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HAVANA (/həˈvænə/ ; Spanish : La Habana, ( listen )) is the capital city , largest city, province , major port, and leading commercial centre of Cuba
Cuba
. The city has a population of 2.1 million inhabitants, and it spans a total of 728.26 km2 (281.18 sq mi) – making it the largest city by area, the most populous city, and the fourth largest metropolitan area in the Caribbean
Caribbean
region. The city extends mostly westward and southward from the bay , which is entered through a narrow inlet and which divides into three main harbours: Marimelena, Guanabacoa and Atarés . The sluggish Almendares River traverses the city from south to north, entering the Straits of Florida a few miles west of the bay.

The city of Havana
Havana
was founded by the Spanish in the 16th century and due to its strategic location it served as a springboard for the Spanish conquest of the continent , becoming a stopping point for treasure-laden Spanish galleons returning to Spain. King Philip II of Spain
Spain
granted Havana
Havana
the title of City in 1592. Walls as well as forts were built to protect the old city. The sinking of the U.S. battleship Maine in Havana's harbor in 1898 was the immediate cause of the Spanish–American War .

Contemporary Havana
Havana
can essentially be described as three cities in one: Old Havana , Vedado and the newer suburban districts. The city is the center of the Cuban government , and home to various ministries, headquarters of businesses and over 90 diplomatic offices. The current mayor is Marta Hernández of the Communist Party of Cuba (PCC). In 2009, the city/province had the third highest income in the country.

The city attracts over a million tourists annually; the Official Census for Havana
Havana
reports that in 2010 the city was visited by 1,176,627 international tourists, a 20% increase from 2005. Old Havana
Havana
was declared a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 1982. The city is also noted for its history , culture, architecture and monuments. As typical of Cuba, Havana
Havana
also features a tropical climate .

In May 2015, Havana
Havana
was selected as one of the so-called New7Wonders Cities together with Beirut
Beirut
, Doha
Doha
, Durban
Durban
, Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
, La Paz
La Paz
, and Vigan .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Colonial period

* 2.1.1 16th century * 2.1.2 17th century * 2.1.3 18th century * 2.1.4 19th century

* 2.2 Republican period and Post-revolution

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Climate

* 4 Cityscape

* 4.1 Districts * 4.2 Architecture * 4.3 Landmarks and historical centres

* 5 Coat of arms

* 6 Culture

* 6.1 Old Havana * 6.2 Barrio Chino * 6.3 Visual arts * 6.4 Performing arts * 6.5 Festivals

* 7 Tourism
Tourism

* 8 Economy

* 8.1 Industry * 8.2 Commerce and finance

* 9 Demographics

* 9.1 Religion * 9.2 Poverty
Poverty
and slums

* 10 Transport

* 10.1 Urban buses * 10.2 Airports * 10.3 Rail * 10.4 Interurban (tram) * 10.5 Ferry * 10.6 Roads

* 11 Administration

* 12 Infrastructure

* 12.1 Education * 12.2 Health * 12.3 Services

* 13 Sports * 14 Notable people

* 15 International relations

* 15.1 Diplomatic offices * 15.2 Twin towns – sister cities

* 16 See also * 17 Notes * 18 References * 19 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Most native settlements became the site of Spanish colonial cities retaining their original Taíno names; the name Habana could be based on the name of a local Taíno chief Habaguanex.

A panoramic view of Havana, Cuba
Cuba
from atop the Fortaleza de San Carlos de la Cabaña .

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Havana
History of Havana
and Timeline of Havana

COLONIAL PERIOD

17th century depiction of Havana
Havana

16th Century

Conquistador
Conquistador
Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar founded Havana
Havana
on August 25, 1515, on the southern coast of the island, near the present town of Surgidero de Batabanó , or more likely on the banks of the Mayabeque River close to Playa Mayabeque . All attempts to found a city on Cuba's south coast failed. However, an early map of Cuba
Cuba
drawn in 1514 places the town at the mouth of this river.

Between 1514 and 1519 the Spanish established at least two different settlements on the north coast, one of them in La Chorrera, today in the neighborhoods of Vedado and Miramar, next to the Almendares River . The town that became Havana
Havana
finally originated adjacent to what was then called Puerto de Carenas (literally, " Careening Bay"), in 1519. The quality of this natural bay, which now hosts Havana's harbor, warranted this change of location.

Pánfilo de Narváez gave Havana
Havana
– the sixth town founded by the Spanish on Cuba
Cuba
– its name: San Cristóbal de la Habana. The name combines San Cristóbal, patron saint of Havana. Shortly after the founding of Cuba's first cities, the island served as little more than a base for the Conquista of other lands. French pirate Jacques de Sores looting and burning Havana
Havana
in 1555 Port of Havana
Havana
in 1639 19th century depiction of Havana
Havana

Havana
Havana
began as a trading port, and suffered regular attacks by buccaneers , pirates , and French corsairs . The first attack and resultant burning of the city was by the French corsair Jacques de Sores in 1555. Such attacks convinced the Spanish Crown to fund the construction of the first fortresses in the main cities – not only to counteract the pirates and corsairs, but also to exert more control over commerce with the West Indies, and to limit the extensive contrabando (black market ) that had arisen due to the trade restrictions imposed by the Casa de Contratación
Casa de Contratación
of Seville (the crown-controlled trading house that held a monopoly on New World trade).

Ships from all over the New World carried products first to Havana, in order to be taken by the fleet to Spain. The thousands of ships gathered in the city's bay also fueled Havana's agriculture and manufacture, since they had to be supplied with food, water, and other products needed to traverse the ocean.

On December 20, 1592, King Philip II of Spain
Philip II of Spain
granted Havana
Havana
the title of City. Later on, the city would be officially designated as "Key to the New World and Rampart of the West Indies" by the Spanish Crown . In the meantime, efforts to build or improve the defensive infrastructures of the city continued.

17th Century

Havana
Havana
expanded greatly in the 17th century. New buildings were constructed from the most abundant materials of the island, mainly wood , combining various Iberian architectural styles, as well as borrowing profusely from Canarian characteristics.

In 1649 a very fatal epidemic brought from Cartagena in Colombia, affected a third of the population of Havana.

18th Century

By the middle of the 18th century Havana
Havana
had more than seventy thousand inhabitants, and was the third-largest city in the Americas
Americas
, ranking behind Lima
Lima
and Mexico City
Mexico City
but ahead of Boston
Boston
and New York . During the 18th century Havana
Havana
was the most important of the Spanish ports because it had facilities where ships could be refitted and, by 1740, it had become Spain's largest and most active shipyard and only drydock in the New World.

The city was captured by the British during the Seven Years\' War . The episode began on June 6, 1762, when at dawn, a British fleet, comprising more than 50 ships and a combined force of over 11,000 men of the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
and Army, sailed into Cuban waters and made an amphibious landing east of Havana. The British immediately opened up trade with their North American and Caribbean
Caribbean
colonies , causing a rapid transformation of Cuban society. Less than a year after Havana was seized, the Peace of Paris was signed by the three warring powers thus ending the Seven Years' War. The treaty gave Britain Florida in exchange for the return of the city of Havana
Havana
on to Spain.

After regaining the city, the Spanish transformed Havana
Havana
into the most heavily fortified city in the Americas. Construction began on what was to become the Fortress of San Carlos de la Cabaña , the third biggest Spanish fortification in the New World after Fort San Cristobal (the biggest) and Fort San Felipe del Morro both in San Juan, Puerto Rico. On January 15, 1796, the remains of Christopher Columbus were transported to the island from Santo Domingo . They rested here until 1898, when they were transferred to Seville\'s Cathedral , after Spain's loss of Cuba.

19th Century

As trade between Caribbean
Caribbean
and North American states increased in the early 19th century, Havana
Havana
became a flourishing and fashionable city. Havana's theaters featured the most distinguished actors of the age, and prosperity among the burgeoning middle-class led to expensive new classical mansions being erected. During this period Havana
Havana
became known as the Paris of the Antilles
Antilles
.

In 1837, the first railroad was constructed, a 51 km (32 mi) stretch between Havana
Havana
and Bejucal , which was used for transporting sugar from the valley of Güines to the harbor. With this, Cuba
Cuba
became the fifth country in the world to have a railroad, and the first Spanish -speaking country. Throughout the century, Havana
Havana
was enriched by the construction of additional cultural facilities, such as the Tacon Teatre , one of the most luxurious in the world. The fact that slavery was legal in Cuba
Cuba
until 1886 led to Southern American interest, including a plan by the Knights of the Golden Circle to create a \'Golden Circle\' with a 1200 mile-radius centered on Havana. After the Confederate States of America
Confederate States of America
were defeated in the American Civil War in 1865, many former slaveholders continued to run plantations by moving to Havana.

In 1863, the city walls were knocked down so that the metropolis could be enlarged. At the end of the 19th century, Havana
Havana
witnessed the final moments of Spanish colonialism in the Americas.

REPUBLICAN PERIOD AND POST-REVOLUTION

The 20th century began with Cuba, and therefore Havana, under occupation by the United States. The US occupation officially ended when Tomás Estrada Palma , first president of Cuba
Cuba
, took office on 20 May 1902.

During the Republican Period, from 1902 to 1959, the city saw a new era of development. Cuba
Cuba
recovered from the devastation of war to become a well-off country, with the third largest middle class in the hemisphere. Apartment buildings to accommodate the new middle class, as well as mansions for the Cuban tycoons, were built at a fast pace.

Numerous luxury hotels, casinos and nightclubs were constructed during the 1930s to serve Havana's burgeoning tourist industry. In the 1930s, organized crime characters were not unaware of Havana's nightclub and casino life, and they made their inroads in the city. Santo Trafficante, Jr. took the roulette wheel at the Sans Souci Casino
Casino
, Meyer Lansky directed the Hotel Habana Riviera , with Lucky Luciano at the Hotel Nacional Casino. At the time, Havana
Havana
became an exotic capital of appeal and numerous activities ranging from marinas, grand prix car racing, musical shows and parks.

Havana
Havana
achieved the title of being the Latin American
Latin American
city with the biggest middle class population per-capita, simultaneously accompanied by gambling and corruption where gangsters and stars were known to mix socially. During this era, Havana
Havana
was generally producing more revenue than Las Vegas, Nevada . In 1958, about 300,000 American tourists visited the city.

