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Leeds
Leeds
/liːdz/ ( listen)[5] is a city in West Yorkshire, England. Historically in Yorkshire's West Riding, Leeds
Leeds
can be traced to the 5th century name for a wooded area of the Kingdom of Elmet. The name has been applied to many administrative entities over the centuries. It changed from being the name of a small manorial borough in the 13th century, through several incarnations, to being the name attached to the present metropolitan borough. In the 17th and 18th centuries Leeds
Leeds
became a major centre for the production and trading of wool. During the Industrial Revolution, Leeds
Leeds
developed into a major mill town; wool was the dominant industry, but flax, engineering, iron foundries, printing, and other industries were important.[6] From being a compact market town in the valley of the River Aire, in the 16th century, Leeds
Leeds
expanded and absorbed the surrounding villages to become a populous urban centre by the mid-20th century. Leeds
Leeds
has a population of around 781,700 (2016), making it the third-most populous British city after London
London
and Birmingham.[7] The city lies within the United Kingdom's fourth-most populous urban area, with a population of 2.3 million.[8] The economy of Leeds
Leeds
is the most diverse of all of the UK's main employment centres and has seen the fastest rate of private-sector jobs growth of any UK city. It also has the highest ratio of private to public sector jobs of all the UK's Core Cities, with 77% of its workforce working in the private sector. Leeds
Leeds
has the third-largest jobs total by local authority area, with 480,000 in employment and self-employment at the beginning of 2015.[4] Leeds
Leeds
is home to over 109,000 companies generating 5% of England's total economic output of £60.5 billion,[9] and is also ranked as a gamma world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.[10] Leeds
Leeds
is considered the cultural, financial and commercial heart of the West Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Urban Area.[11][12][13] Leeds
Leeds
is served by four universities, and has the fourth largest student population in the country and the country's fourth largest urban economy.[14] After London, Leeds
Leeds
is the largest legal and financial centre in the UK,[4][15] with the financial and insurance services industry worth £13 billion to the Leeds
Leeds
economy.[4][16][17] with more than 30 national and international banks located in the city including the only subsidiary office of the Bank of England
England
in the UK .[15] Leeds
Leeds
is also the UK's third largest manufacturing centre with around 1,800 firms and 39,000 employees, Leeds
Leeds
manufacturing firms account for 8.8% of total employment in the city and is worth over £7 billion to the local economy.[18] The largest sub-sectors are engineering, printing and publishing, food and drink, chemicals and medical technology.[19] The city is the home of several firsts, including the oldest surviving film in existence, Roundhay Garden Scene (1888) and the 1767 invention of soda water, the defining component of most soft drinks.[20][21] Outside London, Leeds
Leeds
has the third busiest railway station [22] and tenth-busiest airport in terms of passenger numbers in England.[23] Public transport, rail and road communications networks in the region are focused on Leeds. Its assigned role in the Leeds
Leeds
City Region partnership recognises the city's importance to regional economic development, and the second phase of High Speed 2
High Speed 2
plans to connect Leeds
Leeds
to London
London
via East Midlands Hub and Sheffield
Sheffield
Meadowhall.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Toponymy 1.2 Economic development 1.3 Local government 1.4 Suburban growth

2 Geography

2.1 Climate 2.2 Green belt

3 Demography

3.1 Urban subdivision 3.2 Metropolitan district

4 Government 5 Economy

5.1 Public sector 5.2 Shopping

6 Landmarks 7 Transport 8 Recreation

8.1 Walking 8.2 Parks and open spaces

9 Education

9.1 Schools 9.2 Further and higher education

10 Culture

10.1 Art 10.2 Carnivals and festivals 10.3 Cinema 10.4 Media 10.5 Museums 10.6 Music, theatre and dance 10.7 Nightlife

11 Sports

11.1 Leeds
Leeds
teams

12 Religion 13 Public services 14 See also 15 References and notes 16 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Leeds Toponymy[edit] The name Leeds
Leeds
derives from the old Brythonic word Ladenses meaning "people of the fast-flowing river", in reference to the River Aire that flows through the city.[24] This name originally referred to the forested area covering most of the Brythonic kingdom of Elmet, which existed during the 5th century into the early 7th century.[25] Bede
Bede
states in the fourteenth chapter of his Ecclesiastical History, in a discussion of an altar surviving from a church erected by Edwin of Northumbria, that it is located in ...regione quae vocatur Loidis (Latin, "the region which is called Loidis"). An inhabitant of Leeds is locally known as a Loiner, a word of uncertain origin.[26] The term Leodensian is also used, from the city's Latin name. The name Leeds
Leeds
has also been explained as a derivative of Welsh lloed, meaning simply 'a place'.[27] Economic development[edit]

The Leeds and Liverpool Canal
Leeds and Liverpool Canal
at Granary Wharf

The Leeds Corn Exchange
Leeds Corn Exchange
opened in 1864

Leeds
Leeds
developed as a market town in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
as part of the local agricultural economy. Before the Industrial Revolution, it became a co-ordination centre for the manufacture of woollen cloth, and white broadcloth was traded at its White Cloth Hall.[28] Leeds
Leeds
handled one sixth of England's export trade in 1770.[29] Growth, initially in textiles, was accelerated by the building of the Aire and Calder Navigation in 1699 and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal
Leeds and Liverpool Canal
in 1816.[30] The railway network constructed around Leeds, starting with the Leeds and Selby Railway in 1834, provided improved communications with national markets and, significantly for its development, an east-west connection with Manchester
Manchester
and the ports of Liverpool
Liverpool
and Hull giving improved access to international markets.[31] Alongside technological advances and industrial expansion, Leeds
Leeds
retained an interest in trading in agricultural commodities, with the Corn Exchange opening in 1864.

Leeds
Leeds
from the Meadows by Joseph Rhodes, 1825.

Marshall's Mill
Marshall's Mill
was one of the first of many factories constructed in Leeds
Leeds
from around 1790 when the most significant were woollen finishing and flax mills.[32] Manufacturing diversified by 1914 to printing, engineering, chemicals and clothing manufacture.[33] Decline in manufacturing during the 1930s was temporarily reversed by a switch to producing military uniforms and munitions during World War II. However, by the 1970s, the clothing industry was in irreversible decline, facing cheap foreign competition.[34] The contemporary economy has been shaped by Leeds
Leeds
City Council's vision of building a '24-hour European city' and 'capital of the north'.[35] The city has developed from the decay of the post-industrial era to become a telephone banking centre, connected to the electronic infrastructure of the modern global economy.[35] There has been growth in the corporate and legal sectors,[36] and increased local affluence has led to an expanding retail sector, including the luxury goods market.[37] Leeds City Region
Leeds City Region
Enterprise Zone was launched in April 2012 to promote development in four sites along the A63 East Leeds
Leeds
Link Road.[38] Local government[edit] Main article: History of local government in Yorkshire

Leeds
Leeds
(parish) population

1881 160,109

1891 177,523

1901 177,920

1911 259,394

1921 269,665

1931 482,809

1941 war*

1951 505,219

1961 510,676

*no census was held due to war

source: UK census[39]

Leeds
Leeds
was a manor and township in the large ancient parish of Leeds
Leeds
St Peter, in the Skyrack
Skyrack
wapentake of the West Riding of Yorkshire.[40] The Borough of Leeds
Leeds
was created in 1207, when Maurice Paynel, lord of the manor, granted a charter to a small area of the manor, close to the river crossing, in what is now the city centre. Four centuries later, the inhabitants petitioned Charles I for a charter of incorporation, which was granted in 1626. The new charter incorporated the entire parish, including all eleven townships, as the Borough of Leeds
Leeds
and withdrew the earlier charter. Improvement commissioners were set up in 1755 for paving, lighting, and cleansing of the main streets, including Briggate
Briggate
and further powers were added in 1790 to improve the water supply.[41]

A crowd gathers outside Leeds Town Hall
Leeds Town Hall
during the 1880 general elections.

The borough corporation was reformed under the provisions of Municipal Corporations Act 1835. Leeds
Leeds
Borough Police force was formed in 1836, and Leeds Town Hall
Leeds Town Hall
was completed by the corporation in 1858. In 1866, Leeds
Leeds
and each of the other townships in the borough became civil parishs. The borough became a county borough in 1889, giving it independence from the newly formed West Riding County Council and it gained city status in 1893. In 1904 the Leeds
Leeds
parish absorbed Beeston, Chapel Allerton, Farnley, Headingley cum Burley
Headingley cum Burley
and Potternewton
Potternewton
from within the borough. In the twentieth century the county borough initiated a series of significant territorial expansions, growing from 21,593 acres (87.38 km2) in 1911 to 40,612 acres (164.35 km2) in 1961.[42] In 1912 the parish and county borough of Leeds
Leeds
absorbed Leeds
Leeds
Rural District, consisting of the parishes of Roundhay
Roundhay
and Seacroft; and Shadwell, which had been part of Wetherby Rural District. On 1 April 1925, the parish of Leeds
Leeds
was expanded to cover the whole borough.[40] The county borough was abolished on 1 April 1974, and its former area was combined with that of the municipal boroughs of Morley and Pudsey; the urban districts of Aireborough, Horsforth, Otley, Garforth
Garforth
and Rothwell; and parts of the rural districts of Tadcaster, Wetherby, and Wharfedale.[43] This area formed a metropolitan district in the county of West Yorkshire. It gained both borough and city status and is known as the City of Leeds. Initially, local government services were provided by Leeds City Council
Leeds City Council
and West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
County Council. When the county council was abolished in 1986, the city council absorbed its functions, and some powers passed to organisations such as the West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Passenger Transport Authority. From 1988 two run-down and derelict areas close to the city centre were designated for regeneration and became the responsibility of Leeds
Leeds
Development Corporation, outside the planning remit of the city council.[44] Planning powers were restored to the local authority in 1995 when the development corporation was wound up. Suburban growth[edit]

