HOME
The Info List - Leeds



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

LEEDS /liːdz/ ( listen ) is a city in West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
, England. Historically in Yorkshire's West Riding , the history of Leeds
Leeds
can be traced to the 5th century, when the name referred to a wooded area of the Kingdom of Elmet
Elmet
. The name has been applied to many administrative entities over the centuries. It changed from being the name of a small manorial borough in the 13th century, through several incarnations, to being the name attached to the present metropolitan borough. In the 17th and 18th centuries Leeds
Leeds
became a major centre for the production and trading of wool.

During the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
, Leeds
Leeds
developed into a major mill town ; wool was the dominant industry but flax , engineering, iron foundries , printing, and other industries were important. From being a compact market town in the valley of the River Aire
River Aire
in the 16th century Leeds
Leeds
expanded and absorbed the surrounding villages to become a populous urban centre by the mid-20th century. Leeds
Leeds
has a population of around 781,700 (2016) making it the third largest city in the United Kingdom. The city lies within the United Kingdom's fourth-most populous urban area , with a population of 2.3 million.

Today, Leeds
Leeds
has the most diverse economy of all the UK's main employment centres and has seen the fastest rate of private-sector jobs growth of any UK city and has the highest ratio of public to private sector jobs of all the UK's Core Cities. Leeds
Leeds
has the third-largest jobs total by local authority area with 480,000 in employment and self-employment at the beginning of 2015. Leeds
Leeds
is also ranked as a gamma world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network ; and is considered the cultural, financial and commercial heart of the West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Urban Area . Leeds
Leeds
is served by four universities, and has the fourth largest student population in the country and has the country's fourth largest urban economy .

After London, Leeds
Leeds
is the largest legal and financial centre in the UK, and in 2011 its financial and insurance services industry was worth £2.1 billion. with more than 30 national and international banks located in the city. Leeds
Leeds
is also the UK's third largest manufacturing centre with around 1,800 firms and 39,000 employees, Leeds
Leeds
manufacturing firms account for 8.8% of total employment in the city. The largest sub-sectors are engineering, printing and publishing, food and drink, chemicals and medical technology.

Outside London, Leeds
Leeds
has the third busiest railway station and seventh-busiest airport in terms of passenger numbers in England. Public transport, rail and road communications networks in the region are focused on Leeds.

There are a number of twinning arrangements with towns and cities in other countries.

Its assigned role in the Leeds City Region
Leeds City Region
partnership recognises the city's importance to regional economic development, and the second phase of High Speed 2
High Speed 2
plans to connect Leeds
Leeds
to London via East Midlands Hub and Sheffield
Sheffield
Meadowhall .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Toponymy * 1.2 Economic development * 1.3 Local government * 1.4 Suburban growth

* 2 Geography * 3 Climate

* 4 Demography

* 4.1 Urban subdivision * 4.2 Metropolitan district

* 5 Government

* 6 Economy

* 6.1 Public sector * 6.2 Shopping

* 7 Landmarks * 8 Transport

* 9 Recreation

* 9.1 Walking * 9.2 Parks and open spaces

* 10 Education

* 10.1 Schools * 10.2 Further and higher education

* 11 Culture

* 11.1 Art * 11.2 Carnivals and festivals * 11.3 Cinema * 11.4 Media * 11.5 Museums * 11.6 Music, theatre and dance * 11.7 Nightlife

* 12 Sports

* 12.1 Leeds
Leeds
teams

* 13 Religion * 14 Public services * 15 See also * 16 References and notes * 17 External links

HISTORY

Main article: History of Leeds

TOPONYMY

The name _Leeds_ derives from the old Brythonic word _Ladenses_ meaning "people of the fast-flowing river", in reference to the River Aire which still flows through the city. This name originally referred to the forested area covering most of the Brythonic kingdom of Elmet
Elmet
, which existed during the 5th century into the early 7th century.

Bede
Bede
states in the fourteenth chapter of his _Ecclesiastical History _, in a discussion of an altar surviving from a church erected by Edwin of Northumbria
Edwin of Northumbria
, that it is located in _...regione quae vocatur Loidis_ (Latin, "the region which is called Loidis"). An inhabitant of Leeds
Leeds
is locally known as a _ Loiner _, a word of uncertain origin. The term _Leodensian_ is also used, from the city's Latin name.

The name _Leeds_ has also been explained as a derivative of Welsh _lloed_, meaning simply 'a place'.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

The Leeds and Liverpool Canal
Leeds and Liverpool Canal
at Granary Wharf The Leeds Corn Exchange opened in 1864

Leeds
Leeds
developed as a market town in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
as part of the local agricultural economy. Before the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
it became a co-ordination centre for the manufacture of woollen cloth and white broadcloth was traded at its White Cloth Hall .

Leeds
Leeds
handled one sixth of England's export trade in 1770. Growth, initially in textiles, was accelerated by the building of the Aire and Calder Navigation in 1699 and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal
Leeds and Liverpool Canal
in 1816.

The railway network constructed around Leeds, starting with the Leeds and Selby Railway in 1834, provided improved communications with national markets and, significantly for its development, an east-west connection with Manchester
Manchester
and the ports of Liverpool
Liverpool
and Hull giving improved access to international markets. Alongside technological advances and industrial expansion, Leeds
Leeds
retained an interest in trading in agricultural commodities, with the Corn Exchange opening in 1864. _ Leeds
Leeds
from the Meadows_ by Joseph Rhodes, 1825.

Marshall\'s Mill was one of the first of many factories constructed in Leeds
Leeds
from around 1790 when the most significant were woollen finishing and flax mills. Manufacturing diversified by 1914 to printing, engineering, chemicals and clothing manufacture. Decline in manufacturing during the 1930s was temporarily reversed by a switch to producing military uniforms and munitions during World War II. However, by the 1970s the clothing industry was in irreversible decline, facing cheap foreign competition. The contemporary economy has been shaped by Leeds City Council
Leeds City Council
's vision of building a '24-hour European city' and 'capital of the north'. The city has developed from the decay of the post-industrial era to become a telephone banking centre, connected to the electronic infrastructure of the modern global economy. There has been growth in the corporate and legal sectors and increased local affluence has led to an expanding retail sector, including the luxury goods market. In a 2010 index for sustainable cities, the city placed 6th for the second year running.

Leeds City Region
Leeds City Region
Enterprise Zone was launched in April 2012 to promote development in four sites along the A63 East Leeds Link Road.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Main article: History of local government in Yorkshire
Yorkshire

LEEDS (PARISH) POPULATION 1881 160,109

1891 177,523

1901 177,920

1911 259,394

1921 269,665

1931 482,809

1941 war*

1951 505,219

1961 510,676

*no census was held due to war

source: UK census

Leeds
Leeds
was a manor and township in the large ancient parish of _Leeds St Peter_, in the Skyrack
Skyrack
wapentake of the West Riding of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
. The Borough of Leeds
Leeds
was created in 1207, when Maurice Paynel, lord of the manor, granted a charter to a small area of the manor, close to the river crossing, in what is now the city centre. Four centuries later, the inhabitants petitioned Charles I for a charter of incorporation, which was granted in 1626. The new charter incorporated the entire parish, including all eleven townships, as the Borough of Leeds
Leeds
and withdrew the earlier charter. Improvement commissioners were set up in 1755 for paving, lighting, and cleansing of the main streets, including Briggate
Briggate
and further powers were added in 1790 to improve the water supply. A crowd gathers outside Leeds
Leeds
Town Hall during the 1880 general elections.

The borough corporation was reformed under the provisions of Municipal Corporations Act 1835
Municipal Corporations Act 1835
. Leeds
Leeds
Borough Police force was formed in 1836 and Leeds Town Hall
Leeds Town Hall
was completed by the corporation in 1858. In 1866 Leeds, and each of the other townships in the borough, became a civil parish . The borough became a county borough in 1889, giving it independence from the newly formed West Riding County Council and it gained city status in 1893. In 1904 the Leeds
Leeds
parish absorbed Beeston , Chapel Allerton
Chapel Allerton
, Farnley , Headingley
Headingley
cum Burley and Potternewton from within the borough. In the twentieth century the county borough initiated a series of significant territorial expansions, growing from 21,593 acres (87.38 km2) in 1911 to 40,612 acres (164.35 km2) in 1961. In 1912 the parish and county borough of Leeds
Leeds
absorbed Leeds Rural District , consisting of the parishes of Roundhay
Roundhay
and Seacroft
Seacroft
; and Shadwell , which had been part of Wetherby Rural District. On 1 April 1925 the parish of Leeds
Leeds
was expanded to cover the whole borough.

The county borough was abolished on 1 April 1974 and its former area was combined with that of the municipal boroughs of Morley and Pudsey ; the urban districts of Aireborough , Horsforth
Horsforth
, Otley
Otley
, Garforth and Rothwell ; and parts of the rural districts of Tadcaster , Wetherby
Wetherby
and Wharfedale . This area formed a metropolitan district in the county of West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
. It gained both borough and city status and is known as the City of Leeds
City of Leeds
. Initially, local government services were provided by Leeds City Council
Leeds City Council
and West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
County Council . When the county council was abolished in 1986 the city council absorbed its functions and some powers passed to organisations such as the West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Passenger Transport Authority . From 1988 two run-down and derelict areas close to the city centre were designated for regeneration and became the responsibility of Leeds Development Corporation , outside the planning remit of the city council. Planning powers were restored to the local authority in 1995 when the development corporation was wound up.

SUBURBAN GROWTH

1866 map of Leeds
Leeds
19th century Briggate, Leeds

In 1801, 42% of the population of Leeds
Leeds
lived outside the township, in the wider borough. Cholera
Cholera
outbreaks in 1832 and 1849 caused the authorities to address the problems of drainage, sanitation and water supply. Water was pumped from the River Wharfe, but by 1860 it was too heavily polluted to be usable. Following the Leeds
Leeds
Waterworks Act of 1867 three reservoirs were built at Lindley Wood, Swinsty and Fewston in the Washburn Valley north of Leeds.

Residential growth occurred in Holbeck and Hunslet
Hunslet
from 1801 to 1851, but, as these townships became industrialised new areas were favoured for middle class housing. Land south of the river was developed primarily for industry and secondarily for back-to-back workers' dwellings. The Leeds
Leeds
Improvement Act 1866 sought to improve the quality of working class housing by restricting the number of homes that could be built in a single terrace.

Holbeck and Leeds
Leeds
formed a continuous built-up area by 1858, with Hunslet
Hunslet
nearly meeting them. In the latter half of the nineteenth century, population growth in Hunslet, Armley and Wortley outstripped that of Leeds. When pollution became a problem, the wealthier residents left the industrial conurbation to live in Headingley, Potternewton and Chapel Allerton
Chapel Allerton
which led to a 50% increase in the population of Headingley
Headingley
and Burley from 1851 to 1861. The middle class flight from the industrial areas led to development beyond the borough at Roundhay
Roundhay
and Adel. The introduction of the electric tramway led to intensification of development in Headingley
Headingley
and Potternewton and expansion outside the borough into Roundhay.

Two private gas supply companies were taken over by the corporation in 1870 and the municipal supply provided street lighting and cheaper gas to homes. From the early 1880s the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
House-to-House Electricity Company supplied electricity to Leeds
Leeds
until it was purchased by Leeds
Leeds
Corporation and became a municipal supply.

Slum clearance and rebuilding began in Leeds
Leeds
during the Inter-war period when over 18,000 houses were built by the council on 24 estates in Cross Gates
Cross Gates
, Middleton, Gipton, Belle Isle and Halton Moor. The slums of Quarry Hill were replaced by the innovative Quarry Hill flats, which were demolished in 1975. Another 36,000 houses were built by private sector builders, creating suburbs in Gledhow, Moortown, Alwoodley, Roundhay, Colton, Whitkirk, Oakwood , Weetwood and Adel. After 1949 a further 30,000 sub-standard houses were demolished by the council and replaced by 151 medium-rise and high-rise blocks of council flats in estates at Seacroft, Armley Heights, Tinshill and Brackenwood.

