The Hephthalites (or Ephthalites) were a people of Central Asia who
were militarily important circa 450–560. They were based in Bactria
and expanded east to the Tarim Basin, west to
Sogdia and south through
Afghanistan to northern India. They were a tribal confederation and
included both nomadic and settled urban communities. They were part of
the four major "Hunic" states known collectively as
"Hunas", being preceded by the Kidarites, and succeeded by the Alchon
Huns and lastly the Nezak Huns. The Sveta Huna or White
India are probably the Hephthalites, but the exact
relation is not clear.
The stronghold of the Hephthalites was Tokharistan on the northern
slopes of the Hindu Kush, in what is present-day northeastern
Afghanistan. By 479, the Hephthalites had conquered
Sogdia and driven
Kidarites westwards, and by 493 they had captured parts of
Dzungaria and the
Tarim Basin in what is now Northwest
China. They expanded into northwestern
India as well.
The sources for Hepthalite history are poor and historians' opinions
differ. There is no king-list and historians are not sure how they
arose or what language they spoke.
The origin of the name "Hephthalites" is unknown, possibly from either
a Khotanese word *Hitala, itself borrowed from Uigur, meaning "Strong"
or from postulated
Middle Persian *haft āl "the Seven".
2.1 5th century: conflicts and alliances with the Sasanians
2.2 6th century and later
6 Religion and culture
Huns in Southern Central Asia
8 Possible descendants
9 See also
12 External links
Hephthalites chieftain circa 484–560.
The Hephthalites formed in
Bactria around 450, or sometime before.
In 442 their tribes were fighting the Persians. Around 451 they pushed
southeast to Gandhara. In 456 a Hephthalite embassy arrived in China.
By 458 they were strong enough to intervene in Persia.
Around 466 they probably took Transoxianan lands from the Kidarites
with Persian help but soon took from Persia the area of
In the second half of the fifth century they controlled the deserts of
Turkmenistan as far as the
Caspian Sea and possibly Merv.
By 500 they held the whole of
Bactria and the
Pamirs and parts of
Probably in the late fifth century they took the western Tarim Basin
Kashgar and Khotan) and in 479 they took the east end (Turfan). In
497–509, they pushed north of
Turfan to the
Urumchi region. In 509
they took 'Sughd' (the capital of Sogdiana).
Around 565 their empire was destroyed by an alliance of the Göktürks
and the Sasanians, but some of them remained as local rulers in the
Afghan region for the next 150 years.
See also: Hephthalite–Persian Wars
5th century: conflicts and alliances with the Sasanians
Hephthalite king wearing the crown of Sasanian Emperor Peroz I.
Late 5th century CE.
The most reliable information comes from Persian sources: from 442,
Yazdegerd II (435–457) fought 'tribes of the Hephthalites’,
according to the Armenian Elisee Vardaped. In 453, Yazdegerd moved his
court east to deal with the Hephthalites or related groups.
In 458, a Hephthalite king called
Khushnavaz helped Sasanian Emperor
Peroz I (458–484) gain the Persian throne from his brother. The
Hephthalites may have also helped the
Sasanians eliminate another
Hunnic tribe, the Kidarites: by 467, Peroz I, with Hephthalite aid,
reportedly managed to capture Balaam and put an end to Kidarite rule
Transoxiana once and for all. The Kidarites, weakened, had to
take refuge in the area of Gandhara.
Peroz I fought three wars with his former allies the
Hephthalites. In the first two he was captured and ransomed
himself. In the third he was killed, and for the next two years
the Hephthalites plundered parts of Persia.
Sasanian Empire paying tribute to the Hephthalites, from 474,
the Hephthalites themselves adopted the winged, triple-crescent crown
Peroz I to crown their effigy in their own coinage. They thus
expressed symbolically that they had become the legitimate rulers of
From 484 until the middle of the sixth century, Persia paid tribute to
the Hephthalites. In 488,
Kavadh I (488–496, 498–531) made himself
king of Persia with Hephthalite help. (He overthrew his uncle, the
brother of Peroz). In 496–498, he was overthrown by the nobles and
clergy, escaped and restored himself with a Hephthalite army.
Hephthalite troops helped Kavadh at a siege of Edessa.
6th century and later
The "Hephthalite bowl", NFP Pakistan, 460–479 CE. British
The period c. 498–555 is almost blank in the standard English
sources. In 552, the
Göktürks took over Mongolia, and by 558 reached
the Volga. By 581 or before, the western part separated and became the
Western Turkic Khaganate.