1866 map of Leeds

19th century Briggate, Leeds

In 1801, 42% of the population of Leeds
Leeds
lived outside the township, in the wider borough. Cholera
Cholera
outbreaks in 1832 and 1849 caused the authorities to address the problems of drainage, sanitation, and water supply. Water was pumped from the River Wharfe, but by 1860 it was too heavily polluted to be usable. Following the Leeds
Leeds
Waterworks Act of 1867 three reservoirs were built at Lindley Wood, Swinsty, and Fewston in the Washburn Valley north of Leeds.[45] Residential growth occurred in Holbeck
Holbeck
and Hunslet
Hunslet
from 1801 to 1851, but, as these townships became industrialised new areas were favoured for middle class housing.[46] Land south of the river was developed primarily for industry and secondarily for back-to-back workers' dwellings. The Leeds
Leeds
Improvement Act 1866 sought to improve the quality of working class housing by restricting the number of homes that could be built in a single terrace.[47] Holbeck
Holbeck
and Leeds
Leeds
formed a continuous built-up area by 1858, with Hunslet
Hunslet
nearly meeting them.[48] In the latter half of the nineteenth century, population growth in Hunslet, Armley, and Wortley outstripped that of Leeds. When pollution became a problem, the wealthier residents left the industrial conurbation to live in Headingley, Potternewton
Potternewton
and Chapel Allerton
Chapel Allerton
which led to a 50% increase in the population of Headingley
Headingley
and Burley from 1851 to 1861. The middle-class flight from the industrial areas led to development beyond the borough at Roundhay
Roundhay
and Adel.[48] The introduction of the electric tramway led to intensification of development in Headingley and Potternewton
Potternewton
and expansion outside the borough into Roundhay.[49] Two private gas supply companies were taken over by the corporation in 1870, and the municipal supply provided street lighting and cheaper gas to homes. From the early 1880s, the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
House-to-House Electricity Company supplied electricity to Leeds
Leeds
until it was purchased by Leeds
Leeds
Corporation and became a municipal supply.[50] Slum clearance and rebuilding began in Leeds
Leeds
during the Inter-war period when over 18,000 houses were built by the council on 24 estates in Cross Gates, Middleton, Gipton, Belle Isle and Halton Moor. The slums of Quarry Hill were replaced by the innovative Quarry Hill flats, which were demolished in 1975. Another 36,000 houses were built by private sector builders, creating suburbs in Gledhow, Moortown, Alwoodley, Roundhay, Colton, Whitkirk, Oakwood, Weetwood, and Adel. After 1949 a further 30,000 sub-standard houses were demolished by the council and replaced by 151 medium-rise and high-rise blocks of council flats in estates at Seacroft, Armley
Armley
Heights, Tinshill, and Brackenwood.[51] Leeds
Leeds
has seen great expenditure on regenerating the city, attracting in investments and flagship projects,[52] as found in Leeds
Leeds
city centre. Many developments boasting luxurious penthouse apartments have been built close to the city centre. Geography[edit]

Map of Leeds
Leeds
in West Yorkshire

River Aire
River Aire
in Leeds

Leeds
Leeds
is located 190 miles (310 km) north-northwest of London, on the valley of the River Aire
River Aire
in the eastern foothills of the Pennines. The city centre lies in a narrow section of the Aire Valley at about 206 feet (63 m) above sea level; while the district ranges from 1,115 feet (340 m) in the far west on the slopes of Ilkley
Ilkley
Moor to about 33 feet (10 m) where the rivers Aire and Wharfe cross the eastern boundary. The centre of Leeds
Leeds
is part of a continuously built-up area extending to Pudsey, Bramley, Horsforth, Alwoodley, Seacroft, Middleton and Morley.[53] Leeds
Leeds
has the second highest population of any local authority district in the UK (after Birmingham), and the second greatest area of any English metropolitan district (after Doncaster), extending 15 miles (24 km) from east to west, and 13 miles (21 km) from north to south. The northern boundary follows the River Wharfe
River Wharfe
for several miles, but it crosses the river to include the part of Otley which lies north of the river. The city centre is less than twenty miles (32 km) from the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales National Park,[54] which has some of the most spectacular scenery and countryside in the UK.[55] Inner and southern areas of Leeds
Leeds
lie on a layer of coal measure sandstones forming the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Coalfield. To the north parts are built on older sandstone and gritstones and to the east it extends into the magnesian limestone belt.[32][56][57] The land use in the central areas of Leeds
Leeds
is overwhelmingly urban.[53] Attempts to define the exact geographic meaning of Leeds
Leeds
lead to a variety of concepts of its extent, varying by context include the area of the city centre, the urban sprawl, the administrative boundaries, and the functional region.[58]

Leeds
Leeds
is much more a generalised concept place name in inverted commas, it is the city, but it is also the commuter villages and the region as well. — Brian Thompson, A History of Modern Leeds[58]

Leeds city centre
Leeds city centre
is contained within the Leeds
Leeds
Inner Ring Road, formed from parts of the A58 road, A61 road, A64 road, A643 road
A643 road
and the M621 motorway. Briggate, the principal north-south shopping street, is pedestrianised and Queen Victoria Street, a part of the Victoria Quarter, is enclosed under a glass roof. Millennium Square is a significant urban focal point. The Leeds
Leeds
postcode area covers most of the City of Leeds[59] and is almost entirely made up of the Leeds post town.[60] Otley, Wetherby, Tadcaster, Pudsey
Pudsey
and Ilkley
Ilkley
are separate post towns within the postcode area.[60] Aside from the built up area of Leeds
Leeds
itself, there are a number of suburbs and exurbs within the district. Climate[edit]

Sunny early-June 2006 day at Park Square

Leeds
Leeds
has a climate that is oceanic, and influenced by the Pennines. Summers are usually mild, with moderate rainfall, while winters are chilly, cloudy with occasional snow and frost. The nearest official weather recording station is at Bingley, some twenty kilometres away at a higher altitude.[61] Situated on the eastern side of the Pennines, Leeds
Leeds
is among the drier cities in the United Kingdom, with an annual rainfall of 660 mm (25.98 in).[citation needed] The last reported tornado occurred on 14 September 2006, causing uprooted trees and signal failures at Leeds
Leeds
City railway station.[62] Green belt[edit] Further information: South and West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Green Belt Leeds
Leeds
is within a green belt region that extends into the wider surrounding counties, and is in place to reduce urban sprawl, prevent the settlements in the West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
conurbation from further convergence, protect the identity of outlying communities, encourage brownfield reuse, and preserve nearby countryside. This is achieved by restricting inappropriate development within the designated areas, and imposing stricter conditions on permitted building.[63] Over 60% of the Leeds
Leeds
district is green belt land and it surrounds the settlement, preventing further sprawl towards nearby communities. Larger outlying towns and villages are exempt from the green belt area. However, smaller villages, hamlets and rural areas are 'washed over' by the designation. The green belt was first adopted in 1960,[63] and the size in the borough in 2017 amounted to some 33,970 hectares (339.7 km2; 131.2 sq mi).[64] A subsidiary aim of the green belt is to encourage recreation and leisure interests,[63] with rural landscape features, greenfield areas and facilities including Temple Newsam
Temple Newsam
Park and House with golf course, Rothwell Country Park, Middleton Park, Kirkstall Abbey
Kirkstall Abbey
ruins and surrounding park, Bedquilts recreation grounds, Waterloo lake, Roundhay
Roundhay
castle and park, and Morwick, Cobble and Elmete Halls. Demography[edit] Main article: Demography of Leeds Urban subdivision[edit]

Leeds
Leeds
compared

Leeds
Leeds
urban subdivision within the West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
urban area

2001 UK Census Leeds USD Leeds district West Yorks UA England

Population 443,247 715,402 1,499,465 49,138,831

White 88.4% 91.9% 85.5% 90.9%

Asian 6.4% 4.5% 11.2% 4.6%

Black 2.2% 1.4% 1.3% 2.3%

Source: Office for National Statistics[65][66]

This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (April 2016)