Leeds
Leeds
has seen great expenditure on regenerating the city, attracting in investments and flagship projects, as found in Leeds city centre
Leeds city centre
. Many developments boasting luxurious penthouse apartments have been built close to the city centre.

GEOGRAPHY

Map of Leeds
Leeds
in West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
River Aire
River Aire
in Leeds
Leeds

At 53°47′59″N 1°32′57″W / 53.79972°N 1.54917°W / 53.79972; -1.54917 (53.799°, −1.549°), and 190 miles (310 km) north-northwest of central London , Leeds
Leeds
is located on the valley of the River Aire
River Aire
in the eastern foothills of the Pennines
Pennines
. The city centre lies in a narrow section of the Aire Valley at about 206 feet (63 m) above sea level while the district ranges from 1,115 feet (340 m) in the far west on the slopes of Ilkley Moor
Ilkley Moor
to about 33 feet (10 m) where the rivers Aire and Wharfe cross the eastern boundary. The centre of Leeds
Leeds
is part of a continuously built-up area extending to Pudsey, Bramley, Horsforth, Alwoodley, Seacroft, Middleton and Morley.

Leeds
Leeds
has the second highest population of any local authority district in the UK (after Birmingham
Birmingham
), and the second greatest area of any English metropolitan district (after Doncaster ), extending 15 miles (24 km) from east to west, and 13 miles (21 km) from north to south. The northern boundary follows the River Wharfe
River Wharfe
for several miles but crosses the river to include the part of Otley
Otley
which lies north of the river.

Over 65% of the Leeds
Leeds
district is green belt land and the city centre is less than twenty miles (32 km) from the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales National Park , which has some of the most spectacular scenery and countryside in the UK. Inner and southern areas of Leeds
Leeds
lie on a layer of coal measure sandstones forming the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Coalfield . To the north parts are built on older sandstone and gritstones and to the east it extends into the magnesian limestone belt. The land use in the central areas of Leeds
Leeds
is overwhelmingly urban.

Attempts to define the exact geographic meaning of Leeds
Leeds
lead to a variety of concepts of its extent, varying by context include the area of the city centre , the urban sprawl, the administrative boundaries, and the functional region .

Leeds
Leeds
is much more a generalised concept place name in inverted commas, it is the city, but it is also the commuter villages and the region as well. — Brian Thompson, A History of Modern Leeds
Leeds

Leeds city centre
Leeds city centre
is contained within the Leeds Inner Ring Road
Leeds Inner Ring Road
, formed from parts of the A58 road
A58 road
, A61 road
A61 road
, A64 road
A64 road
, A643 road and the M621 motorway . Briggate
Briggate
, the principal north-south shopping street, is pedestrianised and Queen Victoria Street, a part of the Victoria Quarter
Victoria Quarter
, is enclosed under a glass roof. Millennium Square is a significant urban focal point. The Leeds
Leeds
postcode area covers most of the City of Leeds
City of Leeds
and is almost entirely made up of the Leeds post town . Otley, Wetherby, Tadcaster, Pudsey
Pudsey
and Ilkley
Ilkley
are separate post towns within the postcode area. Aside from the built up area of Leeds
Leeds
itself, there are a number of suburbs and exurbs within the district.

CLIMATE

Sunny early-June 2006 day at Park Square

Leeds
Leeds
has a climate that is oceanic , greatly influenced by the Atlantic and the Pennines
Pennines
. Summers are usually mild, with moderate rainfall, while winters are chilly, cloudy with occasional snow and frost. Spring and autumn are cool but snow and frost are not unheard of in either season

July is the warmest month, with a mean temperature of 16 °C (61 °F), while the coldest month is January, with a mean temperature of 3 °C (37 °F). Temperatures above 30 °C (86 °F) and below −10 °C (14 °F) are not very common but can happen occasionally. Temperatures at Leeds Bradford Airport fell to −12.6 °C (9.3 °F) in December 2010 and reached 31.8 °C (89 °F) at Leeds city centre
Leeds city centre
in August 2003. The record temperature for Leeds
Leeds
is 34.4 °C (94 °F) during the early August 1990 heatwave.

As is typical for many sprawling cities in areas of varying topography, temperatures can change depending on location. Average July and August daytime highs exceed 25.0 °C (77.0 °F) (a value comparable to South East England) in a small area just to the south east of the city centre, where the elevation declines to under 20 metres (66 feet). This is 2 degrees milder than the typical summer temperature at Leeds
Leeds
Bradford
Bradford
airport weather station (shown in the chart below), at an elevation of 208 metres (682 feet).

Situated on the eastern side of the Pennines
Pennines
, Leeds
Leeds
is among the driest cities in the United Kingdom, with an annual rainfall of 660 mm (25.98 in).

Though extreme weather in Leeds
Leeds
is relatively rare, thunderstorms, blizzards, gale-force winds and even tornadoes have struck the city. The last reported tornado occurred on 14 September 2006, causing trees to uproot and signal failures at Leeds
Leeds
City railway station .

CLIMATE DATA FOR LEEDS

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 5.5 (41.9) 5.6 (42.1) 8.1 (46.6) 10.7 (51.3) 14.3 (57.7) 16.9 (62.4) 19.1 (66.4) 18.7 (65.7) 15.9 (60.6) 12.1 (53.8) 8.3 (46.9) 5.8 (42.4) 11.75 (53.15)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 0.5 (32.9) 0.3 (32.5) 1.7 (35.1) 3.2 (37.8) 5.9 (42.6) 8.8 (47.8) 11.1 (52) 10.9 (51.6) 8.9 (48) 6.1 (43) 3.2 (37.8) 0.9 (33.6) 5.13 (41.23)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 109.8 (4.323) 77.2 (3.039) 81.5 (3.209) 72.9 (2.87) 65.2 (2.567) 77.1 (3.035) 63.0 (2.48) 81.1 (3.193) 77.1 (3.035) 99.8 (3.929) 105.2 (4.142) 114.3 (4.5) 1,024.2 (40.322)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS 15.4 12.3 13.4 11.2 11.2 11.1 10.3 11.8 11.2 14.4 15.3 14.8 152.4

Source:

DEMOGRAPHY

Main article: Demography of Leeds

URBAN SUBDIVISION

Leeds
Leeds
compared Leeds
Leeds
urban subdivision within the West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
urban area

2001 UK Census Leeds USD Leeds district West Yorks UA ENGLAND

Population 443,247 715,402 1,499,465 49,138,831

White 88.4% 91.9% 85.5% 90.9%

Asian 6.4% 4.5% 11.2% 4.6%

Black 2.2% 1.4% 1.3% 2.3%

SOURCE: OFFICE FOR NATIONAL STATISTICS

_ This article needs to be UPDATED. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (April 2016)_

At the time of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Census 2001 , the Leeds
Leeds
urban subdivision occupied an area of 109 square kilometres (42 sq mi) and had a population of 443,247; making it the fourth most populous urban subdivision within England
England
and the fifth largest within the United Kingdom. The population density was 4,066 inhabitants per square kilometre (10,530/sq mi), slightly higher than the rest of the West Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Urban Area . It accounts for 20% of the area and 62% of the population of the City of Leeds. The population of the urban subdivision had a 100 to 93.1 female–male ratio. Of those over 16 years old, 39.4% were single (never married) and 35.4% married for the first time. The urban subdivision's 188,890 households included 35% one-person, 27.9% married couples living together, 8.8% were co-habiting couples, and 5.7% single parents with their children. Leeds
Leeds
is the largest component of the West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Urban Area and is counted by Eurostat
Eurostat
as part of the Leeds- Bradford
Bradford
Larger Urban Zone . The Leeds
Leeds
Travel to Work Area
Travel to Work Area
in 2001 included all of the City of Leeds, a northern strip of the City of Bradford, the eastern part of Kirklees, and a section of southern North Yorkshire; it occupies 751 square kilometres (290 sq mi).

METROPOLITAN DISTRICT

At the 2011 UK census , the district had a total population of 751,500, representing a 5% growth since the last census of 2001. Of the 301,614 households in Leeds
Leeds
in the 2001 census, 33.3% were married couples living together, 31.6% were one-person households, 9.0% were co-habiting couples and 9.8% were lone parents, following a similar trend to the rest of England. The population density was 1,967/km2 (5,090/sq mi) and for every 100 females, there were 93.5 males.

Leeds
Leeds
is a diverse city with over 75 ethnic groups, and with minority ethnic populations representing just under 11.6% of the total population. According to figures from the 2011 census , 85.0% of the population was White (81.1% White British , 0.9% White Irish , 0.1% Gypsy or Irish Traveller
Irish Traveller
, 2.9% Other White ), 2.7% of mixed race (1.2% White and Black Caribbean, 0.3% White and Black African, 0.7% White and Asian, 0.5% Other Mixed), 7.7% Asian (2.1% Indian , 3.0% Pakistani , 0.6% Bangladeshi , 0.8% Chinese , 1.2% Other Asian), 3.5% Black (2.0% African, 0.9% Caribbean , 0.6% Other Black
Other Black
), 0.5% Arab and 0.6% of other ethnic heritage.

The majority of people in Leeds
Leeds
identify themselves as Christian. The proportion of Muslims (3.0% of the population) is average for the country. Leeds
Leeds
has the third-largest community of Jews in the United Kingdom, after those of London and Manchester. The areas of Alwoodley and Moortown contain sizeable Jewish
Jewish
populations. 16.8% of Leeds residents in the 2001 census declared themselves as having "no religion", which is broadly in line with the figure for the whole of the UK (also 8.1% "religion not stated"). The crime rate in Leeds
Leeds
is well above the national average, like many other English major cities. In July 2006, the think tank Reform calculated rates of crime for different offences and has related this to populations of major urban areas (defined as towns over 100,000 population). Leeds
Leeds
was 11th in this rating (excluding London boroughs, 23rd including London boroughs). Total recorded crime in Leeds
Leeds
fell by 45% between 2002/03 and 2011/12.

The table below details the population of the current area of the district since 1801, including the percentage change since the last available census data.

Population growth
Population growth
in City of Leeds
City of Leeds
since 1801 YEAR 1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011

POPULATION 94,421 108,459 137,476 183,015 222,189 249,992 311,197 372,402 433,607 503,493 552,479 606,250 625,854 646,119 668,667 692,003 715,260 739,401 696,732 716,760 715,404 751,500

% CHANGE – +14.87 +26.75 +33.13 +21.40 +12.51 +24.48 +19.67 +16.44 +16.12 +9.73 +9.73 +3.23 +3.24 +3.49 +3.49 +3.36 +3.38 −5.77 +2.87 −0.19 +5.05

Source: _Vision of Britain_

In 2011, the Leeds
Leeds
USD had a population of 474,632.

LEEDS COMPARED LEEDS USD LEEDS CITY

White British 73.9% 81.1%

Asian 10.7% 7.7%

Black 5.2% 3.5%

In 2011, 26.1% of the population of the Leeds
Leeds
USD (Urban Subdivision) were non-white British, compared with 18.9% for the surrounding borough. This makes the Leeds
Leeds
USD about as multicultural as Salford in Greater Manchester.

GOVERNMENT

See also: City of Leeds
City of Leeds
Leeds Civic Hall
Leeds Civic Hall
is the seat of local government

The City of Leeds
City of Leeds
is the local government district covering Leeds
Leeds
and the local authority is Leeds City Council
Leeds City Council
. The council is composed of 99 councillors, three for each of the district's wards . Elections are held three years out of four, on the first Thursday of May. One third of the councillors are elected, for a four-year term, in each election. The council is currently controlled by Labour . West Yorkshire
Yorkshire
does not have a county council, so Leeds City Council
Leeds City Council
is the primary provider of local government services for the city. The district is in the Yorkshire and the Humber
Yorkshire and the Humber
region of England.

Most of the district is an unparished area . In the unparished area there is no lower tier of government. Outside the unparished area there are 31 civil parishes , represented by parish councils . These are the lowest tier of local government and absorb some limited functions from Leeds City Council
Leeds City Council
in their areas.