After the revolution of 1959 , the new régime under Fidel Castro promised to improve social services, public housing, and official buildings. Nevertheless, after Castro's abrupt expropriation of all private property and industry (May 1959 onwards) under a strong communist model backed by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
followed by the U.S. embargo , shortages that affected Cuba
Cuba
in general hit Havana especially hard. By 1966–68, the Cuban government had nationalized all privately owned business entities in Cuba, down to "certain kinds of small retail forms of commerce" (law No. 1076 ).

A severe economic downturn occurred after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Soviet subsidies ended, representing billions of dollars which the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
had given the Cuban government . Many believed that Havana's Soviet-backed régime would soon vanish, as happened to the Soviet satellite states of Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
. However, contrary to events in Europe, Havana's communist régime continued during the 1990s.

After many years of prohibition , the communist government increasingly turned to tourism for new financial revenue, and has allowed foreign investors to build new hotels and develop the hospitality industry. In Old Havana, effort has also gone into rebuilding for tourist purposes, and a number of streets and squares have been rehabilitated. But Old Havana is a large city, and the restoration efforts concentrate in all on less than 10% of its area.

*

Havana
Havana
Stock Exchange c. 1920 *

Capitolio Nacional in 1929 *

Museum of Fine Arts at the Palace of the Asturian c. 1920 *

Grand National Theatre at the Palace of the Galician c. 1920

GEOGRAPHY

Astronaut Photograph of Havana
Havana

Havana
Havana
lies on the northern coast of Cuba, south of the Florida Keys , where the Gulf of Mexico
Mexico
joins the Atlantic Ocean. The city extends mostly westward and southward from the bay, which is entered through a narrow inlet and which divides into three main harbours: Marimelena, Guanabacoa, and Atarés. The sluggish Almendares River
Almendares River
traverses the city from south to north, entering the Straits of Florida
Straits of Florida
a few miles west of the bay.

The low hills on which the city lies rise gently from the deep blue waters of the straits. A noteworthy elevation is the 200-foot-high (60-metre) limestone ridge that slopes up from the east and culminates in the heights of La Cabaña and El Morro , the sites of colonial fortifications overlooking the eastern bay. Another notable rise is the hill to the west that is occupied by the University of Havana
University of Havana
and the Prince's Castle. Outside the city, higher hills rise on the west and east.

CLIMATE

Havana, like much of Cuba, has a tropical climate that is tempered by the island's position in the belt of the trade winds and by the warm offshore currents. Under the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
, Havana has a tropical savanna climate . Average temperatures range from 22 °C (72 °F) in January and February to 28 °C (82 °F) in August. The temperature seldom drops below 10 °C (50 °F). The lowest temperature was 1 °C (34 °F) in Santiago de Las Vegas, Boyeros. The lowest recorded temperature in Cuba
Cuba
was 32 °F (0 °C) in Bainoa, Mayabeque Province (before 2011 the eastern part of Havana
Havana
province). Rainfall is heaviest in June and October and lightest from December through April, averaging 1,200 mm (47 in) annually. Hurricanes occasionally strike the island, but they ordinarily hit the south coast, and damage in Havana
Havana
has been less than elsewhere in the country.

The table below lists temperature averages:

CLIMATE DATA FOR HAVANA (1961–1990, EXTREMES 1859–PRESENT)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 32.4 (90.3) 33.0 (91.4) 35.3 (95.5) 37.0 (98.6) 36.2 (97.2) 35.4 (95.7) 36.6 (97.9) 37.7 (99.9) 38.2 (100.8) 39.6 (103.3) 34.0 (93.2) 33.2 (91.8) 39.6 (103.3)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 25.8 (78.4) 26.1 (79) 27.6 (81.7) 28.6 (83.5) 29.8 (85.6) 30.5 (86.9) 31.3 (88.3) 31.6 (88.9) 31.0 (87.8) 29.2 (84.6) 27.7 (81.9) 26.5 (79.7) 28.8 (83.8)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 22.2 (72) 22.4 (72.3) 23.7 (74.7) 24.8 (76.6) 26.1 (79) 27.0 (80.6) 27.6 (81.7) 27.9 (82.2) 27.4 (81.3) 26.1 (79) 24.5 (76.1) 23.0 (73.4) 25.2 (77.4)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 18.6 (65.5) 18.6 (65.5) 19.7 (67.5) 20.9 (69.6) 22.4 (72.3) 23.4 (74.1) 23.8 (74.8) 24.1 (75.4) 23.8 (74.8) 23.0 (73.4) 21.3 (70.3) 19.5 (67.1) 21.6 (70.9)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) 6.0 (42.8) 11.9 (53.4) 10.0 (50) 15.1 (59.2) 15.4 (59.7) 20.0 (68) 19.0 (66.2) 20.0 (68) 20.0 (68) 18.0 (64.4) 14.0 (57.2) 10.0 (50) 6.0 (42.8)

AVERAGE RAINFALL MM (INCHES) 64.4 (2.535) 68.6 (2.701) 46.2 (1.819) 53.7 (2.114) 98.0 (3.858) 182.3 (7.177) 105.6 (4.157) 99.6 (3.921) 144.4 (5.685) 180.5 (7.106) 88.3 (3.476) 57.6 (2.268) 1,189.2 (46.817)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM) 5 5 3 3 6 10 7 9 10 11 6 5 80

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 75 74 73 72 75 77 78 78 79 80 77 75 76.1

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 217.0 203.4 272.8 273.0 260.4 237.0 272.8 260.4 225.0 195.3 219.0 195.3 2,831.4

MEAN DAILY SUNSHINE HOURS 7.0 7.2 8.8 9.1 8.4 7.9 8.8 8.4 7.5 6.3 7.3 6.3 7.8

Source #1: World Meteorological Organisation , Climate-Charts.com

Source #2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows), Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun)

Average Sea Temperature JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

23 °C

73 °F 23 °C

73 °F 24 °C

75 °F 26 °C

79 °F 27 °C

81 °F 28 °C

82 °F 28 °C

82 °F 28 °C

82 °F 28 °C

82 °F 27 °C

81 °F 26 °C

79 °F 24 °C

75 °F

CITYSCAPE

Old Havana from street level, with the Capitolio in the background.

Contemporary Havana
Havana
can essentially be described as three cities in one: Old Havana , Vedado , and the newer suburban districts. Old Havana, with its narrow streets and overhanging balconies, is the traditional centre of part of Havana's commerce, industry, and entertainment, as well as being a residential area.

To the north and west a newer section, centred on the uptown area known as Vedado , has become the rival of Old Havana for commercial activity and nightlife. Centro Habana
Centro Habana
, sometimes described as part of Vedado, is mainly a shopping district that lies between Vedado and Old Havana. The Capitolio Nacional building marks the beginning of Centro Habana, a working-class neighborhood. Barrio Chino and the Real Fabrica de Tabacos Partagás , one of Cuba's oldest cigar factories is located in the area.

A third Havana
Havana
is that of the more affluent residential and industrial districts that spread out mostly to the west. Among these is Marianao , one of the newer parts of the city, dating mainly from the 1920s. Some of the suburban exclusivity was lost after the revolution, many of the suburban homes having been nationalized by the Cuban government to serve as schools, hospitals, and government offices. Several private country clubs were converted to public recreational centres. Miramar , located west of Vedado along the coast, remains Havana's exclusive area; mansions, foreign embassies, diplomatic residences, upscale shops, and facilities for wealthy foreigners are common in the area. The International School of Havana is located in the Miramar neighborhood.

In the 1980s many parts of Old Havana , including the Plaza de Armas, became part of a projected 35-year multimillion-dollar restoration project, for Cubans to appreciate their past and boost tourism. In the past ten years, with the assistance of foreign aid and under the support of local city historian Eusebio Leal Spengler, large parts of Habana Vieja have been renovated. The city is moving forward with their renovations, with most of the major plazas (Plaza Vieja, Plaza de la Catedral, Plaza de San Francisco and Plaza de Armas) and major tourist streets (Obispo and Mercaderes) near completion.

DISTRICTS

The city is divided into 15 municipalities – or boroughs, which are further subdivided into 105 wards (consejos populares). (Numbers refer to map). Havana
Havana
district map

* PLAYA : Santa Fe , Siboney, Cubanacán, Ampliación Almendares, Miramar , Sierra, Ceiba, Buena Vista. * PLAZA DE LA REVOLUCIóN : El Carmelo, Vedado-Malecón, Rampa, Príncipe, Plaza, Nuevo Vedado-Puentes Grandes, Colón-Nuevo Vedado, Vedado . * CENTRO HABANA : Cayo Hueso, Pueblo Nuevo, Los Sitios, Dragones, Colón. * LA HABANA VIEJA : Prado, Catedral, Plaza Vieja , Belén, San Isidro, Jesús María, Tallapiedra. * REGLA : Guaicanimar, Loma Modelo, Casablanca . * LA HABANA DEL ESTE : Camilo Cienfuegos, Cojímar , Guiteras, Alturas de Alamar, Alamar Este, Guanabo , Campo Florido, Alamar-Playa . * GUANABACOA : Mañana-Habana Nueva, Villa I, Villa II, Chivas-Roble, Debeche-Nalon, Hata-Naranjo, Peñalver-Bacuranao, Minas-Barreras. * SAN MIGUEL DEL PADRóN : Rocafort, Luyanó Moderno, Diezmero , San Francisco de Paula, Dolores-Veracruz, Jacomino. * DIEZ DE OCTUBRE : Luyanó, Jesús del Monte, Lawton, Vista Alegre, Acosta, Sevillano, La Víbora , Santos Suárez, Tamarindo. * CERRO : Latinoamericano, Pilar-Atares, Cerro, Las Cañas, El Canal, Palatino, Armada. * MARIANAO : CAI-Los Ángeles, Pocito-Palmas, Zamora-Cocosolo, Libertad, Pogoloti-Belén-Finlay, Santa Felicia. * LA LISA : Alturas de La Lisa, Balcón Arimao, El Cano-Valle Grande-Bello 26 y Morado, Punta Brava , Arroyo Arenas, San Agustín, Versalles-Coronela. * BOYEROS : Santiago de Las Vegas , Nuevo Santiago, Boyeros, Wajay , Calabazar, Altahabana-Capdevila, Armada-Aldabo. * ARROYO NARANJO : Los Pinos, Poey, Víbora Park, Mantilla, Párraga, Calvario-Fraternidad, Guinera, Eléctrico, Managua, Callejas. * COTORRO : San Pedro-Centro Cotorro, Santa Maria del Rosario, Lotería, Cuatro Caminos, Magdalena-Torriente, Alberro.

