou Shuppansha, Keihanshin Elmagazine, Seibundo Shuppan, Sougensha, and Toho Shuppan.

PLACES OF INTEREST

Tourist attractions include: Osaka Aquarium Kaiyukan Universal Studios Japan
Japan
Umeda Sky Building
Umeda Sky Building

AMUSEMENT PARKS

* Osaka Aquarium Kaiyukan – An aquarium located in Osaka
Osaka
Bay, containing 35,000 aquatic animals in 14 tanks, the largest of which holds 5,400 tons of water and houses a variety of sea animals including whale sharks . This tank is the world's second-largest aquarium tank, behind the Georgia Aquarium
Aquarium
, whose largest tank holds approximately 29,000 tons of water. * Tempozan Ferris Wheel - A 112 m tall Ferris wheel located next to the aquarium in the bay area. * Tennōji Zoo * Universal Studios Japan
Japan
* HEP Five - A shopping/amusement plaza in Umeda featuring a Sega Joypolis and rooftop Ferris wheel offering views of the city. * Umeda Sky Building
Umeda Sky Building
– Twin 173 m skyscrapers bridged by a rooftop "Floating Garden" observatory presenting a 360-degree panoramic view of Osaka. Popular for photographs, the structure also houses an underground mall with restaurants styled after the early Showa period of the 1920s.

PARKS

* Nakanoshima Park : About 10.6 ha . In the vicinity of the City Hall * Osaka Castle
Osaka Castle
Park: About 106 ha. Includes Osaka-jō Hall, a Japanese plum blossom (Ume) garden, a Cherry Blossom garden, and more. It is a hotspot for migrating birds in the spring and autumn. * Sumiyoshi Park * Tennōji Park : About 28 ha. Includes Tennōji Zoo; an art museum (established by contribution from Sumitomo family in 1936); and a Japanese garden, Keitaku-en (慶沢園). Keitaku-en was constructed in 1908 by Jihei Ogawa (小川治兵衛, Hiragana: おがわ じへえ), an illustrious gardener in Japan. This was originally one of Sumitomo family's gardens until 1921. * Utsubo Park * Nagai Park : The 2007 IAAF World Championships in Athletics
IAAF World Championships in Athletics
were held at the Nagai Stadium , located in this park. * Tsurumi-Ryokuchi Park with the Sakuya Konohana Kan was the site of the flower expo in 1990 .

TEMPLES, SHRINES, AND OTHER HISTORICAL SITES

Hideyoshi 's Osaka
Osaka
Castle, destroyed in 1868 and rebuilt in 1931. Shitennō-ji with Abeno Harukas in the background

* Osaka Castle
Osaka Castle
* Sankō Shrine * Shitennō-ji – The oldest Buddhist temple in Japan, established in 593 AD by Prince Shōtoku * Sumiyoshi taisha One of the oldest Shinto shrines, built in 211 AD. * Tamatsukuri Inari Shrine * Ōsaka Tenmangū Shrine * Osaka
Osaka
Peace Pagoda, built by Nipponzan Myohoji in 1963. * Imamiya Ebisu

ENTERTAINMENT

* Dōtonbori - Osaka's primary tourist and nightlife area * Namba
Namba
and Shinsaibashi
Shinsaibashi
districts - Located side by side in Minami, offering shopping, restaurants, bars and nightclubs running 24/7 * Higashi-Dori area - A network of shōtengai in Umeda with numerous restaurants, bars, and nightlife options * Shin-michi/Kitashinchi district - Well known for its upscale dining and hostess clubs, also offers more reasonably priced izakaya as well as bars and nightclubs that cater to tourists and foreigners * Shinsekai - Earthy eating/drinking district, built around the Tsūtenkaku Tower and famous for cheap kushikatsu * Den Den Town - An electronics/anime district analogous to Tokyo's Akihabara, Den Den Town also features maid cafes, bars, and other venues of entertainment * Sankaku Koen (Triangle Park) - A popular youth meeting spot in Amerika-mura. Eccentric fashions and local skateboarders abound * Jūsō - Popular working class bar/nightlife district * Kyobashi - A commercial area and shotengai with a diverse variety of izakaya * Zepp Osaka
Osaka
- A live stage venue in the Osaka Bay area that hosts many big-name musical acts and events * Doyama - Considered a hub for Osaka's LGBT community * Tobita - A red-light district

