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The Norton Simon
Norton Simon
Museum is an art museum located in Pasadena, California, United States. It was previously known as the Pasadena Art Institute and the Pasadena Art Museum.

Contents

1 Overview 2 History 3 Collections

3.1 Asian art 3.2 European art: 14th-16th centuries 3.3 European art: 17th-18th centuries 3.4 European art: 19th century 3.5 Modern art 3.6 Contemporary art 3.7 Sculpture

4 Management 5 Selected highlights 6 Art repatriation issues 7 References 8 External links

Overview[edit] The Norton Simon
Norton Simon
collections include: European paintings, sculptures, and tapestries; Asian sculptures, paintings, and woodblock prints; and sculpture gardens displaying many sculptors' work in a landscape setting around a large pond. The museum contains the Norton Simon Theater which shows film programs daily, and hosts lectures, symposia, and dance and musical performances year-round. The museum is located along the route of the Tournament of Roses's Rose Parade, where its distinctive, brown tile-exterior can be seen in the background on TV. History[edit]

The museum entrance hall

After receiving approximately 400 German Expressionist pieces from collector Galka Scheyer
Galka Scheyer
in 1953,[1] the Pasadena Art Institute changed its name to the Pasadena Art Museum
Pasadena Art Museum
in 1954 and occupied the Chinoiserie-style “The Grace Nicholson
Grace Nicholson
Treasure House of Oriental Art” building (now the Pacific Asia
Asia
Museum) on North Los Robles Avenue until 1970.[2] The Museum filled a void, being the only modern art museum between San Francisco and La Jolla in California
California
at the time. It was renowned for progressive art exhibits and supported the work of local contemporary artists such as Helen Lundeberg, John McLaughlin, and Sam Francis. In 1962, curator Walter Hopps arrived from the Ferus gallery, organizing an early Pop art show in 1962 and a Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
retrospective in 1963, as well as solo shows of the work of Kurt Schwitters
Kurt Schwitters
and Joseph Cornell.[3] Hopps later drew up a short list of California
California
architects for a new museum building, including Richard Neutra, Charles Eames, John Lautner, Craig Ellwood, and Thornton Ladd.[4] Hopps insisted on a local architect because he expected a high level of interaction throughout the design process.[4] A new Pasadena Art Museum
Pasadena Art Museum
building was completed in 1969, designed by Pasadena architects Thornton Ladd and John Kelsey of the firm Ladd + Kelsey. The distinctive and modern curvilinear exterior facade is faced in 115,000 glazed tiles, in varying rich brown tones with an undulating surface, made by renowned ceramic artisan Edith Heath.[5] Hopps resigned before the museum opened.[4] In the early 1970s, due to an ambitious schedule of exhibits and the new building project, the museum began to experience serious financial hardships. By that time industrialist Norton Simon, who had risen to become one of the pre-eminent art collectors in the world during the 1960s, was searching for a permanent location for his growing collection of over 4,000 objects. He was first approached for financial assistance in 1971 by trustees of the museum. In 1974, the museum and Simon came to an agreement. According to the agreed five-year plan, Simon took over an $850,000 loan on the building and other financial obligations, including a $1 million accumulated operating deficit, in return for using 75% of the gallery space for his collection. The remainder was used to display the Pasadena museum's contemporary collection. A new 10-member board of trustees was formed, consisting of four members from Simon's group, three from the Pasadena museum board and three public members nominated by Simon.[6] Simon also became responsible for the collection and building projects; in return the museum was renamed to Norton Simon Museum and renovated at a reported cost of more than $3 million.[7] This move, widely criticized by the local community as it represented the closing of the only contemporary art museum between San Francisco and La Jolla, led indirectly to the founding of the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles in 1979, a project largely driven by Norton Simon's sister Marcia Weisman.

