IGOR FYODOROVICH STRAVINSKY (sometimes spelled Strawinski, Strawinsky, or Stravinskii; Russian : И́горь Фёдорович Страви́нский, tr. Igorʹ Fëdorovič Stravinskij; IPA: ; 17 June 1882 – 6 April 1971) was a Russian-born composer, pianist, and conductor. He is widely considered one of the most important and influential composers of the 20th century .
Stravinsky's compositional career was notable for its stylistic
diversity. He first achieved international fame with three ballets
commissioned by the impresario
Serge Diaghilev and first performed in
Paris by Diaghilev's
* 1 Biography
* 2 Music
* 2.1 Russian period (c. 1907–1919) * 2.2 Neoclassical period (c. 1920–1954) * 2.3 Serial period (1954–1968)
* 3 Innovation and influence * 4 Personality * 5 Religion * 6 Reception * 7 Awards * 8 Recordings and publications * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 Further reading
* 12 External links
* 12.1 General information * 12.2 Recordings and videos
EARLY LIFE IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE
Igor Stravinsky, 1903
Stravinsky was born on 17 June 1882 in Oranienbaum , a suburb of
Stravinsky recalled his schooldays as being lonely, later saying that "I never came across anyone who had any real attraction for me". Stravinsky began piano lessons as a young boy, studying music theory and attempting composition. In 1890, he saw a performance of Tchaikovsky 's ballet The Sleeping Beauty at the Mariinsky Theatre. By age fifteen he had mastered Mendelssohn 's Piano Concerto in G minor and finished a piano reduction of a string quartet by Glazunov , who reportedly considered Stravinsky unmusical, and thought little of his skills.
Despite his enthusiasm for music, his parents expected him to study
law. Stravinsky enrolled at the University of
In 1905 Stravinsky was engaged to his cousin Katherine Gavrylivna Nosenko (called "Katya"), whom he had known since early childhood. In spite of the Orthodox Church 's opposition to marriage between first cousins, the couple married on 23 January 1906: their first two children, Fyodor (Theodore) and Ludmila, were born in 1907 and 1908, respectively. A costume sketch by Léon Bakst for the Firebird
In February 1909, two of Stravinsky's orchestral works, the Scherzo fantastique and Feu d\'artifice (Fireworks) were performed at a concert in Saint Petersburg, where they were heard by Serge Diaghilev, who was at that time involved in planning to present Russian opera and ballet in Paris. Diaghilev was sufficiently impressed by Fireworks to commission Stravinsky to carry out some orchestrations and then to compose a full-length ballet score, The Firebird.
STRAVINSKY AND UKRAINE
Igor Stravinsky's house-museum in Ustilug , Ukraine.
Any understanding of Stravinsky's early works would be incomplete without consideration of his life while in Ukraine, as well as his connections to Ukrainian culture . In addition to Stravinsky's Ukrainian ancestry on both his father’s and mother’s side, he maintained a personal connection with that culture for as long as was possible given the difficult political situation at the time.
From approximately 1890 until 1914 the composer frequently visited
Ustilug , a town in the modern
It is quite natural that Stravinsky expressed his fascination with and deep understanding of Ukrainian folk elements in his early orchestral compositions, as well as in his revolutionary ballets. Given his significant compositional output in that period, it is apparent that his inspiration was often drawn from the legends, melodies, and sounds of the Ukrainian tradition. In turn, Ukrainian culture is deeply rooted in the Kievan Rus’ and Trypillia cultures, themselves thousands of years old.
LIFE IN SWITZERLAND
Vaslav Nijinsky as Petrushka in 1910–11
Stravinsky became an overnight sensation following the success of the Firebird 's premiere in Paris on 25 June 1910.
The composer had travelled from his estate in Ustilug (now in Ukraine ) to Paris in early June to attend the final rehearsals and the premiere of the Firebird. His family joined him before the end of the ballet season and they decided to remain in the West for a time, as his wife was expecting their third child. After spending the summer in La Baule , Brittany, they moved to Switzerland in early September. On 23 September, their second son Sviatoslav Soulima was born at a maternity clinic in Lausanne; at the end of the month, they took up residence in Clarens .