EDUCATION

Kansai University
Kansai University
Osaka City University
Osaka City University

Public elementary and junior high schools in Osaka
Osaka
are operated by the city of Osaka. Its supervisory organization on educational matters is Osaka
Osaka
City Board of Education. Likewise, public high schools are operated by the Osaka Prefectural Board of Education .

Osaka
Osaka
city once had a large number of universities and high schools, but because of growing campuses and the need for larger area, many chose to move to the suburbs, including Osaka
Osaka
University
University
.

Historically foreign expatriates in the Kansai region
Kansai region
preferred to live in Kobe
Kobe
rather than Osaka. As a result, until 1991 the Osaka
Osaka
area has no schools catering to expatriate children. Osaka
Osaka
International School of Kwansei Gakuin , founded in 1991, is located in nearby Minoh , and it was the first international school in the Osaka
Osaka
area. The Great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake of 1995 caused a decline in demand for international schools, as there were about 2,500 U.S. nationals resident in Osaka
Osaka
after the earthquake while the pre-earthquake number was about 5,000. American Chamber of Commerce in Japan
Japan
(ACCJ) Kansai chapter president Norman Solberg stated that since 2002 the numbers of expatriates in Kansai were recovering "but the fact is there is still a persistent exodus to Tokyo." In 2001 the city of Osaka
Osaka
and YMCA established the Osaka
Osaka
YMCA
YMCA
International School .

Colleges and universities include:

* Kansai University
Kansai University
* Morinomiya University
University
of Medical Sciences * Osaka City University
Osaka City University
* Osaka
Osaka
University
University
of Economics * Osaka Institute of Technology * Osaka Jogakuin College * Osaka
Osaka
Seikei University
University
* Osaka
Osaka
University
University
of Arts , Minamikawachi District, Osaka * Osaka
Osaka
University
University
of Comprehensive Children education * Osaka
Osaka
University
University
of Education * Soai University
University
* Tokiwakai Gakuen University
University

LIBRARIES

* International Institute for Children\'s Literature, Osaka
Osaka
* Osaka
Osaka
Prefectural Nakanoshima Library * Osaka
Osaka
Municipal Central Library

LEARNED SOCIETY

* The Japanese Academy of Family Medicine

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

Tsūtenkaku , a symbol of Osaka's post-WWII rebuilding See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Japan
Japan

TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES

This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

Osaka
Osaka
is twinned with the following cities around the world.

* San Francisco
San Francisco
, United States
United States
(since 1957) * São Paulo , Brazil
Brazil
(since 1969) * Chicago
Chicago
, United States
United States
(since 1973) * Shanghai
Shanghai
, China
China
(since 1974) * Melbourne
Melbourne
, Australia
Australia
(since 1978) * Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
, Russia
Russia
(since 1979) * Milan
Milan
, Italy
Italy
(since 1981) * Hamburg
Hamburg
, Germany
Germany
(since 1989)

Osaka
Osaka
also has the following friendship and cooperation cities.

* Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
, Argentina
Argentina
(since 1998) * Budapest
Budapest
, Hungary
Hungary
(since 1998) * Busan
Busan
, South Korea
Korea
(since 2008)

BUSINESS PARTNER CITIES

Osaka's business partnerships are:

* Auckland
Auckland
, New Zealand * Bangkok
Bangkok
, Thailand * Ho Chi Minh City , Vietnam * Hong Kong
Hong Kong
* Jakarta
Jakarta
, Indonesia * Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
, Malaysia * Manila
Manila
, Philippines * Melbourne
Melbourne
, Australia * Mumbai
Mumbai
, India * Seoul
Seoul
, South Korea * Shanghai
Shanghai
, China * Singapore
Singapore
* Tianjin
Tianjin
, China

SEE ALSO

* Osaka
Osaka
portal

* Expo \'70 * List of metropolitan areas by population * List of metropolitan areas in Japan
Japan
by population

REFERENCES

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Osaka
official homepage". Archived from the original on March 22, 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-21. Navigate to the equivalent Japanese page (大阪市の歴史 タイムトリップ20,000年 (History of Osaka, A timetrip back 20,000 years)) for additional information. * ^ Aprodicio A. Laquian (2005). Beyond metropolis: the planning and governance of Asia's mega-urban regions. Washington, D.C: Woodrow Wilson Center Press. p. 27. ISBN 0-8018-8176-5 . * ^ edited by James L. McClain and Wakita Osamu (1999). Osaka, the merchants' capital of early modern Japan. Ithaca, N.Y: Cornell University
University
Press. p. 67. ISBN 0-8014-3630-3 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ Robert C. Hsu (1999). The MIT encyclopedia of the Japanese economy. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. p. 327. ISBN 0-262-08280-2 . * ^ Wada, Stephanie (2003). Tsuneko S. Sadao, Stephanie Wada, Discovering the Arts of Japan: A Historical Overview. ISBN 978-4-7700-2939-3 . Retrieved 2007-03-25. * ^ 大石慎三郎「日本の遷都の系譜」、『學習院大學經濟論集』第28巻第3号、学習院大学、1991年10月、 31-41頁、 NAID 110007523974。P.31 * ^ "史跡 難波宮跡, 財団法人 大阪都市協会 (Naniwa Palace Site, by Osaka
Osaka
Toshi Kyokai)" (in Japanese). Retrieved 2007-03-25. * ^ This name was historically written as 浪華 or 浪花, with the same pronunciation, though these renderings are uncommon today. * ^ edited by Peter G. Stone and Philippe G. Planel (1999). The constructed past: experimental archaeology, education, and the public. London: Routledge in association with English Heritage. p. 68. ISBN 0-415-11768-2 . CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ A B "HISTORICAL OVERVIEW - DISCOVER - OSAKA INFO -Osaka Visitors\' Guide". * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 22, 2009. Retrieved March 21, 2009. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link ) * ^ "A Guide to the Ukiyo-e Sites of the Internet". * ^ C. Andrew Gerstle, Kabuki Heroes on the Osaka
Osaka
Stage 1780-1830 (2005) * ^ Ebrey, Patricia Buckley; Walthall, Anne; Palais, James B. (2006). East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 400. ISBN 0-618-13384-4 . * ^ Jansen, Marius B; Hall, John Whitney (1989). \'\'The Cambridge History of Japan\'\' p.304. Books.google.com. ISBN 978-0-521-22356-0 . Retrieved 2010-05-05. * ^ Richard Torrance, "Literacy and Literature in Osaka, 1890-1940," The Journal of Japanese Studies 31#1 (Winter 2005), pp. 27-60 * ^ " Osaka
Osaka
city". Osaka-info.jp. Retrieved 2010-05-05. * ^ Chisato Hotta, "The Construction of the Korean Community in Osaka
Osaka
between 1920 and 1945: A Cross-Cultural Perspective." PhD dissertation U. of Chicago
Chicago
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ProQuest
Dissertations & Theses * ^ Blair A. Ruble, Second Metropolis: Pragmatic Pluralism in Gilded Age Chicago, Silver Age Moscow, and Meiji Osaka. (2001) * ^ Richard Torrance, "Literacy and Literature in Osaka, 1890-1940," Journal of Japanese Studies 31#1 (Winter 2005), p.27-60 in Project MUSE * ^ "GM had early start in Japan
Japan
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Cambridge UP
* ^ Andy Raskin, "The Ramen King and I: How the Inventor of Instant Noodles Fixed My Love Life". * ^ http://www.city.osaka.jp/keikakuchousei/toukei/G000/Gyh19/Gb00/Gb00.html * ^ Agency, 気象庁 Japan
Japan
Meteorological. "気象庁 - 過去の梅雨入りと梅雨明け(近畿)". * ^ "平年値(年・月ごとの値)". Japan
Japan