Lucas Cranach the Elder, Adam and Eve
Adam and Eve
(pair), c. 1530

Simon died in 1993, and the actress Jennifer Jones, his widow and chairwoman of the board, made corrective, conciliatory moves that have repositioned the museum and its two collections.[1] In 1995, the museum began a major $5 million renovation with the architect Frank Gehry, a longtime trustee of the museum.[1] The redesign resulted in a procession of medium-size, more intimate galleries with raised ceilings and improved lighting, increased rotating exhibition space, an entire floor devoted to Asian art, and restored access to the gardens. The gardens were redesigned by Power and Associates to house the 20th-century sculpture collection in an engaging setting. The new Norton Simon
Norton Simon
Theater was the final element of the renovation, designed by Gensler & Associates, and is used for lectures, film, dance performances and concerts.[8] Collections[edit] The Norton Simon
Norton Simon
Museum, which comprises more than 11,000 objects, contains a significant permanent collection which is highly regarded internationally. The museum does not own the works it displays; instead, most of the art is on long-term loan from The Norton Simon Foundation and the Norton Simon
Norton Simon
Art Foundation, which each own different groups of artworks. As of 2014, their public filings placed the combined fair-market value of the artworks at about $2.5 billion.[9] The museum makes relatively little effort to expand the collection amassed by its founder, but it still receives gifts.[10] However, no more than 800 or 900 of those pieces are on display at any one time.The museum also mounts temporary exhibitions that focus on a particular artist, an art movement or artistic period, or art that was created in a specific region or country. For more than three decades after it was founded in 1975, the Norton Simon Museum maintained a no-loans policy. In 2007 the board agreed to circulate select works to museums including the National Gallery
National Gallery
in Washington, saying it wanted the museum to become better known.[11] In 2009, it entered into a reciprocal loan agreement with the Frick Collection, New York.[12] Asian art[edit]

'Digambara Yaksha Sarvahna' from Karnataka, India, c. 900 CE

The museum has a world-renowned collection of art from South Asia
Asia
and Southeast Asia, with examples of this region’s sculptural and painting traditions. On display are holdings from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Tibet, Cambodia
Cambodia
and Thailand, as well as selected works from Afghanistan, Myanmar, Bangladesh, China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, and Japan. The collection is particularly rich in art from the Indian subcontinent, including monumental stone sculpture from the Kushana
Kushana
and Gupta periods, and a remarkable group of Chola
Chola
bronzes from southern India. Selections of the Museum’s Rajput
Rajput
paintings from India, and thangkas, or Buddhist
Buddhist
religious paintings, from Tibet and Nepal
Nepal
are well represented. The significant collection of Japanese woodblock prints includes objects that were formerly in the collection of Frank Lloyd Wright.

'Jina Suparsvanatha' from Karnataka, India, c. 900

'Digambara Yakshi Kushmandini' from Karnataka, India, c. 900

8 Miraculous Events of the Buddha's Life from Myanmar, 13th century

Jain chaubisi

Water spout, central Java, 15th century

'Hindu Goddess' from Nepal, c. 1700, gilt bronze

European art: 14th-16th centuries[edit] Masterworks of the Early Renaissance, the High Renaissance
High Renaissance
and Mannerism
Mannerism
make up the museum’s extensive collection of 14th- to 16th-century European art. Exquisite works by Paolo Veneziano
Paolo Veneziano
and Giovanni di Paolo, and an exceptional Guariento di Arpo
Guariento di Arpo
altarpiece, anchor the museum’s collection of gold-ground panel paintings. Jacopo Bassano, Botticelli, Filippino Lippi
Filippino Lippi
and Raphael
Raphael
are represented by rich oil paintings of religious scenes. Also represented are magnificent examples of such Northern European masters as Lucas Cranach the Elder, Dieric Bouts
Dieric Bouts
and Hans Memling. The portraits of Giorgione, Giovanni Bellini
Giovanni Bellini
and El Greco
El Greco
reflect the great diversity of subject matter in the collection. Ownership of Cranach's Adam[13] and Eve[14] is disputed due to their history as Nazi loot.[15][16] European art: 17th-18th centuries[edit]