The district is represented by eight MPs , for the constituencies of Elmet
Elmet
and Rothwell ( Alec Shelbrooke , Conservative); Leeds
Leeds
Central ( Hilary Benn
Hilary Benn
, Labour); Leeds
Leeds
East ( Richard Burgon , Labour); Leeds North East ( Fabian Hamilton , Labour); Leeds
Leeds
North West (Greg Mulholland , Lib Dem); Leeds
Leeds
West ( Rachel Reeves
Rachel Reeves
, Labour); Morley and Outwood (constituency shared with City of Wakefield
Wakefield
) (Andrea Jenkyns , Conservative); and Pudsey
Pudsey
( Stuart Andrew
Stuart Andrew
, Conservative). Leeds
Leeds
is within the Yorkshire and the Humber
Yorkshire and the Humber
European constituency, which as of May 2017 is represented by two UKIP , two Labour , and two Conservative MEPs .

In addition to other national governmental offices, the city is home to a large Department for Work and Pensions
Department for Work and Pensions
office building located in Quarry Hill , notable for its imposing design.

ECONOMY

Main article: Economy of Leeds
Economy of Leeds
Infirmary Street in the heart of Leeds' Financial District

Leeds
Leeds
has the most diverse economy of all the UK's main employment centres and has seen the fastest rate of private sector jobs growth of any UK city and has the highest ratio of public to private sector jobs of all the UK's Core Cities. The city has the third largest jobs total by local authority area with 480,000 in employment and self-employment at the beginning of 2015. 24.7% were in public administration, education and health, 23.9% were in banking, finance and insurance and 21.4% were in distribution, hotels and restaurants. It is in the banking, finance and insurance sectors that Leeds
Leeds
differs most from the financial structure of the region and the nation. In 2011, the financial and services industry in Leeds
Leeds
was worth £2.1 billion, the 5th largest in the UK, behind London, Edinburgh, Manchester
Manchester
and Birmingham. Tertiary industries such as retail, call centres , offices and media have contributed to a high rate of economic growth. The city also hosts the only subsidiary office of the Bank of England in the UK. In 2012 GVA for the city was recorded at £18.8 billion, with the entire Leeds City Region
Leeds City Region
generating a £56 billion economy. Bridgewater Place

It is the largest centre outside London for financial and business services. Over the next ten years, the economy is forecast to grow by 25% with financial and business services set to generate over half of GVA growth over that period with Finance and business services accounting for 38% of total output. Other key sectors include retail, leisure and the visitor economy, construction, manufacturing and the creative and digital industries.

Leeds
Leeds
has over 30 national and international banks, many of whose northern or regional offices are based in the city. It is the headquarters for First Direct
First Direct
and is home to Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Bank and large Barclays
Barclays
, HSBC
HSBC
, Santander , Lloyds Banking Group
Lloyds Banking Group
and RBS Group operations.

The city is also an important centre for equity, venture and risk finance. Founded in Leeds, the venture capital provider, YFM Equity Partners, is now the UK's largest provider of risk capital to small and medium-sized enterprises.

Other major companies based in the city include William Hill , International Personal Finance , ASDA
ASDA
, Leeds Building Society and Northern Foods . Capita Group
Capita Group
, KPMG
KPMG
, Direct Line
Direct Line
, Aviva
Aviva
, Yorkshire Building Society , BT Group
BT Group
, Telefónica Europe (otherwise known as O2) and TD Waterhouse all also have a considerable presence in the city.

There are around 150 law firms operating in Leeds, employing over 6,700 people. According to The UK Legal 500, " Leeds
Leeds
has a sophisticated and highly competitive legal market, second only to London."

Specialist legal expertise to be found in Leeds
Leeds
includes corporate finance, corporate restructuring and insolvency, global project financing, trade and investment, commercial litigation, competition, construction, Private Finance Initiatives and Public Private Partnerships, tax, derivatives, IT, employment, pensions, intellectual property, sport and entertainment.

The establishment of an Administrative Court in Leeds
Leeds
in April 2009 reinforced Leeds' position as one of the UK's key legal centres. The court previously sat only in London.

Leeds
Leeds
is the UK's third largest manufacturing centre and 50% of the UK's manufacturing base is within a two-hour drive of Leeds. With around 1,800 firms and 39,000 employees, Leeds
Leeds
manufacturing firms account for 8.8% of total employment in the city. The largest sub-sectors are engineering, printing and publishing, food and drink, chemicals and medical technology.

There is also an established creative industry in the city, particularly in the digital gaming sector. A number of large developers have studios in and around the city, including Activision
Activision
, developers of the mobile versions of the _ Call of Duty
Call of Duty
_ series, and Rockstar Leeds
Rockstar Leeds
, developers of the _ Grand Theft Auto
Grand Theft Auto
_ series. In 2009 Leeds
Leeds
was the first city outside London to host the Eurogamer Expo . Park Row in Leeds' Central Business District

Office developments, also traditionally located in the inner area, have expanded south of the River Aire
River Aire
and total 11,000,000 square feet (1,000,000 m2) of space. In the period from 1999 to 2008 £2.5bn of property development was undertaken in central Leeds; of which £711m has been offices, £265m retail, £389m leisure and £794m housing. Manufacturing and distribution uses accounts for £26m of new property development in the period. There are 130,100 jobs in the city centre, accounting for 31% of all jobs in the wider district. In 2007, 47,500 jobs were in finance and business, 42,300 in public services, and 19,500 in retail and distribution. 43% of finance sector jobs in the district are contained in Leeds city centre
Leeds city centre
and 44% of those employed in the city centre live more than nine kilometres (5.6 miles) away. Tourism is important to the Leeds
Leeds
economy, in 2009 Leeds
Leeds
was the 8th most visited city in England
England
by UK visitors. and the 13th most visited city by overseas visitors. Research by Visit England
England
reported that the day visitor market to Leeds
Leeds
attracts 24.9 million people each year, worth over £654 million to the local economy.

In January 2011, Leeds
Leeds
was named as one of five "cities to watch" in a report published by Centre for Cities . The report shows that the average resident in Leeds
Leeds
earns £471 per week, seventeenth nationally and 30.9% of Leeds
Leeds
residents had NVQ4+ high level qualifications, fifteenth nationally. Employment in Leeds
Leeds
was 68.8% in the period June 2012 to June 2013, which was lower than the national average, whilst unemployment was higher than the national average at 9.6% over the same time period. It also shows that Leeds will be the least affected major city by welfare cuts in 2014/2015, with welfare cuts of -£125 per capita predicted, compared to -£192 in Liverpool
Liverpool
and -£175 in Glasgow. Leeds
Leeds
is overall less deprived than other large UK cities and average income is above regional averages.

PUBLIC SECTOR

NHS England
England
HQ.

In Leeds, 108,000 people work in the public sector – 24% of the workforce. The largest employers are Leeds
Leeds
City Council, with 33,000 staff, and the Leeds
Leeds
Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, with 14,000 staff.

Leeds
Leeds
has become a hub of public-sector health bodies. The Department of Health , NHS England
England
, the Care Quality Commission
Care Quality Commission
, NHS Digital
NHS Digital
, and Public Health England
England
all have large offices in Leeds. Europe's largest teaching hospital is also based in Leeds, and is home to the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Cancer Centre, the largest of its kind in Europe.

Key government departments and organisations in Leeds
Leeds
include the Department for Work and Pensions
Department for Work and Pensions
, with over 3,000 staff, the Department of Health, with over 800 staff, HMRC with over 1,200 staff and the British Library
British Library
with 1,100 staff.

SHOPPING

Trinity Leeds
Trinity Leeds
is Leeds' largest shopping centre Victoria Gate is Leeds' newest shopping centre

The extensive retail area of Leeds
Leeds
is identified as the principal regional shopping centre for the whole of the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber region with a catchment of 5.5 million people offering a spend of £1.93 billion annually. There are a number of indoor shopping centres in the centre of the city, including the Merrion Centre , St John\'s Centre , The Core , the Victoria Quarter
Victoria Quarter
, The Light , the Corn Exchange , Trinity Leeds
Trinity Leeds
, and Victoria Gate
Victoria Gate
. In total there are well over 1,000 retail stores, with a combined floorspace of 3,660,000 square feet (340,000 m2). in Leeds
Leeds
City Centre.

The city centre has a large pedestrian zone . Briggate
Briggate
is the main shopping street where one can find many well-known British High street stores, including Marks & Spencer
Marks & Spencer
, House of Fraser
House of Fraser
, Debenhams
Debenhams
, Topshop
Topshop
, Costa Coffee
Costa Coffee
and Harvey Nichols
Harvey Nichols
. There is also a large international presence in Leeds
Leeds
with stores such as H&M
H&M
, Zara , Gap , American Apparel
American Apparel
, Hollister , Urban Outfitters
Urban Outfitters
, Foot Locker
Foot Locker
, L\'Occitane en Provence , McDonald\'s and Starbucks
Starbucks
. Many companies have several stores within Central Leeds
Leeds
and the wider city. The Victoria Quarter
Victoria Quarter
is notable for its high-end luxury retailers and impressive architecture. 70 stores such as Louis Vuitton
Louis Vuitton
, Vivienne Westwood , Paul Smith , Diesel and anchor Harvey Nichols
Harvey Nichols
are contained within two iron-wrought Victorian arcades, and a new arcade formed by arcading Queen Victoria Street with the largest expanse of stained glass in Britain.

In the Churwell area of Leeds
Leeds
is the White Rose Shopping Centre
White Rose Shopping Centre
. Opening in 1997, the centre has over 100 high street stores anchored by Debenhams, Marks "> City Square

Leeds
Leeds
displays a variety of natural and built landmarks. Natural landmarks include such diverse sites as the gritstone outcrop of Otley Chevin and the Fairburn Ings RSPB reserve . The city's parks at Roundhay
Roundhay
and Temple Newsam
Temple Newsam
have long been owned and maintained by the council for the benefit of ratepayers and among the open spaces in the centre of Leeds
Leeds
are Millennium Square , City Square , Park Square and Victoria Gardens. This last is the site of the central city war memorial : there are 42 other war memorials in the suburbs, towns and villages in the district.

The built environment embraces edifices of civic pride like Morley Town Hall and the trio of buildings in Leeds, Leeds Town Hall
Leeds Town Hall
, Corn Exchange and Leeds City Museum by the architect Cuthbert Brodrick . The two white buildings on the Leeds
Leeds
skyline are the Parkinson building of Leeds
Leeds
University and the Civic Hall , with golden owls adorning the tops of the latter's twin spires.

Armley Mills , Tower Works , with its campanile-inspired towers, and the Egyptian-style Temple Works
Temple Works
hark back to the city's industrial past, while the site and ruins of Kirkstall Abbey
Kirkstall Abbey
display the beauty and grandeur of Cistercian
Cistercian
architecture. Notable churches are Leeds Minster (formerly Leeds
Leeds
Parish Church), St George\'s Church and Leeds Cathedral , in the city centre, and the Church of St John the Baptist, Adel and Bardsey Parish Church in quieter locations. Notable non-conformist chapels include the Salem Chapel, dating back to 1791 and notably the birthplace of Leeds
Leeds
United Football Club in 1919.

The 112-metre (367 ft) tower of Bridgewater Place , also known as _The Dalek_, is part of a major office and residential development and the region's tallest building; it can be seen for miles around. Bridgewater Place has been the subject of debate as its erection in 2007 caused significant Wind Tunnel
Wind Tunnel
effects, channeling strong wind currents across Victoria Road. There have been numerous injuries attributed to the inadequate architecture of this building and Water Lane is frequently closed when high winds are expected. Leeds
Leeds
City Council are undertaking construction work in an attempt to deflect the wind from street level and the building owners of Bridgewater Place agreed to pay to cover the public money being spent. Among other Skyscrapers the 37-storey Sky Plaza to the north of the city centre stands on higher ground so that its 106 metres (348 ft) is higher than Bridgewater Place.