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Travel: Kita (Umeda)". * ^ A B " Osaka
Osaka
Travel: Minami (Namba)". * ^ "Kamagasaki: Japan\'s biggest slum". 8 April 2014. * ^ " Osaka
Osaka
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University
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Korea
in Osaka". The Japan
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Times Online. The Japan
Japan
Times . Retrieved 2009-02-18. * ^ Karan, Pradyumna Prasad; Kristin Eileen Stapleton. The Japanese City. University
University
Press of Kentucky. p. 124. ISBN 0-8131-2035-7 . * ^ " Osaka
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City Council homepage". City.osaka.lg.jp. Retrieved 2010-05-05. * ^ The Japan
Japan
Times , July 31, 2012: Bill to transform Osaka government jointly submitted to Diet * ^ The Mainichi Shimbun (27 February 2012)3 major Kansai cities aim to break dependence on nuclear power * ^ The Mainichi Shimbun (19 March 2012) Osaka
Osaka
aims to end Kansai Electric\'s nuclear power ops as shareholder * ^ The Mainichi Shimbun (10 April 2012) Kansai Electric, affiliates had 69 ex-bureaucrats employed as execs as of end of fiscal 2011 * ^ "大阪市データネット 市民経済計算 ( Osaka
Osaka
City Datanet: Osaka
Osaka
City Economy)" (in Japanese). Retrieved 2007-03-25. * ^ "Mastercard - Global Leading Company in Payment Solutions Offering Credit, Debit, Prepaid Cards ">(PDF). * ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original on October 25, 2007. Retrieved October 9, 2007. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link ) * ^ " Osaka
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aims to stem exodus of firms to Tokyo". Retrieved June 1, 2016. * ^ "The Global Financial Centres Index 21" (PDF). Long Finance. March 2017. * ^ 経営に資する統合的内部監査. "大証との経営統合、ようやく決着 ジャスダック : J-CASTニュース". J-cast.com. Retrieved 2010-05-05. * ^ "Worldwide Cost of Living survey 2009". Mercer.com. 2009-07-07. Retrieved 2010-05-05. * ^ "2013 Cost of Living Rankings". Mercer. Mercer LLC. 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2014. * ^ George Arnett; Chris Michael (14 February 2014). "The world\'s most expensive cities". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 February 2014. * ^ http://www.city.osaka.jp/keikakuchousei/toukei/G000/Gyh17/Ga00/Ga00.html * ^ Reiber, Beth; Janie Spencer (2008). Frommer\'s Japan. Frommer's. p. 388. ISBN 0-470-18100-1 . * ^ Archived December 22, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Booth, Michael (2009-07-13). " Osaka
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- the world\'s greatest food city". The Guardian. * ^ Shinbunsha, Asahi (1979). Japan
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Quarterly, Asahi Shinbunsha 1954. Retrieved 2007-03-25. * ^ "Superior brand sake : Food Library - Kuidaore Osaka". * ^ "The Roots : Food Library - Kuidaore Osaka". * ^ Osaka
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Food Guide, The City Lane * ^ "National Theatre of Japan". Ntj.jac.go.jp. Retrieved 2010-05-05. * ^ "劇団四季 サイトインフォメーション Theatres". Shiki.gr.jp. Retrieved 2010-05-05. * ^ " Bandy came to Japan!". * ^ "BANDY Festival 2012 in OSAKA". * ^ The five largest newspapers by number of circulation in Japan in alphabetical order. Mooney, Sean; ebrary, Inc (2000). 5,110 Days in Tokyo
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and Everything\'s Hunky-dory. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 99–104. ISBN 1-56720-361-2 . * ^ See the Association for Promotion of Digital Broadcasting web page for the coverage map. * ^ Dodd, Jan; Simon Richmond (2001). The Rough Guide to Japan. Rough Guides. p. 446. ISBN 1-85828-699-9 . * ^ Archived March 10, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
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大阪市の教育史 osaka-shi no kyōikushi" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on April 6, 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-18. * ^ A B C Stewart, Alex. "educating kansai" (Archive). The Journal of the American Chamber of Commerce in Japan
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(ACCJ), 2003. p. 41. * ^ Archived February 14, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
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FURTHER READING