Rembrandt, Self-portrait, c. 1640

The museum’s early Baroque
Baroque
paintings from Italy and Spain are represented by such noted artists as Guido Reni, Guercino, Murillo and Zurbarán. The Northern Baroque
Baroque
collection is profoundly expressed in the works of Peter Paul Rubens. The remarkable group of 17th-century Dutch genre, portrait and landscape paintings is crowned with three portraits by Rembrandt. Capping off the 17th century are Flemish and German still lifes, and religious landscapes by the French masters Claude Lorrain
Claude Lorrain
and Nicolas Poussin. The French component of the 18th century collection contains paintings by Watteau, Fragonard and Boucher, while Italy is represented with capriccios and historic glimpses into the daily life of Rome and Venice with works by Longhi, Pannini, Guardi, Canaletto, and Tiepolo. European art: 19th century[edit]

Vincent van Gogh, The Parsonage Garden at Nuenen in the Snow, 1885, (F194)

The museum's paintings by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
and Francisco de Goya mark the beginning of the 19th century and lead to superb examples of mid-century Realism executed by Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Gustave Courbet
Gustave Courbet
and Édouard Manet. The museum has the most significant collection of Impressionist
Impressionist
and Post- Impressionist
Impressionist
art in Southern California. Works by Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
and Edgar Degas, who alone is represented by over one hundred works of art, are displayed alongside the vibrant palettes of Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cézanne
Paul Cézanne
and Paul Gauguin. Complementing these works are Auguste Rodin’s monumental bronze sculptures, displayed in the Museum’s front garden. Outstanding paintings by Édouard Vuillard
Édouard Vuillard
and Pierre Bonnard lead to the doorstep of 20th-century Modernism. Modern art[edit] The museum has an extensive collection of Modern art, with seminal works by Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, Henri Matisse, and Diego Rivera on permanent view. The " Galka Scheyer
Galka Scheyer
collection of works by the Blue Four artists" boasts paintings and works on paper by Paul Klee, Lyonel Feininger, Alexei Jawlensky, and Wassily Kandinsky. Scheyer, a German art dealer and collector who had represented these artists and settled in L.A. in 1925, left 450 works by the Blue Four and other modern artists (plus an archive of 800 documents) to the Pasadena Art Institute after plans had failed to give them to UCLA.[17] Contemporary art[edit] The collection of Post-War Contemporary Art, from the Norton Simon Museum's acquisition of the Pasadena Art Museum's building and collections, is noteworthy for its strength in collage, assemblage and sculpture, including works by Joseph Cornell, Robert Rauschenberg, Louise Nevelson, George Herms, and Ed Kienholz. Pop Art, and Minimal Art are represented by Roy Lichtenstein, Andy Warhol, Donald Judd, and Robert Irwin. Californian art from the 1950s through the 1970s is a particular strength, with artwork by Sam Francis, Richard Diebenkorn, Jay DeFeo, Ronald Davis, Larry Bell, Edward Ruscha, Kenneth Price, Charles Arnoldi, and Ed Moses, Color Field painting
Color Field painting
and Lyrical Abstraction are represented by Ronald Davis, Sam Francis, Kenneth Noland, Ronnie Landfield, Frank Stella, Helen Frankenthaler, and Kenneth Showell. Sculpture[edit] Major sculptors of the early 20th century, including Aristide Maillol, Constantin Brâncuși, Henry Moore, Barbara Hepworth, and Isamu Noguchi, are represented by works in bronze, lead and marble sculptures throughout the galleries, the Front Garden, and in the extensive Sculpture Garden grounds. Management[edit] The Norton Simon
Norton Simon
is organized as an operating foundation, devoting its resources to its own public benefit activities. The operating budget is about $6 million.[9] The museum building, which is owned by the board of trustees, stands on land leased from the City of Pasadena for $1 a year. The 75-year lease runs until 2050. Negotiations in the past included possible moves to San Francisco and UCLA, as well as an affiliation with the J. Paul Getty Trust.[18] Jennifer Jones' Hollywood connections brought members of the film and television community, including Billy Wilder, Gregory Peck, Cary Grant, David Geffen, Tom Brokaw, and Candice Bergen, to the Norton Simon's museum board.[19] Selected highlights[edit]