At the time of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Census 2001, the Leeds
Leeds
urban subdivision occupied an area of 109 square kilometres (42 sq mi) and had a population of 443,247; making it the fourth most populous urban subdivision within England
England
and the fifth largest within the United Kingdom. The population density was 4,066 inhabitants per square kilometre (10,530/sq mi), slightly higher than the rest of the West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Urban Area. It accounts for 20% of the area and 62% of the population of the City of Leeds. The population of the urban subdivision had a 100 to 93.1 female–male ratio.[67] Of those over 16 years old, 39.4% were single (never married) and 35.4% married for the first time.[68] The urban subdivision's 188,890 households included 35% one-person, 27.9% married couples living together, 8.8% were co-habiting couples, and 5.7% single parents with their children. Leeds
Leeds
is the largest component of the West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Urban Area[53] and is counted by Eurostat
Eurostat
as part of the Leeds- Bradford
Bradford
Larger Urban Zone. The Leeds
Leeds
Travel to Work Area
Travel to Work Area
in 2001 included all of the City of Leeds, a northern strip of the City of Bradford, the eastern part of Kirklees, and a section of southern North Yorkshire; it occupies 751 square kilometres (290 sq mi). Metropolitan district[edit] At the 2011 UK census, the district had a total population of 751,500, representing a 5% growth since the last census of 2001.[69] Of the 301,614 households in Leeds
Leeds
in the 2001 census, 33.3% were married couples living together, 31.6% were one-person households, 9.0% were co-habiting couples and 9.8% were lone parents, following a similar trend to the rest of England.[70] The population density was 1,967/km2 (5,090/sq mi)[70] and for every 100 females, there were 93.5 males. Leeds
Leeds
is a diverse city with over 75 ethnic groups, and with minority ethnic populations representing just under 11.6% of the total population.[69] According to figures from the 2011 census, 85.0% of the population was White (81.1% White British, 0.9% White Irish, 0.1% Gypsy or Irish Traveller, 2.9% Other White), 2.7% of mixed race (1.2% White and Black Caribbean, 0.3% White and Black African, 0.7% White and Asian, 0.5% Other Mixed), 7.7% Asian (2.1% Indian, 3.0% Pakistani, 0.6% Bangladeshi, 0.8% Chinese, 1.2% Other Asian), 3.5% Black (2.0% African, 0.9% Caribbean, 0.6% Other Black), 0.5% Arab and 0.6% of other ethnic heritage.[71] The majority of people in Leeds
Leeds
identify themselves as Christian.[72] The proportion of Muslims (3.0% of the population) is average for the country.[72] Leeds
Leeds
has the third-largest community of Jews in the United Kingdom, after those of London
London
and Manchester. The areas of Alwoodley
Alwoodley
and Moortown contain sizeable Jewish
Jewish
populations.[73] 16.8% of Leeds
Leeds
residents in the 2001 census declared themselves as having "no religion", which is broadly in line with the figure for the whole of the UK (also 8.1% "religion not stated"). The crime rate in Leeds is well above the national average, like many other English major cities.[74][75] In July 2006, the think tank Reform calculated rates of crime for different offences and has related this to populations of major urban areas (defined as towns over 100,000 population). Leeds was 11th in this rating (excluding London
London
boroughs, 23rd including London
London
boroughs).[76] Total recorded crime in Leeds
Leeds
fell by 45% between 2002/03 and 2011/12.[69] The table below details the population of the current area of the district since 1801, including the percentage change since the last available census data.

Population growth
Population growth
in City of Leeds
City of Leeds
since 1801

year 1801 1811 1821 1831 1841 1851 1861 1871 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011

Population 94,421 108,459 137,476 183,015 222,189 249,992 311,197 372,402 433,607 503,493 552,479 606,250 625,854 646,119 668,667 692,003 715,260 739,401 696,732 716,760 715,404 751,500

% change – +14.87 +26.75 +33.13 +21.40 +12.51 +24.48 +19.67 +16.44 +16.12 +9.73 +9.73 +3.23 +3.24 +3.49 +3.49 +3.36 +3.38 −5.77 +2.87 −0.19 +5.05

Source: Vision of Britain[77]

In 2011, the Leeds
Leeds
USD had a population of 474,632.

Leeds
Leeds
compared Leeds
Leeds
USD Leeds
Leeds
City

White British 73.9% 81.1%

Asian 10.7% 7.7%

Black 5.2% 3.5%

[78][79] In 2011, 26.1% of the population of the Leeds
Leeds
USD (Urban Subdivision) were non-white British, compared with 18.9% for the surrounding borough. This makes the Leeds
Leeds
USD about as multicultural as Salford in Greater Manchester. Government[edit] See also: City of Leeds

Leeds Civic Hall
Leeds Civic Hall
is the seat of local government.

The City of Leeds
City of Leeds
is the local government district covering Leeds, and the local authority is Leeds
Leeds
City Council. The council is composed of 99 councillors, three for each of the district's wards. Elections are held three years out of four, on the first Thursday of May. One third of the councillors are elected, for a four-year term, in each election. The council is currently controlled by Labour. West Yorkshire
Yorkshire
does not have a county council, so Leeds City Council
Leeds City Council
is the primary provider of local government services for the city. The district is in the Yorkshire and the Humber
Yorkshire and the Humber
region of England. Most of the district is an unparished area. In the unparished area, there is no lower tier of government. Outside the unparished area, there are 31 civil parishes, represented by parish councils. These are the lowest tier of local government[80] and absorb some limited functions from Leeds City Council
Leeds City Council
in their areas. The district is represented by eight MPs, for the constituencies of Elmet
Elmet
and Rothwell (Alec Shelbrooke, Conservative); Leeds
Leeds
Central (Hilary Benn, Labour); Leeds
Leeds
East (Richard Burgon, Labour); Leeds North East (Fabian Hamilton, Labour); Leeds
Leeds
North West (Alex Sobel, Labour); Leeds
Leeds
West (Rachel Reeves, Labour); Morley and Outwood (constituency shared with City of Wakefield) (Andrea Jenkyns, Conservative); and Pudsey
Pudsey
(Stuart Andrew, Conservative). Leeds
Leeds
is within the Yorkshire and the Humber
Yorkshire and the Humber
European constituency, which as of May 2017[update] is represented by two UKIP, two Labour, and two Conservative MEPs. In addition to other national governmental offices, the city is home to a large Department for Work and Pensions
Department for Work and Pensions
office building located in Quarry Hill, notable for its imposing design. Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Leeds

Infirmary Street in the heart of Leeds' Financial District

Leeds
Leeds
has the most diverse economy of all the UK's main employment centres and has seen the fastest rate of private sector jobs growth of any UK city and has the highest ratio of public to private sector jobs of all the UK's Core Cities. The city has the third largest jobs total by local authority area with 480,000 in employment and self-employment at the beginning of 2015.[81] 24.7% were in public administration, education and health, 23.9% were in banking, finance and insurance and 21.4% were in distribution, hotels and restaurants. It is in the banking, finance and insurance sectors that Leeds
Leeds
differs most from the financial structure of the region and the nation.[82] In 2011, the financial and services industry in Leeds
Leeds
was worth £2.1 billion, the 5th largest in the UK, behind London, Edinburgh, Manchester
Manchester
and Birmingham.[17] Tertiary industries such as retail, call centres, offices and media have contributed to a high rate of economic growth. The city also hosts the only subsidiary office of the Bank of England in the UK. In 2012 GVA for the city was recorded at £18.8 billion,[83] with the entire Leeds City Region
Leeds City Region
generating a £56 billion economy.[4]

Bridgewater Place

It is the largest centre outside London
London
for financial and business services. Over the next ten years, the economy is forecast to grow by 25% with financial and business services set to generate over half of GVA growth over that period with Finance and business services accounting for 38% of total output. Other key sectors include retail, leisure and the visitor economy, construction, manufacturing and the creative and digital industries.[4] Leeds
Leeds
has over 30 national and international banks, many of whose northern or regional offices are based in the city. It is the headquarters for First Direct
First Direct
and Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Bank, and has large Barclays, HSBC, Santander, Lloyds Banking Group
Lloyds Banking Group
and RBS Group operations.[84] The city is also an important centre for equity, venture and risk finance. Founded in Leeds, the venture capital provider, YFM Equity Partners, is now the UK's largest provider of risk capital to small and medium-sized enterprises.[84] Other major companies based in the city include William Hill, International Personal Finance, ASDA, Leeds Building Society
Leeds Building Society
and Northern Foods. Capita Group, KPMG, Direct Line, Aviva, Yorkshire Building Society, BT Group, Telefónica Europe
Telefónica Europe
(otherwise known as O2) and TD Waterhouse all also have a considerable presence in the city.[84] There are around 150 law firms operating in Leeds, employing over 6,700 people. According to The UK Legal 500, " Leeds
Leeds
has a sophisticated and highly competitive legal market, second only to London."[85] Specialist legal expertise to be found in Leeds
Leeds
includes corporate finance, corporate restructuring and insolvency, global project financing, trade and investment, commercial litigation, competition, construction, Private Finance Initiatives and Public Private Partnerships, tax, derivatives, IT, employment, pensions, intellectual property, sport and entertainment.[85] The establishment of an Administrative Court in Leeds
Leeds
in April 2009 reinforced Leeds' position as one of the UK's key legal centres. The court previously sat only in London.[85] Leeds
Leeds
is the UK's third largest manufacturing centre and 50% of the UK's manufacturing base is within a two-hour drive of Leeds. With around 1,800 firms and 39,000 employees, Leeds
Leeds
manufacturing firms account for 8.8% of total employment in the city. The largest sub-sectors are engineering, printing and publishing, food and drink, chemicals and medical technology.[19] There is also an established creative industry in the city, particularly in the digital gaming sector. A number of large developers have studios in and around the city, including Activision, developers of the mobile versions of the Call of Duty
Call of Duty
series, and Rockstar Leeds, developers of the Grand Theft Auto
Grand Theft Auto
series. In 2009 Leeds
Leeds
was the first city outside London
London
to host the Eurogamer Expo.