ARCHITECTURE

Capitolio Nacional Neo-classical architecture Historic Hotel Plaza Manzana de Gomez Shopping Center Neo-baroque apartment building San Lázaro Street Hotel Saratoga The Focsa residential skyscraper The Focsa skyscraper

Due to Havana's almost five hundred-year existence , the city boasts some of the most diverse styles of architecture in the world, from castles built in the late 16th century to modernist present-day high-rises. The present condition of many buildings in Havana
Havana
has deteriorated since the 1959 Revolution. Numerous collapses have resulted in injuries and deaths due to a lack of maintenance and crumbling structures. Neoclassical

Neoclassism was introduced into the city in the 1840s, at the time including Gas public lighting in 1848 and the railroad in 1837. In the second half of the 18th century, sugar and coffee production increased rapidly, which became essential in the development of Havana's most prominent architectural style. Many wealthy Habaneros took their inspiration from the French; this can be seen within the interiors of upper class houses such as the Aldama Palace built in 1844. This is considered the most important neoclassical residential building in Cuba
Cuba
and typifies the design of many houses of this period with portales of neoclassical columns facing open spaces or courtyards.

In 1925 Jean-Claude Nicolas Forestier , the head of urban planning in Paris moved to Havana
Havana
for five years to collaborate with architects and landscape designers. In the master planning of the city his aim was to create a harmonic balance between the classical built form and the tropical landscape. He embraced and connected the city's road networks while accentuating prominent landmarks. His influence has left a huge mark on Havana
Havana
although many of his ideas were cut short by the great depression in 1929 . During the first decades of the 20th century Havana
Havana
expanded more rapidly than at any time during its history. Great wealth prompted architectural styles to be influenced from abroad. The peak of Neoclassicism came with the construction of the Vedado district (begun in 1859). This whole neighborhood is littered with set back well-proportioned buildings. Colonial and Baroque

Riches were brought from the colonialists into and through Havana
Havana
as it was a key transshipment point between the new world and old world . As a result, Havana
Havana
was the most heavily fortified city in the Americas. Most examples of early architecture can be seen in military fortifications such as La Fortaleza de San Carlos de la Cabana (1558–1577) designed by Battista Antonelli and the Castillo del Morro (1589–1630). This sits at the entrance of Havana
Havana
Bay and provides an insight into the supremacy and wealth at that time.

Old Havana was also protected by a defensive wall begun in 1674 but had already overgrown its boundaries when it was completed in 1767, becoming the new neighbourhood of Centro Habana
Centro Habana
. The influence from different styles and cultures can be seen in Havana's colonial architecture, with a diverse range of Moorish architecture , Spanish , Italian , Greek and Roman . The San Carlos and San Ambrosio Seminary (18th century) is a good example of early Spanish influenced architecture. The Havana
Havana
cathedral (1748–1777) dominating the Plaza de la Catedral (1749) is the best example of Cuban Baroque. Surrounding it are the former palaces of the Count de Casa-Bayona (1720–1746) Marquis de Arcos (1746) and the Marquis de Aguas Claras (1751–1775). Art Deco
Art Deco
and Eclectic

The first echoes of the Art Deco
Art Deco
movement in Havana
Havana
started in 1927, in the residential area of Miramar . The Edificio Bacardi
Bacardi
(1930) is thought to be the best example of Art-deco architecture in the city and first tall Art Deco
Art Deco
building as well, followed by the Hotel Nacional de Cuba
Cuba
(1930) and The Lopez Serrano building built in 1932 by Ricardo Mira inspired by the Rockefeller Center in New York City
New York City
. The year 1928 marked the beginning of the reaction against the Spanish Renaissance style architecture, Art Deco
Art Deco
started in the lush and wealthy suburbs of Miramar , Marianao , and Vedado .

The city's eclectic architectural sights begins in Centro Habana
Centro Habana
. The Central Railway Terminal (1912), and the Museum of the Revolution (1920) are example of Eclectic architecture . Modernism

Many high-rise office buildings, and apartment complexes, along with some hotels built in the 1950s dramatically altered the skyline. Modernism, therefore, transformed much of the city and should be noted for its individual buildings of high quality rather than its larger key buildings. Examples of the latter are Habana Libre (1958), which before the revolution was the Havana
Havana
Hilton Hotel and La Rampa movie theater (1955).

Famous architects such as Walter Gropius , Richard Neutra and Oscar Niemeyer all passed through the city, while strong influences can be seen in Havana
Havana
at this time from Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe . The Edificio Focsa (1956) represents Havana's economic dominance at the time. This 35-story complex was conceived and based on Corbusian ideas of a self-contained city within a city. It contained 400 apartments, garages, a school, a supermarket, and restaurant on the top floor. This was the tallest concrete structure in the world at the time (using no steel frame) and the ultimate symbol of luxury and excess. The Havana
Havana
Riviera Hotel (1957) designed by Irving Feldman , a twenty-one-story edifice, when it opened, the Riviera was the largest purpose-built casino-hotel in Cuba
Cuba
or anywhere in the world, outside Las Vegas (the Havana Hilton (1958) surpassed its size a year later).

LANDMARKS AND HISTORICAL CENTRES

The main square in central Havana
Havana
in 1762 during the British occupation

* HABANA VIEJA : contains the core of the original city of Havana. It was declared a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
.

The Lighthouse and the Castle of Tres Reyes del Morro , have become symbols of Havana.

* PLAZA VIEJA : a plaza in Old Havana, it was the site of executions, processions, bullfights, and fiestas . * FORTRESS SAN CARLOS DE LA CABAñA , a fortress located on the east side of the Havana
Havana
bay, La Cabaña is the most impressive fortress from colonial times, particularly its walls constructed at the end of the 18th century. * EL CAPITOLIO NACIONAL : built in 1929 as the Senate and House of Representatives, the colossal building is recognizable by its dome which dominates the city's skyline. Inside stands the third largest indoor statue in the world, La Estatua de la República. Nowadays, the Cuban Academy of Sciences
Cuban Academy of Sciences
headquarters and the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural (the National Museum of Natural History) has its venue within the building and contains the largest natural history collection in the country. * EL MORRO CASTLE : is a fortress guarding the entrance to Havana bay; Morro Castle was built because of the threat to the harbor from pirates. * FORTRESS SAN SALVADOR DE LA PUNTA : a small fortress built in the 16th century, at the western entry point to the Havana
Havana
harbour, it played a crucial role in the defence of Havana
Havana
during the initial centuries of colonisation. It houses some twenty old guns and military antiques. * CHRIST OF HAVANA : Havana's 20-meter (66 ft) marble statue of Christ (1958) blesses the city from the east hillside of the bay, much like the famous Cristo Redentor in Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
. * THE GREAT THEATRE OF HAVANA : is an opera house famous particularly for the National Ballet
Ballet
of Cuba
Cuba
, it sometimes hosts performances by the National Opera. The theater is also known as concert hall, García Lorca , the biggest in Cuba. * THE MALECON/SEA WALL : is the avenue that runs along the north coast of the city, beside the seawall . The Malecón is the most popular avenue of Havana, it is known for its sunsets. * HOTEL NACIONAL DE CUBA : an Art Deco
Art Deco
National Hotel famous in the 1950s as a gambling and entertainment complex. * MUSEO DE LA REVOLUCIóN : located in the former Presidential Palace , with the yacht Granma on display behind the museum. * NECRóPOLIS CRISTóBAL COLóN : a cemetery and open-air museum, it is one of the most famous cemeteries in Latin America, known for its beauty and magnificence. The cemetery was built in 1876 and has nearly one million tombs. Some gravestones are decorated with sculpture by Ramos Blancos, among others.

COAT OF ARMS

Main article: Seal of Havana

CULTURE

Havana
Havana
at night

Havana, by far the leading cultural centre of the country, offers a wide variety of features that range from museums, palaces, public squares, avenues, churches, fortresses (including the largest fortified complex in the Americas
Americas
dating from the 16th through 18th centuries), ballet and from art and musical festivals to exhibitions of technology. The restoration of Old Havana offered a number of new attractions, including a museum to house relics of the Cuban revolution. The government placed special emphasis on cultural activities, many of which are free or involve only a minimal charge.

OLD HAVANA

Main article: Old Havana El Capitolio

Old Havana, (La Habana Vieja in Spanish), contains the core of the original city of Havana, with more than 2,000 hectares it exhibits almost all the Western architectural styles seen in the New World. La Habana Vieja was founded by the Spanish in 1519 in the natural harbor of the Bay of Havana. It became a stopping point for the treasure laden Spanish Galleons on the crossing between the New World and the Old World
Old World
. In the 17th century it was one of the main shipbuilding centers. The city was built in baroque and neoclassic style .

Many buildings have fallen in ruin but a number are being restored. The narrow streets of Old Havana contain many buildings, accounting for perhaps as many as one-third of the approximately 3,000 buildings found in Old Havana.

Old Havana is the ancient city formed from the port, the official center and the Plaza de Armas. Alejo Carpentier called Old Havana the place "de las columnas" (of the columns). The Cuban government is taking many steps to preserve and to restore Old Havana, through the Office of the city historian, directed by Eusebio Leal . Old Havana and its fortifications were added to the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage List in 1982. The beauty of Old Havana City attracts millions of tourists each year who enjoy its rich old culture and folk music.

In spring 2015, the largest open-air art exhibition ever in Cuba
Cuba
took in front of the basilica on the Plaza San Francisco de Asis : Over 8 weeks the United Buddy Bears visited Havana. United Buddy Bears exhibitions are part of a non-commercial and non-profit project. The main aim is to promote the idea of tolerance and mutual understanding between countries, cultures and religions and to communicate a vision of a future peaceful world.