Circa 555–567, the Turks and the Persians allied against the
Hephthalites and defeated them after an eight-day battle near Qarshi
perhaps in 557. The allies then fought each other and c. 571 drew
a border along the Oxus. After the battle, the Hephthalites withdrew
Bactria and replaced king Gatfar with Faganish, the ruler of
Chaghaniyan. What happened in the
Tarim Basin is not clear.
Small Hephthalite states remained, paying tribute either to the Turks
or the Persians. They are reported in the Zarafshan valley,
Chaghaniyan, Khuttal, Termez, Balkh, Badghis, Herat and Kabul.
Circa 651, during the Arab conquest, the ruler of
Badghis was involved
in the fall of the last Sassanian Shah Yazdegerd III. Circa 705, the
Hephthalite rulers of
Chaghaniyan surrendered to the Arabs
under Qutaiba ibn Muslim.
Coin of the Hephthalites circa 350 CE, possibly from Bactria,
imitating a coin of Shapur I.
The name Hephthalites originated with Ancient Greek sources, which
also referred to them as Ephthalite, Abdel or Avdel.
To the Armenians, the Hephthalites were Haital, to the Persians and
Arabs, they were Haytal or Hayatila (هياطلة), while their
Bactrian name was Ebodalo (ηβοδαλο).
In Chinese chronicles, the Hephthalites are usually called
Ye-ta-i-li-to (or Yediyiliduo), or the more usual modern and
abbreviated form Yada (嚈噠 Yàdā). The latter name has been given
various Latinised renderings, including Yeda, Ye-ta, Ye-Tha; Ye-dā
and Yanda. The corresponding
Cantonese and Korean names Yipdaat and
Yeoptal (Korean: 엽달), which preserve aspects of the Middle Chinese
pronunciation (roughly yep-daht, [ʔjɛpdɑt]) better than the modern
Mandarin pronunciation, are more consistent with the Greek
Hephthalite. Some Chinese chroniclers suggest that the root Hephtha-
(as in Ye-ta-i-li-to or Yada) was technically a title equivalent to
"emperor", while Hua was the name of the dominant tribe.
In Ancient India, names such as Hephthalite were unknown. The
Hephthalites were apparently part of, or offshoots of, people known in
Hunas or Turushkas, although these names may have
referred to broader groups or neighbouring peoples.
Hephthalites chieftain late 5th century.
There are several theories regarding the origins of the White Huns,
with the Iranian and Turkic theories being the
According to most specialist scholars, the spoken language of the
Hephthalites was an Eastern Iranian language, but different from the
Bactrian language written in the
Greek alphabet that was used as their
"official language" and minted on coins, as was done under the
According to Xavier Tremblay, one of the Hephthalite rulers was named
"Khingila", which has the same root as the Sogdian word xnγr and the
Wakhi word xiŋgār, meaning "sword". The name
Mihirakula is thought
to be derived from mithra-kula which is Iranian for "the Sun family",
with kula having the same root as Pashto kul, "family". Toramāna,
Mihirakula's father, is also considered to have an Iranian origin. In
Sanskrit, mihira-kula would mean the kul "family" of mihira "Sun",
although mihira is not purely
Sanskrit but is a borrowing from Middle
Iranian mihr. Janos Harmatta gives the translation "Mithra's
Begotten" and also supports the Iranian theory.
Hephthalite king wearing the crown of Sasanian Emperor Peroz I.
Late 5th century CE.
For many years, however, scholars suggested that they were of Turkic
stock. Some have claimed that some groups amongst the Hephthalites
were Turkic-speakers. Today the Hephthalites are generally held to
have been an Eastern Iranian people speaking an East Iranian
language. The Hephthalites enscribed their coins in the Bactrian
(Iranian) script, held Iranian titles, the names of
Hephthalite rulers given in Ferdowsi's
Shahnameh are Iranian, and
gem inscriptions and other evidence shows that the official language
of the Hephthalite elite was East Iranian. In 1959, Kazuo Enoki
proposed that the Hephthalites were probably Indo-European (East)
Iranians as some sources indicated that they were originally from
Bactria, which is known to have been inhabited by Indo-Iranian people
in antiquity. Richard Frye is cautiously accepting of Enoki's
hypothesis, while at the same time stressing that the Hephthalites
"were probably a mixed horde". More recently Xavier Tremblay's
detailed examination of surviving Hephthalite personal names has
indicated that Enoki's hypothesis that they were East Iranian may well
be correct, but the matter remains unresolved in academic circles.