Park Row in Leeds' Central Business District

Office developments, also traditionally located in the inner area, have expanded south of the River Aire
River Aire
and total 11,000,000 square feet (1,000,000 m2) of space.[86] In the period from 1999 to 2008 £2.5bn of property development was undertaken in central Leeds; of which £711m has been offices, £265m retail, £389m leisure and £794m housing. Manufacturing and distribution uses accounts for £26m of new property development in the period. There are 130,100 jobs in the city centre, accounting for 31% of all jobs in the wider district. In 2007, 47,500 jobs were in finance and business, 42,300 in public services, and 19,500 in retail and distribution. 43% of finance sector jobs in the district are contained in Leeds city centre
Leeds city centre
and 44% of those employed in the city centre live more than nine kilometres (5.6 miles) away.[86] Tourism is important to the Leeds
Leeds
economy, in 2009 Leeds
Leeds
was the 8th most visited city in England
England
by UK visitors.[87] and the 13th most visited city by overseas visitors.[88] Research by Visit England
England
reported that the day visitor market to Leeds
Leeds
attracts 24.9 million people each year, worth over £654 million to the local economy.[89] In January 2011, Leeds
Leeds
was named as one of five "cities to watch" in a report published by Centre for Cities.[90] The report shows that the average resident in Leeds
Leeds
earns £471 per week,[91] seventeenth nationally and 30.9% of Leeds
Leeds
residents had NVQ4+ high level qualifications,[92] fifteenth nationally. Employment in Leeds
Leeds
was 68.8% in the period June 2012 to June 2013, which was lower than the national average, whilst unemployment was higher than the national average at 9.6% over the same time period.[93] It also shows that Leeds
Leeds
will be the least affected major city by welfare cuts in 2014/2015, with welfare cuts of -£125 per capita predicted, compared to -£192 in Liverpool
Liverpool
and -£175 in Glasgow.[94] Leeds
Leeds
is overall less deprived than other large UK cities and average income is above regional averages.[69] Public sector[edit]

NHS England
England
HQ.

In Leeds, 108,000 people work in the public sector – 24% of the workforce. The largest employers are Leeds
Leeds
City Council, with 33,000 staff, and the Leeds
Leeds
Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, with 14,000 staff.[95] Leeds
Leeds
has become a hub of public-sector health bodies. The Department of Health, NHS England, the Care Quality Commission, NHS Digital, and Public Health England
England
all have large offices in Leeds. Europe's largest teaching hospital is also based in Leeds, and is home to the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Cancer Centre, the largest of its kind in Europe.[96] Key government departments and organisations in Leeds
Leeds
include the Department for Work and Pensions, with over 3,000 staff, the Department of Health, with over 800 staff, HMRC
HMRC
with over 1,200 staff and the British Library
British Library
with 1,100 staff.[95] Shopping[edit]

Victoria Quarter. Opened in 1900

Trinity Leeds
Trinity Leeds
is Leeds' largest shopping centre

Victoria Gate
Victoria Gate
is Leeds' newest shopping centre

The extensive retail area of Leeds
Leeds
is identified as the principal regional shopping centre for the whole of the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber region with a catchment of 5.5 million people offering a spend of £1.93 billion annually.[97] There are a number of indoor shopping centres in the centre of the city, including the Merrion Centre, St John's Centre, The Core, the Victoria Quarter, The Light, the Corn Exchange, Trinity Leeds, and Victoria Gate.[98] In total there are well over 1,000 retail stores, with a combined floorspace of 3,660,000 square feet (340,000 m2).[86] in Leeds
Leeds
City Centre. The city centre has a large pedestrian zone. Briggate
Briggate
is the main shopping street where one can find many well-known British High street stores, including Marks & Spencer, House of Fraser, Debenhams, Topshop, Costa Coffee
Costa Coffee
and Harvey Nichols. Many companies have several stores within Central Leeds
Leeds
and the wider city. The Victoria Quarter is notable for its high-end luxury retailers and impressive architecture. 70 stores such as Louis Vuitton, Vivienne Westwood, Paul Smith, Diesel and anchor Harvey Nichols
Harvey Nichols
are contained within two iron-wrought Victorian arcades, and a new arcade formed by arcading Queen Victoria Street with the largest expanse of stained glass in Britain.[99][100] In the Churwell area of Leeds
Leeds
is the White Rose Shopping Centre. Opening in 1997, the centre has over 100 high street stores anchored by Debenhams, Marks & Spencer, Primark and Sainsbury's. Some stores have their only Leeds
Leeds
presence here and do not trade in Central Leeds, such as the Disney Store and Build-A-Bear workshop. Although the centre is below the average typical size for out of town shopping malls like the Trafford Centre
Trafford Centre
or Meadowhall in nearby Yorkshire
Yorkshire
city Sheffield, it remains popular with national and international chains. Of the 40,000 people who work in retailing in Leeds
Leeds
75% work in places which are not located in the city centre. There are additional shopping centres located in the many villages that became part of the county borough and in the towns that were incorporated in the City of Leeds
Leeds
in 1974.[101] On 21 March 2013, a large shopping and leisure complex called Trinity Leeds
Leeds
opened in the city centre. The modern and interactive retail space covers the old Burton Arcades and the former Leeds
Leeds
Shopping Plaza with its main entrance from Briggate.[102] On 20 October 2016, the newest shopping destination called Victoria Gate opened its doors to the public. The new shopping mall houses a flagship John Lewis store, the largest outside London. 75 per cent of the stores that opened in Victoria Gate
Victoria Gate
were new to Leeds
Leeds
with many of those stores being the first outside of London.[103] Landmarks[edit]

The Old Post Office in Leeds
Leeds
City Square

Kirkstall
Kirkstall
Abbey. Founded c.1152

Leeds
Leeds
displays a variety of natural and built landmarks. Natural landmarks include such diverse sites as the gritstone outcrop of Otley Chevin and the Fairburn Ings RSPB reserve. The city's parks at Roundhay
Roundhay
and Temple Newsam
Temple Newsam
have long been owned and maintained by the council for the benefit of ratepayers and among the open spaces in the centre of Leeds
Leeds
are Millennium Square, City Square, Park Square and Victoria Gardens. This last is the site of the central city war memorial: there are 42 other war memorials in the suburbs, towns and villages in the district.[104] The built environment embraces edifices of civic pride like Morley Town Hall and the trio of buildings in Leeds, Leeds
Leeds
Town Hall, Corn Exchange and Leeds City Museum
Leeds City Museum
by the architect Cuthbert Brodrick. The two white buildings on the Leeds
Leeds
skyline are the Parkinson building of Leeds
Leeds
University and the Civic Hall, with golden owls adorning the tops of the latter's twin spires.[105] Armley
Armley
Mills, Tower Works, with its campanile-inspired towers, and the Egyptian-style Temple Works
Temple Works
hark back to the city's industrial past, while the site and ruins of Kirkstall Abbey
Kirkstall Abbey
display the beauty and grandeur of Cistercian
Cistercian
architecture. Notable churches are Leeds Minster (formerly Leeds
Leeds
Parish Church), St George's Church and Leeds Cathedral, in the city centre, and the Church of St John the Baptist, Adel and Bardsey Parish Church in quieter locations. Notable non-conformist chapels include the Salem Chapel, dating back to 1791 and notably the birthplace of Leeds
Leeds
United Football Club in 1919.[106][107] Leeds
Leeds
is one of only a few UK cities outside of London
London
to have a significant number of high-rise buildings, the 112-metre (367 ft) tower of Bridgewater Place, also known as The Dalek, is part of a major office and residential development and the region's tallest building; it can be seen for miles around.[108] Bridgewater Place
Bridgewater Place
has been the subject of debate as its erection in 2007 caused significant Wind Tunnel
Wind Tunnel
effects, channeling strong wind currents across Victoria Road. There have been numerous injuries attributed to the inadequate architecture of this building[109] and Water Lane is frequently closed when high winds are expected. Leeds City Council
Leeds City Council
are undertaking construction work in an attempt to deflect the wind from street level and the building owners of Bridgewater Place
Bridgewater Place
agreed to pay to cover the public money being spent.[110] Among other Skyscrapers the 37-storey Sky Plaza
Sky Plaza
to the north of the city centre stands on higher ground so that its 106 metres (348 ft) is higher than Bridgewater Place. Elland Road
Elland Road
(football) and Headingley Stadium
Headingley Stadium
(cricket and rugby) are well known to sports enthusiasts and the White Rose Centre
White Rose Centre
is a well-known retail outlet. Headingley
Headingley
Carnegie Stadium is also home to Leeds Rhinos
Leeds Rhinos
rugby team.

Leeds
Leeds
city centre, viewed from South Leeds
Leeds
at night

Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Leeds

M621 heading towards Central Leeds

Leeds
Leeds
is the starting-point of the A62, A63, A64, A65 and A660 roads, and is also situated on the A58 and A61. The M1 and M62 intersect to its south and the A1(M) passes to the east. Leeds
Leeds
is one of the principal hubs of the northern motorway network. Additionally, there is an urban motorway network; the radial M621 takes traffic into central Leeds
Leeds
from the M62 and M1. There is an Inner Ring Road with part motorway status and an Outer Ring Road. Part of the city centre[111] is pedestrianised, and is encircled by the clockwise-only Loop Road.