BARRIO CHINO

Further information: Chinese Cuban Barrio Chino in Centro Habana

Barrio Chino was once Latin America's largest and most vibrant Chinese community, incorporated into the city by the early part of the 20th century. Hundreds of thousands of Chinese workers were brought in by Spanish settlers from Guangdong
Guangdong
, Fujian
Fujian
, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
, and Macau
Macau
via Manila
Manila
, Philippines
Philippines
starting in the mid-19th century to replace or work alongside African slaves. After completing 8-year contracts, many Chinese immigrants settled permanently in Havana.

The first 206 Chinese-born arrived in Havana
Havana
on June 3, 1847. The neighborhood was booming with Chinese restaurants, laundries, banks, pharmacies, theaters and several Chinese-language newspapers, the neighborhood comprised 44 square blocks during its prime. The heart of Barrio Chino is on el Cuchillo de Zanja (or The Zanja Canal). The strip is a pedestrian-only street adorned with many red lanterns, dancing red paper dragons and other Chinese cultural designs, there is a great number of restaurants that serve a full spectrum of Chinese dishes – unfortunately that 'spectrum' is said by many not to be related to real Chinese cuisine.

The district has two paifang , a large one located on Calle Dragones, the People\'s Republic of China
China
donated the materials in the late 1990s, it has a well defined written welcoming sign in Chinese and Spanish. The smaller arch is located on Zanja strip. The Cuban's Chinese boom ended when Fidel Castro's 1959 revolution seized private businesses, sending tens of thousands of business-minded Chinese fleeing, mainly to the United States. Descendants are now making efforts to preserve and revive the culture.

VISUAL ARTS

Museo de la Revolución Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes Great Theatre of Havana

The National Museum of Fine Arts (Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes) is a Fine Arts museum that exhibits Cuban and International art collections. The museum houses one of the largest collections of paintings and sculpture from Latin America and is the largest in the Caribbean
Caribbean
region. Under the Cuban Ministry of Culture, it occupies two locations in the vicinity of Havana's Paseo del Prado, these are the Palace of Fine Arts, devoted to Cuban art and the Palace of the Asturian Center, dedicated to universal art. Its artistic heritage is made up of over 45,000 pieces.

The Museum of the Revolution (Museo de la Revolución), designed in Havana
Havana
by Cuban architect Carlos Maruri, and the Belgian Paul Belau, who came up with an eclectic design, harmoniously combines Spanish, French and German architectural elements. The museum was the Presidential Palace
Presidential Palace
in the capital; today, its displays and documents outline Cuba's history from the beginning of the neo-colonial period.

The neo-classical mansion of the Countess of Revilla de Camargo, today it is the Museum of Decorative Arts (Museo de Artes Decorativas), known as the "small French Palace of Havana" built between 1924 and 1927, it was designed in Paris inspired in French Renaissance . The museum has been exhibiting more than 33,000 works dating from the reigns of Louis XV , Louis XVI
Louis XVI
, and Napoleon III
Napoleon III
; as well as 16th to 20th century Oriental
Oriental
pieces, among many other treasures. The Museum has ten permanent exhibit halls. Among them are prominent porcelain articles from the factories in Sèvres and Chantilly , France; Meissen
Meissen
, Germany; and Wedgwood
Wedgwood
, England, as well as Chinese from the Qianlong Emperor
Qianlong Emperor
period and Japanese from the Imari . The furniture comes from Stéphane Boudin , Jean Henri Riesener and several others.

Several museums in Old Havana houses furniture, silverware , pottery , glass and other items from the colonial period. One of these is the Palacio de los Capitanes Generales , where Spanish governors once lived. The Casa de Africa
Africa
presents another aspect of Cuba's history, it houses a large collection of Afro-Cuban
Afro-Cuban
religious artifacts.

Other museums in the city include Casa de los Árabes (House of Arabs) and the Casa de Asia (House of Asia) with Middle and Far Eastern collections. Havana's Museo del Automobil has an impressive collection of vehicles dating back to a 1905 Cadillac
Cadillac
.

While most museums of Havana
Havana
are situated in Old Havana, few of them can also be found in Vedado . In total, Havana
Havana
has around 50 museums, including the National Museum of Music; the Museum of Dance and Rum; the Cigar Museum; the Napoleonic, Colonial and Oricha Museums; the Museum of Anthropology; the Ernest Hemingway Museum; the José Martí Monument; the Aircraft Museum (Museo del Aire ).

There are also museums of Natural Sciences, the City, Archeology, Gold-and-Silverwork, Perfume, Pharmaceuticals, Sports, Numismatics, and Weapons.

PERFORMING ARTS

Facing Havana's Central Park is the baroque Great Theatre of Havana , a prominent theatre built in 1837. It is now home of the National Ballet
Ballet
of Cuba
Cuba
and the International Ballet
Ballet
Festival
Festival
of Havana
Havana
, one of the oldest in the New World. The façade of the building is adorned with a stone and marble statue. There are also sculptural pieces by Giuseppe Moretti , representing allegories depicting benevolence, education, music and theatre. The principal theatre is the García Lorca Auditorium, with seats for 1,500 and balconies. Glories of its rich history; the Italian tenor Enrico Caruso sang, the Russian ballerina Anna Pavlova danced, and the French Sarah Bernhardt
Sarah Bernhardt
acted.

Other important theatres in the city includes the National Theater of Cuba
Cuba
, housed in a huge modern building located in Plaza de la Revolucion , decorated with works by Cuban artists. The National Theater includes two main theatre stages, the Avellaneda Auditorium and the Covarrubias Auditorium, as well as a smaller theatre workshop space on the ninth floor.

The Karl Marx Theater with its large auditorium have a seating capacity of 5,500 spectators, is generally used for concerts and other events, it is also one of the venues for the annual Havana
Havana
Film Festival
Festival
.

*

Banrarra Afro-Cuban
Afro-Cuban
dance troupe *

Cuban dance troupe *

Payret Cinema *

Ballet
Ballet
Nacional de Cuba
Cuba
performing at the Great Theatre *

García Lorca Hall at the Great Theatre

FESTIVALS

Further information: Festivals in Havana

* Havana
Havana
Film Festival
Festival
(The International Festival
Festival
of New Latin American Cinema ) * International Ballet
Ballet
Festival
Festival
of Havana
Havana
* Havana
Havana
International Jazz Festival
Festival

TOURISM

The Meliá Cohiba high-rise View towards Línea street

Havana
Havana
attracts over a million tourists annually, the Official Census for Havana
Havana
reports that in 2010 the city was visited by 1,176,627 international tourists, a 20% increase from 2005.

The city has long been a popular attraction for tourists . Between 1915 and 1930, Havana
Havana
hosted more tourists than any other location in the Caribbean. The influx was due in large part to Cuba\'s proximity to the United States
United States
, where restrictive prohibition on alcohol and other pastimes stood in stark contrast to the island's traditionally relaxed attitude to leisure pursuits. A pamphlet published by E.C. Kropp Co., Milwaukee, WI, between 1921 and 1939 promoting tourism in Havana, Cuba, can be found in the University of Houston Digital Library, Havana, Cuba, The Summer Land of the World, Digital Collection.

With the deterioration of Cuba
Cuba
United States
United States
relations and the imposition of the trade embargo on the island in 1961, tourism dropped drastically and did not return to anything close to its pre-revolution levels until 1989. The revolutionary government in general, and Fidel Castro in particular, initially opposed any considerable development of the tourism industry, linking it to the debauchery and criminal activities of times past. In the late 1970s, however, Castro changed his stance and, in 1982, the Cuban government passed a foreign investment code which opened a number of sectors, tourism included, to foreign capital.

Through the creation of firms open to such foreign investment (such as Cubanacan), Cuba
Cuba
began to attract capital for hotel development, managing to increase the number of tourists from 130,000 (in 1980) to 326,000 (by the end of that decade).

Havana
Havana
has also been a popular health tourism destination for more than 20 years. Foreign patients travel to Cuba, Havana
Havana
in particular, for a wide range of treatments including eye-surgery , neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson\'s disease , and orthopaedics . Many patients are from Latin America, although medical treatment for retinitis pigmentosa , often known as night blindness , has attracted many patients from Europe
Europe
and North America.

*

Sight-seeing bus *

Cruise at the Sierra Maestra
Sierra Maestra
Terminal *

Wedding photoshoot in Havana
Havana

ECONOMY

INDUSTRY

M V Leyden freighter in the harbor Lonja del Comercio building

Havana
Havana
has a diversified economy, with traditional sectors, such as manufacturing, construction, transportation and communications, and new or revived ones such as biotechnology and tourism.

The city's economy first developed on the basis of its location, which made it one of the early great trade centres in the New World. Sugar
Sugar
and a flourishing slave trade first brought riches to the city, and later, after independence, it became a renowned resort. Despite efforts by Fidel Castro's government to spread Cuba's industrial activity to all parts of the island, Havana
Havana
remains the centre of much of the nation's industry.

The traditional sugar industry, upon which the island's economy has been based for three centuries, is centred elsewhere on the island and controls some three-fourths of the export economy. But light manufacturing facilities, meat-packing plants, and chemical and pharmaceutical operations are concentrated in Havana. Other food-processing industries are also important, along with shipbuilding, vehicle manufacturing, production of alcoholic beverages (particularly rum), textiles, and tobacco products, particularly the world-famous Habanos cigars. Although the harbours of Cienfuegos
Cienfuegos
and Matanzas , in particular, have been developed under the revolutionary government, Havana
Havana
remains Cuba's primary port facility; 50% of Cuban imports and exports pass through Havana. The port also supports a considerable fishing industry.

In 2000, nearly 89% of the city's officially recorded labour force worked for government-run agencies, institutions or enterprises. Havana, on average, has the country's highest incomes and human development indicators. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Cuba re-emphasized tourism as a major industry leading to its recovery. Tourism
Tourism
is now Havana
Havana
and Cuba's primary economic source.

Havana's economy is still in flux, despite Raul Castro's embrace of free enterprise in 2011. Though there was an uptick in small businesses in 2011, many have since gone out of business, due to lack of business and income on the part of the local residents, whose salaries average $20 per month.

COMMERCE AND FINANCE

After the Revolution, Cuba's traditional capitalist free-enterprise system was replaced by a heavily socialized economic system. In Havana, Cuban-owned businesses and U.S.-owned businesses were nationalized and today most businesses operate solely under state control.