Over the next four years, Stravinsky and his family lived in Russia during the summer months and spent each winter in Switzerland. During this period, Stravinsky composed two further works for the Ballets Russes: Petrushka (1911), and the Rite of Spring (1913).
Shortly following the premiere of the Rite of Spring on 29 May 1913, Stravinsky contracted typhoid from eating bad oysters, and was confined to a Paris nursing home, unable to depart for Ustilug until 11 July.
During the remainder of the summer, Stravinsky turned his attention to completing his first opera, the Nightingale (usually known by its French title Le Rossignol), which he had begun in 1908 (that is, before his association with the Ballets Russes). The work had been commissioned by the Moscow Free Theatre for the handsome fee of 10,000 rubles.
The Stravinsky family returned to Switzerland (as usual) in the fall of 1913. On 15 January 1914, a fourth child, Marie Milène (or Maria Milena), was born in Lausanne. After her delivery, Katya was discovered to have tuberculosis and was confined to the sanatorium at Leysin , high in the Alps. Igor and the family took up residence nearby, and he completed Le Rossignol there on 28 March.
In April, they were finally able to return to Clarens. By then, the
Moscow Free Theatre had gone bankrupt. As a result, Le Rossignol was
first performed under Diaghilev's auspices at the Paris Opéra on 26
May 1914, with sets and costumes designed by
Alexandre Benois . Le
Rossignol enjoyed only lukewarm success with the public and the
critics, apparently because its delicacy did not meet their
expectations of the composer of the Rite of Spring. However,
composers including Maurice
In July, with war looming, Stravinsky made a quick trip to
retrieve personal effects including his reference works on Russian
folk music. He returned to Switzerland just before national borders
closed following the outbreak of
World War I
In June 1915, Stravinsky and his family moved from Clarens to Morges , a town six miles south-west of Lausanne on the shore of Lake Geneva . The family lived there (at three different addresses) until 1920.
Stravinsky struggled financially during this period. Russia (and its
successor, the USSR) did not adhere to the
Berne Convention and this
created problems for Stravinsky when collecting royalties for the
performances of all his
LIFE IN FRANCE
Stravinsky as drawn by Picasso in Paris on 31 December 1920
Following the premiere of Pulcinella by the
Stravinsky formed a business and musical relationship with the French piano manufacturing company Pleyel . Pleyel essentially acted as his agent in collecting mechanical royalties for his works and provided him with a monthly income and a studio space at its headquarters in which he could work and entertain friends and business acquaintances. Under the terms of his contract with the company, Stravinsky agreed to arrange (and to some extent re-compose) many of his early works for the Pleyela, Pleyel's brand of player piano . He did so in a way that made full use of all of the piano's eighty-eight notes, without regard for human fingers or hands. The rolls were not recorded, but were instead marked up from a combination of manuscript fragments and handwritten notes by Jacques Larmanjat , musical director of Pleyel's roll department. Among the compositions that were issued on the Pleyela piano rolls are the Rite of Spring, Petrushka, the Firebird and Song of the Nightingale. During the 1920s, Stravinsky recorded Duo-Art rolls for the Aeolian Company in both London and New York, not all of which have survived.
Patronage was never far away. In the early 1920s, Leopold Stokowski
gave Stravinsky regular support through a pseudonymous 'benefactor'.
Vera de Bosset
Vera de Bosset
In May 1921, Stravinsky and his family moved to Anglet, near Biarritz , southwestern France. From then until his wife's death in 1939, Stravinsky led a double life, dividing his time between his family in Anglet, and Vera in Paris and on tour. Katya reportedly bore her husband's infidelity "with a mixture of magnanimity, bitterness, and compassion".
In September 1924, Stravinsky bought "an expensive house" in Nice: the Villa des Roses.
From 1931 to 1933 the Stravinskys lived in Voreppe, near Grenoble, southeastern France.
