Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Russian: И́горь Фёдорович
Страви́нский, IPA: [ˈiɡərʲ ˈfʲɵdərəvʲɪtɕ
strɐˈvʲinskʲɪj]; 17 June [O.S. 5 June] 1882 – 6
April 1971) was a Russian-born composer, pianist, and conductor. He is
widely considered one of the most important and influential composers
of the 20th century.
Stravinsky's compositional career was notable for its stylistic
diversity. He first achieved international fame with three ballets
commissioned by the impresario
Serge Diaghilev and first performed in
Paris by Diaghilev's Ballets Russes:
The Firebird (1910), Petrushka
The Rite of Spring
The Rite of Spring (1913). The last of these transformed
the way in which subsequent composers thought about rhythmic structure
and was largely responsible for Stravinsky's enduring reputation as a
musical revolutionary who pushed the boundaries of musical design. His
"Russian phase" which continued with works such as Renard, the
Soldier's Tale and Les Noces, was followed in the 1920s by a period in
which he turned to neoclassical music. The works from this period
tended to make use of traditional musical forms (concerto grosso,
fugue and symphony), drawing on earlier styles, especially from the
18th century. In the 1950s, Stravinsky adopted serial procedures. His
compositions of this period shared traits with examples of his earlier
output: rhythmic energy, the construction of extended melodic ideas
out of a few two- or three-note cells and clarity of form, and of
1.1 Early life in the Russian Empire
1.2 Stravinsky and Ukraine
1.3 Life in Switzerland
1.4 Life in France
1.5 Life in the United States
2.1 Russian period (c. 1907–1919)
2.2 Neoclassical period (c. 1920–1954)
2.3 Serial period (1954–1968)
3 Innovation and influence
8 Recordings and publications
11 Further reading
12 External links
12.1 General information
12.2 Recordings and videos
Early life in the Russian Empire
Igor Stravinsky, 1903
Stravinsky was born on 17 June 1882 in Oranienbaum, a suburb of Saint
Petersburg, the Russian imperial capital, and was brought up in
Saint Petersburg. His parents were
Fyodor Stravinsky (1843–1902),
a well-known bass at the
Kiev opera house and the
Mariinsky Theatre in
St. Petersburg, and Anna (née Kholodovsky; 1854-1939), a native of
Kiev, one of four daughters of a high-ranking official in the Kiev
Ministry of Estates. Fyodor was "descended from a long line of Polish
grandees, senators and landowners." It is believed that
Stravinsky’s ancestry is traceable back to the 17th and 18th
centuries, to the bearers of the Soulima and Strawinski Coat of
Arms. Stravinsky's family branch most likely came from Stravinskas,
polonized Lithuanian (or Belarussian) land owners, and nobles of the
Grand Duchy of Lithuania. According to Stravinsky himself, his family
originally had a Soulima-Stravinsky surname, and the name "Stravinsky"
originated from the word "Strava", which is one of the variants of the
Streva River in
Trakai and Kaunas District). It is still
unclear exactly when the Soulima part of the surname was
dropped.[clarification needed][page needed]
Stravinsky recalled his schooldays as being lonely, later saying that
"I never came across anyone who had any real attraction for me".
Stravinsky began piano lessons as a young boy, studying music theory
and attempting composition. In 1890, he saw a performance of
Tchaikovsky's ballet The Sleeping Beauty at the Mariinsky Theatre. By
age fifteen, he had mastered Mendelssohn's Piano Concerto in G minor
and finished a piano reduction of a string quartet by Glazunov, who
reportedly considered Stravinsky unmusical and thought little of his
Despite his enthusiasm for music, his parents expected him to study
law. Stravinsky enrolled at the University of
Saint Petersburg in
1901, but he attended fewer than fifty class sessions during his four
years of study. In the summer of 1902, Stravinsky stayed with
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov and his family in the German city of
Heidelberg, where Rimsky-Korsakov, arguably the leading Russian
composer at that time, suggested to Stravinsky that he should not
Saint Petersburg Conservatoire but instead study composing
by taking private lessons, in large part because of his age.
Stravinsky's father died of cancer that year, by which time his son
had already begun spending more time on his musical studies than on
law. The university was closed for two months in 1905 in the
aftermath of Bloody Sunday: Stravinsky was prevented from taking
his final law examinations and later received a half-course diploma in
April 1906. Thereafter, he concentrated on studying music. In 1905,
he began to take twice-weekly private lessons from Rimsky-Korsakov,
whom he came to regard as a second father. These lessons continued
until Rimsky-Korsakov's death in 1908.
In 1905, Stravinsky was engaged to his cousin Katherine Gavrylivna
Nosenko (called "Katya"), whom he had known since early childhood.
In spite of the Orthodox Church's opposition to marriage between first
cousins, the couple married on 23 January 1906: their first two
children, Fyodor (Theodore) and Ludmila, were born in 1907 and 1908,
In February 1909, two of Stravinsky's orchestral works, the Scherzo
Feu d'artifice (Fireworks) were performed at a concert
in Saint Petersburg, where they were heard by Serge Diaghilev, who was
at that time involved in planning to present Russian opera and ballet
in Paris. Diaghilev was sufficiently impressed by Fireworks to
commission Stravinsky to carry out some orchestrations and then to
compose a full-length ballet score, The Firebird.
Stravinsky and Ukraine
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Igor Stravinsky's house-museum in Ustilug, now in Ukraine.
From approximately 1890 until 1914 the composer frequently visited
Ustilug, a town in the modern Volyn Oblast, Ukraine. He spent most
of his summers there, where he also met his cousin, Katherine Nosenko
(daughter of his mother’s sister), whom he married in 1906. In 1907,
Stravinsky designed and built his own house in Ustilug, which he
called "my heavenly place". In this house, Stravinsky worked on
seventeen of his early compositions, among them Feu d'artifice, The
Firebird, Petrushka, and The Rite of Spring. Recently renovated, this
is the only Stravinsky house-museum that is open to the public. Many
documents, letters, and photographs are on display there, and a
Stravinsky Festival is held annually in the nearby town of
Life in Switzerland
Stravinsky became an overnight sensation following the success of the
Firebird's premiere in Paris on 25 June 1910. The composer had
travelled from his estate in
Ustilug to Paris in early June to attend
the final rehearsals and the premiere of The Firebird. His family
joined him before the end of the ballet season and they decided to
remain in the West for a time, as his wife was expecting their third
child. After spending the summer in La Baule, Brittany, they moved to
Switzerland in early September. On 23 September, their second son
Sviatoslav Soulima was born at a maternity clinic in Lausanne; at the
end of the month, they took up residence in Clarens.
Vaslav Nijinsky as
Petrushka in 1910–11
Over the next four years, Stravinsky and his family lived in Russia
during the summer months and spent each winter in Switzerland.
During this period, Stravinsky composed two further works for the
Petrushka (1911), and
The Rite of Spring
The Rite of Spring (1913).
Shortly following the premiere of
The Rite of Spring
The Rite of Spring on 29 May 1913,
Stravinsky contracted typhoid from eating bad oysters, and was
confined to a Paris nursing home, unable to depart for
During the remainder of the summer, Stravinsky turned his attention to
completing his first opera, the Nightingale (usually known by its
French title Le Rossignol), which he had begun in 1908 (that is,
before his association with the Ballets Russes). The work had been
commissioned by the Moscow Free Theatre for the handsome fee of 10,000
The Stravinsky family returned to Switzerland (as usual) in the fall
of 1913. On 15 January 1914, a fourth child, Marie Milène (or Maria
Milena), was born in Lausanne. After her delivery, Katya was
discovered to have tuberculosis and was confined to the sanatorium at
Leysin, high in the Alps. Igor and the family took up residence
nearby, and he completed Le Rossignol there on 28 March.