In Old Havana and throughout Vedado there are several small private businesses, such as shoe-repair shops or dressmaking facilities. Banking as well is also under state control, and the National Bank of Cuba
Cuba
, headquartered in Havana, is the control center of the Cuban economy. Its branches in some cases occupy buildings that were in pre-revolutionary times the offices of Cuban or foreign banks.

In the late 1990s Vedado, located along the atlantic waterfront, started to represent the principal commercial area. It was developed extensively between 1930 and 1960, when Havana
Havana
developed as a major destination for U.S. tourists; high-rise hotels, casinos , restaurants, and upscale commercial establishments, many reflecting the art deco style.

Vedado is today Havana's financial district, the main banks, airline companies offices, shops, most businesses headquarters, numerous high-rise apartments and hotels, are located in the area. The University of Havana
University of Havana
is located in Vedado.

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1750 70,000 —

1931 728,500 +940.7%

1943 946,000 +29.9%

1953 1,223,900 +29.4%

1960 1,529,800 +25.0%

1975 1,917,500 +25.3%

1981 1,929,400 +0.6%

1990 2,107,500 +9.2%

1997 2,197,700 +4.3%

2002 2,204,028 +0.3%

2005 2,181,324 −1.0%

2009 2,141,993 −1.8%

2012 2,106,146 −1.7%

Russian Orthodox Cathedral Our Lady of Kazan

By the end of 2012 official Census, 19.1% of the population of Cuba lived in Havana. According to the census of 2012, the population was 2,106,146 The city has an average life expectancy of 76.81 years at birth. In 2009, there were 1,924 people living with HIV
HIV
/AIDS in the city, 78.9% of these are men, and 21.1% being women.

According to the 2012 Havana's official race census (the Cuban census and similar studies use the term "skin colour" instead of "race").

* White : 58.4%, (Mainly Spanish descent Galician , Asturian and Canarian were most common) * Multiracial : Mestizo
Mestizo
o mulato (White/black mixed race): 26.4% * Black : 15.2%, (brought by Spanish colonists from Sub-Saharan Africa) * Asian : 0.2% (reflecting immigration from China
China
in the late 19th and early 20th centuries)

There are few mestizos in contrast to many other Latin American countries, because the Native Indian population was virtually wiped out by Eurasian diseases in colonial times.

Havana
Havana
agglomeration grew rapidly during the first half of the 20th century reaching 1 million inhabitants in the 1943 census. The con-urbanization expanded over the Havana
Havana
municipality borders into neighbor municipalities of Marianao, Regla and Guanabacoa. Starting from the 1980s, the city's population is growing slowly as a result of balanced development policies, low birth rate, its relatively high rate of emigration abroad, and controlled domestic migration. Because of the city and country's low birth rate and high life expectancy, its age structure is similar to a developed country, with Havana having an even higher proportion of elderly than the country as a whole.

The Cuban government controls the movement of people into Havana
Havana
on the grounds that the Havana
Havana
metropolitan area (home to nearly 20% of the country's population) is overstretched in terms of land use, water, electricity, transportation, and other elements of the urban infrastructure. There is a population of internal migrants to Havana nicknamed "palestinos" (Palestinians), sometimes considered a racist term, these mostly hail from the eastern region of Oriente .

The city's significant minority of Chinese , mostly Cantonese ancestors, were brought in the mid-19th century by Spanish settlers via the Philippines
Philippines
with work contracts and after completing 8-year contracts many Chinese immigrants settled permanently in Havana. Before the revolution the Chinese population counted to over 200,000, today, Chinese ancestors could count up to 100,000. Chinese born/ native Chinese (mostly Cantonese as well) are around 400 presently. There are some 3,000 Russians
Russians
living in the city; as reported by the Russian Embassy in Havana, most are women married to Cubans who had studied in the Soviet Union. Havana
Havana
also shelters other non-Cuban population of an unknown size. There is a population of several thousand North African teen and pre-teen refugees.

RELIGION

Roman Catholics form the largest religious group in Havana. Havana
Havana
is one of the three Metropolitan sees on the island (the others being Camaguëy and Santiago), with two suffragan bishoprics: Matanzas and Pinar del Río. Its patron saint is San Cristobal (Saint Christopher ), to whom the cathedral is devoted. it also has a minor basilica (Nuestra Señora de la Caridad) and two national shrines, Jesús Nazareno del Rescate and San Lázaro (El Rincón). It received papal visits from three successive supreme pontiffs: Pope John Paul II (January 1998), Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
(March 2012) and Pope Francis (September 2015).

The Jewish
Jewish
community in Havana
Havana
has reduced after the Revolution from once having embraced more than 15,000 Jews, many of whom had fled Nazi
Nazi
persecution and subsequently left Cuba
Cuba
to Miami or moved to Israel
Israel
after Castro took to power in 1959. The city once had five synagogues , but only three remain (one Orthodox , and two Conservative : one Conservative Ashkenazi and one Conservative Sephardic ), Beth Shalom Grand Synagogue
Synagogue
is one of them and another that is a hybrid of all 3 put together. In February 2007 the New York Times estimated that there were about 1,500 known Jews living in Havana.

POVERTY AND SLUMS

HOUSING UNITS AND POPULATION OF HAVANA SLUMS

HOUSING TYPE YEAR UNITS POPULATION % OF TOTAL POP.

CUARTERíA(A) 2001 60,754 206,564 9.4

SLUMS / GHETTO 2001 21,552 72,986 3.3

SHELTERS 1997 2,758 9,178 0.4

(A)A CUARTERíA (or CIUDADELA, SOLAR) is a large inner-city old mansion or hotel or boarding house subdivided into rooms, sometimes with over 60 families.

The years after the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
collapsed in 1991, the city, and Cuba
Cuba
in general have suffered decades of economic deterioration. The national government does not have an official definition of poverty . The government researchers argue that "poverty" in most commonly accepted meanings does not really exist in Cuba, but rather that there is a sector of the population that can be described as "at risk" or "vulnerable" using internationally accepted measures.

The generic term "slum " is seldom used in Cuba, substandard housing is described: housing type, housing conditions, building materials, and settlement type. The National Housing Institute considers units in solares (a large inner-city mansion or older hotel or boarding house subdivided into rooms, sometimes with over 60 families) and shanty towns to be the "precarious housing stock" and tracks their number. Most slum units are concentrated in the inner-city municipalities of Old Havana and Centro Habana
Centro Habana
, as well as such neighbourhoods as Atarés in Regla . People living in slums have access to the same education, health care, job opportunities and social security as those who live in formerly privileged neighbourhoods. Shanty towns are scattered throughout the city except for in a few central areas.

Over 9% of Havana's population live in cuartería (solares, ciudadela), 3.3% in shanty towns , and 0.3% in refugee shelters. This does not include an estimate of the number of people living in housing in "fair" or "poor" condition because in many cases these units do not necessarily constitute slum housing but rather are basically sound dwellings needing repairs. According to Instituto Nacional de Vivienda (National Housing Institute) official figures, in 2001, 64% of Havana's 586,768 units were considered in "good" condition, up from 50% in 1990. Some 20% were in "fair" condition and 16% in "poor" condition. Partial or total building collapses are not uncommon, although the number had been cut in half by the end of the 1990s as the worst units disappeared and others were repaired. Buildings in Old Havana and Centro Habana
Centro Habana
are especially exposed to the elements: high humidity, the corrosive effects of salt spray from proximity to the coast, and occasional flooding.

TRANSPORT

Public city buses (Omnibus Metropolitanos OM) The Harbor Tunnel connects the city center with Habana del Este The Port of Havana
Havana
Polski Fiat 126p in the street of Havana
Havana

URBAN BUSES

The city's public buses are carried out by two divisions, Metrobús and Omnibus Metropolitanos (OM). Metrobus Main article: Havana MetroBus

The Metrobus serves the inner-city urban area, with a maximum distance of 20 km (12 mi). Its fleet have been modernized, but formerly in 2006 were known as "camellos" (camels). The camellos operated on the busiest routes and were trailers transformed into buses known as camels, so called for their two humps. The Metrobus consists of 17 main lines, identified with the letter "P" with long-distance routes. The stops are usually 800–1,000 metres (2,600–3,300 ft), with frequent buses in peak hours, about every 10 minutes. It uses large modern articulated buses, such as the Chinese-made Yutong brand, Russian-made Liaz, or MAZ of Belarus
Belarus
. Omnibus Metropolitanos

The Omnibus Metropolitanos (OM), known as the Metrobus feeder line, connects the adjacent towns and cities in the metropolitan area with the city center, with a maximum distance of 40 km (25 mi). This division has one of the most used and largest urban bus fleets in the country, its fleet is made up of mostly new Chinese Yutong buses , but as well older Busscar buses. In 2008 the Cuban government invested millions of dollars for the acquisition of 1,500 new Yutong urban buses.

AIRPORTS

Havana
Havana
is served by José Martí International Airport . The Airport lies about 11 kilometres (7 mi) south of the city center, in the municipality of Boyeros , and is the main hub for the country's flag carrier Cubana de Aviación . The airport is Cuba's main international and domestic gateway, it connects Havana
Havana
with the rest of the Caribbean
Caribbean
, North , Central and South America
South America
, Europe
Europe
and one destination in Africa
Africa
.

The city is also served by Playa Baracoa Airport which is small airport to the west of city used for some domestic flights, primarily Aerogaviota .

RAIL

See also: Havana Suburban Railway

Havana
Havana
has a network of suburban , interurban and long-distance rail lines. The railways are nationalised and run by the FFCC (Ferrocarriles de Cuba
Cuba
– Railways of Cuba). The FFCC connects Havana with all the provinces of Cuba. The main railway stations are: Central Rail Station , La Coubre Rail Station, Casablanca Station , and Estación de Tulipán.

In 2004 the annual passenger volume was some 11 million, but demand is estimated at two-and-a-half to three times this value, with the busiest route being between Havana
Havana
and Santiago de Cuba
Cuba
, some 836 kilometres (519 mi) apart by rail. In 2000 the Union de Ferrocarriles de Cuba
Cuba
bought French first class airconditioned coaches.

In the 1980s there were plans for a Metro system in Havana
Havana
similar to Moscow 's, as a result of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
influence in Cuba
Cuba
at the time. The studies of geology and finance made by Cuban, Czech and Soviet specialists were already well advanced in the 1980s. The Cuban press showed the construction project and the course route, linking municipalities and neighborhoods in the capital. In the late 1980s the project had already begun, each mile of track was worth a million dollars at the time, but with the fall of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991 the project was later dropped.