Leeds
Leeds
railway station

Leeds
Leeds
Bradford
Bradford
International Airport

Leeds
Leeds
has been identified as one of the most car-dependent cities in the UK.[112] In one 2012 study of 31 European cities, Leeds-Bradford was rated as the seventh most grid-locked.[113][114] Drivers spend an average of 80 hours in congestion.[115] Measurements taken on some main roads in Leeds
Leeds
have revealed pollution levels over twice the legal limits.[116] The main reason for these problems is the fact that unlike other cities in the UK similar in size to Leeds, such as Manchester
Manchester
and Sheffield, Leeds
Leeds
does not have a rapid transport system (such as the Manchester
Manchester
Metrolink or Sheffield
Sheffield
Supertram). Therefore commuters tend to either drive or use buses, which can be delayed when the roads are congested. There were plans for a Leeds Supertram in the 1990s, and £500 million in funding was to be provided, however due to spiraling costs the plans were cancelled by the Transport Minister Alistair Darling
Alistair Darling
in 2005, even though £40 million had already been spent on the project. Hopes were renewed with the proposal for a £250 million New Generation Transport
New Generation Transport
Trolleybus service in 2007, however after a long wait and millions of pounds spent on inquiries, the plans were cancelled in May 2016 citing little value for money.[117] Public transport in the Leeds
Leeds
area is coordinated and developed by West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Metro,[118] with service information provided by Leeds City Council[119] and West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Metro. The primary means of public transport in Leeds
Leeds
are the bus services. The main provider is First Leeds
First Leeds
and Arriva Yorkshire
Yorkshire
serves routes to the south of the city. Leeds
Leeds
City bus station is at Dyer Street and is used by bus services to towns and cities in Yorkshire, plus a small number of local services. Adjacent to it is the coach station for National Express coach services. Buses out of the city are mainly provided by First Leeds
First Leeds
and Arriva Yorkshire. Harrogate Bus Company
Harrogate Bus Company
provides a service to Harrogate
Harrogate
and Ripon. Keighley Bus Company
Keighley Bus Company
provides a service to Shipley, Bingley
Bingley
and Keighley. The Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Coastliner service runs from Leeds
Leeds
to Bridlington, Filey, Scarborough and Whitby via York
York
and Malton. Stagecoach provides a service to Hull via Goole. From Leeds railway station
Leeds railway station
at New Station Street, West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Metro trains operated by Northern run to Leeds' suburbs and onwards to all parts of Leeds
Leeds
City Region. The station is one of the busiest in England
England
outside London, with over 900 trains and 50,000 passengers passing through every day.[120] It provides national and international connections as well as services to local and regional destinations. The station itself has 17 platforms, making it the largest in England outside London.[121] Leeds Bradford International Airport
Leeds Bradford International Airport
is located in Yeadon, about 10 miles (16 km) to the north-west of the city centre, and has both charter and scheduled flights to destinations within Europe plus Egypt, Tunisia, Pakistan, Turkey and the USA. There is a direct rail service from Leeds
Leeds
to Manchester
Manchester
Airport; however, there isn't one to the nearby Leeds
Leeds
Bradford
Bradford
Airport. Humberside Airport
Humberside Airport
is 70 miles (113 km) east of Leeds. The city and metropolitan borough of Leeds
Leeds
is served by 16 railway stations and there are plans to open several more within the next 20 years.[citation needed] Recreation[edit]

Waterloo Lake in Roundhay
Roundhay
Park, one of the largest urban parks in Europe

The Mansion at Temple Newsam

Walking[edit] The Leeds Country Way
Leeds Country Way
is a waymarked circular walk of 62 miles (100 km) through the rural outskirts of the city, never more than 7 miles (11 km) from City Square. The Meanwood Valley Trail
Meanwood Valley Trail
leads from Woodhouse Moor
Woodhouse Moor
along Meanwood Beck
Meanwood Beck
to Golden Acre Park. The Leeds extension of the Dales Way
Dales Way
follows the Meanwood Valley Trail
Meanwood Valley Trail
before it branches off to head towards Ilkley
Ilkley
and Windermere. Leeds
Leeds
is on the northern section of the Trans Pennine Trail
Trans Pennine Trail
for walkers and cyclists, and the towpath of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal
Leeds and Liverpool Canal
is another popular walking and cycling route. The White Rose Way
The White Rose Way
walking trail to Scarborough begins at City Square. In addition, there are many parks and public footpaths in both the urban and rural parts of Leeds, and the Ramblers' Association, YHA and other walking organisations offer sociable walks. The Ramblers' Association
Ramblers' Association
publish various booklets of walks in and around Leeds.[122] Parks and open spaces[edit] Leeds
Leeds
has many large parks and open spaces. Roundhay
Roundhay
Park is the largest park in the city, and is one of the largest city parks in Europe. The park has more than 700 acres (2.8 km2)[citation needed] of parkland, lakes, woodland and gardens which are all owned by Leeds
Leeds
City Council. Other parks in the city include: Middleton Park, Temple Newsam, Woodhouse Moor, Meanwood
Meanwood
Park, Beckett Park, Bramley Fall Park, Horforth Hall Park, Potternewton
Potternewton
Park, Golden Acre Park, East End Park, Cross Flatts Park, and Western Flatts Park. There are many more smaller parks and open spaces scattered around the city, which makes Leeds
Leeds
one of the Greenest cities in the United Kingdom.[citation needed] Education[edit] Schools[edit] Main article: List of schools in Leeds At the time of the 2001 census Leeds
Leeds
had a population of 183,000 young people aged 0–19 of whom 110,000 were attending local authority schools.[123] In 2008 Education Leeds, a non-profit company owned by Leeds
Leeds
City Council, provided for 220 primary schools, 39 secondary schools and 6 special inclusive learning centres.[124] Under the government Building Schools for the Future
Building Schools for the Future
initiative, Leeds
Leeds
secured £260m, to transform 13 secondary schools into high achieving, e-confident, inclusive schools. The first three of these schools at Allerton High School, Pudsey Grangefield School and Rodillian School, were opened in September 2008.[125] The demand for primary school places in Leeds
Leeds
has recently hit a 15-year peak, with an estimated 10,500 new starters this year.[126] The city's oldest and largest private school is The Grammar School at Leeds, which was legally re-created in 2005 following the merger of Leeds
Leeds
Grammar School, established 1552, and Leeds
Leeds
Girls' High School, established 1857. Other independent schools in Leeds
Leeds
include faith schools serving the Jewish[127] and Muslim[128] communities. Leeds
Leeds
was one of a number of local authorities to try the three-tier system with first, middle and secondary schools. It reverted to the two-tier system in 1992. Further and higher education[edit]

Parkinson Building
Parkinson Building
at the University of Leeds

Broadcasting Tower at the Leeds
Leeds
Beckett University

Further education in Leeds
Leeds
is provided by Leeds City College
Leeds City College
(formed by a merger in 2009 and having over 60,000 students), Leeds
Leeds
College of Building, Notre Dame Catholic Sixth Form College
Notre Dame Catholic Sixth Form College
and Elliott Hudson College. The city has five universities: the University of Leeds
University of Leeds
– which received its charter in 1904 having developed from the Yorkshire College which was founded in 1874 and the Leeds
Leeds
School of Medicine of 1831; Leeds Beckett University
Leeds Beckett University
(formerly Leeds
Leeds
Polytechnic) which became a university in 1992 but can trace its roots to the Mechanics' Institute of 1824; Leeds Trinity University
Leeds Trinity University
which began in 1966 as two teacher training colleges which merged in 1980 to form Trinity and All Saints College and became a university in 2012; the University of Law (formerly the College of Law) which became a university in 2012 and moved to its current Leeds
Leeds
centre campus from York
York
in 2014; and Leeds Arts University, which was founded in 1846 as the Leeds
Leeds
School of Art, and became a university in 2017. The University of Leeds
University of Leeds
has about 31,000 students, of which 21,500 are full-time or sandwich undergraduate degree students,[129] Leeds Beckett University has 25,805[130] students of which 12,000 are full-time or sandwich undergraduate degree students and 2,100 full-time or sandwich HND students.[131] Leeds Trinity University
Leeds Trinity University
has just under 3,000 students,[132] Other higher education establishments are: Leeds College of Music
Leeds College of Music
and Northern School of Contemporary Dance. The city was voted the Best UK University Destination by a survey in The Independent
The Independent
newspaper.[133] Culture[edit] See also: Culture of Leeds Art[edit]