The Stravinskys became French citizens in 1934 and moved to the rue
du Faubourg Saint-Honoré in Paris. Stravinsky later remembered this
last European address as his unhappiest, as his wife's tuberculosis
infected both himself and his eldest daughter Ludmila, who died in
1938. Katya, to whom he had been married for 33 years, died of
tuberculosis three months later, in March 1939. Stravinsky himself
spent five months in hospital, during which time his mother died.
During his later years in Paris, Stravinsky had developed professional
relationships with key people in the United States: he was already
working on his
LIFE IN THE UNITED STATES
Essex House in New York, where Stravinsky lived at the end of his life
Despite the outbreak of
World War II
Stravinsky settled in
Stravinsky had adapted to life in France, but moving to America at
the age of 57 was a very different prospect. For a while, he
maintained a circle of contacts and emigré friends from Russia, but
he eventually found that this did not sustain his intellectual and
professional life. He was drawn to the growing cultural life of Los
Angeles, especially during World War II, when so many writers,
musicians, composers and conductors settled in the area: these
Stravinsky's unconventional dominant seventh chord in his arrangement of the "Star-Spangled Banner " led to an incident with the Boston police on 15 January 1944, and he was warned that the authorities could impose a $100 fine upon any "re-arrangement of the national anthem in whole or in part". The police, as it turned out, were wrong. The law in question merely forbade using the national anthem "as dance music, as an exit march, or as a part of a medley of any kind", but the incident soon established itself as a myth, in which Stravinsky was supposedly arrested, held in custody for several nights, and photographed for police records.
Stravinsky's professional life encompassed most of the 20th century,
including many of its modern classical music styles, and he influenced
composers both during and after his lifetime. Included among his
students in the 1940s was the American composer and music educator
Robert Strassburg . In 1959, he was awarded the
Sonning Award ,
Denmark's highest musical honour. In 1962, he accepted an invitation
to return to
In 1969, Stravinsky moved to the Essex House in New York, where he lived until his death in 1971 at age 88 of heart failure . He was buried at San Michele , close to the tomb of Sergei Diaghilev.
He has a star on the
Hollywood Walk of Fame
Aside from a very few surviving earlier works, Stravinsky's Russian
period, sometimes called primitive period, began with compositions
undertaken under the tutelage of
In 1908, Stravinsky composed Funeral Song (Погребальная песня), Op. 5 to commemorate the death of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov . The piece premiered 17 January 1909 in the Grand Hall of the Saint Petersburg Conservatory but was then lost until September 2015, when it resurfaced in a back room of the city's Conservatoire. It was played again for the first time in over a century on 2 December 2016. The rediscovery generated much enthusiasm and, as a result, over 25 performances are scheduled in 2017 and beyond.
Performances in St. Petersburg of Scherzo fantastique and Feu d'artifice attracted the attention of Serge Diaghilev , who commissioned Stravinsky to orchestrate two piano works of Chopin for the ballet Les Sylphides to be presented in the 1909 debut "Saison Russe" of his new ballet company.
The Firebird was first performed at the Paris Opéra on 25 June 1910 by Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. Like Stravinsky's earlier student works, the Firebird continued to look backward to Rimsky-Korsakov not only in its orchestration, but also in its overall structure, harmonic organization, and melodic content.
According to Taruskin, Stravinsky's second ballet for the Ballet Russes, Petrushka, is where "Stravinsky at last became Stravinsky."
The music itself makes significant use of a number of Russian folk tunes in addition to two waltzes by Viennese composer Joseph Lanner and a French music hall tune (La Jambe en bois or The Wooden Leg).
In April 1915, Stravinsky received a commission from Winnaretta Singer (Princesse Edmond de Polignac) for a small-scale theatrical work to be performed in her Paris salon. The result was Renard (1916), which he called "A burlesque in song and dance". Renard was Stravinsky's first venture into experimental theatre: the composer's preface to the score specifies a trestle stage on which all the performers (including the instrumentalists) were to appear simultaneously and continuously.