INTERURBAN (TRAM)

An interurban line, known as the Hershey Electric Railway , built in 1917 runs from Casablanca (across the harbor from Old Havana) to Hershey and on to Matanzas .

FERRY

Ferries connect Old Havana with Regla and Casablanca , leaving every 10–15 minutes from Muelle Luz (at the foot of Santa Clara Street). The fare is CUP 0.20¢ (city residents) or CUC $1 (foreigners).

ROADS

The city's road network is quite extensive, and has broad avenues, main streets and major access roads to the city such as the Autopista Nacional (A1), Carretera Central and Via Blanca . The road network has been under construction and growth since the colonial era, is currently undergoing a major deterioration due to low maintenance.

MOTORWAYS (autopistas ) include:

* A1 – Autopista Nacional, from Havana
Havana
to Santa Clara and Sancti Spiritus , with additional short sections near Santiago and Guantanamo

* A4 – Autopista Este-Oeste, from Havana
Havana
to Pinar del Río * VIA BLANCA , to Matanzas and Varadero * HAVANA RING ROAD (Spanish: Primer anillo), which starts at a tunnel under the entrance to Havana Harbor
Havana Harbor
* AUTOPISTA DEL MEDIODIA, from Havana
Havana
to San Antonio de los Baños * an autopista from Havana
Havana
to Melena del Sur * an autopista from Havana
Havana
to Mariel

The cars in Havana, 2014

ADMINISTRATION

Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff
Dilma Rousseff
at Revolution Square . Cuban President Raúl Castro and Russian Dmitry Medvedev at Revolution Square .

The current mayor of Havana
Havana
(President of the People's Power Provincial Assembly) is Marta Hernández Romero , she was elected on March 5, 2011.

The city is administered by a city-provincial council, with a mayor as chief administrative officer. Thus, Havana
Havana
functions as both a city and a province , the city has little autonomy and dependent upon the national government, particularly, for much of its budgetary and overall political direction.

The national government is headquartered in Havana
Havana
and plays an extremely visible role in the city's life. Moreover, the all-embracing authority of many national institutions has led to a declining role for the city government, which, nevertheless, still provides much of the essential services and has competences in education, health care, city public transport, garbage collection, small industry, agriculture, etc.

Voters elect delegates to Municipal Assemblies in competitive elections. There is only one political party, the Communist Party , but since there must be a minimum of two candidates, members of the Communist Party often run against each other. Candidates are not required to be members of the party. They are nominated directly by citizens in open meetings within each election district. Municipal Assembly delegates in turn elect members of the Provincial Assembly, which in Havana
Havana
serves roughly as the City Council; its president functions as the Mayor. There are direct elections for deputies to the National Assembly based on slates, and a portion of the candidates is nominated at the local level. The People's Councils (Consejos Populares) consist of local municipal delegates who elect a full-time representative to preside over the body. In addition, there is participation from "mass organisations" and representatives of local government agencies, industries and services. The 105 People's Councils in Havana
Havana
cover an average of 20,000 residents.

Havana
Havana
city borders are contiguous with the Mayabeque Province on the south and east and to Artemisa Province on the west, since former La Habana Province (rural) was abolished in 2010. Comite Central del Partido Comunista de Cuba
Cuba
(Central Committee of the Cuban Communist Party).

INFRASTRUCTURE

EDUCATION

University of Havana
University of Havana
San Gerónimo College Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Havana
University of Havana
Further information: Education in Cuba
Cuba

The national government assumes all responsibility for education, and there are adequate primary, secondary, and vocational training schools throughout Cuba. The schools are of varying quality and education is free and compulsory at all levels except higher learning, which is also free.

The University of Havana
University of Havana
, located in the Vedado section of Havana, was established in 1728 and was regarded as a leading institution of higher learning in the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
. Soon after the Revolution, the university, as well as all other educational institutions, were nationalized. Since then several other universities have opened, like the Higher Learning Polytechnic Institute José Antonio Echeverría where the vast majority of today's Cuban engineers are taught.

The Cuban National Ballet School with 4,350 students is one of the largest ballet schools in the world and the most prestigious ballet school in Cuba.

HEALTH

Further information: Healthcare in Cuba
Cuba

All Cuban residents have free access to health care in hospitals, local polyclinics, and neighbourhood family doctors who serve on average 170 families each, which is one of the highest doctor-to-patient ratio in the world. However, the health system has suffered from shortages of supplies, equipment and medications caused by ending of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
subsidies in the early 1990s and the US embargo . Nevertheless, Havana's infant mortality rate in 2009 was 4.9 per 1,000 live births, 5.12 in the country as a whole, which is lower than many developed nations , and the lowest in the developing world . Administration of the health care system for the nation is centred largely in Havana. Hospitals in Havana
Havana
are run by the national government, and citizens are assigned hospitals and clinics to which they may go for attention.

SERVICES

Utility services are under the control of several nationalized state enterprises that have developed since the Cuban revolution
Cuban revolution
. Water, electricity, and sewage service are administered in this fashion. Electricity is supplied by generators that are fueled with oil. Much of the original power plant installations, which operated before the Revolutionary government assumed control, have become somewhat outdated. Electrical blackouts occurred, prompting the national government in 1986 to allocate the equivalent of $25,000,000 to modernize the electrical system.

SPORTS

Many Cubans are avid sports fans who particularly favour baseball. Havana's team in the Cuban National Series is Industriales . FCBA. The city has several large sports stadiums, the largest one is the Estadio Latinoamericano . Admission to sporting events is generally free, and impromptu games are played in neighborhoods throughout the city. Social clubs at the beaches provide facilities for water sports and include restaurants and dance halls.

* Havana
Havana
was host to the 11th Pan American Games in 1991 . Stadiums and facilities for this were built in the relatively unpopulated eastern suburbs. * Havana
Havana
was host to the 1992 IAAF World Cup in Athletics. * Havana
Havana
was an applicant to host the 2008 Summer Olympic Games and 2012 Summer Olympic Games , but was not shortlisted.

NOTABLE PEOPLE

Further information: Category:People from Havana
Havana

Notable people originally from Havana:

*

José Martí
José Martí
*

José R. Capablanca *

Rita Montaner *

Alicia Alonso *

José Lezama Lima
Lima
*

Celia Cruz *

Dulce María Loynaz *

Camila Cabello *

Maria Teresa, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg *

Andy García *

Gloria Estefan
Gloria Estefan
*

Dave Lombardo
Dave Lombardo

* Gente De Zona * Descemer Bueno

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

DIPLOMATIC OFFICES

As Cuba's national capital and seat of government, Havana
Havana
hosts 88 embassies (including the papal apostolic nunciature , traditionally manned by a titular archbishop). Furthermore, there are 11 consulates (-general) and a trade office. Embassies

* Algeria
Algeria
* Angola
Angola
* Argentina
Argentina
* Austria
Austria
* Bahamas
Bahamas
* Barbados
Barbados
* Belarus
Belarus
* Belgium
Belgium
* Belize
Belize
* Benin
Benin
* Bolivia
Bolivia
* Brazil
Brazil
* Bulgaria
Bulgaria
* Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
* Cambodia
Cambodia
* Canada
Canada
* Cape Verde
Cape Verde
* Chile
Chile
* China
China
* Colombia
Colombia
* Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
* Czech Republic
Czech Republic
* Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
* Ecuador
Ecuador
* Egypt
Egypt
* Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea
* France
France
* Gambia
Gambia
* Germany
Germany

* Ghana
Ghana
* Greece
Greece
* Grenada
Grenada
* Guatemala
Guatemala
* Guinea
Guinea
* Guinea-Bissau * Guyana
Guyana
* Haiti
Haiti
* Holy See
Holy See
Vatican City
Vatican City
* Honduras
Honduras
* Hungary
Hungary
* India
India
* Indonesia
Indonesia
* Iran
Iran
* Republic of Ireland
Republic of Ireland
* Iraq
Iraq
* Italy
Italy
* Jamaica
Jamaica
* Japan
Japan
* North Korea
North Korea
* Laos
Laos
* Lebanon
Lebanon
* Libya
Libya
* Malaysia
Malaysia
* Mali
Mali
* Mexico
Mexico
* Mongolia
Mongolia
* Mozambique
Mozambique
* Namibia
Namibia
* Netherlands
Netherlands

* Nicaragua
Nicaragua
* Nigeria
Nigeria
* Norway
Norway
* Pakistan
Pakistan
* Panama
Panama
* Paraguay
Paraguay
* Peru
Peru
* Philippines
Philippines
* Poland
Poland
* Portugal
Portugal
* Qatar
Qatar
* Romania
Romania
* Russia
Russia
* Serbia
Serbia
* Slovakia
Slovakia
* South Africa
Africa
* Spain
Spain
* Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
* Sweden
Sweden
* Switzerland
Switzerland
* Syria
Syria
* Turkey
Turkey
* Ukraine
Ukraine
* United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* United States
United States
* Uruguay
Uruguay
* Venezuela
Venezuela
* Vietnam
Vietnam
* Yemen
Yemen
* Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe

Consulates

* Bangladesh
Bangladesh
* Costa Rica
Costa Rica
* Cyprus
Cyprus
* Denmark
Denmark
* Dominica
Dominica
* Finland
Finland
* Monaco
Monaco
* Saint Lucia
Saint Lucia

Trade Office

* Armenia
Armenia

TWIN TOWNS – SISTER CITIES

This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in the Caribbean
Caribbean

Havana
Havana
is twinned with:

* Ankara
Ankara
, Turkey
Turkey
* Bandar Seri Begawan , Brunei * Barcelona
Barcelona
, Spain
Spain
* Beijing
Beijing
, China
China
* Belgrade
Belgrade
, Serbia
Serbia
* Bogota , Colombia
Colombia
* Constanța , România * Cuzco
Cuzco
, Peru
Peru
* Eskişehir , Turkey * Florianópolis , Brazil * Gijón , Spain
Spain
* Glasgow
Glasgow
, UK * Isfahan
Isfahan
, Iran
Iran
* Leon, Guanajuato , Mexico
Mexico
* London
London
, UK

* Madrid
Madrid
, Spain
Spain
* Manila
Manila
, Philippines
Philippines
* Minsk
Minsk
, Belarus
Belarus
* Mobile , United States
United States
* Oaxaca , Mexico
Mexico
* Oran
Oran
, Algeria
Algeria
. * Rotterdam
Rotterdam
, Netherlands
Netherlands
* Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
, Russia
Russia
* Santo Domingo , Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
* São Paulo
São Paulo
, Brazil
Brazil
* Seville , Spain
Spain
* Sintra , Portugal * Windhoek
Windhoek
* Tehran
Tehran
, Iran
Iran
* Tijuana
Tijuana
, Mexico
Mexico

Note: Some of the city's municipalities are also twinned to small cities or districts of other big cities, for details see their respective articles.