In April, they were finally able to return to Clarens. By then,
the Moscow Free Theatre had gone bankrupt. As a result, Le
Rossignol was first performed under Diaghilev's auspices at the Paris
Opéra on 26 May 1914, with sets and costumes designed by Alexandre
Benois. Le Rossignol enjoyed only lukewarm success with the public
and the critics, apparently because its delicacy did not meet their
expectations of the composer of The Rite of Spring. However,
composers including Maurice Ravel, Béla Bartók, and Reynaldo Hahn
found much to admire in the score's craftsmanship, even alleging to
detect the influence of Arnold Schoenberg.
In July, with war looming, Stravinsky made a quick trip to
retrieve personal effects including his reference works on Russian
folk music. He returned to Switzerland just before national borders
closed following the outbreak of World War I. The war and
Russian Revolution made it impossible for Stravinsky to
return to his homeland, and he did not set foot upon Russian soil
again until October 1962.
In June 1915, Stravinsky and his family moved from Clarens to Morges,
a town six miles south-west of
Lausanne on the shore of Lake Geneva.
The family lived there (at three different addresses) until 1920.
Stravinsky struggled financially during this period. Russia (and its
successor, the USSR) did not adhere to the
Berne Convention and this
created problems for Stravinsky when collecting royalties for the
performances of all his
Ballets Russes compositions. Stravinsky
blamed Diaghilev for his financial troubles, accusing him of failing
to live up to the terms of a contract they had signed. He
approached the Swiss philanthropist
Werner Reinhart for financial
assistance while he was writing
L'Histoire du soldat (The Soldier's
Tale). Reinhart sponsored and largely underwrote its first
performance, conducted by
Ernest Ansermet on 28 September 1918 at the
Théâtre Municipal de Lausanne. In gratitude, Stravinsky
dedicated the work to Reinhart and gave him the original
manuscript. Reinhart supported Stravinsky further when he funded a
series of concerts of his chamber music in 1919: included was a suite
L'Histoire du soldat arranged for violin, piano and clarinet,
which was first performed on 8 November 1919, in Lausanne. In
gratitude to his benefactor, Stravinsky also dedicated his Three
Pieces for Clarinet (October–November 1918) to Reinhart, who was an
excellent amateur clarinetist.
Stravinsky as drawn by Picasso in Paris on 31 December 1920
Life in France
Following the premiere of Pulcinella by the
Ballets Russes in Paris on
15 May 1920, Stravinsky returned to Switzerland. On 8 June, the
entire family left
Morges for the last time, and moved to the fishing
village of Carantec in Brittany for the summer while also seeking a
new home in Paris. On hearing of their dilemma, couturière Coco
Chanel invited Stravinsky and his family to reside at her new mansion
"Bel Respiro" in the Paris suburb of Garches until they could find a
more suitable residence; they arrived during the second week of
September. At the same time, Chanel also guaranteed the new
Ballets Russes production of Stravinsky's The Rite of
Spring with an anonymous gift to Diaghilev, said to have been 300,000
Stravinsky formed a business and musical relationship with the French
piano manufacturing company Pleyel. Pleyel essentially acted as his
agent in collecting mechanical royalties for his works and provided
him with a monthly income and a studio space at its headquarters in
which he could work and entertain friends and business
acquaintances. Under the terms of his contract with the company,
Stravinsky agreed to arrange (and to some extent re-compose) many of
his early works for the Pleyela, Pleyel's brand of player piano.
He did so in a way that made full use of all of the piano's
eighty-eight notes, without regard for human fingers or hands. The
rolls were not recorded, but were instead marked up from a combination
of manuscript fragments and handwritten notes by Jacques Larmanjat,
musical director of Pleyel's roll department. Among the compositions
that were issued on the Pleyela piano rolls are The Rite of Spring,
Petrushka, The Firebird, and Song of the Nightingale. During the
1920s, Stravinsky recorded Duo-Art rolls for the
Aeolian Company in
both London and New York, not all of which have survived.
Patronage was never far away. In the early 1920s, Leopold Stokowski
gave Stravinsky regular support through a pseudonymous
Vera de Bosset
Vera de Bosset Sudeikin
Vera de Bosset
Vera de Bosset in Paris in February 1921, while she
was married to the painter and stage designer Serge Sudeikin, and they
began an affair that led to Vera leaving her husband.
In May 1921, Stravinsky and his family moved to Anglet, near Biarritz,
southwestern France. From then until his wife's death in 1939,
Stravinsky led a double life, dividing his time between his family in
Anglet, and Vera in Paris and on tour. Katya reportedly bore her
husband's infidelity "with a mixture of magnanimity, bitterness, and
In September 1924, Stravinsky bought "an expensive house" in Nice: the
Villa des Roses.
From 1931 to 1933, the Stravinskys lived in Voreppe, near Grenoble,
The Stravinskys became French citizens in 1934 and moved to the rue du
Faubourg Saint-Honoré in Paris. Stravinsky later remembered this
last European address as his unhappiest, as his wife's tuberculosis
infected both himself and his eldest daughter Ludmila, who died in
1938. Katya, to whom he had been married for 33 years, died of
tuberculosis three months later, in March 1939. Stravinsky himself
spent five months in hospital, during which time his mother died.
During his later years in Paris, Stravinsky had developed professional
relationships with key people in the United States: he was already
working on his
Symphony in C for the Chicago
and he had agreed to deliver the prestigious Charles Eliot Norton
Harvard University during the 1939–40 academic year.
Stravinsky on the cover of Time (July 26, 1948)
Life in the United States
Despite the outbreak of
World War II
World War II on 1 September 1939, the widowed
Stravinsky sailed (alone) for the United States at the end of the
month, arriving in
New York City
New York City and thence to Cambridge,
Massachusetts, to fulfill his engagement at
Harvard.[page needed] Vera followed him in January, and they
were married in Bedford, Massachusetts, on 9 March 1940.
Stravinsky settled in West Hollywood. He spent more time living in
Los Angeles than any other city. He became a naturalized United
States citizen in 1945.
Stravinsky had adapted to life in France, but moving to America at the
age of 57 was a very different prospect. For a while, he maintained a
circle of contacts and émigré friends from Russia, but he eventually
found that this did not sustain his intellectual and professional
life. He was drawn to the growing cultural life of Los Angeles,
especially during World War II, when so many writers, musicians,
composers and conductors settled in the area: these included Otto
Klemperer, Thomas Mann, Franz Werfel,
George Balanchine and Arthur
Bernard Holland claimed Stravinsky was especially fond of
British writers, who visited him in Beverly Hills, "like W. H. Auden,
Christopher Isherwood, Dylan Thomas. They shared the composer's taste
for hard spirits – especially Aldous Huxley, with whom Stravinsky
spoke in French". Stravinsky and Huxley had a tradition of
Saturday lunches for west coast avant-garde and luminaries.
Grave of Stravinsky in San Michele Island, Orthodox section, Venice
Stravinsky's unconventional dominant seventh chord in his arrangement
of the "Star-Spangled Banner" led to an incident with the Boston
police on 15 January 1944, and he was warned that the authorities
could impose a $100 fine upon any "re-arrangement of the national
anthem in whole or in part". The police, as it turned out, were
wrong. The law in question merely forbade using the national anthem
"as dance music, as an exit march, or as a part of a medley of any
kind", but the incident soon established itself as a myth, in
which Stravinsky was supposedly arrested, held in custody for several
nights, and photographed for police records.