NEOCLASSICAL PERIOD (C. 1920–1954)
"Apollon musagète " (1928), "Perséphone " (1933) and "Orpheus "
(1947) exemplify not only Stravinsky's return to the music of the
Classical period, but also his exploration of themes from the ancient
Classical world, such as
SERIAL PERIOD (1954–1968)
Stravinsky conducting in 1965
In the 1950s, Stravinsky began using serial compositional techniques
such as dodecaphony , the twelve-tone technique originally devised by
INNOVATION AND INFLUENCE
Stravinsky has been called "one of music's truly epochal innovators". The most important aspect of Stravinsky's work, aside from his technical innovations (including in rhythm and harmony), is the 'changing face' of his compositional style while always 'retaining a distinctive, essential identity'. Stravinsky with Wilhelm Furtwängler , German conductor and composer.
Stravinsky's use of motivic development (the use of musical figures
that are repeated in different guises throughout a composition or
section of a composition) included additive motivic development. This
is where notes are subtracted or added to a motif without regard to
the consequent changes in metre. A similar technique can be found as
early as the 16th century, for example in the music of Cipriano de
Rore , Orlandus Lassus ,
The Rite of Spring is notable for its relentless use of ostinati , for example in the eighth-note ostinato on strings accented by eight horns in the section "Augurs of Spring (Dances of the Young Girls)". The work also contains passages where several ostinati clash against one another. Stravinsky was noted for his distinctive use of rhythm, especially in the Rite of Spring. According to the composer Philip Glass , "the idea of pushing the rhythms across the bar lines led the way . The rhythmic structure of music became much more fluid and in a certain way spontaneous". Glass mentions Stravinsky's "primitive, offbeat rhythmic drive". According to Andrew J. Browne, "Stravinsky is perhaps the only composer who has raised rhythm in itself to the dignity of art". Stravinsky's rhythm and vitality greatly influenced the composer Aaron Copland .
Over the course of his career, Stravinsky called for a wide variety of orchestral, instrumental, and vocal forces, ranging from single instruments in such works as Three Pieces for Clarinet (1918) or Elegy for Solo Viola (1944) to the enormous orchestra of the Rite of Spring (Le Sacre du printemps; 1913) which Aaron Copland characterized as "the foremost orchestral achievement of the 20th century."
Stravinsky’s creation of unique and idiosyncratic ensembles arising from the specific musical nature of individual works is a basic element of his style.
Following the model of his teacher,
The Symphony, for example, calls for 3 flutes (3rd doubles piccolo); 2 oboes; 3 clarinets in B-flat; 2 bassoons; 4 horns in F; 3 trumpets in B-flat; 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, bass drum, triangle, cymbals, and strings. The Scherzo fantastique calls for a slightly larger orchestra but completely omits trombones: this was Stravinsky’s response to Rimsky’s criticism of their overuse in the Symphony.
The three ballets composed for Diaghilev's
The original version of Petrushka (1911) calls for a similar orchestra (without onstage brass, but with the addition of onstage snare drum). The particularly prominent role of the piano is the result of the music's origin as a Konzertstück for piano and orchestra.
The Rite of Spring (1913) calls for the largest orchestra Stravinsky ever employed: piccolo, 3 flutes (3rd doubles 2nd piccolo), alto flute, 4 oboes (4th doubles 2nd cor anglais), cor anglais, piccolo clarinet in D/E♭, 3 clarinets (3rd doubles 2nd bass clarinet), bass clarinet, piccolo clarinet, 4 bassoons (4th doubles 2nd contrabassoon), contrabassoon, 8 horns (7th and 8th double tenor Wagner tubas), piccolo trumpet in D, 4 trumpets in C (4th doubles bass trumpet in E-flat), 3 trombones (2 tenor, 1 bass), 2 tubas. Percussion includes 5 timpani (2 players), bass drum, tamtam, triangle, tambourine, cymbals, antique cymbals, guiro, and strings. (Piano, celesta, and harp are not included.)