SEE ALSO

* Cuba
Cuba
portal * New Spain
Spain
portal

* Largest cities in the Americas
Americas
* List of cities in the Caribbean
Caribbean

NOTES

* ^ "How Obama\'s US- Cuba
Cuba
deal could shape Havana\'s future". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 10 January 2015. * ^ A B C D E F G "2012 Official Census" (PDF). * ^ A B "CIA World Fact Book". CIA World factbook. Retrieved 28 November 2011. * ^ (in English) Latin America Population – Havana
Havana
city population. * ^ "Anuario Estadistico de Ciudad de La Habana" (in Spanish). ONE - Oficina Nacional de Estadisticas (National Statistics Office). Archived from the original on 4 August 2011. Retrieved 28 November 2011. * ^ (in English) Capital city
Capital city
– capital of Spanish Cuba
Cuba
in 1552 * ^ (in English) Old Havana * ^ (in English) Spanish-American War, Effects of the Press on Spanish-American Relations in 1898 * ^ A B "Foreign Embassies in Havana". Embassy pages. Retrieved 1 December 2011. * ^ A B "Provincial Assemblies of People\'s Power" (in Spanish). parlamentocubano.cu (Official Cuba's Parliament website). Retrieved 28 November 2011. * ^ "Workforce and Salary (Section 4.5)" (in Spanish and English). ONE- Oficina Nacional de Estadisticas - Republica de Cuba. Archived from the original on 2010-12-16. * ^ A B C D "Section 15 (Turismo), article 15.7 (Visitantes por mes)" (in Spanish). ONE- Oficina de Estadisticas de Cuba. Archived from the original on 4 August 2011. Retrieved 28 November 2011. * ^ " UNESCO
UNESCO
Official Website". UNESCO.ORG. Retrieved 28 November 2011. * ^ Britannica * ^ " Havana
Havana
climate summary". Weatherbase. Retrieved 23 March 2016.

* ^ Tejada, Ariel Paolo (9 May 2015). " Vigan declared \'Wonder City\'". Manila: The Philippine STAR. Retrieved 19 September 2015. * ^ (in Spanish) Fundación de La Habana a orillas del Río Onicajinal o Mayabeque * ^ "San Cristobal de La Habana en el Sur". Mayabeque.blogia.com. 2010-08-19. Retrieved 2013-01-08. * ^ Thomas, Hugh: Cuba, A pursuit of freedom, 2nd Edition, p. 1. * ^ Harbron, John D..Trafalgar and the Spanish navy, Conway Maritime Press, 2004, ISBN 0-87021-695-3 , pp. 15–17. Havana
Havana
built nearly 50% more Ships of the Line than any other Spanish dockyard during the 18th century. * ^ Pocock, Tom: Battle for Empire: The very first world war 1756-63. Chapter Six. * ^ Thomas, Hugh: Cuba: The Pursuit of Freedom 2nd edition. Chapter One * ^ Cantón Navarro, José. History of Cuba, p. 81. * ^ Nigel Hunt. " Cuba
Cuba
Nationalization Laws". cuba heritage .org. Retrieved 2009-07-08. * ^ Old Havana restoration – Success on the restoration program of Havana * ^ "World Weather Information Service – Havana". Cuban Institute of Meteorology. June 2011. Retrieved June 26, 2010. * ^ "Casa Blanca, Habana, Cuba: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data". Retrieved June 26, 2010. * ^ "Station La Havane" (in French). Meteo Climat. Retrieved May 2, 2017. * ^ "Klimatafel von Havanna (La Habana, Obs. Casa Blanca) / Kuba" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved July 29, 2017. * ^ Centro Habana
Centro Habana
Archived May 19, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. – Centro Habana
Centro Habana
guia turistica, Cuba * ^ CubaJunky.com. "Centro Habana". Cuba-junky.com. Retrieved 2010-04-17. * ^ " Havana
Havana
Miramar School". Cactuslanguage.com. Archived from the original on 2010-02-08. Retrieved 2010-04-17. * ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 1, 2011. Retrieved July 6, 2011. Population by Province and Municipality * ^ "Oficial Statistics for Havana" (in Spanish). Oficina Nacional de Estadisticas de Cuba
Cuba
(ONE). Retrieved 27 November 2011. * ^ Rainsford, Sarah (2012-05-17). "Cuba\'s crumbling buildings mean Havana
Havana
housing shortage". BBC News. Retrieved 2017-02-24. * ^ " Old Havana Building Collapse Kills Four - Havana
Havana
Times.org". www.havanatimes.org. Retrieved 2017-02-24. * ^ A B C Alonso, Alejandro (2003). Havana
Havana
Deco. New York: W.W. Norton and Company. pp. 3–7. ISBN 978-0-393-73232-0 . * ^ Sainsbury, Brendan (2007). Havana. Lonely planet. pp. 101–02. ISBN 978-1-74104-069-2 . * ^ Juliet, Barclay (1993). Havana, Portrait of a City. London: Casell. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-84403-127-6 . * ^ Rodriguez, Eduardo-Luis. "Introduction". The Havana
Havana
guide: modern architecture. New York City: Princeton Architectural Press. pp. 1–8. ISBN 978-1-56898-210-6 . * ^ "Havana\'s magnificent necropolis tells a story of wealth and freedom". Carilat.de. Archived from the original on 2010-02-01. Retrieved 2010-04-17. * ^ Travel Photos of Galen R Frysinger, Sheboygan, Wisconsin 3,000 buildings found in Old Havana * ^ Hartford Web Publishing Cuban Restoration Project Pins New Hopes on Old Havana * ^ Habana Vieja – UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage List * ^ United Buddy Bears in Havana
Havana
2015 * ^ Bears in Havana: Another Step for Tolerance * ^ A B Havana\'s Chinatown Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. – The once largest Chinese community in Latin America * ^ A B China
China
Today Chinese in Cuba * ^ Embassy of Cuba
Cuba
in Beijing, History of Chinese in Cuba
Cuba
Surgido en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX, el Barrio Chino de La Habana experimentó un rápido desarrollo y llegó a convertirse, en la siguiente centuria, en el más importante de América Latina. * ^ Rafael Lam "Chinese from Manila
Manila
in Cuba" * ^ A B Embassy of Cuba
Cuba
in Beijing-Immigration in Cuba
Cuba
Archived February 3, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ Cuba
Cuba
Culture "Aportes de los chinos en Cuba" * ^ El Barrio Chino de la Habana – Havana's Barrio Chino (in Spanish) * ^ "Historia del Museo Nacional". Museonacional.cult.cu (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011. * ^ "Centro Asturiano". MuseoNacional.cult.cu. Archived from the original on 2008-02-12. Retrieved 11 July 2011. * ^ "(ES) El Alma de la nación no se vende". Cubaweb.cu. Archived from the original on 22 August 2001. Retrieved 11 July 2011. * ^ Museo de Artes Decorativos- José Gómez Mena, one of Cuba's wealthiest aristocrats, built this house in 1927 to hold his staggering collection of antique furniture, rugs, paintings and vases. * ^ (in Spanish) Paseos por La Habana Archived October 7, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
.-El museo guarda en su interior mobiliario antiguo, porcelana y ceramica, cristalerias, espejos, bronces y objetos ornamentales. * ^ 170 Aniversario Gran Teatro Archived 2011-10-04 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ (in Spanish) Radio Havana-Cuba- Existen también piezas escultóricas en las cuatro cúpulas del techo realizadas por Giuseppe Moretti. * ^ International Tourism
Tourism
and the Formation of Productive Clusters in the Cuban Economy Miguel Alejandro Figueras * ^ A Novel Tourism
Tourism
Concept Archived January 28, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. Caribbean
Caribbean
News Net * ^ Cuba
Cuba
sells its medical expertise BBC News * ^ "The economy of Havana". Macalester.edu. Retrieved 2010-04-17. * ^ " Tourism
Tourism
in Cuba
Cuba
during the Special
Special
Period" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-02-16. Retrieved 2010-04-17. * ^ AP (27 December 2013). "Lack Of Customers Dooms Many Cuban Businesses". Weekly Times. Archived from the original on 28 December 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2013. * ^ "De una casa colonial a una mansión del Vedado" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 13 October 2004. Retrieved 11 July 2011.