Stravinsky's professional life encompassed most of the 20th century,
including many of its modern classical music styles, and he influenced
composers both during and after his lifetime. Included among his
students in the 1940s was the American composer and music educator
Robert Strassburg. In 1959, he was awarded the Sonning Award,
Denmark's highest musical honour. In 1962, he accepted an invitation
to return to
Leningrad for a series of concerts. During his stay in
the USSR, he visited Moscow and met several leading Soviet composers,
Dmitri Shostakovich and Aram Khachaturian.
In 1969, Stravinsky moved to the Essex House in New York, where he
lived until his death in 1971 at age 88 of heart failure. He was
buried at San Michele, close to the tomb of Sergei Diaghilev.
He has a star on the
Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame and in 1987 he was
posthumously awarded the
Grammy Award for Lifetime Achievement. He was
posthumously inducted into the National Museum of Dance's Mr. &
Mrs. Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney Hall of Fame in 2004.
Further information: List of compositions by Igor Stravinsky
Stravinsky's output is typically divided into three general style
periods: a Russian period, a neoclassical period, and a serial period.
Stravinsky and Rimsky-Korsakov (seated together on the left) in 1908
Russian period (c. 1907–1919)
Aside from a very few surviving earlier works, Stravinsky's Russian
period, sometimes called primitive period, began with compositions
undertaken under the tutelage of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, with whom he
studied from 1905 until Rimsky's death in 1908, including the
Symphony in E♭ major (1907), Faun and Shepherdess
(for mezzo-soprano and orchestra; 1907),
Scherzo fantastique (1908),
Feu d'artifice (1908/9). These works clearly reveal the
influence of Rimsky-Korsakov, but as
Richard Taruskin has shown, they
also reveal Stravinsky's knowledge of music by Glazunov, Taneyev,
Tchaikovsky, Wagner, Dvořák, and Debussy, among others.
In 1908, Stravinsky composed Funeral Song (Погребальная
песня), Op. 5 to commemorate the death of Nikolai
Rimsky-Korsakov. The piece premiered 17 January 1909 in the Grand Hall
Saint Petersburg Conservatory but was then lost until September
2015, when it resurfaced in a back room of the city's
Conservatoire. It was played again for the first time in over a
century on 2 December 2016. The rediscovery generated much enthusiasm
and, as a result, over 25 performances are scheduled in 2017 and
Performances in St. Petersburg of
Scherzo fantastique and Feu
d'artifice attracted the attention of Serge Diaghilev, who
commissioned Stravinsky to orchestrate two piano works of Chopin for
Les Sylphides to be presented in the 1909 debut "Saison
Russe" of his new ballet company.
The Firebird was first performed at the Paris Opéra on 25 June 1910
by Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. Like Stravinsky's earlier student
The Firebird continued to look backward to Rimsky-Korsakov not
only in its orchestration, but also in its overall structure, harmonic
organization, and melodic content.
According to Taruskin, Stravinsky's second ballet for the Ballet
Russes, Petrushka, is where "Stravinsky at last became
The music itself makes significant use of a number of Russian folk
tunes in addition to two waltzes by Viennese composer Joseph Lanner
and a French music hall tune (La Jambe en bois or The Wooden Leg).
In April 1915, Stravinsky received a commission from Winnaretta Singer
(Princesse Edmond de Polignac) for a small-scale theatrical work to be
performed in her Paris salon. The result was Renard (1916), which he
called "A burlesque in song and dance". Renard was Stravinsky's
first venture into experimental theatre: the composer's preface to the
score specifies a trestle stage on which all the performers (including
the instrumentalists) were to appear simultaneously and
Neoclassical period (c. 1920–1954)
Stravinsky conducting in 1965
Apollon musagète (1928), Perséphone (1933) and Orpheus (1947)
exemplify not only Stravinsky's return to the music of the Classical
period, but also his exploration of themes from the ancient Classical
world, such as Greek mythology. Important works in this period include
the Octet (1923), the Concerto for Piano and Winds (1924), the
Serenade in A (1925), and
Symphony of Psalms (1930). In 1951, he
completed his last neo-classical work, the opera the "Rake's
Progress," to a libretto by
W. H. Auden
W. H. Auden and
Chester Kallman that was
based on the etchings of William Hogarth. It premiered in Venice that
year and was produced around Europe the following year, before being
staged in the New York
Metropolitan Opera in 1953. It was staged
Santa Fe Opera
Santa Fe Opera in a 1962 Stravinsky Festival in honor of the
composer's 80th birthday and was revived by the
Metropolitan Opera in
Serial period (1954–1968)
In the 1950s, Stravinsky began using serial compositional techniques
such as dodecaphony, the twelve-tone technique originally devised by
Arnold Schoenberg. He first experimented with non-twelve-tone
serial techniques in small-scale vocal and chamber works such as the
Cantata (1952), the Septet (1953) and Three Songs from Shakespeare
(1953). The first of his compositions fully based on such techniques
was In Memoriam
Dylan Thomas (1954). Agon (1954–57) was the first of
his works to include a twelve-tone series and
Canticum Sacrum (1955)
was the first piece to contain a movement entirely based on a tone
row. Stravinsky expanded his use of dodecaphony in works such as
Threni (1958) and
A Sermon, a Narrative and a Prayer
A Sermon, a Narrative and a Prayer (1961), which are
based on biblical texts, and The Flood (1962), which mixes brief
biblical texts from the
Book of Genesis
Book of Genesis with passages from the York
and Chester Mystery Plays.
Stravinsky with Wilhelm Furtwängler, German conductor and composer.
Innovation and influence
Stravinsky has been called "one of music's truly epochal
innovators". The most important aspect of Stravinsky's work, aside
from his technical innovations (including in rhythm and harmony), is
the 'changing face' of his compositional style while always 'retaining
a distinctive, essential identity'.
Stravinsky's use of motivic development (the use of musical figures
that are repeated in different guises throughout a composition or
section of a composition) included additive motivic development. This
is where notes are subtracted or added to a motif without regard to
the consequent changes in metre. A similar technique can be found as
early as the 16th century, for example in the music of Cipriano de
Rore, Orlandus Lassus,
Carlo Gesualdo and Giovanni de Macque, music
with which Stravinsky exhibited considerable familiarity.
The Rite of Spring
The Rite of Spring is notable for its relentless use of ostinati, for
example in the eighth-note ostinato on strings accented by eight horns
in the section "Augurs of Spring (Dances of the Young Girls)". The
work also contains passages where several ostinati clash against one
another. Stravinsky was noted for his distinctive use of rhythm,
especially in the Rite of Spring (1913). According to the composer
Philip Glass, "the idea of pushing the rhythms across the bar lines
[...] led the way [...]. The rhythmic structure of music became much
more fluid and in a certain way spontaneous". Glass mentions
Stravinsky's "primitive, offbeat rhythmic drive". According to
Andrew J. Browne, "Stravinsky is perhaps the only composer who has
raised rhythm in itself to the dignity of art". Stravinsky's
rhythm and vitality greatly influenced the composer Aaron Copland.
Over the course of his career, Stravinsky called for a wide variety of
orchestral, instrumental, and vocal forces, ranging from single
instruments in such works as Three Pieces for Clarinet (1918) or Elegy
for Solo Viola (1944) to the enormous orchestra of The Rite of Spring
Aaron Copland characterized as "the foremost orchestral
achievement of the 20th century."