Giovanni di Paolo, Branchini Madonna, 1427

Dieric Bouts, Resurrection, 1455

Sandro Botticelli, Madonna and Child with Adoring Angel, 1468

Raphael, Madonna and Child with the Book, 1503

Jacopo Bassano, Flight Into Egypt, 1545

Peter Paul Rubens, The Holy Women at the Sepulchre, 1611

Francisco de Zurbarán, Still Life with Lemons, Oranges and a Rose, 1633

Rembrandt, Portrait of a Boy, 1655

Francisco Goya, St. Jerome in Penitence, 1798

Édouard Manet, The Ragpicker, 1869

Auguste Rodin, St. John the Baptist Preaching, 1878

Claude Monet, The Artist's Garden at Vétheuil 1881

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Reclining Nude, 1882

Edgar Degas, Women Ironing, 1884

Paul Cézanne, Farmhouse and Chestnut Trees at Jas de Bouffan, 1885-1887

Vincent van Gogh, Vieux Paysan: Patience Escalier, 1888

Vincent van Gogh, Portrait of the Artist's Mother, 1888

Vincent van Gogh, Mulberry Tree, 1889

Art repatriation issues[edit] In 2012, the Cambodian government asked the United States
United States
to help it recover a 10th-century Khmer sandstone statue from the Norton Simon Museum, saying the work was looted from a Cambodian temple complex during the country’s political upheavals in the 1970s. The sculpture in question was owned by the Norton Simon
Norton Simon
Art Foundation and has been on display since 1980, and although Cambodian authorities have long known it was there, they had not sought its return until recently.[20] In the spring of 2014, the Norton Simon
Norton Simon
returned the sculpture to the Kingdom of Cambodia.[21] Since 2007 the museum has been embroiled in a legal dispute over rightful ownership of Lucas Cranach the Elder’s 1530 paired paintings “Adam” and “Eve.” Marie van Saher filed suit, seeking the return of the paintings and alleging that they were confiscated by the Nazis from her father-in-law, Jacques Goudstikker, a prominent Dutch Jewish art dealer. Goudstikker died on board a ship with his family while attempting to flee the Netherlands. After the war, the paintings were recovered by the Monuments Men
Monuments Men
and returned to the Dutch government. In the 1960s, the Dutch government transferred them to United States
United States
Naval Commander George Stroganoff-Scherbatoff, who claimed they had previously been stolen from his family in Russia by the Stalinist government and sold to Goudstikker in a widely criticized estate auction in Berlin. The paintings were sold in the early 1970s by the Commander to Norton Simon
Norton Simon
and his foundations, and they have been on display in the Norton Simon
Norton Simon
Museum of Art for more than 30 years.[22] Despite ethical concerns expressed by many, including the grandson of founder Norton Simon,[23] the Norton Simon Museum continues its legal battle to keep the works. The Norton Simon Museum's defense hinges on a legal sale by the Dutch government to Commander Stroganoff-Scherbatoff after the owner's widow declined a settlement with the government in 1966. During the case in 2012, the court heard that "The Dutch government itself undermined the legitimacy of [the] restitution process by describing it as 'bureaucratic, cold and often even callous."[24] As of early 2015, the museum is seeking U.S. Supreme Court review of a June 2014 9th Circuit Court of Appeals ruling that allowed van Saher to continue her claim.[25] The U.S. Supreme Court declined to hear a prior stage of the case in 2010.[26] References[edit]