Asia in 500, showing the Hephthalite Khanate at its greatest extent.
According to the
Encyclopaedia Iranica and Encyclopaedia of Islam, the
Hephthalites possibly originated in what is today Afghanistan.
They apparently had no direct connection with the European Huns, but
may have been causally related with their movement. The tribes in
question deliberately called themselves "Huns" in order to frighten
Huns may have been a prominent tribe or clan of the
Chionites. According to Richard Nelson Frye:
Just as later nomadic empires were confederations of many peoples, we
may tentatively propose that the ruling groups of these invaders were,
or at least included, Turkic-speaking tribesmen from the east and
north. Although most probably the bulk of the people in the
Chionites and then Hephhtalites spoke an Iranian
language... this was the last time in the history of Central Asia that
Iranian-speaking nomads played any role; hereafter all nomads would
speak Turkic languages.
Hephthalite horseman on
British Museum bowl, 460–479 CE.
Procopius of Caesarea (
Book I. ch.
3), related them to the
Huns in Europe:
The Ephthalitae Huns, who are called White
Huns [...] The Ephthalitae
are of the stock of the
Huns in fact as well as in name, however they
do not mingle with any of the
Huns known to us, for they occupy a land
neither adjoining nor even very near to them; but their territory lies
immediately to the north of Persia [...] They are not nomads like the
other Hunnic peoples, but for a long period have been established in a
goodly land... They are the only ones among the
Huns who have white
bodies and countenances which are not ugly. It is also true that their
manner of living is unlike that of their kinsmen, nor do they live a
savage life as they do; but they are ruled by one king, and since they
possess a lawful constitution, they observe right and justice in their
dealings both with one another and with their neighbours, in no degree
less than the Romans and the Persians
As an illustration of how little we know of the Hephthalites,
Kurbanov surveyed the literature and found these opinions: They
were named after a king Eftalan or Hephtal. They lived in the Eftali
valley (location not given). They called themselves War or Jabula or
Alkhon. They were a political rather than ethnic unit. They, the
Kidarites were the same people or three different
peoples. They were the ruling class of the Xionites. They were not
Xionites. They were not the White Huns. They were natives of Bactria,
or the Pamirs, or the Kundu Kush. They began as the Hua who were
subjects of the
Rouran in the
Turfan area. They were a branch of the
Yuezhi in the Altai area who merged with the Dinglings, defeated the
Yueban and moved south. They arose near the Aral Sea from a fusion of
Massagetae and Alans and moved southeast under the name of Xionites.
They were partly Tibetan or Mongol or Tokharian or
Huns who returned
east after the fall of Attila. Kurbanov gives a few other theories and
makes no attempt to reconcile them.
Ancient Chinese chroniclers, as well as Procopius, wrote various
theories about the origins of the people:
They were descendants of the
Yuezhi or Tocharian tribes who remained
behind after the rest of the people fled the Xiongnu;
They were descendants of the Kangju;
They were a branch of the Tiele; or
They were a branch of the Uar.
Older Chinese sources (c. 125) refer to them as Hua (滑 Huá) or
Hudun, and describe the Hephthalites as a tribe living beyond the
Great Wall, in Dzungaria. Chinese chronicles state that they were
originally a tribe of the Yuezhi, living to the north of the Great
Wall, and subject to the
Rouran (Jwen-Jwen), as were some Turkic
peoples at the time. Their original name was Hoa or Hoa-tun;
subsequently they named themselves Ye-tha-i-li-to (厌带夷栗陁, or
more briefly Ye-tha 嚈噠), after their royal family, which
descended from one of the five
Yuezhi families which also included the
The Hephthalite was a vassal state to the
Rouran Khaganate until the
beginning of the 5th century. Between Hephthalites and Rourans
were also close contacts, although they had different languages and
cultures, and Hephthalites borrowed much of their political
organization from Rourans. In particular, the title "Khan", which
according to McGovern was original to the Rourans, was borrowed by the
Hephthalite rulers. The reason for the migration of the
Hephthalites southeast was to avoid a pressure of the Rourans.