Elland Road
Elland Road
(football) and Headingley Stadium
Headingley Stadium
(cricket and rugby) are well known to sports enthusiasts and the White Rose Centre is a well-known retail outlet. Headingley
Headingley
Carnegie Stadium is also home to Leeds Rhinos
Leeds Rhinos
rugby team. Leeds
Leeds
city centre, viewed from South Leeds
Leeds
at night

TRANSPORT

Main article: Transport in Leeds Leeds Inner Ring Road
Leeds Inner Ring Road

Leeds
Leeds
is the starting-point of the A62 , A63 , A64 , A65 and A660 roads, and is also situated on the A58 and A61 . The M1 and M62 intersect to its south and the A1(M) passes to the east. Leeds
Leeds
is one of the principal hubs of the northern motorway network. Additionally, there is an urban motorway network; the radial M621 takes traffic into central Leeds
Leeds
from the M62 and M1. There is an Inner Ring Road with part motorway status and an Outer Ring Road . Part of the city centre is pedestrianised, and is encircled by the clockwise-only Loop Road . Leeds railway station
Leeds railway station
Leeds
Leeds
Bradford
Bradford
International Airport

Leeds
Leeds
has been identified as one of the most car-dependent cities in the UK. In one 2012 study of 31 European cities, Leeds- Bradford
Bradford
was rated as the seventh most grid-locked. Drivers spend an average of 80 hours in congestion. In 2010 ninety-six pedestrians were killed or seriously injured in road traffic accidents in Leeds. Measurements taken on some main roads in Leeds
Leeds
have revealed pollution levels over twice the legal limits. The main reason for these problems is the fact that unlike other cities in the UK similar in size to Leeds, such as Manchester
Manchester
and Sheffield
Sheffield
, Leeds
Leeds
does not have a rapid transport system (such as the Manchester
Manchester
Metrolink or Sheffield
Sheffield
Supertram ) and therefore commuters tend to either drive or use buses, which can be delayed when the roads are congested. There were ideas for a Leeds Supertram since the 1990s, and £500 million in funding was to be provided, however due to spiraling costs the plans were cancelled by the Transport Minister Alistair Darling
Alistair Darling
in 2005, even though £40 million had already been spent on the project. Hopes were renewed with the proposal for a £250 million New Generation Transport Trolleybus service in 2007, however after a long wait and millions of pounds spent on inquiries, the plans were cancelled in May 2016 citing little value for money.

Public transport in the Leeds
Leeds
area is coordinated and developed by West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Metro , with service information provided by Leeds City Council and West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Metro. The primary means of public transport in Leeds
Leeds
are the bus services. The main provider is First Leeds
Leeds
and Arriva Yorkshire
Yorkshire
serves routes to the south of the city. Leeds
Leeds
City bus station is at Dyer Street and is used by bus services to towns and cities in Yorkshire, plus a small number of local services. Adjacent to it is the coach station for National Express coach services. Buses out of the city are mainly provided by First Leeds
Leeds
and Arriva Yorkshire
Yorkshire
. Harrogate Bus Company
Harrogate Bus Company
provides a service to Harrogate
Harrogate
and Ripon
Ripon
. Keighley Bus Company provides a service to Shipley , Bingley
Bingley
and Keighley
Keighley
. The Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Coastliner service runs from Leeds
Leeds
to Bridlington
Bridlington
, Filey
Filey
, Scarborough and Whitby
Whitby
via York and Malton . Stagecoach provides a service to Hull via Goole
Goole
.

From Leeds railway station
Leeds railway station
at New Station Street, West Yorkshire Metro trains operated by Northern run to Leeds' suburbs and onwards to all parts of Leeds
Leeds
City Region. The station is one of the busiest in England
England
outside London, with over 900 trains and 50,000 passengers passing through every day. It provides national and international connections as well as services to local and regional destinations. The station itself has 17 platforms, making it the largest in England outside London.

Leeds Bradford International Airport
Leeds Bradford International Airport
is located in Yeadon , about 10 miles (16 km) to the north-west of the city centre, and has both charter and scheduled flights to destinations within Europe plus Egypt, Tunisia, Pakistan, Turkey and the USA. There are connections to the rest of the world via London Heathrow Airport
London Heathrow Airport
, Brussels Airport and Amsterdam Schiphol Airport . There is a direct rail service from Leeds
Leeds
to Manchester
Manchester
Airport ; however, there isn't one to the nearby Leeds
Leeds
Bradford
Bradford
Airport. Humberside Airport
Humberside Airport
is 70 miles (113 km) east of Leeds.

The city and metropolitan borough of Leeds
Leeds
is served by 16 railway stations and there are plans to open several more within the next 20 years.

RECREATION

Waterloo Lake in Roundhay
Roundhay
Park , one of the largest urban parks in Europe The Mansion at Temple Newsam
Temple Newsam

WALKING

The Leeds Country Way
Leeds Country Way
is a waymarked circular walk of 62 miles (100 km) through the rural outskirts of the city, never more than 7 miles (11 km) from City Square . The Meanwood Valley Trail leads from Woodhouse Moor along Meanwood Beck to Golden Acre Park
Golden Acre Park
. The Leeds extension of the Dales Way follows the Meanwood Valley Trail before it branches off to head towards Ilkley
Ilkley
and Windermere
Windermere
. Leeds
Leeds
is on the northern section of the Trans Pennine Trail for walkers and cyclists, and the towpath of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal
Leeds and Liverpool Canal
is another popular walking and cycling route. The White Rose Way walking trail to Scarborough begins at City Square. In addition, there are many parks and public footpaths in both the urban and rural parts of Leeds, and the Ramblers\' Association , YHA and other walking organisations offer sociable walks. The Ramblers' Association publish various booklets of walks in and around Leeds.

PARKS AND OPEN SPACES

Leeds
Leeds
has many large parks and open spaces. Roundhay
Roundhay
Park is the largest park in the city, and is one of the largest city parks in Europe. The park has more than 700 acres (2.8 km2) of parkland, lakes, woodland and gardens which are all owned by Leeds
Leeds
City Council. Other parks in the city include: Middleton Park
Middleton Park
, Temple Newsam
Temple Newsam
, Woodhouse Moor , Meanwood Park, Beckett Park, Bramley Fall Park, Horforth Hall Park, Potternewton Park, Golden Acre Park
Golden Acre Park
, East End Park, Cross Flatts Park, and Western Flatts Park. There are many more smaller parks and open spaces scattered around the city, which makes Leeds
Leeds
one of the Greenest cities in the United Kingdom.

EDUCATION

SCHOOLS

Main article: List of schools in Leeds

At the time of the 2001 census Leeds
Leeds
had a population of 183,000 young people aged 0–19 of whom 110,000 were attending local authority schools. In 2008 Education Leeds, a non-profit company owned by Leeds
Leeds
City Council, provided for 220 primary schools, 39 secondary schools and 6 special inclusive learning centres. Under the government Building Schools for the Future
Building Schools for the Future
initiative, Leeds
Leeds
secured £260m, to transform 13 secondary schools into high achieving, e-confident, inclusive schools. The first three of these schools at Allerton High School , Pudsey Grangefield School and Rodillian School , were opened in September 2008. The demand for primary school places in Leeds
Leeds
has recently hit a 15-year peak, with an estimated 10,500 new starters this year. The city's oldest and largest private school is The Grammar School at Leeds , which was legally re-created in 2005 following the merger of Leeds Grammar School
Leeds Grammar School
, established 1552, and Leeds
Leeds
Girls\' High School , established 1857. Other independent schools in Leeds
Leeds
include faith schools serving the Jewish
Jewish
and Muslim
Muslim
communities.

Leeds
Leeds
was one of a number of local authorities to try the three-tier system with first, middle and secondary schools. It reverted to the two-tier system in 1989.

FURTHER AND HIGHER EDUCATION

Parkinson Building
Parkinson Building
at the University of Leeds
University of Leeds
Broadcasting Tower at the Leeds Beckett University
Leeds Beckett University

Further education
Further education
in Leeds
Leeds
is provided by Leeds City College (formed by a merger in 2009 and having over 60,000 students), Leeds
Leeds
College of Building , Notre Dame Catholic Sixth Form College and Elliott Hudson College . The city has four universities: the University of Leeds
University of Leeds
– which received its charter in 1904 having developed from the Yorkshire College which was founded in 1874 and the Leeds
Leeds
School of Medicine of 1831; Leeds Beckett University
Leeds Beckett University
(formerly Leeds
Leeds
Polytechnic) which became a university in 1992 but can trace its roots to the Mechanics\' Institute of 1824; Leeds Trinity University which began in 1966 as two teacher training colleges which merged in 1980 to form Trinity and All Saints College and became a university in 2012; and the University of Law (formerly the College of Law) which became a university in 2012 and moved to its current Leeds
Leeds
centre campus from York
York
in 2014.

The University of Leeds
University of Leeds
has about 31,000 students, of which 21,500 are full-time or sandwich undergraduate degree students, Leeds Beckett University has 25,805 students of which 12,000 are full-time or sandwich undergraduate degree students and 2,100 full-time or sandwich HND students. Leeds Trinity University has just under 3,000 students, Other higher education establishments are: Leeds
Leeds
College of Art , Leeds College of Music
Leeds College of Music
and Northern School of Contemporary Dance . The city was voted the Best UK University Destination by a survey in _ The Independent
The Independent
_ newspaper.

CULTURE

See also: Culture of Leeds

ART

Henry Moore
Henry Moore
Statue outside Leeds Art Gallery
Leeds Art Gallery

Leeds
Leeds
has produced many of the UK's most notable artists and sculptors, including Kenneth Armitage
Kenneth Armitage
, John Atkinson Grimshaw
John Atkinson Grimshaw
, Jacob Kramer , Barbara Hepworth
Barbara Hepworth
, Henry Moore
Henry Moore
and Edward Wadsworth
Edward Wadsworth
, and been the centre for a particularly radical strain of British art.

Although the city's municipal art gallery did not open until 1888, there is an earlier history of exhibitions in the city, most notably the series of 'Polytechnic Exhibitions' held regularly from 1839.

Before the First World War Leeds
Leeds
was the home of an unusual modernist arts organisation, called the Leeds Arts Club , founded by Alfred Orage , which lasted from 1903 to 1923. Notable members included Jacob Kramer , Herbert Read
Herbert Read
, Frank Rutter
Frank Rutter
and Michael Sadler . As well as advocating a radical political agenda, supporting the Suffragettes
Suffragettes
, the Independent Labour Party
Independent Labour Party
and the Fabian Society
Fabian Society
, and promoting the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
, the Leeds Arts Club was almost unique in Britain as being an exponent of German Expressionist
German Expressionist
ideas about art and culture. As a result, it staged very early British exhibitions of work by European expressionist artists, such as Wassily Kandinsky , showing their work in the city as early as 1913, and produced its own English Expressionist artists, including Jacob Kramer and Bruce Turner.

In the 1920s Leeds College of Art was the starting point for the careers of the sculptors Barbara Hepworth
Barbara Hepworth
and Henry Moore
Henry Moore
, and in the 1950s, and 60s it was one of the leading centres for radical art education in Britain under the guidance of artists such as Harry Thubron and Tom Hudson , and the art historian Norbert Lynton . Their attempts to redefine what art education should mean in the post-Second World War period led the artist Patrick Heron to claim in 1971 in _The Guardian_ newspaper that ' Leeds
Leeds
is the most influential art school in Europe since the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
'. This willingness to push at the boundaries of acceptable public behaviour from artists was also evident in 1966 when Leeds College of Art staged an exhibition of paintings by the Cypriot artist Stass Paraskos , who taught at the College, which was raided by the police after allegations of obscenity.

This radicalism continued into the 1970s when the higher education component of Leeds College of Art was split from the college to form the nucleus of the new multidisciplinary Leeds Polytechnic , now called Leeds Beckett University
Leeds Beckett University
. Performance art had been taught earlier at Leeds
Leeds
College of Art, notably by the Fluxus
Fluxus
artist Robin Page during his time as a tutor there in the mid-1960s, but in 1977 a performance art work hit the national news headlines when the students Pete Parkin and Derek Wain used an air pistol to shoot a line up of live budgerigars in front of an audience at Leeds
Leeds
Polytechnic.