Stravinsky and Pablo Picasso collaborated on Pulcinella in 1920. Picasso took the opportunity to make several sketches of the composer.
Stravinsky displayed a taste in literature that was wide and
reflected his constant desire for new discoveries. The texts and
literary sources for his work began with a period of interest in
Russian folklore , which progressed to classical authors and the Latin
liturgy and moved on to contemporary France (
André Gide , in
Persephone) and eventually English literature, including Auden, T. S.
Eliot and medieval English verse. He also had an inexhaustible desire
to explore and learn about art, which manifested itself in several of
his Paris collaborations. Not only was he the principal composer for
Diaghilev's Ballets Russes, but he also collaborated with Picasso
Robert Craft , Stravinsky remained a confirmed
monarchist throughout his life and loathed the Bolsheviks from the
very beginning. In 1930, he remarked, "I don't believe that anyone
venerates Mussolini more than I ... I know many exalted personages,
and my artist's mind does not shrink from political and social issues.
Well, after having seen so many events and so many more or less
representative men, I have an overpowering urge to render homage to
your Duce. He is the saviour of Italy and – let us hope – Europe".
Later, after a private audience with Mussolini, he added, "Unless my
ears deceive me, the voice of Rome is the voice of Il Duce. I told him
that I felt like a fascist myself... In spite of being extremely busy,
Mussolini did me the great honour of conversing with me for
three-quarters of an hour. We talked about music, art and politics".
When the Nazis placed Stravinsky's works on the list of "Entartete
Musik ", he lodged a formal appeal to establish his Russian genealogy
and declared, "I loathe all communism, Marxism, the execrable Soviet
monster, and also all liberalism, democratism, atheism, etc." Towards
the end of his life, at Craft's behest, Stravinsky made a return visit
to his native country and composed a cantata in
Stravinsky proved adept at playing the part of a 'man of the world',
acquiring a keen instinct for business matters and appearing relaxed
and comfortable in public. His successful career as a pianist and
conductor took him to many of the world's major cities, including
Paris, Venice, Berlin, London,
Although Stravinsky was not outspoken about his faith, he was a
deeply religious man throughout some periods of his life. As a child,
he was brought up by his parents in the Russian Orthodox Church.
Baptized at birth, he later rebelled against the Church and abandoned
it by the time he was fourteen or fifteen years old. Throughout the
rise of his career he was estranged from Christianity and it was not
until he reached his early forties that he experienced a spiritual
crisis. After befriending a Russian Orthodox priest, Father Nicholas,
after his move to
I cannot now evaluate the events that, at the end of those thirty years, made me discover the necessity of religious belief. I was not reasoned into my disposition. Though I admire the structured thought of theology (Anselm's proof in the Fides Quaerens Intellectum, for instance) it is to religion no more than counterpoint exercises are to music. I do not believe in bridges of reason or, indeed, in any form of extrapolation in religious matters. ... I can say, however, that for some years before my actual "conversion", a mood of acceptance had been cultivated in me by a reading of the Gospels and by other religious literature.
Portrait of Stravinsky by
If Stravinsky's stated intention was "to send them all to hell",
then he may have rated the 1913 premiere of the Rite of Spring as a
success: it is a famous classical music riot and Stravinsky referred
to it on several occasions in his autobiography as a scandale. There
were reports of fistfights in the audience and the need for a police
presence during the second act. The real extent of the tumult is open
to debate and the reports may be apocryphal. Stravinsky was named by
Time magazine as one of the 100 most influential people of the
century. In addition to the recognition he received for his
compositions, he achieved fame as a pianist and a conductor, often at
the premieres of his works. In 1923,
Erik Satie wrote an article about
Satie had met Stravinsky for the first time in 1910. In the published
article, Satie argued that measuring the "greatness" of an artist by
comparing him to other artists, as if speaking about some "truth", is
illusory and that every piece of music should be judged on its own
merits and not by comparing it to the standards of other composers.