Henry Moore
Henry Moore
Statue outside Leeds
Leeds
Art Gallery

Although the city's municipal art gallery did not open until 1888, the history of art practise and collecting has a long history in Leeds. J. M. W. Turner painted numerous scenes in and around the city,[134] and the city was home to one of Britain's largest collections of Pre-Raphaelite Art, owned by Thomas Plint, during the nineteenth century.[135] There was also an early history of holding larg-scale public exhibitions in the city, most notably the series of 'Polytechnic Exhibitions' held regularly from 1839.[136] Leeds
Leeds
produced many notable artists and sculptors, including Kenneth Armitage, John Atkinson Grimshaw, Jacob Kramer, Barbara Hepworth, Henry Moore
Henry Moore
and Edward Wadsworth, and was the centre for a particularly radical strain of British art. Before the First World War Leeds
Leeds
was the home of an unusual modernist arts organisation, called the Leeds
Leeds
Arts Club, founded by Alfred Orage, which lasted from 1903 to 1923. Notable members included Jacob Kramer, Herbert Read, Frank Rutter and Michael Sadler. As well as advocating a radical political agenda, supporting the Suffragettes, the Independent Labour Party
Independent Labour Party
and the Fabian Society, and promoting the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche, the Leeds Arts Club
Leeds Arts Club
was almost unique in Britain as being an exponent of German Expressionist
German Expressionist
ideas about art and culture. As a result, it staged very early British exhibitions of work by European expressionist artists, such as Wassily Kandinsky, showing their work in the city as early as 1913,[137] and produced its own English Expressionist artists, including Jacob Kramer
Jacob Kramer
and Bruce Turner.[138] In the 1920s Leeds
Leeds
College of Art was the starting point for the careers of the sculptors Barbara Hepworth
Barbara Hepworth
and Henry Moore, and in the 1950s, and 1960s it was one of the leading centres for radical art education in Britain under the guidance of artists such as Harry Thubron and Tom Hudson, and the art historian Norbert Lynton. Their attempts to redefine what art education should mean in the post-Second World War period led the artist Patrick Heron
Patrick Heron
to claim in 1971 in The Guardian newspaper that ' Leeds
Leeds
is the most influential art school in Europe since the Bauhaus'.[139] This willingness to push at the boundaries of acceptable public behaviour from artists was also evident in 1966 when Leeds
Leeds
College of Art staged an exhibition of paintings by the Cypriot artist Stass Paraskos, who taught at the College, which was raided by the police after allegations of obscenity.[140] This radicalism continued into the 1970s when the higher education component of Leeds
Leeds
College of Art was split from the college to form the nucleus of the new multidisciplinary Leeds
Leeds
Polytechnic, now called Leeds
Leeds
Beckett University. Performance art had been taught earlier at Leeds
Leeds
College of Art, notably by the Fluxus
Fluxus
artist Robin Page during his time as a tutor there in the mid-1960s, but in 1977 a performance art work hit the national news headlines when the students Pete Parkin and Derek Wain used an air pistol to shoot a line up of live budgerigars in front of an audience at Leeds
Leeds
Polytechnic.[141] The University of Leeds
University of Leeds
was the alma mater of Herbert Read, one of the leading international theorists of modern art from the mid-twentieth century,[142] and also the teaching base for the Marxist
Marxist
art historian Arnold Hauser
Arnold Hauser
from 1951 to 1985.[143] Partly due to Herbert Read's connection with the University, from 1950 to 1970 the University was the host of one of the first artist in residence schemes in Britain, using funding from the then owner of Lund Humphries books, Peter Gregory. The Gregory Fellowships, as the residencies were known, were given to painters and sculptors for up to two years to allow them to develop their own work and influence the University in any way they saw fit. Amongst those holding the fellowships were Kenneth Armitage, Reg Butler, Dennis Creffield and Terry Frost and others. Parallel Gregory Fellowships also existed in music and poetry at the University.[144] Leeds
Leeds
was also a centre for radical feminist art, with one of the first galleries in Britain dedicated to showing the work of women photographers, the Pavilion Gallery, opening in the city in 1983, and the University of Leeds
University of Leeds
School of Fine Art being a well-known centre for the development of feminist art history, under Griselda Pollock, during the 1980s and 1990s. Possibly as a result of the strength of feminist art in Leeds, in November 1984 an exhibition of ceramics by students and staff at Leeds Polytechnic
Leeds Polytechnic
was attacked by a group of feminist activists who destroyed eight sculptures on display which they deemed to be degrading to women.[145] The University of Leeds's School of Fine Art also specialised in Art and Language
Art and Language
conceptual art practice, under Terry Atkinson, again in the 1980s and 1990s.[146] A major sculpture research centre and gallery, the Henry Moore Institute, is located alongside Leeds Art Gallery
Leeds Art Gallery
in the city centre, and in 2013 a new contemporary art centre, called The Tetley, opened on the site of the former Tetley Brewery to the south of the city centre. In March 2017, The Times
The Times
voted Leeds
Leeds
as the number one cultural place to live in Britain. This was ahead of London, Birmingham, St Ives, Stratford-upon-Avon
Stratford-upon-Avon
and Cheltenham. The citation notes that Leeds
Leeds
has Opera North, the Northern Ballet, the West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Playhouse amongst may other attractions that ranked it at number one.[147] Carnivals and festivals[edit]

Leeds
Leeds
Carnival

Leeds Carnival
Leeds Carnival
is Western Europe's oldest West Indian Carnival, and the UK's third largest after the Notting Hill and Nottingham Carnival.[148][149] It attracts around 100,000 people over 2 days to the streets of Chapeltown and Harehills. There is a large procession that finishes at Potternewton
Potternewton
Park, where there are stalls, entertainment and refreshments. The Leeds
Leeds
Festival, featuring some of the biggest names in rock and indie music, takes place every year in Bramham Park. The Leeds
Leeds
Asian Festival, formerly the Leeds
Leeds
Mela, is held in Roundhay
Roundhay
Park.[150] The Otley
Otley
Folk Festival (patron: Nic Jones),[151] Walking Festival,[152] Carnival[153] and Victorian Christmas Fayre[154] are annual events. Light Night Leeds
Leeds
takes place each October,[155] and many venues in the city are open to the public for Heritage Open Days in September.[156] The Leeds
Leeds
International Pianoforte Competition, established in 1963 by Fanny Waterman and Marion Stein, has been held in the city every three years since 1963 and has launched the careers of many major concert pianists. The Leeds International Concert Season, which includes orchestral and choral concerts in Leeds Town Hall
Leeds Town Hall
and other events, is the largest local authority music programme in the UK.[157] The Leeds International Film Festival
Leeds International Film Festival
is the largest film festival in England
England
outside London[158] and shows films from around the world. It incorporates the highly successful Leeds
Leeds
Young People's Film Festival, which features exciting and innovative films made both for and by children and young people.[159] Garforth
Garforth
is host to the fortnight long festival The Garforth
Garforth
Arts Festival which has been an annual event since 2005. The Chapel Allerton
Chapel Allerton
Arts Festival is a week-long music and arts event starting in 1998 and held the week after August Bank Holiday each year.[160] The Leeds Festival Fringe is a week long-music festival created in 2010 to showcase local talent in the week prior to Leeds
Leeds
Festival. Cinema[edit]

Louis Le Prince

In October 1888 Louis Le Prince
Louis Le Prince
filmed moving picture sequences Roundhay Garden Scene and a Leeds Bridge
Leeds Bridge
street scene using his single-lens camera and Eastman's paper film.[161] These were several years before the work of competing inventors such as Auguste and Louis Lumière and Thomas Edison. Today, Leeds
Leeds
International Film Festival's International Short Film Competition is named after Louis Le Prince.[162] The 2015 documentary film The First Film, which first aired at the Edinburgh
Edinburgh
International Film Festival, documents Le Prince's pioneering status.[163] Wordsworth Donisthorpe who was also from Leeds, filmed the second oldest surviving film. It is not known if he and Louis Le Prince
Louis Le Prince
ever met but they both had a strong connection to the Leeds
Leeds
Philosophical and Literary Society. Donisthorpe's patent for a camera to capture the moving image pre dated Le Prince's by twelve years.[citation needed] Leeds
Leeds
has a rich film exhibition culture. In addition to the Leeds International Film Festival and Leeds
Leeds
Young Film Festival, the city hosts numerous independent cinemas and pop-up venues for film screenings.[164] The Cottage Road Cinema
The Cottage Road Cinema
and Hyde Park Picture House have continuously been showing films since 1912 and 1914 respectively, which ranks them among the oldest still running cinemas in the UK.[165] Media[edit] See also: Category:Television shows set in Leeds
Leeds
and Category:Films set in Leeds

BBC
BBC
Yorkshire
Yorkshire
studios

Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Post Newspapers Ltd, owned by Johnston Press plc, is based in the city, and produces a daily morning broadsheet, the Yorkshire Post, and an evening paper, the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Evening Post (YEP). The YEP has a website which includes a series of community pages which focus on specific areas of the city.[166] The Wetherby
Wetherby
News covers mainly areas within the north eastern sector of the district, and the Wharfedale & Airedale Observer, published in Ilkley, covers the north west, both appearing weekly. The two largest universities both have student newspapers, the weekly Leeds Student
Leeds Student
from the University of Leeds
Leeds
and the monthly The Met from Leeds
Leeds
Beckett University. The Leeds
Leeds
Guide was a fortnightly listings magazine, which was established in 1997 and ceased publication in 2012. Free publications include the Leeds
Leeds
Weekly News, produced by Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Post Newspapers in four geographic versions and distributed to households in the main urban area of the city,[167] and the regional version of Metro which is distributed on buses and at railway stations. Regional television and radio stations have bases in the city; BBC Television and ITV both have regional studios and broadcasting centres in Leeds. ITV Yorkshire, formerly Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Television, broadcasts from the Leeds
Leeds
Studios on Kirkstall
Kirkstall
Road. There are a number of independent film production companies, including the not-for-profit cooperative Leeds
Leeds
Animation Workshop, founded in 1978; community video producers Vera Media and several small commercial production companies. BBC
BBC
Radio Leeds, Radio Aire, Magic 828, Capital Yorkshire, Real Radio and Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Radio broadcast from the city. LSRfm.com, is based in Leeds
Leeds
University Union, and regularly hosts outside broadcasts around the city. Many communities within Leeds
Leeds
now have their own local radio stations, such as East Leeds FM and Tempo FM for Wetherby
Wetherby
and the surrounding areas. Made in Leeds
Made in Leeds
is a local television station which launched across the city in 2014.[168] A privately owned television station: Leeds Television is run by volunteers and supported by professionals in the media industry.[citation needed] Museums[edit]