The University of Leeds
University of Leeds
was the _alma mater_ of Herbert Read
Herbert Read
, one of the leading international theorists of modern art from the mid-twentieth century, and also the teaching base for the Marxist
Marxist
art historian Arnold Hauser
Arnold Hauser
from 1951 to 1985. Partly due to Herbert Read's connection with the University, from 1950 to 1970 the University was the host of one of the first artist in residence schemes in Britain, using funding from the then owner of Lund Humphries books, Peter Gregory. The Gregory Fellowships, as the residencies were known, were given to painters and sculptors for up to two years to allow them to develop their own work and influence the University in any way they saw fit. Amongst those holding the fellowships were Kenneth Armitage
Kenneth Armitage
, Reg Butler , Dennis Creffield and Terry Frost and others. Parallel Gregory Fellowships also existed in music and poetry at the University.

Leeds
Leeds
was also a centre for radical feminist art, with one of the first galleries in Britain dedicated to showing the work of women photographers, the Pavilion Gallery, opening in the city in 1983, and the University of Leeds
University of Leeds
School of Fine Art being a well-known centre for the development of feminist art history, under Griselda Pollock , during the 1980s, and 90s. Possibly as a result of the strength of feminist art in Leeds, in November 1984 an exhibition of ceramics by students and staff at Leeds Polytechnic was attacked by a group of feminist activists who destroyed eight sculptures on display which they deemed to be degrading to women. The University of Leeds's School of Fine Art also specialised in Art and Language conceptual art practice, under Terry Atkinson , again in the 1980s, and 90s.

A major sculpture research centre and gallery, the Henry Moore Institute , is located alongside Leeds Art Gallery
Leeds Art Gallery
in the city centre, and in 2013 a new contemporary art centre, called The Tetley , opened on the site of the former Tetley Brewery to the south of the city centre.

In March 2017, The Times
The Times
voted Leeds
Leeds
as the number one cultural place to live in Britain. This was ahead of London, Birmingham
Birmingham
, St Ives , Stratford-upon-Avon
Stratford-upon-Avon
and Cheltenham
Cheltenham
. The citation notes that Leeds
Leeds
has Opera North , the Northern Ballet , the West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Playhouse amongst may other attractions that ranked it at number one.

CARNIVALS AND FESTIVALS

Leeds Carnival

Leeds Carnival is Western Europe's oldest West Indian Carnival, and the UK's third largest after the Notting Hill and Nottingham
Nottingham
Carnival. It attracts around 100,000 people over 2 days to the streets of Chapeltown and Harehills. There is a large procession that finishes at Potternewton Park, where there are stalls, entertainment and refreshments. The Leeds
Leeds
Festival , featuring some of the biggest names in rock and indie music, takes place every year in Bramham Park
Bramham Park
. The Leeds
Leeds
Asian Festival, formerly the Leeds
Leeds
Mela , is held in Roundhay Park. The Otley
Otley
Folk Festival (patron: Nic Jones ), Walking Festival, Carnival and Victorian Christmas Fayre are annual events. Light Night Leeds
Leeds
takes place each October, and many venues in the city are open to the public for Heritage Open Days in September. The Leeds International Pianoforte Competition , established in 1963 by Fanny Waterman and Marion Stein , has been held in the city every three years since 1963 and has launched the careers of many major concert pianists. The Leeds
Leeds
International Concert Season, which includes orchestral and choral concerts in Leeds Town Hall
Leeds Town Hall
and other events, is the largest local authority music programme in the UK.

The Leeds International Film Festival is the largest film festival in England
England
outside London and shows films from around the world. It incorporates the highly successful _ Leeds
Leeds
Young People's Film Festival_, which features exciting and innovative films made both for and by children and young people. Garforth
Garforth
is host to the fortnight long festival The Garforth
Garforth
Arts Festival which has been an annual event since 2005. The Chapel Allerton
Chapel Allerton
Arts Festival is a week-long music and arts event starting in 1998 and held the week after August Bank Holiday each year. The Leeds Festival Fringe is a week long-music festival created in 2010 to showcase local talent in the week prior to Leeds
Leeds
Festival .

CINEMA

Louis Le Prince
Louis Le Prince

In October 1888 Louis Le Prince
Louis Le Prince
filmed moving picture sequences _ Roundhay
Roundhay
Garden Scene _ and a _ Leeds Bridge _ street scene using his single-lens camera and Eastman 's paper film. These were several years before the work of competing inventors such as Auguste and Louis Lumière and Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
. Today, Leeds
Leeds
International Film Festival 's International Short Film Competition is named after Louis Le Prince. The 2015 documentary film _ The First Film _, which aired at the Edinburgh International Film Festival
Edinburgh International Film Festival
, documents Le Prince's pioneering status.

Wordsworth Donisthorpe who was also from Leeds, filmed the second oldest surviving film. It is not known if he and Louis Le Prince
Louis Le Prince
ever met but they both had a strong connection to the Leeds
Leeds
Philosophical and Literary Society . Donisthorpe's patent for a camera to capture the moving image pre dated Le Prince's by twelve years.

Leeds
Leeds
has a rich film exhibition culture. In addition to the Leeds International Film Festival and Leeds
Leeds
Young Film Festival, the city hosts numerous independent cinemas and pop-up venues for film screenings. The Cottage Road Cinema and Hyde Park Picture House have continuously been showing films since 1912 and 1914 respectively, which ranks them among the oldest still running cinemas in the UK.

MEDIA

See also: Category:Television shows set in Leeds
Leeds
and Category:Films set in Leeds
Leeds
BBC
BBC
Yorkshire
Yorkshire
studios

Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Post Newspapers Ltd , owned by Johnston Press plc , is based in the city, and produces a daily morning broadsheet, the _ Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Post _, and an evening paper, the _ Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Evening Post _ (YEP). The YEP has a website which includes a series of community pages which focus on specific areas of the city. The _ Wetherby
Wetherby
News _ covers mainly areas within the north eastern sector of the district, and the _Wharfedale BBC
BBC
Television and ITV both have regional studios and broadcasting centres in Leeds. ITV Yorkshire
Yorkshire
, formerly Yorkshire Television , broadcasts from the Leeds
Leeds
Studios on Kirkstall Road. There are a number of independent film production companies, including the not-for-profit cooperative Leeds
Leeds
Animation Workshop, founded in 1978; community video producers Vera Media and several small commercial production companies. BBC
BBC
Radio Leeds
Leeds
, Radio Aire , Magic 828 , Capital Yorkshire
Yorkshire
, Real Radio and Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Radio broadcast from the city. LSRfm.com , is based in Leeds University Union , and regularly hosts outside broadcasts around the city. Many communities within Leeds
Leeds
now have their own local radio stations, such as East Leeds
Leeds
FM and Tempo FM for Wetherby
Wetherby
and the surrounding areas.

Made in Leeds
Made in Leeds
is a local television station which launched across the city in 2014. A privately owned television station: Leeds
Leeds
Television is run by volunteers and supported by professionals in the media industry.

MUSEUMS

Royal Armouries Museum Leeds City Museum Leeds Museum Discovery Centre

A new Leeds City Museum opened in 2008 in Millennium Square . Abbey House Museum is housed in the former gatehouse of Kirkstall Abbey
Kirkstall Abbey
, and includes walk-through Victorian streets and galleries describing the history of the abbey, childhood, and Victorian Leeds. Armley Mills Industrial Museum is housed in what was once the world's largest woollen mill, and includes industrial machinery and railway locomotives. This museum also shows the first known moving pictures in the world which were taken in the city, by Louis Le Prince
Louis Le Prince
, of a _ Roundhay
Roundhay
Garden Scene _ and of _ Leeds Bridge _ in 1888. These short film clips can be found on YouTube.

Thwaite Mills Watermill Museum is a fully restored 1820s water-powered mill on the River Aire
River Aire
to the east of the city centre. The Thackray Museum
Thackray Museum
is a museum of the history of medicine, featuring topics such as Victorian public health, pre-anaesthesia surgery, and safety in childbirth. It is housed in a former workhouse next to St James\'s Hospital . The Royal Armouries Museum opened in 1996 in a dramatic modern building when this part of the national collection was transferred from the Tower of London
Tower of London
. Nearby is the Leeds
Leeds
Museum Discovery Centre (formerly housed at the Leeds
Leeds
Museum Resource Centre in Yeadon ) the major storage of items not currently on display in museums, and open to the public by appointment.

Leeds Art Gallery
Leeds Art Gallery
houses important collections of traditional and contemporary British art. It is closed for refurbishment until 13 October 2017. Smaller museums in Leeds
Leeds
include Otley
Otley
Museum ; Horsforth
Horsforth
Village Museum; ULITA, an Archive of International Textiles; and the museum at Fulneck Moravian Settlement
Fulneck Moravian Settlement
.

MUSIC, THEATRE AND DANCE

Main articles: Music in Leeds and List of bands originating in Leeds

Leeds
Leeds
is home to the Grand Theatre where Opera North is based, this establishment seats 1,500 people and has recently undergone a £31.5m refurbishment. The City Varieties Music Hall, which hosted performances by Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
and Harry Houdini
Harry Houdini
and was also the venue of the BBC
BBC
television programme _ The Good Old Days
The Good Old Days
_, and West Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Playhouse . Just south of Leeds Bridge once stood The Theatre which hosted Sarah Siddons
Sarah Siddons
and Ching Lau Lauro in 1786 and 1834 respectively.

Leeds
Leeds
is also home to Phoenix Dance Theatre , who were formed in the Harehills
Harehills
area of the city in 1981, and Northern Ballet Theatre . In autumn 2010 the two companies moved into a purpose-built dance centre which is the largest space for dance outside London. It is also the only space for dance to house a national classical and a national contemporary dance company alongside each another.

The First Direct Arena
First Direct Arena
opened in September 2013. The 13,500 seater stadium is rapidly becoming the city's number one venue for live music, indoor sports and many other events. Concerts are also held at the O2 Academy, Elland
Elland
Road, which has hosted groups such as Queen and Kaiser Chiefs, among others and at the universities. Roundhay
Roundhay
Park in north Leeds
Leeds
has seen some of the world's biggest artists including Michael Jackson
Michael Jackson
, Madonna , Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
and Robbie Williams
Robbie Williams
.

Popular musical acts originating from Leeds
Leeds
include Soft Cell
Soft Cell
, Kaiser Chiefs
Kaiser Chiefs
, The Pigeon Detectives , The Wedding Present
The Wedding Present
, The Sunshine Underground , The Sisters of Mercy , Hadouken! , Corinne Bailey Rae , Dinosaur Pile-Up , Gang of Four , Hood , The Rhythm Sisters , Utah Saints , Alt-J
Alt-J
and Melanie B
Melanie B
of the Spice Girls
Spice Girls
. Leeds
Leeds
First Direct Arena
First Direct Arena

NIGHTLIFE

Leeds
Leeds
has the fourth largest student population in the country (over 200,000 ), and is therefore one of the UK's hotspots for night-life. There are a large number of pubs, bars, nightclubs and restaurants, as well as a multitude of venues for live music. The full range of music tastes is catered for in Leeds. It includes the original home of the club nights Back 2 Basics and Speedqueen. Morley was the location of techno club The Orbit. Leeds
Leeds
has a number of large 'super-clubs' and there is a selection of independent clubs such as Club Mission and Mint Club , which is consistently ranked as one of the world's best clubs by DJ Magazine. Two other Leeds
Leeds
clubs, The Warehouse and The Garage featured in the Top 100 Clubs list from 2013.

Leeds
Leeds
has a well established gay nightlife scene. The Bridge Inn and The New Penny , both on Call Lane , have long been gay night spots.

Towards Millennium Square and the Civic or Northern Quarter, is a growing entertainment district providing for both students and weekend visitors. The square has many bars and restaurants and a large outdoor screen. Millennium Square is a venue for large seasonal events such as a Christmas market
Christmas market
, gigs and concerts, citywide parties and the Rhythms of the City Festival. It is adjacent to the Mandela Gardens, which were opened by Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
in 2001. A number of public art features, fountains, a canal and greenery can be found here as an oasis among the city centre excitement.

Yorkshire
Yorkshire
has a great history of real ale, but several bars near the railway station are fusing traditional beers with a modern bar. Popular bars such as this include The Hop, The Cross Keys and The Brewery Tap.