That was exactly what
According to The Musical Times in 1923:
All the signs indicate a strong reaction against the nightmare of noise and eccentricity that was one of the legacies of the war.... What (for example) has become of the works that made up the program of the Stravinsky concert which created such a stir a few years ago? Practically the whole lot are already on the shelf, and they will remain there until a few jaded neurotics once more feel a desire to eat ashes and fill their belly with the east wind.
In 1935, the American composer Marc Blitzstein compared Stravinsky to Jacopo Peri and C.P.E. Bach , conceding that, "there is no denying the greatness of Stravinsky. It is just that he is not great enough". Blitzstein's Marxist position was that Stravinsky's wish to "divorce music from other streams of life", which is "symptomatic of an escape from reality", resulted in a "loss of stamina", naming specifically Apollo, the Capriccio, and Le Baiser de la fée.
In his 1949 book Philosophy of Modern Music, Theodor W. Adorno described Stravinsky as an acrobat and spoke of hebephrenic and psychotic traits in several of Stravinsky's works. Contrary to a common misconception, Adorno didn't believe the hebephrenic and psychotic imitations that the music was supposed to contain were its main fault, as he pointed out in a postscript that he added later to his book. Adorno's criticism of Stravinsky is more concerned with the "transition to positivity" Adorno found in his neoclassical works. Part of the composer's error, in Adorno's view, was his neo-classicism, but of greater importance was his music's "pseudomorphism of painting", playing off le temps espace (time-space) rather than le temps durée (time-duration) of Henri Bergson . According to Adorno, "one trick characterizes all of Stravinsky's formal endeavors: the effort of his music to portray time as in a circus tableau and to present time complexes as though they were spatial. This trick, however, soon exhausts itself". Adorno maintained that the "rhythmic procedures closely resemble the schema of catatonic conditions. In certain schizophrenics, the process by which the motor apparatus becomes independent leads to infinite repetition of gestures or words, following the decay of the ego".
Stravinsky's reputation in Russia and the USSR rose and fell.
Performances of his music were banned from around 1933 until 1962, the
While Stravinsky's music has been criticized for its range of styles, scholars had "gradually begun to perceive unifying elements in Stravinsky's music" by the 1980s. Earlier writers, such as Aaron Copland, Elliott Carter, Boris de Schloezer, and Virgil Thomson, writing in Modern Music (a quarterly review published between 1925 and 1946), could find only a common "'seriousness' of 'tone' or of 'purpose', 'the exact correlation between the goal and the means', or a dry 'ant-like neatness'".
Stravinsky was honored in 1982 by the United States Postal Service with a 2¢ Great Americans series postage stamp.
* Grammy Awards
* 1962: Best Classical Composition by Contemporary Composer (The
* 1962: Best Classical Performance – Orchestra (
The Firebird ,
RECORDINGS AND PUBLICATIONS
Further information: Igor Stravinsky discography
3 Pieces for Clarinet Alone -------------------------
Problems playing this file? See media help .
During his lifetime, Stravinsky appeared on several telecasts, including the 1962 world premiere of The Flood on CBS Television . Although he made an appearance, the actual performance was conducted by Robert Craft. Numerous films and videos of the composer have been preserved.
Stravinsky published a number of books throughout his career, almost
always with the aid of a (sometimes uncredited) collaborator. In his
1936 autobiography, Chronicle of My Life, which was written with the
Walter Nouvel , Stravinsky included his well-known statement
that "music is, by its very nature, essentially powerless to express
anything at all". With
Alexis Roland-Manuel and Pierre Souvtchinsky ,
he wrote his 1939–40
* ^ Greene 1985 , p. 1101.
* ^ White 1979 , p. 4.
* ^ A B Walsh 2001 .
* ^ Walsh, Stephen (1999). "STRAVINSKY: A CREATIVE SPRING: RUSSIA
AND FRANCE, 1882-1934". The New York Times.
New York City
* ^ Walsh 2000 , pp. 543–44.
* ^ Taruskin 1996 , I:pp. 163–368, chapters 3–5.