Stravinsky’s creation of unique and idiosyncratic ensembles arising
from the specific musical nature of individual works is a basic
element of his style.
Following the model of his teacher, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov,
Stravinsky’s student works such as the
Symphony in E♭, Op. 1
(1907), Scherzo fantastique, Op. 3 (1908), and Fireworks (Feu
d'artifice), Op. 4 (1908), call for large orchestral forces. This is
not surprising, as the works were as much exercises in orchestration
as in composition. The Symphony, for example, calls
for 3 flutes (3rd doubles piccolo); 2 oboes; 3 clarinets in B♭; 2
bassoons; 4 horns in F; 3 trumpets in B♭; 3 trombones, tuba,
timpani, bass drum, triangle, cymbals, and strings. The Scherzo
fantastique calls for a slightly larger orchestra but completely omits
trombones: this was Stravinsky’s response to Rimsky’s criticism of
their overuse in the Symphony.
A costume sketch by
Léon Bakst for The Firebird
The three ballets composed for Diaghilev's
Ballets Russes call for
particularly large orchestras:
The Firebird (1910) requires winds in fours, 4 horns, 3 trumpets (in
A), 3 trombones, tuba, celesta, 3 harps, piano, and strings. The
percussion section calls for timpani, bass drum, cymbals, triangle,
tambourine, tamtam, tubular bells, glockenspiel, and xylophone. In
addition, the original version calls for 3 onstage trumpets and 4
onstage Wagner tubas (2 tenor and 2 bass).
The original version of
Petrushka (1911) calls for a similar orchestra
(without onstage brass, but with the addition of onstage snare drum).
The particularly prominent role of the piano is the result of the
music's origin as a Konzertstück for piano and orchestra.[citation
The Rite of Spring
The Rite of Spring (1913) calls for the largest orchestra Stravinsky
ever employed: piccolo, 3 flutes (3rd doubles 2nd piccolo), alto
flute, 4 oboes (4th doubles 2nd cor anglais), cor anglais, piccolo
clarinet in D/E♭, 3 clarinets (3rd doubles 2nd bass clarinet), bass
clarinet, piccolo clarinet, 4 bassoons (4th doubles 2nd
contrabassoon), contrabassoon, 8 horns (7th and 8th double tenor
Wagner tubas), piccolo trumpet in D, 4 trumpets in C (4th doubles bass
trumpet in E♭), 3 trombones (2 tenor, 1 bass), 2 tubas. Percussion
includes 5 timpani (2 players), bass drum, tamtam, triangle,
tambourine, cymbals, antique cymbals, guiro, and strings. (Piano,
celesta, and harp are not included.)
Stravinsky displayed a taste in literature that was wide and reflected
his constant desire for new discoveries. The texts and literary
sources for his work began with a period of interest in Russian
folklore, which progressed to classical authors and the Latin liturgy
and moved on to contemporary France (André Gide, in Persephone) and
eventually English literature, including W. H. Auden, T. S. Eliot, and
medieval English verse.
Pablo Picasso collaborated on Pulcinella in 1920.
Picasso took the opportunity to make several sketches of the composer.
He also had an inexhaustible desire to explore and learn about art,
which manifested itself in several of his Paris collaborations. Not
only was he the principal composer for Diaghilev's Ballets Russes, but
he also collaborated with
Pablo Picasso (Pulcinella, 1920), Jean
Cocteau (Oedipus Rex, 1927), and
George Balanchine (Apollon musagète,
1928). His interest in art propelled him to develop a strong
relationship with Picasso, whom he met in 1917, announcing that in "a
whirlpool of artistic enthusiasm and excitement I at last met
Picasso." From 1917 to 1920, the two engaged in an artistic
dialogue in which they exchanged small-scale works of art to each
other as a sign of intimacy, which included the famous portrait of
Stravinsky by Picasso,[not in citation given] and Stravinsky's
"Sketch of Music for the Clarinet". This exchange was essential to
establish how the artists would approach their collaborative space in
According to Robert Craft, Stravinsky remained a confirmed monarchist
throughout his life and loathed the Bolsheviks from the very
beginning.[page needed] In 1930, he remarked, "I don't
believe that anyone venerates Mussolini more than I ... I know many
exalted personages, and my artist's mind does not shrink from
political and social issues. Well, after having seen so many events
and so many more or less representative men, I have an overpowering
urge to render homage to your Duce. He is the saviour of Italy and –
let us hope – Europe". Later, after a private audience with
Mussolini, he added, "Unless my ears deceive me, the voice of Rome is
the voice of Il Duce. I told him that I felt like a fascist myself...
In spite of being extremely busy, Mussolini did me the great honour of
conversing with me for three-quarters of an hour. We talked about
music, art and politics". When the Nazis placed Stravinsky's
works on the list of "Entartete Musik", he lodged a formal appeal to
establish his Russian genealogy and declared, "I loathe all communism,
Marxism, the execrable Soviet monster, and also all liberalism,
democratism, atheism, etc."[page needed]
Towards the end of his life, at Craft's behest, Stravinsky made a
return visit to his native country and composed a cantata in Hebrew,
travelling to Israel for its performance.
Stravinsky proved adept at playing the part of a 'man of the world',
acquiring a keen instinct for business matters and appearing relaxed
and comfortable in public. His successful career as a pianist and
conductor took him to many of the world's major cities, including
Paris, Venice, Berlin, London,
Amsterdam and New York and he was known
for his polite, courteous and helpful manner. Stravinsky was reputed
to have been a philanderer and was rumoured to have had affairs with
high-profile partners, such as Coco Chanel. He never referred to it
himself, but Chanel spoke about the alleged affair at length to her
Paul Morand in 1946; the conversation was published thirty
years later. The accuracy of Chanel's claims has been disputed by
both Stravinsky's widow, Vera, and by Craft. Chanel's fashion
house avers there is no evidence that any affair between Chanel and
Stravinsky ever occurred. A fictionalization of the supposed
affair formed the basis of the novel
Coco and Igor
Coco and Igor (2002) and a film,
Coco Chanel &
Igor Stravinsky (2009). Despite these alleged
liaisons, Stravinsky was considered a family man and devoted to his
Stravinsky was a devout member of the
Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church during
most of his life, remarking at one time that, "Music praises God.
Music is well or better able to praise him than the building of the
church and all its decoration; it is the Church's greatest
Although Stravinsky was not outspoken about his faith, he was a deeply
religious man throughout some periods of his life. As a child, he was
brought up by his parents in the Russian Orthodox Church. Baptized at
birth, he later rebelled against the Church and abandoned it by the
time he was fourteen or fifteen years old. Throughout the rise of
his career he was estranged from Christianity and it was not until he
reached his early forties that he experienced a spiritual crisis.
After befriending a Russian Orthodox priest, Father Nicholas, after
his move to
Nice in 1924, he reconnected with his faith. He rejoined
Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church and afterwards remained a committed
Robert Craft noted that Stravinsky prayed daily,
before and after composing, and also prayed when facing
difficulty. Towards the end of his life, he was no longer able to
attend church services. In his late seventies, Stravinsky said:
I cannot now evaluate the events that, at the end of those thirty
years, made me discover the necessity of religious belief. I was not
reasoned into my disposition. Though I admire the structured thought
of theology (Anselm's proof in the Fides Quaerens Intellectum, for
instance) it is to religion no more than counterpoint exercises are to
music. I do not believe in bridges of reason or, indeed, in any form
of extrapolation in religious matters. ... I can say, however, that
for some years before my actual "conversion", a mood of acceptance had
been cultivated in me by a reading of the Gospels and by other
Portrait of Stravinsky (1918) by Robert Delaunay, in the Garman Ryan
If Stravinsky's stated intention was "to send them all to hell",
then he may have rated the 1913 premiere of
The Rite of Spring
The Rite of Spring as a
success: it is a famous classical music riot and Stravinsky referred
to it on several occasions in his autobiography as a scandale.