Further, the Hephthalites defeated the
Bactria and their
leader Kidara led the
Yuezhi to the south.
Religion and culture
They were said to practice
Polyandry and Artificial cranial
deformation. Chinese sources said they worshiped 'foreign gods',
'demons', the 'heaven god' or the 'fire god'. The Gokturks told the
Byzantines that they had walled cities. Some Chinese sources said that
they had no cities and lived in tents. Litvinsky tries to resolve this
by saying that they were nomads who moved into the cities they had
conquered. There were some government officials but central control
was weak and local dynasties paid tribute.
According to Song Yun, the Chinese
Buddhist monk who visited the
Hephthalite territory in 540 and "provides accurate accounts of the
people, their clothing, the empresses and court procedures and
traditions of the people and he states the Hephthalites did not
Buddhist religion and they preached pseudo gods, and
killed animals for their meat." It is reported that some
Hephthalites often destroyed
Buddhist monasteries but these were
rebuilt by others. According to Xuanzang, the third Chinese pilgrim
who visited the same areas as
Song Yun about 100 years later, the
Chaghaniyan had five monasteries.
According to historian André Wink, "...in the Hephthalite dominion
Buddhism was predominant but there was also a religious sediment of
Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism."
Balkh had some 100 Buddhist
monasteries and 30,000 monks. Outside the town was a large Buddhist
monastery, later known as Naubahar.
Huns in Southern Central Asia
Hephthalite successor kingdoms in 600.
Main article: Hunas
It is not clear whether the people called Sveta Huna (White Huns) in
Sanskrit were the Hephthalites or a related people, the Xionites. In
the northwest of the Indian subcontinent, the Hephthalites were not
distinguished from their immediate Chionite predecessors; both are
known as Huna (Sanskrit: Sveta-Hūna, White Huns). In Ancient India,
names such as Hephthalite were unknown. The Hephthalites were
apparently part of, or offshoots of, people known in
Historians such as Beckwith, referring to Étienne de la Vaissière,
say that the Hephthalites were not necessarily one and the same as the
Huns (Sveta Huna). According to de la Vaissiere, the
Hephthalites are not directly identified in classical sources
alongside that of the White Huns.
The Huna had already established themselves in
Afghanistan and the
modern province of
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa of
Pakistan by the first half of
the 5th century, and the Gupta emperor
Skandagupta had repelled a
Hūna invasion in 455 before the Hephthalite clan came along. These
attacks on the Guptas were therefore probably made by the predecessors
of the Hephthalites, the Kidarites.
India was invaded during the 5th century by a people known in the
Indian Subcontinent as the
Hunas – possibly an alliance broader than
the Hephthalites and/or Xionites. The
Hunas were initially defeated by
Skandagupta of the Gupta Empire. By the end of the 5th
century, however, the
Hunas had overrun the part of the Gupta Empire
that was to their southeast and had conquered Central and North
India. Gupta Emperor Bhanugupta defeated the
Hunas under Toramana
in 510. The
Hunas were driven out of
India by the kings
Yasodharman and Narasimhagupta, during the early 6th century.
The Hephthalites had their capital at Badian, modern Kunduz, but the
emperor lived in the capital city for just three winter months, and
for the rest of the year, the government seat would move from one
locality to another like a camp. The Hephthalites continued the
pressure on ancient India's northwest frontier and broke east by the
end of the 5th century, hastening the disintegration of the Gupta
Empire. They made their capital at the city of Sakala, modern Sialkot
in Pakistan, under their Emperor Mihirakula. But later the
defeated and driven out of
India by the Indian kings
Narasimhagupta in the 6th century.
A number of groups in
India may be partly descended
from the Hephthalites.
Karluks: The 'Karluks' or
Qarlughids reported from near Ghazni in the
thirteenth century may have arisen from the Hephthalites. Others say
they were Khalachs, the names being similar in Arabic.
Khalachs: The Khalachs or
Khalaj people are first mentioned in the
7th–9th centuries in the area of Kabul and Ghazni. They spoke
Turkic, possibly arose from the Hephthalites and later probably merged
Ghilzai Pashtuns. Their descendents may have founded the
Khalji dynasty (1290) and the
Lodi dynasty (1451) of the Delhi
Abdal is a name associated with the Hephthalites. It is an alternate
name for the
Äynu people of the
Tarim Basin and appears as a
sub-tribe of the
Chowdur Turkmen, Kazakhs and
Afghanistan were called Abdali before 1747.