See also: Bibliography of the history of Osaka
Osaka

* Gerstle, C. Andrew. Kabuki Heroes on the Osaka
Osaka
Stage 1780-1830 (2005). * Hanes, Jeffrey. The City as Subject: Seki Hajime and the Reinvention of Modern Osaka
Osaka
(2002) online edition * Hauser, William B. "Osaka: a Commercial City in Tokugawa Japan." Urbanism past and Present 1977-1978 (5): 23-36. * Hein, Carola, et al. Rebuilding Urban Japan
Japan
after 1945. (2003). 274 pp. * Hotta, Chisato. "The Construction of the Korean Community in Osaka between 1920 and 1945: A Cross-Cultural Perspective." PhD dissertation U. of Chicago
Chicago
2005. 498 pp. DAI 2005 65(12): 4680-A. DA3158708 Fulltext: ProQuest
ProQuest
Dissertations & Theses * Lockyer, Angus. "The Logic of Spectacle C. 1970," Art History, Sept 2007, Vol. 30 Issue 4, p571-589, on the international exposition held in 1970 * McClain, James L. and Wakita, Osamu, eds. Osaka: The Merchants' Capital of Early Modern Japan. (1999). 295 pp. online edition * Michelin Red Guide Kyoto
Kyoto
Osaka
Osaka
Kobe
Kobe
2011 (2011) * Najita, Tetsuo. Visions of Virtue in Tokugawa Japan: The Kaitokudo Merchant Academy of Osaka. (1987). 334 pp. online edition * Rimmer, Peter J. "Japan's World Cities: Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya
Nagoya
or Tokaido Megalopolis?" Development and Change 1986 17(1): 121-157. ISSN 0012-155X * Ropke, Ian Martin. Historical Dictionary of Osaka
Osaka
and Kyoto. (1999) 273pp * Ruble, Blair A. Second Metropolis: Pragmatic Pluralism in Gilded Age Chicago, Silver Age Moscow, and Meiji Osaka. (2001). 464 pp. * Torrance, Richard. "Literacy and Literature in Osaka, 1890-1940," The Journal of Japanese Studies 31#1 (Winter 2005), pp. 27–60 in Project Muse

EXTERNAL LINKS

Look up 大阪 or ŌSAKA in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to OSAKA .

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for OSAKA .

* Osaka
Osaka
City official website (in English) * Official Osaka
Osaka
Tourist Guide * "Osaka". The New Student\'s Reference Work. 1914. * Geographic data related to Osaka
Osaka
at OpenStreetMap
OpenStreetMap

* v * t * e

Osaka Prefecture
Osaka Prefecture

Osaka
Osaka
(capital )

WARDS OF OSAKA

* Abeno * Asahi * Chūō * Fukushima * Higashinari * Higashisumiyoshi * Higashiyodogawa * Hirano * Ikuno * Jōtō * Kita * Konohana * Minato * Miyakojima * Naniwa * Nishi * Nishinari * Nishiyodogawa * Suminoe * Sumiyoshi * Taishō * Tennōji * Tsurumi * Yodogawa

WARDS OF SAKAI

* Higashi * Kita * Naka * Nishi * Mihara * Minami * Sakai

CORE CITIES

* Higashiōsaka * Hirakata * Takatsuki

.