^ a b c Joseph Giovannini (July 18, 1999), The Norton Simon
Norton Simon
Museum Lightens Up New York Times. ^ Building and Garden, Pacific Asia
Asia
Museum, 2011 ^ Sharon Mizota (December 26, 2011), PST, A to Z: ’46 N. Los Robles’ at Pacific Asia, ‘Proof’ at Norton Simon
Norton Simon
Los Angeles Times. ^ a b c William Poundstone (September 4, 2012), How the Norton Simon Got Its Curves Blouin Artinfo. ^ Chang, Jade (2005). Art/Shop/Eat Los Angeles. Somerset Books. pp. 90–98. ISBN 1-905131-06-2.  ^ Suzanne Muchnich (June 24, 1990), Simon Finally Breaks the Silence Los Angeles Times. ^ Eric Pace (June 4, 1993), Norton Simon, Businessman and Collector, Dies at 86 New York Times. ^ Campbell, Sara; Knoke, C.; Williams, G. (2003). Handbook of the Norton Simon
Norton Simon
Museum. Pasadena, California: Norton Simon
Norton Simon
Museum. p. 128. ISBN 978-0972668118.  ^ a b Mike Boehm (November 14, 2014), Norton Simon
Norton Simon
grandson urges museum to be 'just' with 'Adam' and 'Eve' Los Angeles Times. ^ Suzanne Muchnic
Suzanne Muchnic
(February 11, 2009), L.A. museums' collections grow despite poor economy Los Angeles Times. ^ Carol Vogel (October 5, 2007), Masterwork From Naples, Cloaked in Mystery New York Times. ^ Karen Rosenberg (February 27, 2009), Sharing Reflections of Tycoon Taste and Wealth New York Times. ^ http://www.nortonsimon.org/collections/browse_artist.php?name=Cranach%2C+Lucas%2C+the+Elder&resultnum=1 ^ http://www.nortonsimon.org/collections/browse_artist.php?name=Cranach%2C+Lucas%2C+the+Elder&resultnum=3 ^ http://www.comartrecovery.org/cases/marei-von-saher-vs-norton-simon-museum-art-pasadena-et-al ^ http://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-9th-circuit/1036984.html ^ Suzanne Muchnic
Suzanne Muchnic
(November 13, 1994), The Modernism of Galka Scheyer Los Angeles Times. ^ Suzanne Muchnic
Suzanne Muchnic
(November 13, 1994), Norton Simon
Norton Simon
Collection to Stay in Pasadena, Officials Say Los Angeles Times. ^ Suzanne Muchnic
Suzanne Muchnic
(December 18, 2009), Jennifer Jones
Jennifer Jones
Simon gave new life to husband's museum Los Angeles Times. ^ Ralph Blumenthal (September 28, 2012), Cambodia
Cambodia
Is Seeking 2nd Statue Los Angeles Times. ^ Mike Boehm (May 21, 2014), Norton Simon's Temple Wrestler Heading Home to Cambodia ^ Mike Boehm (October 8, 2014) ^ Boehm, Mike (14 November 2014). " Norton Simon
Norton Simon
grandson urges museum to be 'just' with Adam and Eve". LA Times. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ Boehm, Mike (22 July 2014). " Norton Simon
Norton Simon
Museum seeks rehearing after 'Adam and Eve' setback". LA Times. Retrieved 4 January 2015.  ^ [1] ^ "Von Saher v. Norton Simon
Norton Simon
Museum of Art at Pasadena". SCOTUSblog. Retrieved 4 January 2015. 

External links[edit]

Norton Simon
Norton Simon
Museum official website Norton Simon
Norton Simon
commercial showing part of their collection on YouTube

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Norton Simon
Norton Simon
Museum.

Los Angeles portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 146046274 LCCN: n80125907 ISNI: 0000 0001 2178 5538 SUDOC: 086055119 ULAN: 50031

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