There were reports of fistfights in the audience and the need for a
police presence during the second act. The real extent of the tumult
is open to debate and the reports may be apocryphal.
In 1998, Time magazine named Stavinsky as one of the 100 most
influential people of the century. In addition to the recognition
he received for his compositions, he achieved fame as a pianist and a
conductor, often at the premieres of his works. In 1923, Erik Satie
wrote an article about
Igor Stravinsky in Vanity Fair. Satie had
met Stravinsky for the first time in 1910. In the published article,
Satie argued that measuring the "greatness" of an artist by comparing
him to other artists, as if speaking about some "truth", is illusory
and that every piece of music should be judged on its own merits and
not by comparing it to the standards of other composers. That was
Jean Cocteau did when he commented deprecatingly on
Stravinsky in his 1918 book, Le Coq et
The Musical Times in 1923:
All the signs indicate a strong reaction against the nightmare of
noise and eccentricity that was one of the legacies of the war....
What (for example) has become of the works that made up the program of
the Stravinsky concert which created such a stir a few years ago?
Practically the whole lot are already on the shelf, and they will
remain there until a few jaded neurotics once more feel a desire to
eat ashes and fill their belly with the east wind.
In 1935, the American composer
Marc Blitzstein compared Stravinsky to
Jacopo Peri and C.P.E. Bach, conceding that, "there is no denying the
greatness of Stravinsky. It is just that he is not great enough".
Blitzstein's Marxist position was that Stravinsky's wish to "divorce
music from other streams of life", which is "symptomatic of an escape
from reality", resulted in a "loss of stamina", naming specifically
Apollo, the Capriccio, and Le Baiser de la fée.
Constant Lambert described pieces such as L'Histoire du
soldat as containing "essentially cold-blooded abstraction".
Lambert continued, "melodic fragments in Histoire du Soldat are
completely meaningless themselves. They are merely successions of
notes that can conveniently be divided into groups of three, five, and
seven and set against other mathematical groups" and he described the
cadenza for solo drums as "musical purity ... achieved by a species of
musical castration". He compared Stravinsky's choice of "the drabbest
and least significant phrases" to Gertrude Stein's 'Everyday they were
gay there, they were regularly gay there everyday' ("Helen Furr and
Georgine Skeene", 1922), "whose effect would be equally appreciated by
someone with no knowledge of English whatsoever".
1982 U.S. commemorative stamp from the
Great Americans series
Great Americans series honoring
In his 1949 book Philosophy of Modern Music, Theodor W. Adorno
described Stravinsky as an acrobat and spoke of hebephrenic and
psychotic traits in several of Stravinsky's works. Contrary to a
common misconception, Adorno didn't believe the hebephrenic and
psychotic imitations that the music was supposed to contain were its
main fault, as he pointed out in a postscript that he added later to
his book. Adorno's criticism of Stravinsky is more concerned with the
"transition to positivity" Adorno found in his neoclassical
works. Part of the composer's error, in Adorno's view, was his
neoclassicism, but of greater importance was his music's
"pseudomorphism of painting", playing off le temps espace (time-space)
rather than le temps durée (time-duration) of Henri Bergson.
According to Adorno, "one trick characterizes all of Stravinsky's
formal endeavors: the effort of his music to portray time as in a
circus tableau and to present time complexes as though they were
spatial. This trick, however, soon exhausts itself". Adorno
maintained that the "rhythmic procedures closely resemble the schema
of catatonic conditions. In certain schizophrenics, the process by
which the motor apparatus becomes independent leads to infinite
repetition of gestures or words, following the decay of the ego".
Stravinsky's reputation in Russia and the USSR rose and fell.
Performances of his music were banned from around 1933 until 1962, the
Nikita Khrushchev invited him to the USSR for an official state
visit. In 1972, an official proclamation by the Soviet Minister of
Culture, Yekaterina Furtseva, ordered Soviet musicians to "study and
admire" Stravinsky's music and she made hostility toward it a
potential offence.[specify] While Stravinsky's music has
been criticized for its range of styles, scholars had "gradually begun
to perceive unifying elements in Stravinsky's music" by the 1980s.
Earlier writers, such as Aaron Copland, Elliott Carter, and Boris de
Schloezer held somewhat unfavorable views of Stravinsky's works, and
Virgil Thomson, writing in Modern Music (a quarterly review published
between 1925 and 1946), could find only a common "'seriousness' of
'tone' or of 'purpose', 'the exact correlation between the goal and
the means', or a dry 'ant-like neatness'".
Stravinsky was honored in 1982 by the United States Postal Service
with a 2¢ postage stamp in the Great Americans series.
Royal Philharmonic Society
Royal Philharmonic Society Gold Medal
1959: Léonie Sonning Music Prize
1963: Wihuri Sibelius Prize
1962: Best Classical Composition by Contemporary Composer (The
1962: Best Classical Performance – Orchestra (The Firebird, Igor
Stravinsky conducting Columbia
1962: Best Classical Performance – Instrumental Soloist (with
orchestra) (Violin Concerto in D, Isaac Stern; Igor Stravinsky
1987: Lifetime Achievement (posthumous)
Recordings and publications
Igor Stravinsky discography
3 Pieces for Clarinet Alone
Problems playing this file? See media help.
Igor Stravinsky found recordings a practical and useful tool in
preserving his thoughts on the interpretation of his music. As a
conductor of his own music, he recorded primarily for Columbia
Records, beginning in 1928 with a performance of the original suite
The Firebird and concluding in 1967 with the 1945 suite from the
same ballet. In the late 1940s he made several recordings for RCA
Victor at the
Republic Studios in Los Angeles. Although most of his
recordings were made with studio musicians, he also worked with the
Symphony Orchestra, the Cleveland Orchestra, the CBC Symphony
Orchestra, the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, the Royal Philharmonic
Orchestra and the Bavarian Broadcasting
During his lifetime, Stravinsky appeared on several telecasts,
including the 1962 world premiere of The Flood on CBS Television.
Although he made an appearance, the actual performance was conducted
by Robert Craft. Numerous films and videos of the composer have
Stravinsky published a number of books throughout his career, almost
always with the aid of a (sometimes uncredited) collaborator. In his
1936 autobiography, Chronicle of My Life, which was written with the
help of Walter Nouvel, Stravinsky included his well-known statement
that "music is, by its very nature, essentially powerless to express
anything at all". With
Alexis Roland-Manuel and Pierre
Souvtchinsky, he wrote his 1939–40
Harvard University Charles Eliot
Norton Lectures, which were delivered in French and first collected
under the title Poétique musicale in 1942 and then translated in 1947
as Poetics of Music. In 1959, several interviews between the
Robert Craft were published as Conversations with Igor
Stravinsky, which was followed by a further five volumes over the
following decade. A collection of Stravinsky's writings and interviews
appears under the title Confidences sur la musique (Actes Sud, 2013).
^ Greene 1985, p. 1101.
^ White 1979, p. 4.
^ a b Walsh 2001.