Royal Armouries Museum

Leeds
Leeds
City Museum

Leeds
Leeds
Museum Discovery Centre

A new Leeds City Museum
Leeds City Museum
opened in 2008[169] in Millennium Square. Abbey House Museum
Abbey House Museum
is housed in the former gatehouse of Kirkstall Abbey, and includes walk-through Victorian streets and galleries describing the history of the abbey, childhood, and Victorian Leeds. Armley Mills
Armley Mills
Industrial Museum is housed in what was once the world's largest woollen mill,[170] and includes industrial machinery and railway locomotives. This museum also shows the first known moving pictures in the world which were taken in the city, by Louis Le Prince, of a Roundhay Garden Scene and of Leeds Bridge
Leeds Bridge
in 1888. These short film clips can be found on YouTube. Thwaite Mills Watermill Museum
Thwaite Mills Watermill Museum
is a fully restored 1820s water-powered mill on the River Aire
River Aire
to the east of the city centre. The Thackray Museum is a museum of the history of medicine, featuring topics such as Victorian public health, pre-anaesthesia surgery, and safety in childbirth. It is housed in a former workhouse next to St James's Hospital. The Royal Armouries Museum
Royal Armouries Museum
opened in 1996 in a dramatic modern building when this part of the national collection was transferred from the Tower of London. Nearby is the Leeds
Leeds
Museum Discovery Centre (formerly housed at the Leeds
Leeds
Museum Resource Centre in Yeadon)[171] the major storage of items not currently on display in museums, and open to the public by appointment.[171][172] Leeds Art Gallery
Leeds Art Gallery
houses important collections of traditional and contemporary British art. It is closed for refurbishment until 13 October 2017.[173] Smaller museums in Leeds
Leeds
include Otley
Otley
Museum; Horsforth
Horsforth
Village Museum;[174] ULITA, an Archive of International Textiles;[175] and the museum at Fulneck Moravian Settlement. Music, theatre and dance[edit] Main articles: Music in Leeds
Music in Leeds
and List of bands originating in Leeds Leeds
Leeds
is home to the Grand Theatre where Opera North
Opera North
is based, this establishment seats 1,500 people and has recently undergone a £31.5m refurbishment. The City Varieties Music Hall, which hosted performances by Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
and Harry Houdini
Harry Houdini
and was also the venue of the BBC
BBC
television programme The Good Old Days, and West Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Playhouse.[176][177][178] Just south of Leeds Bridge
Leeds Bridge
once stood The Theatre which hosted Sarah Siddons
Sarah Siddons
and Ching Lau Lauro
Ching Lau Lauro
in 1786 and 1834 respectively.[179][180] Leeds
Leeds
is also home to Phoenix Dance Theatre, who were formed in the Harehills
Harehills
area of the city in 1981, and Northern Ballet
Northern Ballet
Theatre.[181] In autumn 2010 the two companies moved into a purpose-built dance centre which is the largest space for dance outside London. It is also the only space for dance to house a national classical and a national contemporary dance company alongside each another.[182] The First Direct
First Direct
Arena[183] opened in September 2013. The 13,500 seater stadium is rapidly becoming the city's number one venue for live music, indoor sports and many other events. Concerts are also held at the O2 Academy, Elland
Elland
Road, which has hosted groups such as Queen and Kaiser Chiefs, among others and at the universities. Roundhay
Roundhay
Park in north Leeds
Leeds
has seen some of the world's biggest artists including Michael Jackson, Madonna, Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen
and Robbie Williams. Popular musical acts originating from Leeds
Leeds
include Soft Cell, Kaiser Chiefs, The Pigeon Detectives, The Wedding Present, The Sunshine Underground, The Sisters of Mercy, Hadouken!, Corinne Bailey Rae, Dinosaur Pile-Up, Pulled Apart By Horses, Gang of Four, Hood, The Rhythm Sisters, Utah Saints, Alt-J
Alt-J
and Melanie B
Melanie B
of the Spice Girls.[184][185][186][187][188][189]

Leeds
Leeds
First Direct
First Direct
Arena

On Valentine's Day, 1970 The Who
The Who
performed and recorded their album Live at Leeds
Live at Leeds
at the Leeds
Leeds
University refectory. Since its initial reception, Live at Leeds
Live at Leeds
has been cited by several music critics as the best live rock recording of all time.[190][191][192] Nightlife[edit] Leeds
Leeds
has the fourth largest student population in the country (over 200,000[193]), and is therefore one of the UK's hotspots for night-life. There are a large number of pubs, bars, nightclubs and restaurants, as well as a multitude of venues for live music. The full range of music tastes is catered for in Leeds. It includes the original home of the famous club nights Back 2 Basics, Speedqueen and Vague.[194] Morley was the location of techno club The Orbit.[195] Leeds
Leeds
has a number of large 'super-clubs' and there is a selection of independent clubs such as Club Mission and Mint Club, which is consistently ranked as one of the world's best clubs by DJ Magazine. Two other Leeds
Leeds
clubs, The Warehouse and The Garage featured in the Top 100 Clubs list from 2013.[196] Leeds
Leeds
has a well established gay nightlife scene. The Bridge Inn and The New Penny, both on Call Lane, have long been gay night spots.[197] Towards Millennium Square and the Civic or Northern Quarter, is a growing entertainment district providing for both students and weekend visitors. The square has many bars and restaurants and a large outdoor screen. Millennium Square is a venue for large seasonal events such as a Christmas market, gigs and concerts, citywide parties and the Rhythms of the City Festival. It is adjacent to the Mandela Gardens, which were opened by Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
in 2001. A number of public art features, fountains, a canal and greenery can be found here. Yorkshire
Yorkshire
has a great history of real ale,[198] but several bars near the railway station are fusing traditional beers with a modern bar. Popular bars such as this include The Hop, The Cross Keys and The Brewery Tap. Sports[edit] Main article: Sport in Leeds

Carnegie Pavilion at Headingley
Headingley
Stadium

Elland Road
Elland Road
Stadium

The city has teams representing all the major national sports. Leeds United F.C. is the city's main football club. Leeds Rhinos
Leeds Rhinos
(Rugby League), Leeds Carnegie
Leeds Carnegie
(Rugby Union) and Yorkshire
Yorkshire
County Cricket Club are also based in the city. Leeds
Leeds
United was formed in 1919 and plays at the 37,890 capacity Elland Road
Elland Road
stadium in Beeston. The team plays in The Championship but has enjoyed success at the highest level in the past, notably during the 1960s, and 1970s when it won two Football League
Football League
titles, an FA Cup, a Football League
Football League
Cup and an Inter-Cities Fairs Cup under the management of Don Revie. The club's only other major trophy to date came in 1992 when it won another top division title under the management of Howard Wilkinson – the last top division title of the Football League
Football League
before the creation of the FA Premier League, in which Leeds
Leeds
would play for 12 years before being relegated. Leeds Rhinos
Leeds Rhinos
are the most successful rugby league team in Leeds. In 2009 they became first club to be Super League
Super League
champions three seasons running, giving them their fourth Super League
Super League
title.[199] They play their home games at the Headingley
Headingley
Carnegie Stadium. Hunslet (previously Hunslet), based at the John Charles Centre for Sport
John Charles Centre for Sport
play in Co-Operative Championship One. East Leeds
Leeds
and Oulton Raiders play in the National Conference League. Bramley Buffaloes
Bramley Buffaloes
(previously Bramley), and Leeds Akkies were members of the Rugby League Conference. Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Carnegie, formerly known as Leeds
Leeds
Tykes and Leeds
Leeds
Carnegie, are the foremost rugby union team in Leeds
Leeds
and they play at Headingley Carnegie Stadium. They play in the RFU Championship
RFU Championship
having been relegated from The Guinness Premiership at the end of the 2010–11 season. Otley
Otley
R.U.F.C. are a rugby union club based to the north of the city and compete in National League 2 North, whilst Morley R.F.C., located in Morley currently play in National Division Three North. Headingley
Headingley
stadium is home to Yorkshire
Yorkshire
County Cricket
Cricket
Club which is the most successful cricket team in England, with over 31 County Championship wins. Their main rivals are Lancashire. Leeds United L.F.C.
Leeds United L.F.C.
are the best-placed women's football team in Leeds, competing at the highest level in England, the FA Women's Premier League National Division. Leeds
Leeds
City Athletic Club competes in the British Athletics League and UK Women's League as well as the Northern Athletics League. Leeds
Leeds
is home to a number of field hockey clubs that compete in the North Hockey League, Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Hockey Association League and BUCS leagues. These include Leeds
Leeds
Hockey Club, Leeds
Leeds
Adel Carnegie Hockey Club, the University of Leeds
University of Leeds
Hockey Club and Leeds
Leeds
Beckett University Hockey Club.[200][201][202][203][204] Leeds
Leeds
Hockey Club Men's 1s gained promotion at the end of the 2016/2017 season to become Leeds' first hockey team competing in a National League.[205] The City of Leeds
City of Leeds
Synchronised Swimming Club[206] train at the John Charles Centre for Sport and are represented by swimmers throughout the whole of the North East. The club was founded in 2008 and only compete in National and International Competition. The city has a wealth of sports facilities including the Elland
Elland
Road football stadium, a host stadium during the 1996 European Football Championship; the Headingley
Headingley
Carnegie Stadiums, adjacent stadia world-famous for both cricket and rugby league and the John Charles Centre for Sport with an Olympic sized pool in its Aquatics Centre[207] and includes a multi-use stadium. Other facilities include the Leeds
Leeds
Wall (climbing) and Yeadon Tarn sailing centre. In 1929 the first Ryder Cup of Golf to be held on British soil was competed for at the Moortown Golf club in Leeds
Leeds
and Wetherby
Wetherby
has a National Hunt racecourse.[208] In the period 1928 to 1939 speedway racing was staged in Leeds
Leeds
on a track at the greyhound stadium known as Fullerton Park, adjacent to Elland
Elland
Road. The track entered a team in the 1931 Northern league.