* ^ Walsh, Stephen (6 September 2015). "Key
* Adorno, Theodor . 1973. Philosophy of Modern Music. Translated by
Anne G. Mitchell and Wesley V. Blomster. New York: Continuum. ISBN
0-8264-0138-4 Original German edition, as Philosophie der neuen Musik.
Tübingen: J. C. B. Mohr, 1949.
* Adorno, Theodor W. 2006. Philosophy of New Music, translated,
edited, and with an introduction by Robert Hullot-Kentor. Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-3666-4 .
* Anonymous. 1940. "Musical Count". Time Magazine (Monday, 11
* Anonymous. 1944. "Stravinsky Liable to Fine". The New York Times
(16 January) (Retrieved 22 June 2010).
* Anonymous. 1957. "Stravinsky Turns 75". Los Angeles Times (3
June). Reprinted in Los Angeles Times "Daily Mirror" blog (3 June
2007) (accessed 9 March 2010).
* Anonymous. 1962. "Life Guide: Salutes to Stravinsky on His 80th; A
Funny Faulkner, Farm Tours", Life Magazine (8 June): 17.
* Anonymous. 2010. "Synopsis" of Mary Ann Braubach (dir.). Huxley on
Huxley. DVD recording. S.l.: Cinedigm, 2010.
* Anonymous. n.d. "Stravinsky: Histoire du Soldat Suite".
Naxosdirect.com (archive from 1 March 2013, accessed 24 January 2016).
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1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of Industry and Empire, editors-in-chief
John Merriman and Jay Winter, 4:2261–63. Detroit: Charles Scribner's
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the Linear Design of Stravinsky\'s 'Musick to Heare.'" Gamut 1, no. 1.
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Musical Quarterly 21, no. 3 (July): 330–47. Reprinted 1991, The
Musical Quarterly 75, no. 4 (Winter): 51–69.
* Browne, Andrew J. 1930. "Aspects of Stravinsky's Work". Music New
York: St Martins Press. ISBN 0-413-45461-4 (Lime Tree); ISBN
* Craft, Robert. 1994. Stravinsky: Chronicle of a Friendship,
revised and expanded edition. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press.
ISBN 0-8265-1258-5 .
* Davis, Mary. 2006. "Chanel, Stravinsky, and Musical Chic". Fashion
Theory 10, no. 4 (December): 431–60.
* Dubal, David . 2001. The Essential Canon of Classical Music. New
York: North Point Press.
* Eksteins, Modris . 1989. Rites of Spring: The Great War and the
Modern Era. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-395-49856-2 .
Reprinted 1990, New York: Anchor Books ISBN 0-385-41202-9 ; reprinted
2000, Boston: Mariner Books ISBN 0-395-93758-2 .
* Glass, Philip. 1998. "The Classical Musician Igor Stravinsky" Time
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* Greene, David Mason. 1985. Biographical Encyclopaedia of
Composers. New York: Doubleday.
* Griffiths, Paul, Igor Stravinsky, Robert Craft, and Gabriel
Josipovici. 1982. Igor Stravinsky: the Rake's Progress. Cambridge
Opera Handbooks. Cambridge. London, New York, New Rochelle, Melbourne,
and Sydney: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23746-7 (cloth);
ISBN 0-521-28199-7 (pbk).
* Hazlewood, Charles . 2003. "Stravinsky—
The Firebird Suite". On
BBC Radio 3 (20 December). Archived at Discovering
Music: Listening Library, Programmes.
* Holland, Bernard. 2001. "Stravinsky, a Rare Bird Amid the Palms: A
Composer in California, at Ease if Not at Home", The New York Times
* Joseph, Charles M.. 2001. Stravinsky Inside Out. New Haven: Yale
University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-07537-3 .
* Karlinsky, Simon. 1985. "Searching for Stravinskii's Essence".
Russian Review 44, no. 3 (July): 281–87.
* Lambert, Constant. 1936. Music Ho! A Study of Music in Decline.
New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
* Lawson, Rex. 1986. "Stravinsky and the Pianola". In Confronting
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