^ Walsh, Stephen (1999). "Stravinsky: A Creative Spring: Russia and
France, 1882-1934 (excerpt)". The New York Times. New York City, NEW
YORK, U.S.A.: The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6
March 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2017. The Stravinsky family, like the
name, is Polish, a fact which needs to be stressed in view of recent
and perfectly understandable attempts by
Kiev scholars to claim
Stravinsky as a Ukrainian of Cossack lineage. The so-called
Soulima-Stravinskys are more accurately described as ‘Strawinscy
Herbu Sulima,’ to adopt for the moment the old Polish spelling of
the two names: that is, the Strawinscy family with the Sulima
coat-of-arms. This simply means, for our purposes, that this branch of
the Strawinscys claimed descent from the more ancient — probably
German — house of Sulima. Stefan Strawinski traced the family tree
back to the late sixteenth century, when the Strawinscys held high
state office, in a kingdom where there were no hereditary titles and
power was symbolized by honorific titles associated with purely
^ Pisalnik 2012.
^ Walsh 2000.
^ Stravinsky and Craft 1960, p. 17.
^ Stravinsky and Craft 1960, p. 6.
^ Stravinsky 1962, p. 8.
^ Dubal 2001, p. 564.
^ a b Dubal 2001, p. 565.
^ White 1979, p. 8.
^ a b Palmer 1982.
^ Walsh 2000, p. 83.
^ Stravinsky 1962, p. 24.
^ White 1979, p. 5.
^ White 1979, pp. 11–12.
^ White 1979, pp. 15–16.
Igor Stravinsky public museum in Ustyluh". Museums of the
^ "A virtual tour of the house-museum of
Igor Stravinsky in Ustylug".
House Museum of
Igor Stravinsky in Ustylug.
^ "International Music Festival "Stravinsky and Ukraine" ABOUT LUTSK
VisitLutsk.com". www.visitlutsk.com. Retrieved 2018-01-24.
^ Walsh 2000, pp. 142–43.
^ Walsh 2000, p. 140.
^ Walsh 2000, p. 145.
^ White 1979, p. 33.
^ V. Stravinsky and Craft 1978, pp. 100, 102.
^ V. Stravinsky and Craft 1978, pp. 111–14.
^ V. Stravinsky and Craft 1978, p. 113.
^ Walsh 2000, p. 224.
^ a b V. Stravinsky and Craft 1978, p. 119.
^ a b Walsh 2000, p. 233.
^ Walsh 2000, p. 230.
^ V. Stravinsky and Craft 1978, p. 120.
^ Oliver 1995, p. 74.
^ V. Stravinsky and Craft 1978, p. 469.
^ V. Stravinsky and Craft 1978, pp. 136–37.
^ White 1979, p. 85.
^ White 1979, pp. 47–48.
^ Keller 2011, p. 456.
^ Stravinsky 1962, p. 83.
^ White 1979, p. 50.
^ Anonymous n.d.
^ Walsh 2000, p. 313.
^ Walsh 2000, p. 315.
^ Walsh 2000, p. 318.
^ Walsh 2000, p. 319 and fn 21.
^ Compositions for Pianola Retrieved 3 March 2012.
^ White 1979, p. 573.
^ Lawson 1986, pp. 298–301.
^ See "Stravinsky, Stokowski and Madame Incognito", Craft 1992,
^ Walsh 2000, p. 336.
Vera de Bosset
Vera de Bosset Sudeikina (Vera Stravinsky) profile at bbc.co.uk.
Retrieved 3 March 2012.
^ Walsh 2000, p. 329.
^ Cooper 2000, p. 306.
^ Joseph 2001, p. 73.
^ Walsh 2000, p. 193.
^ Biography page on the Foundation dedicated to Theodore Strawinsky,
Igor Stravinsky (in French) Retrieved 15 March 2017.
^ White 1979, pp. 77, 84.
^ White 1979, p. 9.
^ Stravinsky and Craft 1960, p. 18.
^ Joseph 2001, p. 279.
^ Walsh 2006, p. 595.
^ Stravinsky 1960.
^ White 1979, p. 93.
^ Anonymous 1957.
^ a b Holland 2001.
^ White 1979, p. 390.
^ Anonymous 2010.
^ According to Michael Steinberg's liner notes to Stravinsky in
America, RCA 09026-68865-2, p. 7, the police "removed the parts
Symphony Hall", quoted in Thom 2007, p. 50.
^ "Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 249, § 9".
^ Walsh 2006, p. 152.
^ Composer Genealogies: A Compendium of Composers, Their teachers and
Their Students, Pfitzinger, Scott. Roman & Littlefield. New York
& London, 2017 Pg. 522 ISBN 9781442272248
^ Pfitzinger, Scott (1 March 2017). "Composer Genealogies: A
Compendium of Composers, Their Teachers, and Their Students". Rowman
& Littlefield. Retrieved 25 November 2017 – via Google
^ White 1979, pp. 146–48.
^ "Igor Stravinsky, the Composer, Dead at 88". The New York
^ Ruff, Willie (1991-07-24). A Call to Assembly: The Autobiography of
a Musical Storyteller. BookBaby. ISBN 9781624888410.
^ Walsh 2000, pp. 543–44.
^ Taruskin 1996, I:pp. 163–368, chapters 3–5.
^ Walsh, Stephen (6 September 2015). "Key
Igor Stravinsky work found
after 100 years". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8
^ "Stravinsky's 107-year-old Funeral Song to travel the globe".
www.boosey.com. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
^ Walsh 2000, p. 122.
^ McFarland 1994, 219.
^ Taruskin 1996, I:662.
^ See: "Table I: Folk and Popular Tunes in Petrushka." Taruskin 1996,
vol. I, pp. 696–97.
^ Stravinsky, Igor. Renard: A Burlesque in Song and Dance [Conductor's
Score]. Miami, Florida: Edwin F. Kalmus & Co., Inc.
^ Griffiths, Stravinsky, Craft, and Josipovici 1982, pp. 49–50.
^ a b c Craft 1982
^ Straus 2001, p. 4.
^ White 1979, p. 510.
^ White 1979, p. 517.
^ a b AMG 2008. "Igor Stravinsky" biography, AllMusic.
^ Stravinsky and Craft 1960, pp. 116–17.
^ Simon 2007.
^ Simeone, Craft, and Glass 1999.
^ Glass & 19989.
^ Browne 1930, p. 360.
BBC Radio 3
BBC Radio 3 programme, "Discovering Music" near 33:30.[full citation
^ Copland 1952, p. 37.
^ Stravinsky, Igor.
Symphony No. 1 [sic]. (Moscow: P. Jurgenson, n.d.
^ Taruskin 1998, p. 325..
^ Walsh 2000, p. 276.
^ "This ipl2 page has moved to…". www.ipl.org. Retrieved 25 November
^ a b Stravinsky and Craft 1959.
^ Sachs 1987, p. 168.
^ Taruskin and Craft 1989.
^ Morand 1976, pp. 121–24.
^ Davis 2006, p. 439.
^ Fact-or-fiction Chanel-Stravinsky affair curtains Cannes. Swiss
News, 25 May 2009. Retrieved 28 December 2010.
^ T. Strawinsky and D. Strawinsky 2004.
^ "Stravinsky's quotations". Brainyquote.com. 6 April 1971. Retrieved
9 March 2010.
^ Stravinsky and Craft 1969, p. 198.
^ Stravinsky and Craft 1960, p. 51.
^ Stravinsky and Craft 1966, pp. 172–75.
^ Copeland 1982, p. 565, quoting Stravinsky and Craft 1962,
pp. 63– 64.
^ Wenborn (1985, p. 17) alludes to this comment, without giving a
^ Stravinsky 1936, 80.
^ See Eksteins 1989, pp. 10–16 for an overview of contradictory
reportage of the event by participants and the press.