* ^ "Britanica". Britanica.com. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 11 July 2011. * ^ A B C 2012 Official Census - Province, City and ethnic group * ^ http://www.one.cu/publicaciones/cepde/EncuestaSida/Informe%20resumen%20de%20la%20Encuesta%20a%20PVs%202009.pdf Official Census, people living with HIV/AIDS in Havana * ^ A B C Embassy of Cuba
Cuba
in Beijing
Beijing
- History of Immigration in Cuba
Cuba
Archived 2009-02-03 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. "The first (immigrants) came from various regions of Spain, mostly peasants from the Canaries and Galicia, which like those from China, were subjected to conditions of living and working conditions similar to those of slaves." * ^ Byrne, Joseph Patrick (2008). Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plagues: A–M. ABC-CLIO. p. 413. ISBN 0-313-34102-8 . * ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cu.html Archived May 9, 2009, at WebCite * ^ "Millennium Indicators". Mdgs.un.org. 2010-06-23. Retrieved 2010-11-07. * ^ LARRY ROHTERPublished: October 20, 1997 (1997-10-20). "Cuba\'s Unwanted Refugees Squatters in Havana\'s Shantytowns". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2013-01-08. * ^ AlJazeera A Palestinian filmmaker finds much in common with a homeless Cuban musician. * ^ "Castro\'s Cuba
Cuba
in Perspective". Isreview.org. Retrieved 2010-04-17. * ^ Havana\'s Chinatown Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine . – Cuba's Chinese population before the Revolution * ^ CIA World Factbook. Cuba. 2006. September 6, 2006.. Archived May 9, 2009, at WebCite * ^ In Havana
Havana
there are now about 400 native Chinese, but their presence is being felt like a million ("En La Habana quedan hoy unos 400 chinos oriundos, pero su presencia se está haciendo sentir como si fueran un millón".) * ^ (in Spanish) Russians
Russians
in Cuba
Cuba
Los rusos que se quedaron en la isla -unos 3.000 actualmente- son en su mayoría mujeres como Marina o Natalia que se casaron con cubanos que habían ido a la URSS a estudiar, indicó la embajada rusa en La Habana. * ^ "Sahrawi children inhumanely treated in Cuba, former Cuban official". MoroccoTimes.com. 31 March 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-11-25. Retrieved 2006-07-09. * ^ Present-Day Jewish
Jewish
Life in Cuba * ^ 1,500 Jews who live in Cuba; 1,100 reside in Havana, and the remaining 400 are spread among the provinces. In Cuba, Finding a Tiny Corner of Jewish
Jewish
Life. * ^ A B INV, Instituto Nacional de la Vivienda (2001a) Boletín Estadístico Anual. 2001. INV, Havana. * ^ A B C D E González Rego, R. 1999 . "Una Primera Aproximación al Análisis Espacial de los Problemas Socioambientales en los Barrios y Focos Insalubres de Ciudad de La Habana". Facultad de Filosofía e Historia. Departamento de Sociología, Universidad de La Habana. 250 p. * ^ A B Google Books. The history of Havana
Havana
/ by Dick Cluster and Rafael Hernández. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-01-08. * ^ Burnett, Victoria. " Cuba
Cuba
- Overview". New York Times. Retrieved 1 December 2011. * ^ A B Angela, Ferriol Maruaga; et al: Cuba
Cuba
crisis, ajuste y situación social (1990−1996), La Habana, Cuba
Cuba
: Editorial de Ciencias Sociales, 1998, Champter 1 * ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 22, 2011. Retrieved July 5, 2011. National Statistics Office - Transportation * ^ A B C "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 22, 2011. Retrieved July 5, 2011. National Statistics Census of Cuba
Cuba
– Transportation p. 6 * ^ "International transportation fair in Havana
Havana
Business in excess of $100 million, Granma national newspaper note". Web.archive.org. 2004-10-30. Archived from the original on February 26, 2008. Retrieved 2013-01-08. * ^ A B C Havana
Havana
Metro Archived January 19, 2012, at the Wayback Machine . Hace unos años parecía que la capital cubana tendría metro, cuando en la década de 1980 los estudios de geología y finanzas realizados por especialistas cubanos y soviéticos iban muy adelantados. * ^ "Cuba", Lonely Planet, 2004, p. 142. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-01-08. * ^ ""Havana", Lonely Planet". Lonelyplanet.com. Archived from the original on 2009-02-28. Retrieved 2013-01-08. * ^ "Transporte publico en La Habana" (in Spanish). Mundo Viajero. Retrieved 9 December 2011. * ^ "Elected new president of the People\'s Power in Havana" (in Spanish). Radio Reloj. Archived from the original on 19 March 2011. Retrieved 28 November 2011. * ^ (in Spanish) La Escuela Nacional de Ballet
Ballet
Archived 2009-06-23 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. – La Escuela desarrolla una experiencia única en el mundo, enmarcada en la Batalla de Ideas. Archived June 23, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
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. * ^ Harvard Public Health Review/Summer 2002 The Cuban Paradox * ^ Medical know-how boosts Cuba\'s wealth BBC online. * ^ Commitment to health: resources, access and services Archived July 18, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
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. United Nations Human Development report

* ^ The effects of the U.S. embargo on medicines in Cuba
Cuba
have been studied in numerous reports. • R GARFIELD AND S SANTANA. Columbia University, School of Nursing, New York; "The impact of the economic crisis and the US embargo on health in Cuba" "this embargo has raised the cost of medical supplies and food Rationing, universal access to primary health services" • AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR WORLD HEALTH; Online. American Association for World Health Report. March 1997. Accessed 6 October 2006. Supplementary source : American Public Health Association website Archived August 13, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. "After a year-long investigation, the American Association for World Health has determined that the U.S. embargo of Cuba
Cuba
has dramatically harmed the health and nutrition of large numbers of ordinary Cuban citizens." • FELIPE EDUARDO SIXTO; An evaluation of Four decades of Cuban Healthcare Archived June 19, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
.. "The lack of supplies accompanied by a deterioration of basic infrastructure (potable water and sanitation) resulted in a setback of many of the previous accomplishments. The strengthening of the U.S. embargo contributed to these problems." • PAN AMERICAN HEALTH ORGANIZATION; Health Situation Analysis and Trends Summary Regional Core Health Data System – Country Profile: CUBA Archived 2015-10-16 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. "The two determining factors underlying the crisis are well known. One is the dissolution of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and the socialist bloc, and the other is the economic embargo the Government of the United States." • HARVARD PUBLIC HEALTH; Review/Summer 2002 : The Cuban Paradox "Because its access to traditional sources of financing is seriously hindered by the sanctions, which until recently included all food and medicine, Cuba
Cuba
has received little foreign and humanitarian aid to maintain the vitality of its national programs" • THE LANCET MEDICAL JOURNAL; Role of USA in shortage of food and medicine. "The resultant lack of food and medicines to Cuba contributed to the worst epidemic of neurological disease this century." * ^ A B United Nations World Population Prospects: 2011 revision – 2011 revision * ^ A B CIA World Factbook 2009 Archived March 28, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
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Büyükşehir Belediyesi – Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. Retrieved 2013-07-21. * ^ " Barcelona
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sister cities". W3.bcn.es. Archived from the original on 2009-02-16. Retrieved 2010-04-17. * ^ "Beijing-International Sister Cities". Web.archive.org. 2007-10-12. Archived from the original on May 7, 2008. Retrieved 2013-01-08. * ^ "Invitation for fraternization of Havana
Havana
and Belgrade". Mfa.gov.rs. Retrieved 2010-04-17. * ^ " Bogota sister cities". W3.bcn.es. Archived from the original on 2011-07-27. Retrieved 2010-04-17. * ^ Lista oraselor infratite cu municipiul Constanta Archived 2014-07-26 at the Wayback Machine
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City Council – Twin cities of Glasgow". Glasgow.gov.uk. 2009-08-03. Retrieved 2010-04-17. * ^ City of Esfahan official website – Sister Cities Archived August 1, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
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" (in Russian). The department of protocol and international relations of Minsk
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City Executive Committee. Archived from the original on May 23, 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-21. * ^ Sister Cities International (2007). " Cuba
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Directory". Archived from the original on 2008-01-15. Retrieved 2007-05-07. * ^ Oaxaca Sister Cities Archived 2007-10-12 at the Wayback Machine . – Relación de la ciudades hermanadas con la ciudad de Oaxaca Archived October 12, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
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. La delegación visitante hará la entrega oficial de una donación de implementos deportivos, en momentos en que se celebra el aniversario 25 de las relaciones entre ambas urbes * ^ " Saint Petersburg
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. * ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windhoek#Culture * ^ "Tehran, Havana
Havana
named sister cities". Payvand.com. Retrieved 2010-04-17. * ^ New Monument to Tijuana\'s sister cities – Inaugura el alcalde Kurt Honold monumento dedicado a ciudades hermanas de Tijuana

REFERENCES

* Wonderful Havana
Havana
(1st ed.). Eddie Lennon, Julie Napier and Farida Haqiqi. Cool World Books, updated February 2013. * King, Charles Spencer (2009) Havana
Havana
My Kind of Town. US: CreateSpace. ISBN 978-1-4404-3269-9 . * Havana: History and Architecture of a Romantic City. Alicia García Santana. Monacelli, October 2000. ISBN 978-1-58093-052-9 . * Angela, Ferriol Maruaga; et al.: Cuba
Cuba
crisis, ajuste y situación social (1990−1996), Editorial de Ciencias Sociales, 1998. ISBN 978-959-06-0348-8 . * The Rough Guide to Cuba
Cuba
(3rd ed.). Rough Guides, May 2005. ISBN 978-1-84353-409-9 . * Barclay, Juliet (1993). Havana: Portrait of a City. London: Cassell. ISBN 978-1-84403-127-6 (2003 paperback edition). A comprehensive account of the history of Havana
Havana
from the early 16th century to the end of the 19th century. * Carpentier, Alejo. La ciudad de las columnas (The city of columns). A historical review of the city from one of the major authors in the iberoamerican literature, a native of this city. * Cluster, Dick, & Rafael Hernández, History of Havana. New York: Palgrave-MacMillan, 2006. ISBN 978-1-4039-7107-4 . A social history of the city from 1519 to the present, co-authored by a Cuban writer and editor resident in Havana
Havana
and an American novelist and writer of popular history. * Eguren, Gustavo. La fidelísima Habana (The very faithful Havana). A fundamental illustrated book for those who wants to know the history of La Habana, includes chronicles, articles from natives and non natives, archives documents, and more. * United Railways of Havana. Cuba: A Winter Paradise. 1908–1909, 1912–1913, 1914–1915 and 1915–1916 editions. New York, 1908, 1912, 1914 and 1915. Maps, photos and descriptions of suburban and interurban electric lines. * "Electric Traction in Cuba". Tramway first edition (1989). ISBN 978-0-292-77629-6 . Interviews with close to 200 Cubans of widely assorted backgrounds and positions, and concerns how the country has progressed after 90 years of independence from Spain
Spain
and under the 30-year leadership of Castro. * One more interesting note about that edition of The New York Times: On page 5, there is a short blurb mentioning, "The plan for holding a Pan-American exhibition at Buffalo has been shelved for the present owing to the unsettled condition of the public mind consequent upon the Spanish-Cuban complications." President William McKinley was assassinated at the Pan-American Exhibition when it was finally held in 1901. * Havana
Havana
Revisited: An Architectural Heritage by Cathryn Griffith. W. W. Norton 2010. ISBN 978-0-393-73284-9

* Beyond the Walled City: Colonial Exclusion in Havana. by Guadalupe Garcia. 2015, Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520286047

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