SPORTS

Main articles: Sport in Leeds
Sport in Leeds
and Football in Leeds Carnegie Pavilion at Headingley Stadium
Headingley Stadium
Elland Road
Elland Road
Stadium

The city has teams representing all the major national sports. Leeds United A.F.C. is the city's main football club. Leeds Rhinos
Leeds Rhinos
(Rugby League ), Leeds Carnegie ( Rugby Union
Rugby Union
) and Yorkshire
Yorkshire
County Cricket Club are also based in the city.

Leeds
Leeds
United was formed in 1919 and plays at the 37,890 capacity Elland Road
Elland Road
stadium in Beeston . The team plays in The Championship but has enjoyed success at the highest level in the past, notably during the 1960s, and 1970s when it won two Football League
Football League
titles, an FA Cup
FA Cup
, a Football League
Football League
Cup and an Inter-Cities Fairs Cup under the management of Don Revie
Don Revie
. The club's only other major trophy to date came in 1992 when it won another top division title under the management of Howard Wilkinson – the last top division title of the Football League
Football League
before the creation of the FA Premier League
FA Premier League
, in which Leeds
Leeds
would play for 12 years before being relegated.

Leeds Rhinos
Leeds Rhinos
are the most successful rugby league team in Leeds. In 2009 they became first club to be Super League
Super League
champions three seasons running, giving them their fourth Super League
Super League
title. They play their home games at the Headingley
Headingley
Carnegie Stadium . Hunslet
Hunslet
(previously Hunslet
Hunslet
), based at the John Charles Centre for Sport play in Co-Operative Championship One . East Leeds and Oulton Raiders play in the National Conference League . Bramley Buffaloes (previously Bramley ), and Leeds Akkies were members of the Rugby League
Rugby League
Conference .

Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Carnegie , formerly known as _ Leeds
Leeds
Tykes_ and _Leeds Carnegie_, are the foremost rugby union team in Leeds
Leeds
and they play at Headingley
Headingley
Carnegie Stadium . They play in the RFU Championship
RFU Championship
having been relegated from The Guinness Premiership at the end of the 2010–11 season. Otley
Otley
R.U.F.C. are a rugby union club based to the north of the city and compete in National League 2 North
National League 2 North
, whilst Morley R.F.C. , located in Morley currently play in National Division Three North .

Headingley
Headingley
stadium is home to Yorkshire
Yorkshire
County Cricket
Cricket
Club which is the most successful cricket team in England, with over 31 County Championship wins. Their main rivals are Lancashire
Lancashire
.

Leeds United L.F.C. are the best-placed women\'s football team in Leeds, competing at the highest level in England
England
, the FA Women\'s Premier League National Division . Leeds
Leeds
City Athletic Club competes in the British Athletics League and UK Women's League as well as the Northern Athletics League.

Leeds
Leeds
is home to a number of field hockey clubs that compete in the North Hockey League , Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Hockey Association League and BUCS leagues . These include Leeds
Leeds
Hockey Club, Leeds
Leeds
Adel Carnegie Hockey Club , the University of Leeds
University of Leeds
Hockey Club and Leeds
Leeds
Beckett University Hockey Club.

The City of Leeds
City of Leeds
Synchronised Swimming Club train at the John Charles Centre for Sport and are represented by swimmers throughout the whole of the North East. The club was founded in 2008 and only compete in National and International Competition.

The city has a wealth of sports facilities including the Elland
Elland
Road football stadium, a host stadium during the 1996 European Football Championship ; the Headingley
Headingley
Carnegie Stadiums , adjacent stadia world-famous for both cricket and rugby league and the John Charles Centre for Sport with an Olympic sized pool in its Aquatics Centre and includes a multi-use stadium. Other facilities include the Leeds Wall (climbing) and Yeadon Tarn sailing centre. In 1929 the first Ryder Cup of Golf to be held on British soil was competed for at the Moortown Golf club in Leeds
Leeds
and Wetherby
Wetherby
has a National Hunt racecourse . In the period 1928 to 1939 speedway racing was staged in Leeds
Leeds
on a track at the greyhound stadium known as Fullerton Park, adjacent to Elland
Elland
Road. The track entered a team in the 1931 Northern league. Headingley
Headingley
Stadium, home of the Leeds Rhinos
Leeds Rhinos
.

The 2014 Tour de France
2014 Tour de France
Grand Départ took place from the Headrow
Headrow
in Leeds city centre
Leeds city centre
on 5 July 2014.

LEEDS TEAMS

CLUB LEAGUE VENUE LOCATION ESTABLISHED TOP FLIGHT CHAMPIONSHIPS

LEEDS UNITED AFC The Football League
Football League
Championship Football Elland Road
Elland Road
Stadium Beeston, Leeds
Beeston, Leeds
1919 3

LEEDS UNITED LFC FA Women\'s Premier League National Division Football Throstle Nest
Throstle Nest
Stadium Pudsey, Leeds 1989 0

LEEDS RHINOS Super League
Super League
Rugby League Headingley Stadium
Headingley Stadium
Headingley, Leeds 1870 10

HUNSLET Championship One Rugby League John Charles Centre for Sport Hunslet
Hunslet
, Leeds. 1883 2

YORKSHIRE CARNEGIE RFU Championship
RFU Championship
Rugby Union Headingley Stadium
Headingley Stadium
Headingley, Leeds 1991 0

YORKSHIRE COUNTY CRICKET CLUB County Championship
County Championship
Cricket Headingley Stadium
Headingley Stadium
Headingley, Leeds 1863 33

LEEDS FORCE British Basketball League
British Basketball League
Basketball Carnegie Sports Centre Beckett Park
Beckett Park
2006 0

RELIGION

See also: List of places of worship in the City of Leeds
City of Leeds
Leeds Minster

The majority of people in Leeds
Leeds
identify themselves as Christian. Leeds
Leeds
does not have a Church of England
England
Cathedral: it is in the Anglican Diocese of Leeds (formerly in the Diocese of Ripon
Ripon
and Leeds ), headed by the Bishop
Bishop
of Leeds
Leeds
, which has cathedrals in Bradford
Bradford
, Ripon
Ripon
and Wakefield
Wakefield
although the Bishop
Bishop
's residence has been in Leeds since 2008. The most important Anglican church is Leeds Minster
Leeds Minster
, although St. George\'s has the largest congregation by far. Leeds
Leeds
has a Roman Catholic Cathedral , the Episcopal seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Leeds
Leeds
. Many other Christian denominations and new religious movements are established in Leeds, including Assemblies of God , Baptist , Christian Scientist , Latter-day Saints
Latter-day Saints
("LDS " or "Mormon "), Community of Christ
Community of Christ
, Greek Orthodox , Jehovah\'s Witnesses , Jesus Army , Lutheran , Methodist , Moravian , Nazarene , Newfrontiers
Newfrontiers
, Pentecostal , Salvation Army , Seventh-day Adventist , Society of Friends ("Quakers") , Unitarian , United Reformed , Vineyard , Wesleyan , an ecumenical Chinese church, Winners\' Chapel and several independent churches. Sikh Temple, Chapeltown Road Harehills
Harehills
Mosque

The proportion of Muslims in Leeds
Leeds
is slightly above average for the country (5.4% as of 2011). Mosques can be found throughout the city, serving Muslim
Muslim
communities in Chapeltown , Harehills
Harehills
, Hyde Park and parts of Beeston . The largest mosque is Leeds Grand Mosque in Hyde Park.

The Sikh community is represented by gurudwaras (temples) spread across the city, the largest being in Chapeltown . There is also a colourful religious annual procession, called the Nagar Kirtan, into Millennium Square in the city centre on 13–14 April to celebrate Vaisakhi
Vaisakhi
– the Sikh New Year and the birth of the religion. It is estimated that around 3,000 Sikhs in Leeds
Leeds
take part in this annual event.

Leeds' Jewish
Jewish
community is the third-largest in the United Kingdom, after London and Greater Manchester. The areas of Alwoodley and Moortown contain sizeable Jewish
Jewish
populations. There are eight active synagogues in Leeds.

The Hindu community in Leeds
Leeds
has a temple (mandir) at Hyde Park . The temple has all the major Hindu deities and is dedicated to the Lord Mahavira
Mahavira
of the Jains .

Various Buddhist traditions are represented in Leeds, including: Soka Gakkai
Soka Gakkai
, Theravada
Theravada
, Tibetan , Triratna Buddhist Community and Zen
Zen
. The Buddhist community (sangha ) comes together to celebrate the major festival of Wesak in May.

There is also a community of the Bahai Faith in Leeds.

PUBLIC SERVICES

Water supply and sewerage services in Leeds
Leeds
are provided by Yorkshire Water , part of the Kelda Group . Prior to 1973 it had been provided by the Leeds
Leeds
Corporation. Leeds City Council
Leeds City Council
has a target of 11MW of renewable energy from onshore wind by 2010 and an aspirational target of 75MW by 2020. There are currently no operational wind farms in Leeds, but a planning application by Banks Renewables Ltd for five turbines at Hook Moor near Micklefield was approved in 2011. Leeds
Leeds
Central Library.

The area is policed by the West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Police . The force has five policing districts covering the West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
area, one of which covers Leeds. The Leeds
Leeds
District Headquarters is located at Elland Road in the South of the City. In the North West of the City the main stations are Weetwood and Woodhouse Lane; in the North East the main stations are Stainbeck near Chapel Allerton
Chapel Allerton
and Killingbeck ; in the South the main stations are Leeds
Leeds
Central located on Park Street in the city centre and the District Headquarters itself. Fire and rescue services are provided by the West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Fire and Rescue Service . The fire stations in Leeds
Leeds
are: Cookridge
Cookridge
, Gipton
Gipton
, Hunslet
Hunslet
, Stanks , Moortown , Stanningley and the "Leeds" fire station (near city centre, on Kirkstall Road).

Health services are provided by the Leeds
Leeds
Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust , Leeds
Leeds
Primary Care Trust and Leeds
Leeds
and York
York
Partnership NHS Foundation Trust which provides mental health services. Leeds General Infirmary ("LGI") is a listed building with more recent additions and is in the city centre. St James\'s University Hospital , known locally as "Jimmy's" is to the north east of the city centre and is the largest teaching hospital in Europe. Other NHS hospitals are Chapel Allerton
Chapel Allerton
Hospital , Seacroft
Seacroft
Hospital , Wharfedale Hospital in Otley, and Leeds
Leeds
Dental Institute. The new NHS Leeds
Leeds
Website provides information on NHS services in Leeds.

West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Joint Services provides analytical, archaeological, archives, ecology, materials testing and trading standards services in Leeds
Leeds
and the other four districts of West Yorkshire. It was created following the abolition of the county council in 1986 and expanded in 1997, and is funded by the five district councils, pro rata to their population. The Leeds
Leeds
site of the archives service is in the former public library at Sheepscar , Leeds.

Leeds City Council
Leeds City Council
is responsible for over 50 public libraries across the whole city, including 5 mobile libraries. The main Central Library is located on the Headrow
Headrow
in the city centre.

SEE ALSO

* Yorkshire
Yorkshire
portal

* List of people from Leeds
List of people from Leeds

REFERENCES AND NOTES

* ^ Max (City of Leeds) at SE140445 Hawksworth Moor in extreme west of district. * ^ Min (City of Leeds) at points where district boundary crosses Rivers Aire and Wharfe in extreme east. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Global city GDP 2014". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ " Leeds
Leeds
economy". * ^ Wells, John C. (2008), _Longman Pronunciation Dictionary_ (3rd ed.), Longman, p. 457, ISBN 9781405881180 * ^ Burt and Grady 1994 , p. 92 * ^ "Population Estimates for UK, England
England
and Wales, Scotland
Scotland
and Northern Ireland, Mid-2016". Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
. 22 June 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2017. * ^ http://www.nomisweb.co.uk/articles/747.aspx * ^ "The World According to GaWC 2010". Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Archived from the original on 10 October 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2011. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
Tourism". Planet Ware Travel Guide. Retrieved 1 February 2009. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
stakes it claim to financial hub". www.yorkshirepost.co.uk. Retrieved 1 February 2009. * ^ "About Leeds". www.bookinghime.com. Retrieved 1 February 2009. * ^ Istrate, Emilia; Nadeau, Carey Anne (November 2012). "Global MetroMonitor". Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 23 December 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Financial centres outside london". Cisi.org. 22 March 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2014. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Table 3.4, ONS Regional GVA – December 2013". Retrieved 19 December 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Manufacturing Leeds
Leeds
economy Hodges, Flavia; Mills, A. D.; Room, Adrian (2002). _The Oxford
Oxford
Names Companion_. Oxford: the University Press. p. 1104. ISBN 0198605617 . * ^ Fletcher, J. S. (1919). _The Story of English Towns: Leeds_. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. OCLC
OCLC
221589888 . Retrieved 22 July 2009. * ^ "Loiners of the world unite!". BBC. 22 August 2005. Retrieved 27 September 2009. * ^ "The place-names of England
England
and Wales". Retrieved 17 July 2017.