^ Glass 1998.
^ Satie 1923.
^ Volta 1989, first pages of chapter on contemporaries.
^ "Occasional Notes",
The Musical Times and Singing-Class Circular 64,
no. 968 (1 October 1923): 712–15, quotation on 713.
^ Blitzstein 1935, p. 330.
^ Blitzstein 1935, pp. 346–47.
^ Lambert 1936, p. 94.
^ Lambert 1936, pp. 101–05.
^ Adorno 2006, p. 167.
^ Adorno 1973, pp. 206–209.
^ Adorno 1973, pp. 191–93.
^ Adorno 1973, p. 195.
^ Adorno 1973, p. 178.
^ Karlinsky 1985, p. 282.
^ "Books -". Tempo (118): 39–40. doi:10.1017/S004029820002845X.
Retrieved 25 November 2017 – via Cambridge Core.
^ Pasler 1983, p. 608.
^ a b c "1962 Grammy Awards". Infoplease. 5 March 2012. Retrieved 15
^ "Miniature masterpieces". Fondation Igor Stravinsky. Retrieved 2
Igor Stravinsky – Flood – Opera". Boosey.com. Retrieved 2
^ Stravinsky 1936, pp. 91–92.
^ The names of uncredited collaborators are given in Walsh 2001.
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Company. ISBN 0-393-00161-X; OCLC 311867794. Originally
published in French as Chroniques de ma vie, 2 vols. (Paris: Denoël
et Steele, 1935), subsequently translated (anonymously) as Chronicle
of My Life. London: Gollancz, 1936. OCLC 1354065. This edition
Igor Stravinsky An Autobiography, with a preface by Eric
Walter White (London: Calder and Boyars, 1975) ISBN 0-7145-1063-7
(cloth); ISBN 0-7145-1082-3 (pbk.). Reprinted again as An
Autobiography (1903–1934) (London: Boyars, 1990)
ISBN 0-7145-1063-7 (cased); ISBN 0-7145-1082-3 (pbk). Also
Igor Stravinsky An Autobiography (New York: M. & J.
Stravinsky, Igor, and Robert Craft. 1959. Conversations with Igor
Stravinsky. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. OCLC 896750 Reprinted
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.
Stravinsky, Igor, and Robert Craft. 1960. Memories and Commentaries.
Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday. Reprinted 1981, Berkeley and Los
Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04402-9
Reprinted 2002, London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-21242-5.
Stravinsky, Igor, and Robert Craft. 1962. Expositions and
Developments. London: Faber & Faber. Reprinted, Berkeley and Los
Angeles: University of California Press, 1981.
Stravinsky, Igor, and Robert Craft. 1966. Themes and Episodes. New
York: A. A. Knopf.
Stravinsky, Igor, and Robert Craft. 1969. Retrospectives and
Conclusions. New York: A. A. Knopf.
Stravinsky, Vera, and Robert Craft. 1978. Stravinsky in Pictures and
Documents. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Strawinsky, Théodore, and Denise Strawinsky. 2004. Catherine and Igor
Stravinsky: A Family Chronicle 1906–1940. New York: Schirmer Trade
Books; London: Schirmer Books. ISBN 0-8256-7290-2.
Taruskin, Richard. 1996. Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions: A
Biography of the Works Through Mavra. Vol. 1 and Vol. 2. Berkeley:
University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07099-2.
Taruskin, Richard, reply by Robert Craft. 1989. "'Jews and Geniuses':
An Exchange". New York Review of Books 36, no. 10 (15 June).
Thom, Paul. 2007. The Musician as Interpreter. Studies of the Greater
Philadelphia Philosophy Consortium 4. University Park: Pennsylvania
State University Press. ISBN 0-271-03198-0.
Volta, Ornella. 1989. Satie Seen through His Letters. London: Boyars.
Wallace, Helen. 2007. Boosey & Hawkes, The Publishing Story.
London: Boosey & Hawkes. ISBN 978-0-85162-514-0.
Walsh, Stephen. 2000. Stravinsky. A Creative Spring: Russia and France
1882–1934. London: Jonathan Cape. (excerpt), www.nytimes.com.
Retrieved 10 August 2013.
Walsh, Stephen. 2001. "Stravinsky, Igor." New Grove Dictionary of
Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by
Stanley Sadie and John
Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers.
Walsh, Stephen. 2006. Stravinsky: The Second Exile: France and
America, 1934–1971. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
ISBN 0-375-40752-9 (cloth); London: Jonathan Cape.
ISBN 0-224-06078-3 (cloth); Berkeley: University of California
Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25615-6 (pbk).
Walsh, Stephen. 2007. "The Composer, the Antiquarian and the
Go-between: Stravinsky and the Rosenthals".
The Musical Times 148, no.
1898 (Spring): 19–34.
Wenborn, Neil. 1985. Stravinsky. London: Omnibus Press.
White, Eric Walter. 1979. Stravinsky: The Composer and His Works,
second edition. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California
Press. ISBN 0-520-03983-1 (cloth) ISBN 0-520-03985-8 (pbk).
Cross, Jonathan. 1999. The Stravinsky Legacy. Cambridge and New York:
Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-56365-9.
Floirat, Anetta. 2015a. "Chagall and Stravinsky: Parallels Between a
Painter and a Musician Convergence of Interests". Academia.edu
Floirat, Anetta. 2015b. "Chagall and Stravinsky, Different Arts and
Similar Solutions to Twentieth-century Challenges". Academia.edu
Floirat, Anetta. 2016, "The Scythian element of the Russian
primitivism, in music and visual arts. Based on the work of three
painters (Goncharova, Malevich and Roerich) and two composers
(Stravinsky and Prokofiev")
Goubault, Christian. 1991. Igor Stravinsky. Editions Champion,
Musichamp l’essentiel 5, Paris 1991 (with catalogue raisonné and
Joseph, Charles M. 2002. Stravinsky and Balanchine, A Journey of
Invention. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
Kohl, Jerome. 1979–80. "Exposition in Stravinsky's Orchestral
Variations". Perspectives of New Music 18, nos. 1 and 2
(Fall-Winter/Spring Summer): 391–405. doi:10.2307/832991
JSTOR 832991 (subscription access).
Kirchmeyer, Helmut. 2002. Annotated Catalog of Works and Work Editions
of Igor Strawinsky till 1971 - Verzeichnis der Werke und Werkausgaben
Igor Strawinskys bis 1971, Leipzig: Publications of the Saxon Academy
of Sciences in Leipzig. Extended edition available online since 2015,
in English and German.
Kirchmeyer, Helmut. 1958. Igor Strawinsky. Zeitgeschichte im
Persönlichkeitsbild. Regensburg: Bosse-Verlag.
Kundera, Milan. 1995. Testaments Betrayed: An Essay in Nine Parts,
translated by Linda Asher. New York: HarperCollins.
Kuster, Andrew T. 2005. Stravinsky's Topology. D.M.A. dissertation,
University of Colorado at Boulder. Morrisville, NC: Lulu.com.
Libman, Lillian. 1972. And Music at the Close: Stravinsky's Last
Years. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Locanto, Massimiliano (ed.) 2014. Igor Stravinsky: Sounds and Gestures
of Modernity. Salerno: Brepols. ISBN 978-2-503-55325-2
McFarland, Mark. 2011. "Igor Stravinsky." In Oxford Bibliographies
Online: Music, edited by Bruce Gustavson. New York: Oxford University
Schaeffner, André. 1931. Strawinsky. Paris: Edition Rieder.