Rajputs: The Rajputs may have begun as assimilation of Hephthalites in
Pashtuns began as a union of largely East-Iranian tribes which
became the initial ethnic stratum of the Pashtun ethnogenesis, dates
from the middle of the first millennium CE and is connected with the
dissolution of the Epthalite (White Huns) confederacy. ... Of the
contribution of the Epthalites (White Huns) to the ethnogenesis of the
Pashtuns we find evidence in the ethnonym of the largest of the
Pashtun tribe unions, the Abdali (
Durrani after 1747) associated with
the ethnic name of the Epthalites — Abdal. The Siah-posh, the Kafirs
(Nuristanis) of the Hindu Kush, called all
Pashtuns by a general name
of Abdal still at the beginning of the 19th century.
Kidarites (Red Huns)
^ a b Bivar, A. D. H. "HEPHTHALITES". Encyclopaedia Iranica. Retrieved
8 March 2017.
^ a b c "Chinese Travelers in Afghanistan". Abdul Hai Habibi.
alamahabibi.com. 1969. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
^ Sardonyx seal
^ a b c d e f g h A.Kurbanov "THE HEPHTHALITES-ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND
HISTORICAL ANALYSIS" 2010
^ a b Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early medieval
India. André Wink, p. 110. E. J. Brill.
^ a b The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Attila, Michael Maas p.287
^ Ancient History of Central Asia by Adesh Katariya p.169
^ CNG Coins
^ Kurbanov, p164;
^ a b c d e The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Attila by Michael
^ a b CNG Coins
^ a b c History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Ahmad Hasan Dani, B.
^ Zeimal 1996, p. 130.
^ Iaroslav Lebedynsky, "Les Nomades", p172.
^ a b
British Museum notice
^ The war is variously dated. 560–565 (Gumilyov, 1967); 555 (Stark,
2008, Altturkenzeit, 210); 557 (Iranica, Khosrow ii); 558–561
(Iranica.hephthalites); 557–563 (Baumer, Hist. Cent. Asia, 2, 174);
557–561 (Sinor, 1990, Hist. Inner Asia, 301); 560–563 (UNESCO,
Hist. Civs. C. A., iii, 143); 562– 565 (Christian, Hist. Russia,
Mongolia, C. A., 252); c. 565 (Grousset,Empire Steppes, 1970, p. 82);
567 (Chavannes, 1903, Documents, 236 and 229)
^ The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Attila, Michael Maas,
Cambridge University Press, 2014 p.284sq
Huns by Hyun Jin Kim, Routledge p.56
^ Enoki, K. "The Liang shih-kung-t'u on the origin and migration of
the Hua or Ephthalites," Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia
7:1–2 (December 1970):37–45
^ a b History of
Buddhism in Afghanistan, Alexander Berzin, Study
^ CNG Coins
Denis Sinor (1990). "The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, volume
1". Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2017-08-19.
"The relative abundance of data norwithstanding, we have but a very
fragmentary picture of Hephthalite civilization.There is no consensus
con- cerning the Hephthalite language, though most scholars seem to
think that it was Iranian.The Pei shih at least clearly states that
the language of the Hephthalites differs from those of the High
Chariots, of the Juan-juan and of the "various Hu a rather vague term
which, in this context, probably refers to some Iranian peoples...
According to the Liang shu the Hephthalites worshiped Heaven and also
fire a clear reference to Zoroastrianism."
University of Indiana (1954). "Asia Major, volume 4,part 1". Institute
of History and Philology of the Academia Sinica. Retrieved
"Concerning the Hephthalites, Enoki Kazuo stresses that their place of
origin was to the north of the
Hindu Kush mountain range and that they
were of Iranian stock he rejects the view that they were of Altaic
origin, with Turkish connections."
Robert L. Canfield (2002). "Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective".
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press P. 272.pp.49. Retrieved 2017-08-19.