* ^ Caunce, S.A. (2003). "Houses as Museums: The Case of the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Wool Textile Industry". _Transactions of the RHS Royal Historical Society_. Royal Historical Society. 13: 329–343. * ^ Burt and Grady 1994 , p. 57 * ^ Fraser 1982 , p. 143 * ^ Haywood, Russ (2007). "Britain's national railway network: fit for purpose in the 21st century?". _Journal of Transport Geography_. Elsevier. 15 (3): 198–216. doi :10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2006.02.015 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Fraser 1982 , p. 144 * ^ Fraser 1982 , p. 155 * ^ Honeyman, Katrina (2000). _Well suited: a history of the Leeds clothing industry, 1850–1990_. Oxford
Oxford
University Press. ISBN 0-19-920237-0 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Harcup, Tony (2000). "Re-imaging a post-industrial city". _City _. Carfax. 4 (2). * ^ "Legal services: Law firms have solid local roots and global ambitions". _Financial Times_. 11 March 2008. Retrieved 26 September 2009. * ^ Leeds, Live it, Love it. "Sectors: Retail". Marketing Leeds. Retrieved 26 September 2009. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ "Sustainable cities index 2010". _forumforthefuture.org_. * ^ "Work begins on Logic Leeds
Leeds
business park". Insider Media. 23 May 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2015. * ^ Great Britain Historical GIS / University of Portsmouth, Leeds parish population. Retrieved 25 September 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Relationships / unit history of LEEDS". Archived from the original on 14 August 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2017. * ^ "Briggate: Improvement Acts". _Discovering Leeds_. Leeds
Leeds
City Council. Retrieved 27 September 2009. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
MB/CB". Archived from the original on 13 February 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2017. * ^ Fraser 1982 , p. 459 * ^ "Impact of Urban Development Corporations in Leeds, Bristol
Bristol
& Central Manchester". Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions . 18 November 1998. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2009. * ^ Burt and Grady 1994 , p. 163 * ^ Fraser 1982 , p. 96 * ^ "The Working Classes: Housing". _Discovering Leeds_. Leeds
Leeds
City Council. Retrieved 26 September 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ Fraser 1982 , p. 98 * ^ Fraser 1982 , p. 57 * ^ Burt and Grady 1994 , p. 193 * ^ Unsworth and Stillwell 2004 , p. 77 * ^ "Light Shines on Leeds
Leeds
Skyscraper Bids". _www.skyscrapernews.com_. Retrieved 24 May 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
(2001). "Census 2001:Key Statistics for urban areas in the North; Map 6" (PDF). _ United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Census 2001 _. statistics.gov.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 January 2007. Retrieved 27 September 2009. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
– the facts". Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Forward Government agency. Retrieved 22 January 2009. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
– The Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales". Visit Britain (National UK Tourist Agency). Retrieved 22 January 2009. * ^ Kendall, Percy Fry; Wroot, Herbert (1972). _Geology of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Part II_. East Ardsley, Wakefield: EP Publishing Ltd. pp. 672–673. ISBN 0-85409-762-7 . * ^ " Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Coalfield". Northern Mine Research Society. Retrieved 5 April 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Fraser 1982 , p. 456 * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
Metropolitan District – Post Codes". Leeds
Leeds
City Council. Archived from the original on 12 December 2009. Retrieved 26 September 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ Royal Mail
Royal Mail
(2004). _Address Management Guide_. Royal Mail Group. * ^ " Huddersfield
Huddersfield
temperature verified at −11 in Waterloo last night – plus forecast for the weekend – Local West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
News – News – Huddersfield
Huddersfield
Examiner". Examiner.co.uk. Retrieved 5 August 2011. * ^ "CLIMATE LEEDS WEATHER CTR – Historical August 2003 – Weather". Tutiempo.net. Retrieved 5 August 2011. * ^ "July Temperature Map". Retrieved 20 October 2011. * ^ "August Temperature Map". Retrieved 20 October 2011. * ^ "UK England
England
West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Tornado hits during freak storm". BBC
BBC
News. 14 September 2006. Retrieved 5 August 2011. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
climate". Retrieved 11 January 2017. * ^ "KS06 Ethnic Group: Census 2001, Key Statistics for urban areas". National Statistics. Archived from the original on 4 August 2009. Retrieved 16 February 2009. * ^ "KS06 Ethnic group: Key Statistics for urban areas, summary results for local authorities". National Statistics. Retrieved 16 February 2009. * ^ "KS01 Usual resident population: Census 2001, Key Statistics for urban areas". Office for National Statistics. 7 February 2005. Archived from the original on 11 March 2005. Retrieved 24 September 2009. * ^ "KS04 Marital status: Census 2001, Key Statistics for urban areas". Office for National Statistics. 2 February 2005. Archived from the original on 29 July 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2009. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ http://www.westyorkshireobservatory.org/resource/view?resourceId=2661 * ^ _A_ _B_ " Leeds
Leeds
Metropolitan Borough household composition (households)". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 22 July 2009.

* ^ "2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in England
England
and Wales". ONS. Retrieved 12 December 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ " Leeds
Leeds
Census 2011". * ^ _A_ _B_ M. Freedman (1988) "The Leeds
Leeds
Jewish
Jewish
Community" pp. 161–174 _in_ L. S. Tate (ed) _Aspects of Leeds_ ISBN 1-871647-38-X * ^ "Crime figures in Leeds". Archived from the original on 9 October 2008. * ^ "Crime Statistics for Leeds
Leeds
Apr 2005 – Mar 2006". Home Office . * ^ "Urban Crime Rankings" (PDF). July 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2006. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
District: total population". Vision of Britain. Retrieved on 19 December 2008. * ^ Services, Good Stuff IT. " Leeds
Leeds
– UK Census Data 2011". * ^ "KS201EW (Ethnic group) – Nomis – Official Labour Market Statistics". * ^ "Parish and Town Councils". Leeds
Leeds
City Council. Archived from the original on 5 April 2009. Retrieved 1 April 2009. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
economy" (PDF). * ^ Unsworth and Stillwell 2004 , p. 169 * ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 January 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-09. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Financial services Leeds
Leeds
economy & relocation. Locate in Leeds. Retrieved on 17 July 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Legal services Leeds
Leeds
economy ">(PDF). _Leeds Economy Handbook_. Leeds
Leeds
City Council. Retrieved 2 July 2011. * ^ "Top 20 Most visited English Cities and Towns in 2009 by UK Residents" (PDF). Retrieved 7 September 2010 * ^ "Top 20 Most Popular UK Cities for International Visiteors". Retrieved 7 September 2010 * ^ "Great Britain Day Visitors Survey 2011 : VisitEngland Corporate Site". Visitengland.org. Retrieved 12 March 2013. * ^ "Cities Outlook 2011: Annual index reveals UK cities best placed to create jobs and drive economic recovery". Centre for Cities. 24 January 2011. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2011. * ^ http://www.centreforcities.org/assets/files/Cities%20Outlook%202011/11-01-31%20Earnings%20Cities%20Outlook%202011.pdf * ^ http://www.centreforcities.org/assets/files/Cities%20Outlook%202011/11-01-31%20High%20level%20quals%20Cities%20Outlook%202011.pdf * ^ "ONS data – employment & unemployment". Nomisweb.co.uk. Retrieved 15 March 2014. * ^ http://www.centreforcities.org/assets/files/Cities%20Outlook%202011/11-01-31%20Welfare%20cuts%20Cities%20Outlook%202011.pdf * ^ _A_ _B_ Public sector Leeds
Leeds
economy & relocation. Locate in Leeds. Retrieved on 17 July 2013. * ^ Information on Leeds
Leeds
– Facts and Figures – Leeds
Leeds
City Guide – The Essential Tourist Guide to Bars, Pubs, Clubs, Hotels and Restaurants in Leeds. Leeds
Leeds
City Guide. Retrieved on 17 July 2013. * ^ "Trinity Leeds, Leeds". Land Securities. Retrieved 23 March 2013. * ^ Chapman, Matthew (10 May 2012). " Trinity Leeds
Trinity Leeds
kicks off online hype ahead of 2013 opening – Marketing news". Marketing magazine. Retrieved 12 March 2013. * ^ View Details (Popup) – VQ Website. V-q.co.uk. Retrieved on 17 July 2013. Archived 1 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ UGG® Australia comes to Leeds\' Victoria Quarter. UGG Australia. Retrieved on 17 July 2013. * ^ Unsworth and Stillwell 2004 , p. 245 * ^ "Trinity Leeds, Leeds
Leeds
Land Securities Retail Portfolio Land Securities Retail". 2012. Retrieved 28 February 2012. * ^ "Verdict on Victoria Gate
Victoria Gate
launch day". * ^ "War memorials". _ Leeds
Leeds
City Council_. Archived from the original on 3 March 2009. Retrieved 6 November 2009. * ^ "Leodis – a photographic archive of Leeds
Leeds
– Display". Leeds City Council. Leodis. Retrieved 6 November 2009. * ^ "aql\'s historic head office – the Salem Chapel". aql. Retrieved 14 April 2012. * ^ "Salem United Reformed Church: Historical Information" (PDF). aql. November 2011. p. 6. Retrieved 14 April 2012. * ^ " Bridgewater Place, Leeds
Bridgewater Place, Leeds
– Building No. 734". skyscrapernews.com. Retrieved 5 November 2009. * ^ " Bridgewater Place \'wind tunnel caused Leeds
Leeds
injuries\'". BBC News. 10 February 2012. * ^ "Leeds\' Bridgewater Place owners to foot £900,000 wind bill". BBC
BBC
News. 1 December 2016. * ^ "leedsliveitloveit" (PDF). leedsliveitloveit. Retrieved 15 March 2014. * ^ http://www.bettertransport.org.uk/files/car_dependency_scorecard_2.pdf * ^ "Roads in Bradford
Bradford
and Leeds
Leeds
\'most congested in England\' (From Bradford
Bradford
Telegraph and Argus)". Thetelegraphandargus.co.uk. 11 July 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2014. * ^ "Varsovie, Marseille, Milan ou Bruxelles, des villes où il ne faut pas être pressé". Wort.lu. Retrieved 15 March 2014. * ^ "Congestion in Leeds
Leeds
and Bradford
Bradford
– ITV News". Itv.com. 11 October 2012. Retrieved 15 March 2014. * ^ https://consult.leeds.gov.uk/leeds/UploadedFiles/Leeds%20Road%20safety%20action%20plan_draft_ver_10%205%20-final_js.pdf * ^ " Yorkshire
Yorkshire
News: Government Faces Supreme Court Over Leeds\' Illegal Air Pollution". Yorkshiretimes.co.uk. Retrieved 15 March 2014.