Stravinsky, Igor. 1982–85. Stravinsky: Selected Correspondence, 3
volumes, edited by Robert Craft. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
ISBN 9780394518701 (vol. 1), ISBN 9780394528137 (vol. 2),
ISBN 9780394542201 (vol. 3).
Tappolet, Claude. 1990. Correspondence Ansermet-Strawinsky
(1914–1967). Edition complète, 3 Volumes, Georg Edition, Genf.
van den Toorn, Pieter C. 1987. Stravinsky and the Rite of Spring: The
Beginnings of a Musical Language. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and Oxford:
University of California Press.
Vlad, Roman. 1958, 1973, 1983. Strawinsky. Turin: Piccola Biblioteca
Vlad, Roman. 1960, 1967. Stravinsky. London and New York: Oxford
Book: Igor Stravinsky
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Igor Stravinsky.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Igor Stravinsky
Wikisource has the text of a 1922
Encyclopædia Britannica article
about Igor Stravinsky.
Igor Stravinsky at Encyclopædia Britannica
Free scores by
Igor Stravinsky at the International Music Score
Library Project (IMSLP)
The Stravinsky Foundation website
A Riotous Premiere, an interactive website about The Rite of Spring
from the Keeping Score series by the San Francisco Symphony
"Huxley on Huxley". Dir. Mary Ann Braubach. Cinedigm, 2010. DVD.
"Discovering Stravinsky". BBC Radio 3.
Igor Stravinsky biography" (in French). IRCAM.
Jews and Geniuses On Stravinsky being a Jew or not and about his
antisemitism. See also another response and the original media review
by Robert Craft.
Igor Stravinsky at Project Gutenberg
The Lithuanian Roots of
Igor Stravinsky and the Rite of Spring
Works by or about
Igor Stravinsky at Internet Archive
Igor Stravinsky at the Pianola Institute
Stravinsky and Numerology
Igor Stravinsky conducting – A series of images from the
UBC Library Digital Collections depicting the composer rehearsing with
the New York Philharmonic.
The Ekstrom Collection of the Diaghilev and Stravinsky Foundation is
held by the Victoria and Albert Museum London, Department of Theatre
and Performance. A full catalogue and details of access arrangements
are available here.
Recordings and videos
An audio recording made by William Malloch of Stravinsky rehearsing
Symphonies of Wind Instruments in Memory of Debussy (a 1947
recording, first broadcast in 1961)
An archive recording of a radio program by William Malloch that
includes a discussion of how attitudes toward Stravinsky’s music
changed through the years. Included are excepts from The Firebird,
The Rite of Spring
The Rite of Spring recorded from the 1930s to the 1950s
by a variety of conductors, including the composer himself.
Excerpts from sound archives of Stravinsky's works from the
Contemporary Music Portal
Conversation with Igor Stravinsky, 1957:
Stravinsky on The Rite of Spring:
L'Histoire du soldat
The Rake's Progress
Le baiser de la fée
Jeu de cartes
The Rite of Spring
The Rite of Spring (discography)
Scènes de ballet
Capriccio for Piano and Orchestra
Concerto for Piano and Wind Instruments
Concerto in D
Concerto in E♭ ("Dumbarton Oaks")
Symphonies of Wind Instruments
Symphony in C
Symphony in E♭ major
Symphony in Three Movements
Violin Concerto in D
Le roi des étoiles
A Sermon, a Narrative and a Prayer
Symphony of Psalms
Les cinq doigts
Concerto for Two Pianos
Étude pour pianola
Five Easy Pieces
Piano Sonata in F♯ minor
Serenade in A
Sonata for Two Pianos
Three Easy Pieces
Trois mouvements de Petrouchka
Abraham and Isaac
Berceuses du chat
Le chant du rossignol
Double Canon (in Memoriam Raoul Dufy)
Elegy for J.F.K.
Fanfare for a New Theatre
Monumentum pro Gesualdo
Movements for Piano and Orchestra
Scherzo à la russe
Three Pieces for Solo Clarinet
Three Pieces for String Quartet
Vera de Bosset
Coco Chanel &
Igor Stravinsky (film)
Léonie Sonning Music Prize Laureates
Igor Stravinsky (1959)
Leonard Bernstein (1965)
Birgit Nilsson (1966)
Witold Lutosławski (1967)
Benjamin Britten (1968)
Boris Christoff (1969)
Sergiu Celibidache (1970)
Arthur Rubinstein (1971)
Yehudi Menuhin (1972)
Dmitri Shostakovich (1973)
Andrés Segovia (1974)
Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (1975)
Mogens Wöldike (1976)
Olivier Messiaen (1977)
Jean-Pierre Rampal (1978)
Janet Baker (1979)
Marie-Claire Alain (1980)
Mstislav Rostropovich (1981)
Isaac Stern (1982)
Rafael Kubelík (1983)
Miles Davis (1984)
Pierre Boulez (1985)
Sviatoslav Richter (1986)
Heinz Holliger (1987)
Peter Schreier (1988)
Gidon Kremer (1989)
György Ligeti (1990)
Eric Ericson (1991)
Georg Solti (1992)
Nikolaus Harnoncourt (1993)
Krystian Zimerman (1994)
Yuri Bashmet (1995)
Per Nørgård (1996)
András Schiff (1997)
Hildegard Behrens (1998)
Sofia Gubaidulina (1999)
Michala Petri (2000)
Anne-Sophie Mutter (2001)
Alfred Brendel (2002)
György Kurtág (2003)
Keith Jarrett (2004)
John Eliot Gardiner
John Eliot Gardiner (2005)
Yo-Yo Ma (2006)
Lars Ulrik Mortensen (2007)
Arvo Pärt (2008)
Daniel Barenboim (2009)
Cecilia Bartoli (2010)
Kaija Saariaho (2011)
Jordi Savall (2012)
Simon Rattle (2013)
Martin Fröst (2014)
Thomas Adès (2015)
Herbert Blomstedt (2016)
Leonidas Kavakos (2017)
Mariss Jansons (2018)
Wihuri Sibelius Prize
Jean Sibelius (1953)
Paul Hindemith (1955)
Dmitri Shostakovich (1958)
Igor Stravinsky (1963)
Benjamin Britten, Erik Bergman, Usko Meriläinen, & Einojuhani
Olivier Messiaen (1971)
Witold Lutoslawski &
Joonas Kokkonen (1973)
Krzysztof Penderecki &
Aulis Sallinen (1983)
György Ligeti (2000)
Magnus Lindberg (2003)
Per Nørgård (2006)
Kaija Saariaho (2009)
György Kurtág (2012)
Harrison Birtwistle (2015)
Unsuk Chin (2017)
Hans Werner Henze
John J. Becker
Ruth Crawford Seeger
Mozart Camargo Guarnieri
Modes of limited transposition
Quartal and quintal harmony
See also: Modernist composers
Manuel de Falla
Antiche arie e danze
Le bourgeois gentilhomme
Concerto in D
Concerto in E-flat (Dumbarton Oaks)
Divertimento for chamber orchestra after keyboard pieces by Couperin
Mathis der Maler
Octet for winds
The Rake's Progress
El retablo de maese Pedro
Piano Sonata No. 1 (Enescu)
Piano Sonata No. 3 (Chávez)
Piano Sonata No. 3 (Enescu)
Piano Suite No. 2 (Enescu)
Symphony No. 1
Symphony in C
Symphony in Three Movements
Symphony of Psalms
Tanzsuite aus Klavierstücken von François Couperin
Le tombeau de Couperin
ISNI: 0000 0001 2122 4298
BNF: cb12405560k (data)