"One cannot go into details here about that dark period of Central
Asian history from the time of the Kushans down the coming of the
Arabs, but one may suggest that the beginning of this period saw the
last waves of Iranian-speaking nomads moving to the south, to be
replaced by the Turkic-speaking nomads beginning in the late fourth
century.... but our information about them, known in Classical and
Islamic sources as the
Chionites and Hephthalites, is so meager that
much confusion has reigned regarding their origins and nature.Just as
later nomadic empires were confederations of many peoples, we may
tentatively propose that the ruling groups of these were, or at least
included, Turkic-speaking tribesmen from the east and north, although
most probably the bulk of the people in the confederation ofChionites
and then Hephthalites spoke an Iranian language.In this case, as
normal, the nomads adopted the written language, institutions, and
culture of the settled folk.To call them "Iranian Huns" as Gobl has
done is not infelicitous, for surely the bulk of the population ruled
Chionites and Hephthalites was lranian (Gobl 1967:ix). But this
was the last time in the history ofCentral Asia that Iranian-speaking
nomads played any role; hereafter all nomads would speak Turkic
languages and the millennium-old division between settled Tajik and
nomadic Turk would obtain."
^ M. A. Shaban, "Khurasan at the Time of the Arab Conquest", in Iran
and Islam, in memory of Vlademir Minorsky, Edinburgh University Press,
(1971), p481; ISBN 0-85224-200-X.
^ "The White
Huns – The Hephthalites", Silk Road
^ Enoki Kazuo, "On the nationality of White Huns", 1955
^ a b David Christian A History of Russia, Inner Asia and Mongolia
(Oxford: Basil Blackwell) 1998 p248
^ a b "White Huns", Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia
^ a b Enoki, Kazuo: "On the Nationality of the White Huns", Memoirs of
the Research Department of the Tokyo Bunko, 1959, No. 18, p. 56.
Quote: "Let me recapitulate the foregoing. The grounds upon which the
Huns are assigned an Iranian tribe are: (1) that their original
home was on the east frontier of Tokharestan; and (2) that their
culture contained some Iranian elements. Naturally, the White Huns
were sometimes regarded as another branch of the Kao-ch’e tribe by
their contemporaries, and their manners and customs are represented as
identical with those of the T’u-chueh, and it is a fact that they
had several cultural elements in common with those of the nomadic
Turkish tribes. Nevertheless, such similarity of manners and customs
is an inevitable phenomenon arising from similarity of their
environments. The White
Huns could not be assigned as a Turkish tribe
on account of this. The White
Huns were considered by some scholars as
an Aryanized tribe, but I would like to go further and acknowledge
them as an Iranian tribe. Though my grounds, as stated above, are
rather scarce, it is expected that the historical and linguistic
materials concerning the White
Huns are to be increased in the future
and most of the newly-discovered materials seem to confirm my
Iranian-tribe theory." here (PDF)
Retrieved 1 April 2017. Missing or empty title= (help) or
"Hephtalites" or "On the Nationality of the Hephtalites".
^ a b Xavier Tremblay, Pour une histore de la Sérinde. Le
manichéisme parmi les peoples et religions d’Asie Centrale
d’aprés les sources primaire, Vienna: 2001, Appendix D «Notes Sur
L'Origine Des Hephtalites», pp. 183–88 «Malgré tous les auteurs
qui, depuis KLAPROTH jusqu’ ALTHEIM in SuC, p113 sq et HAUSSIG, Die
Geschichte Zentralasiens und der Seidenstrasse in vorislamischer Zeit,
Darmstadt, 1983 (cf. n.7), ont vu dans les White
Huns des Turcs,
l’explication de leurs noms par le turc ne s’impose jamais, est
parfois impossible et n’est appuyée par aucun fait historique
(aucune trace de la religion turque ancienne), celle par l’iranien
est toujours possible, parfois évidente, surtout dans les noms longs
Toramana ou γοβοζοκο qui sont bien plus
probants qu’ αλ- en Αλχαννο. Or l’iranien des noms des
Huns n’est pas du bactrien et n’est donc pas imputable à
leur installation en Bactriane [...] Une telle accumulation de
probabilités suffit à conclure que, jusqu’à preuve du contraire,
les Hepthalites étaient des Iraniens orientaux, mais non des
Sogdiens.» Available here (PDF)
Retrieved 1 April 2017. Missing or empty title= (help) or here
^ Denis Sinor, "The establishment and dissolution of the Türk empire"
in Denis Sinor, "The Cambridge history of early Inner Asia, Volume 1",
Cambridge University Press, 1990. p. 300:"There is no consensus
concerning the Hephthalite language, though most scholars seem to
think that it was Iranian."
^ Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin, Congrès International d&Etud.
Études mithriaques: actes du 2e Congrès International, Téhéran, du
1er au 8 september 1975. p 293. Retrieved 2012-9-5.