Headingley
Headingley
Stadium, home of the Leeds
Leeds
Rhinos.

The 2014 Tour de France
2014 Tour de France
Grand Départ took place from the Headrow
Headrow
in Leeds city centre
Leeds city centre
on 5 July 2014. Leeds
Leeds
is well known for its divers and features some of the best diving facilities in the UK. City of Leeds
City of Leeds
Diving Club who train at the John Charles Centre for Sport
John Charles Centre for Sport
has trained many athletes who have competed at international and Olympic level, with Jack Laugher
Jack Laugher
and Chris Mears making history by becoming the first ever divers from Great Britain to win an Olympic gold medal, a feat they accomplished at the 2016 Rio Olympics. Leeds
Leeds
teams[edit]

Club League Venue Location Established Top flight championships

Leeds
Leeds
United F.C. The Football League
Football League
Championship Football Elland Road
Elland Road
Stadium Beeston, Leeds 1919 3

Leeds
Leeds
United LFC FA Women's Premier League National Division
FA Women's Premier League National Division
Football Throstle Nest
Throstle Nest
Stadium Pudsey, Leeds 1989 0

Leeds
Leeds
Rhinos Super League
Super League
Rugby League Headingley
Headingley
Stadium Headingley, Leeds 1870 11

Hunslet Championship One Rugby League John Charles Centre for Sport Hunslet, Leeds. 1883 2

Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Carnegie RFU Championship
RFU Championship
Rugby Union Headingley
Headingley
Stadium Headingley, Leeds 1991 0

Yorkshire
Yorkshire
County Cricket
Cricket
Club County Championship
County Championship
Cricket Headingley
Headingley
Stadium Headingley, Leeds 1863 33

Leeds
Leeds
Force British Basketball League
British Basketball League
Basketball Carnegie Sports Centre Beckett Park 2006 0

Leeds
Leeds
Hockey Club England
England
Hockey Men's Conference North Sports Park Weetwood Headingley, Leeds 1924 0

Religion[edit] See also: List of places of worship in the City of Leeds

Leeds
Leeds
Minster

The majority of people in Leeds
Leeds
identify themselves as Christian.[72] Leeds
Leeds
does not have a Church of England
England
Cathedral: it is in the Anglican Diocese of Leeds
Anglican Diocese of Leeds
(formerly in the Diocese of Ripon
Ripon
and Leeds), headed by the Bishop
Bishop
of Leeds, which has cathedrals in Bradford, Ripon
Ripon
and Wakefield
Wakefield
although the Bishop's residence has been in Leeds
Leeds
since 2008. The most important Anglican church is Leeds Minster, although St. George's has the largest congregation by far.[citation needed] Leeds
Leeds
has a Roman Catholic Cathedral, the Episcopal seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Leeds. Many other Christian denominations and new religious movements are established in Leeds, including Assemblies of God, Baptist, Christian Scientist, Latter-day Saints
Latter-day Saints
("LDS" or "Mormon"), Community of Christ, Greek Orthodox, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jesus Army, Lutheran, Methodist, Moravian, Nazarene, Newfrontiers, Pentecostal, Salvation Army, Seventh-day Adventist, Society of Friends ("Quakers"), Unitarian, United Reformed, Vineyard, Wesleyan, an ecumenical Chinese church, Winners' Chapel
Winners' Chapel
and several independent churches.[209][210]

Sikh Temple, Chapeltown Road

Harehills
Harehills
Mosque

The proportion of Muslims in Leeds
Leeds
is slightly above average for the country (5.4% as of 2011).[72] Mosques can be found throughout the city, serving Muslim
Muslim
communities in Chapeltown, Harehills, Hyde Park and parts of Beeston. The largest mosque is Leeds Grand Mosque
Leeds Grand Mosque
in Hyde Park. The Sikh community is represented by gurudwaras (temples) spread across the city, the largest being in Chapeltown. There is also a colourful religious annual procession, called the Nagar Kirtan, into Millennium Square in the city centre on 13–14 April to celebrate Vaisakhi
Vaisakhi
– the Sikh New Year and the birth of the religion. It is estimated that around 3,000 Sikhs in Leeds
Leeds
take part in this annual event. Leeds' Jewish
Jewish
community is the third-largest in the United Kingdom[citation needed], after London
London
and Greater Manchester. The areas of Alwoodley
Alwoodley
and Moortown contain sizeable Jewish populations.[73] There are eight active synagogues in Leeds.[211] The Hindu community in Leeds
Leeds
has a temple (mandir) at Hyde Park.[212] The temple has all the major Hindu deities and is dedicated to the Lord Mahavira
Mahavira
of the Jains.[213] Various Buddhist traditions are represented in Leeds,[214] including: Soka Gakkai, Theravada, Tibetan, Triratna Buddhist Community
Triratna Buddhist Community
and Zen. The Buddhist community (sangha) comes together to celebrate the major festival of Wesak in May. There is also a community of the Bahai Faith in Leeds.[215] Public services[edit] Water supply and sewerage services in Leeds
Leeds
are provided by Yorkshire Water, part of the Kelda Group. Prior to 1973 it had been provided by the Leeds
Leeds
Corporation. Leeds City Council
Leeds City Council
has a target of 11MW of renewable energy from onshore wind by 2010 and an aspirational target of 75MW by 2020. There are currently no operational wind farms in Leeds, but a planning application by Banks Renewables Ltd
Banks Renewables Ltd
for five turbines at Hook Moor near Micklefield
Micklefield
was approved in 2011.[216]

Leeds
Leeds
Central Library.

The area is policed by the West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Police. The force has five policing districts covering the West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
area, one of which covers Leeds. The Leeds
Leeds
District Headquarters is located at Elland Road in the South of the City. In the North West of the City the main stations are Weetwood
Weetwood
and Woodhouse Lane; in the North East the main stations are Stainbeck near Chapel Allerton
Chapel Allerton
and Killingbeck; in the South the main stations are Leeds
Leeds
Central located on Park Street in the city centre and the District Headquarters itself. Fire and rescue services are provided by the West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Fire and Rescue Service. The fire stations in Leeds
Leeds
are: Cookridge, Gipton, Hunslet, Stanks, Moortown, Stanningley
Stanningley
and the "Leeds" fire station (near city centre, on Kirkstall
Kirkstall
Road). Health services are provided by the Leeds
Leeds
Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds
Leeds
Primary Care Trust[217] and Leeds
Leeds
and York
York
Partnership NHS Foundation Trust[218][219] which provides mental health services. Leeds General Infirmary
Leeds General Infirmary
("LGI") is a listed building with more recent additions and is in the city centre. St James's University Hospital, known locally as "Jimmy's"[220][221] is to the north east of the city centre and is the largest teaching hospital in Europe. Other NHS hospitals are Chapel Allerton
Chapel Allerton
Hospital, Seacroft
Seacroft
Hospital, Wharfedale Hospital in Otley, and Leeds
Leeds
Dental Institute. The new NHS Leeds Website provides information on NHS services in Leeds.[222] West Yorkshire
West Yorkshire
Joint Services provides analytical, archaeological, archives, ecology, materials testing and trading standards services in Leeds
Leeds
and the other four districts of West Yorkshire. It was created following the abolition of the county council in 1986 and expanded in 1997, and is funded by the five district councils, pro rata to their population. The Leeds
Leeds
site of the archives service is in the former public library at Sheepscar, Leeds.[223] Leeds City Council
Leeds City Council
is responsible for over 50 public libraries across the whole city, including 5 mobile libraries. The main Central Library is located on the Headrow
Headrow
in the city centre. See also[edit]

Yorkshire
Yorkshire
portal

List of people from Leeds

References and notes[edit]

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Bibliography

Burt and Grady (1994). The Illustrated History of Leeds. Breedon Books. ISBN 9781873626351.  Fraser, Derek (1982). A History of Modern Leeds. Manchester
Manchester
University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-0781-1.  Unsworth and Stillwell (2004). Twenty-First Century Leeds: Geographies of a Regional City. Leeds: Leeds
Leeds
University Press. ISBN 0-85316-242-5. 

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