* ^ " Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Evening Post: \'Not suitable for development\': Leeds
Leeds
trolleybus scheme is thrown out". Yorkshireeveningpost.co.uk. Retrieved 12 August 2016. * ^ "What is Metro". Wymetro.com. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2009. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
Travel Info". Retrieved 10 February 2009. * ^ "Station usage – : Office of Rail Regulation". Rail-reg.gov.uk. Retrieved 14 October 2008. * ^ "A guide to Leeds. Leeds
Leeds
facilities, schools, general information, West Yorkshire". Information-britain.co.uk. Retrieved 14 October 2008. * ^ "RA website with walking booklets". Archived from the original on 27 February 2010. * ^ Unsworth and Stillwell 2004 , p. 148 * ^ "School Population Tables 2008.pdf". Education Leeds. Retrieved 1 November 2009. * ^ " Building Schools for the Future
Building Schools for the Future
– BSF in Leeds". www.educationleeds.co.uk. Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 21 April 2009. * ^ "Demand for Leeds
Leeds
primary school places at 15-year high". _www.yorkshireeveningpost.co.uk_. Retrieved 19 March 2016. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
Menorah School". _Ofsted_. Retrieved 1 November 2009. * ^ "New Horizons School". _Ofsted_. Retrieved 1 November 2009. * ^ "University of Leeds". _UCAS_. Archived from the original on 10 June 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2009. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
Beckett University". 9 March 2016. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
Beckett University". _UCAS_. Archived from the original on 9 June 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2009. * ^ "About us". _ Leeds Trinity University College_. Retrieved 28 September 2009. * ^ "The Complete University Guide". The Complete University Guide. Retrieved 5 August 2011. * ^ Toshio Kusamitsu, 'Great Exhibitions before 1851' in _History Workshop_, No. 9 (Spring, 1980), p.76f * ^ Tom Steele, _ Alfred Orage and the Leeds
Leeds
Arts Club_ (London: Orage Press, 2009) * ^ Michael Paraskos, _The Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Art Exhibition_ (Scarborough: Scarborough Museum and Art Gallery, 2000); see also Michael Paraskos, _English Expressionism_ (unpublished academic dissertation, University of Leeds, 1997) * ^ Patrick Heron, 'Murder of the Art Schools', in _The Guardian_ (UK newspaper), 12 October 1971, p.8 * ^ Norbert Lynton, _Stass Paraskos_ (Mitcham: Orage Press, 2003) p.7f * ^ Paul Rooney, _Thin Air_ (Leeds: Leeds
Leeds
Metropolitan University, 2009) p.10f * ^ Michael Paraskos, ' Herbert Read
Herbert Read
and Leeds', in Benedict Read and David Thistlewood, _Herbert Read: A British Vision of World Art_ (Leeds: Leeds
Leeds
City Art Gallery, 1993) p.25 * ^ Katharina Scherke, ' Arnold Hauser
Arnold Hauser
and the Social History of Art', in Peter Weibel, _Beyond Art: A Third Culture: A Comparative Study in Cultures, Art and Science in 20th Century Austria and Hungary_ (Berlin: Springer, 2005) p.478 * ^ Hilary Diaper, 'The Gregory Fellowships', in Benedict Read and David Thistlewood, _Herbert Read: A British Vision of World Art_ (Leeds: Leeds
Leeds
City Art Gallery, 1993) p.133f * ^ John A. Walker, _Art and Outrage_ (London: Pluto Press, 1999) pp. 134–138 * ^ Whateley, Laura (15 March 2017). "20 best cultural places to live". _The Times_ (72171). times2 supplement. pp. 6–7. ISSN 0140-0460 . * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
Get-together – Leeds
Leeds
West Indian Carnival". BBC. Retrieved 22 July 2009. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
West Indian Carnival". Leedscarnival.co.uk. 7 August 2005. Retrieved 22 July 2009. * ^ McTaggart, Susan (6 August 2009). " Roundhay
Roundhay
Park hosts Leeds Asian Festival". _ Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Evening Post_. Retrieved 2 November 2009. * ^ " Otley
Otley
Folk Festival website". Retrieved 2 November 2009. * ^ " Otley
Otley
Walking Festival". _Chevin Trek_. Retrieved 2 November 2009. * ^ " Otley
Otley
Carnival". _ Otley
Otley
Town Council_. Retrieved 2 November 2009. * ^ Jack, Jim (16 October 2009). " Otley
Otley
Victorian Fayre gets injection of new blood". _Wharfedale & Airedale Observer_. Retrieved 2 November 2009. * ^ " Light Night Leeds
Leeds
website". Retrieved 2 November 2009. * ^ "Heritage Open Days". _ Leeds
Leeds
Civic Trust_. Archived from the original on 27 May 2011. Retrieved 2 November 2009. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
International Concert Season website". Leedsconcertseason.com. Retrieved 5 August 2011. * ^ "Lights, camera, action". BBC. September 2003. Retrieved 22 July 2009. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
Film". * ^ Chapel Allerton
Chapel Allerton
Arts Festival (26 February 2014). "Chapel Allerton Arts Festival". Chapelallerton.org.uk. Retrieved 15 March 2014. * ^ "Pioneers of Early Cinema: 1, AIMÉ AUGUSTIN LE PRINCE (1841–1890?)" (PDF). www.nationalmediamuseum.org.uk. p. 2. Retrieved 2012-11-25. he developed a single-lens camera which he used to make moving picture sequences at the Whitley family home in Roundhay
Roundhay
and of Leeds Bridge in October 1888. ... it has been claimed that a photograph of a drowned man in the Paris police archives is that of Le Prince. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
Short Film". Retrieved 2 March 2016. * ^ Youngs, Ian (23 June 2015). "Louis Le Prince, who shot the world\'s first film in Leeds". _ BBC
BBC
News_. Retrieved 25 November 2016.

* ^ " Leeds
Leeds
Film City". Retrieved 2015-05-27. * ^ "Cottage Road Cinema". Retrieved 2015-05-27. * ^ "Local pages". _ Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Evening Post_. Archived from the original on 10 April 2008. Retrieved 28 April 2008. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
Weekly News". _British Newspapers Online_. Retrieved 29 October 2009. * ^ "Licensing Local Television – Statement". Ofcom. Retrieved 11 March 2013. * ^ " Leeds City Museum website". Archived from the original on 10 June 2015. * ^ "Museum homepage, hosted on Leeds City Council
Leeds City Council
website". Archived from the original on 1 July 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ National Archives Leeds
Leeds
Museum Discovery Centre * ^ Leeds
Leeds
Discovery Centre website * ^ www.leeds.gov.uk Leeds
Leeds
art Gallery * ^ " Horsforth
Horsforth
Village Museum". _Culture 24_. Retrieved 29 October 2009. * ^ "ULITA". _ University of Leeds
University of Leeds
International Textiles Archive_. Retrieved 29 October 2009. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
Grand Theatre". Leeds
Leeds
City Council. 2009. Archived from the original on 31 December 2008. Retrieved 13 December 2009. * ^ "City Varieties – About the Music Hall". City Varieties. 2009. Archived from the original on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 13 December 2009. * ^ "WYPlayhouse: About us". West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Playhouse. 2009. Archived from the original on 15 January 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2009. * ^ Leodis, Discovering Leeds: The Theatre Retrieved 17 December 2013 * ^ Playbill for Theatre, Leeds, Monday 22 September 1834. See File: Ching Lau Lauro 1834.jpg * ^ " Northern Ballet Theatre : History". Northern Ballet Theatre. 2009. Retrieved 13 December 2009. * ^ "Building Momentum". Building Momentum. Retrieved 26 March 2010. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
Arena". Arenaleeds.com. Retrieved 5 August 2011. * ^ "The making of Soft Cell\'s Tainted Love". www.stereosociety.com. 2009. Archived from the original on 21 April 2009. Retrieved 13 December 2009. * ^ "Tim Jonze on the retro games renaissance". _The Guardian_. UK. 8 December 2006. Retrieved 3 March 2010. * ^ " BBC
BBC
– South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
– Entertainment – Kaiser Chiefs interview". BBC. Retrieved 13 December 2009. * ^ Chiu, David (30 December 2004). "Gang of Four Return". _Rolling Stone_. Jann Wenner . Retrieved 12 March 2010. * ^ " The Rhythm Sisters – biography, band news and reviews. (2967)". Leeds
Leeds
Music Scene. 2009. Retrieved 13 December 2009. * ^ "Biography " Melanie Brown". Melanie Brown. 2009. Archived from the original on 8 November 2009. Retrieved 13 December 2009. * ^ "> Students > Home". Leeds, Live it, Love it. Archived from the original on 5 June 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2013. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
City Guide: Clubbing & Nightlife in Leeds". * ^ "UK Techno
Techno
– Notorious North". www.realtimeart.net. Archived from the original on 27 March 2005. Retrieved 17 September 2009. * ^ DJmag.com. "DJmag.com". Top 100 clubs. Retrieved 5 August 2011.

* ^ " Leeds
Leeds
City Guide: Leeds
Leeds
Gay Scene". * ^ " Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and Humberside". Real Ale Pubs. Retrieved 5 August 2011. * ^ "St Helens 10–18 Leeds
Leeds
Rhinos". _ BBC
BBC
News_. 10 October 2009. Retrieved 4 April 2010. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
Hockey Club". Retrieved 2015-01-30. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
Adel Carnegie Hockey Club". Retrieved 2015-01-30. * ^ "Hockey (M) – Leeds
Leeds
University Sport". Retrieved 2015-01-30. * ^ "Hockey (W) – Leeds
Leeds
University Sport". Retrieved 2015-01-30. * ^ "Hockey – Sport & Active Lifestyles – Leeds
Leeds
Beckett University". Retrieved 2015-01-30. * ^ "The City of Leeds
City of Leeds
Synchronised Swimming Club". Synchroleeds.org. Retrieved 15 March 2014. * ^ " Leeds City Council
Leeds City Council
John Charles Centre for Sport – Swim". Archived from the original on 11 June 2009. Retrieved 30 July 2009. * ^ " Wetherby
Wetherby
Racing – Horseracing, Hospitality, Conference Venue, Yorkshire". www.wetherbyracing.co.uk. Retrieved 30 October 2009. * ^ Universities chaplaincy in Leeds. "Student Guide to Churches in Leeds". Archived from the original on 12 December 2007. Retrieved 6 December 2007. * ^ Yahoo. "Churches in Leeds". Retrieved 7 December 2007. * ^ "JCR-UK – Leeds
Leeds
Jewish
Jewish
Community and Synagogues". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 14 October 2008. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
Hindu Mandir – Welcome". Leedsmandir.org.uk. Retrieved 22 July 2009. * ^ "Home". Yjf.org.uk. Retrieved 14 October 2008. * ^ "Buddhist organisations in: Leeds/ Bradford
Bradford
areas P2". Communigate.co.uk. Retrieved 14 October 2008. * ^ "Leeds". _Bahai Community of the UK_. Archived from the original on 29 August 2008. Retrieved 14 July 2009. * ^ "Plans for Leeds\' first wind farm approved". _BBC_. 9 December 2011. Retrieved 2 September 2012. * ^ "The Leeds
Leeds
PCT – Welcome to the Leeds
Leeds
PCT". Leedspct.nhs.uk. Retrieved 14 October 2008. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
Partnerships NHS Foundation Trust Home". 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2012. * ^ " Leeds
Leeds
Mental Health – Teaching NHS Trust". Leedsmentalhealth.nhs.uk. Retrieved 14 October 2008. * ^ In the background section of page, additional text. * ^ Gray, Nick (31 January 2010). ""Jimmy\'s": the rise of the docusoap and the fall of YTV" (PDF). _"No Such" Research_. Retrieved 17 June 2010. What is "Jimmy's"? It's the local nickname of a hospital in Leeds, actually called St. James's University Hospital ... (paper by Deviser/Producer/Director of TV series) * ^ "Welcome to NHS Leeds". Leeds.nhs.uk. Retrieved 21 January 2010. * ^ " West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Joint Services". Retrieved 28 March 2009.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Burt and Grady (1994). _The Illustrated History of Leeds_. Breedon Books. ISBN 9781873626351 . * Fraser, Derek (1982). _A History of Modern Leeds_. Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-0781-1 . * Unsworth and Stillwell (2004). _Twenty-First Century Leeds: Geographies of a Regional City_. Leeds: Leeds
Leeds
University Press. ISBN 0-85316-242-5 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to LEEDS _.

* _ Leeds
Leeds
travel guide from Wikivoyage * \' Leeds
Leeds
Initiative\' Leeds