^ Janos Harmatta, "The Rise of the Old Persian Empire: Cyrus the
Great," AAASH (Acta Antiqua Acadamie Scientiarum Hungaricae 19, 197,
^ West 2009, pp. 274–277
^ a b c d e f
Unesco Staff 1996, pp. 135–163
^ R. Frye, "Central Asia in pre-Islamic Times" Archived 15 December
2007 at the Wayback Machine., Encyclopaedia Iranica
^ G. Ambros/P.A. Andrews/L. Bazin/A. Gökalp/B. Flemming and others,
"Turks", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition 2006
^ A.D.H. Bivar, "Hephthalites", in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online
^ M. Schottky, "Iranian Huns", in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online
^ Robert L. Canfield, Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective,
Cambridge University Press, 1991, p. 49
^ Procopius, History of the Wars.
Book I, Ch. III, "The Persian War"
^ Kurbanov pp2-32
^ Columbia Encyclopedia
^ "Ephtalites", Classic Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911
^ Grousset (1970), p. 67.
^ Litvinsky, pp144-47
^ Empires of the Silk Road. 2009. p. 406.
^ de la Vaissiere, Etienne. "
Huns et Xiongnu". Central Asiatic Journal
^ Ancient India: History and Culture by Balkrishna Govind Gokhale,
^ Ancient Indian History and Civilization by Sailendra Nath Sen, p.220
^ Encyclopaedia of Indian Events and Dates by S. B. Bhattacherje,
^ India: A History by John Keay, p.158
^ History of India, in Nine Volumes: Vol. II by Vincent A. Smith,
^ Kurbanov pp238-243
^ Gankovsky, Yu. V., et al. A History of Afghanistan, Moscow: Progress
Publishers, 1982, p. 382
B.A. Litvinsky, The Hephthalite Empire, 1996, in History of
Civilizations in Central Asia, iii, p135-183
Kurbanov, Aydogdy (2010). "The Hephthalites: Archaeological and
Historical Analysis" (PDF). Retrieved 11 January 2013.
Grignaschi, M. (1980). "La Chute De L'Empire Hephthalite Dans Les
Sources Byzantines et Perses et Le Probleme Des Avar". Acta Antiqua
Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, Tomus XXVIII. Budapest: Akademiai
Haussig, Hans Wilhelm (1983). Die Geschichte Zentralasiens und der
Seidenstraße in vorislamischer Zeit. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche
Buchgesellschaft. ISBN 3-534-07869-1.
Theophylaktos Simokates. P. Schreiner, ed. Geschichte.
West, Barbara A. (January 1, 2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of
Asia and Oceania. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 1438119135. Retrieved
January 18, 2015.
Zeimal, E. V. (1996). "The Kidarite kingdom in Central Asia". History
of Civilizations of Central Asia, Volume III: The Crossroads of
Civilizations: A.D. 250 to 750. Paris: UNESCO. pp. 119–135.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hephthalites.
Ethnonym Apar in the Turkish Inscriptions of the VIII. Century
and Armenian Manuscripts" Dr. Mehmet Tezcan.
The Anthropology of Yanda (Chinese) pdf
The Silkroad Foundation
Columbia Encyclopedia: Hephthalites
Hephthalite History and Coins of the Kashmir Smast Kingdom- Waleed
Ziad at the
Wayback Machine (archived 27 October 2009)
The Hephthalites of Central Asia – by Richard Heli (long article
with a timeline)
The Hephthalites at the
Wayback Machine (archived 9 February 2005)
Article archived from the University of Washington's Silk Road
exhibition – has a slightly adapted form of the Richard Heli
Ethnonym Apar in the Turkish Inscriptions of the VIII.
Century and Armenian Manuscripts – Mehmet Tezcan
Indus Valley Civilisation
Arabs in Afghanistan
Third Battle of Panipat
Battle of Jamrud
First Anglo-Afghan War
Second Anglo-Afghan War
Third Anglo-Afghan War
Reforms of Amānullāh Khān and civil war
European influence in
Afghanistan (Nadir Shah · Zahir Shah)
Chief Executive Officer
Cabinet of Ministers
House of Elders
House of the People
Current provincial governors
Afghan National Security Forces
Ariana Afghan Airlines
Rail transport and history
Pashtunwali (Pashtun life)
Postage stamps and postal history