HOME
The Info List - Hanover


--- Advertisement ---



Hanover
Hanover
or Hannover
Hannover
(/ˈhænoʊvər, -nə-/; German: Hannover [haˈnoːfɐ] ( listen)), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
(Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Brunswick-Lüneburg
(later described as the Elector of Hanover). At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the Electorate was enlarged to become a Kingdom with Hanover
Hanover
as its capital. From 1868 to 1946 Hanover
Hanover
was the capital of the Prussian Province of Hanover
Hanover
and afterwards of the Hanover
Hanover
administrative region until that was abolished in 2005. Since 2001 it has been part of the Hanover district (Region Hannover), which is a municipal body made up of the former district (Landkreis Hannover) and city of Hanover
Hanover
(note: although both Region and Landkreis are translated as district they are not the same). With a population of 518,000, Hanover
Hanover
is a major centre of Northern Germany
Germany
and the country's thirteenth largest city. Hanover
Hanover
hosts annual commercial trade fairs such as the Hanover
Hanover
Fair and the CeBIT. Every year Hanover
Hanover
hosts the Schützenfest Hannover, the world's largest marksmen's festival, and the Oktoberfest Hannover, the second largest festival of its kind in Germany. In 2000, Hanover
Hanover
hosted the world fair Expo 2000. The Hanover
Hanover
fairground, due to numerous extensions, especially for the Expo 2000, is the largest in the world. Hanover
Hanover
is of national importance because of its universities and medical school, its international airport and its large zoo. The city is also a major crossing point of railway lines and highways (Autobahnen), connecting European main lines in both the east-west (Berlin– Ruhr
Ruhr
area) and north-south (Hamburg–Munich, etc.) directions. "Hanover" is the traditional English spelling. The German spelling (with a double n) is becoming more popular in English; recent editions of encyclopaedias prefer the German spelling,[3][4] and the local government uses the German spelling on English websites.[5] The English pronunciation, with stress on the first syllable, is applied to both the German and English spellings, which is different from German pronunciation, with stress on the second syllable and a long second vowel. The traditional English spelling is still used in historical contexts, especially when referring to the British House of Hanover.

Contents

1 History

1.1 19th century 1.2 Nazi Germany 1.3 World War II 1.4 Population development

2 Geography

2.1 Climate 2.2 Subdivisions

2.2.1 Districts 2.2.2 Quarters

3 Main sights 4 Society and culture

4.1 Religious life 4.2 Museums and galleries 4.3 Theatre, cabaret and musical 4.4 Music

4.4.1 Classical music 4.4.2 Popular music

4.5 Sport 4.6 Regular events

5 Transport

5.1 Rail 5.2 Air 5.3 Road 5.4 Bus
Bus
and light rail 5.5 Bicycle

6 Economy

6.1 List of largest employers in Hanover 6.2 Key figures

7 Business development 8 Education 9 People and residents of Hanover 10 International relations 11 See also 12 References 13 Bibliography 14 External links

History[edit]

Illustration of Hanover
Hanover
by Matthäus Merian, 1654

See also: Timeline of Hanover
Hanover
and History of Hanover
Hanover
(region) Hanover
Hanover
was founded in medieval times on the east bank of the River Leine. Its original name Honovere may mean "high (river)bank", though this is debated (cf. das Hohe Ufer). Hanover
Hanover
was a small village of ferrymen and fishermen that became a comparatively large town in the 13th century, receiving town privileges in 1241, due to its position at a natural crossroads. As overland travel was relatively difficult, its position on the upper navigable reaches of the river helped it to grow by increasing trade. It was connected to the Hanseatic League city of Bremen
Bremen
by the Leine, and was situated near the southern edge of the wide North German Plain
North German Plain
and north-west of the Harz
Harz
mountains, so that east-west traffic such as mule trains passed through it. Hanover
Hanover
was thus a gateway to the Rhine, Ruhr
Ruhr
and Saar river valleys, their industrial areas which grew up to the southwest and the plains regions to the east and north, for overland traffic skirting the Harz between the Low Countries
Low Countries
and Saxony
Saxony
or Thuringia. In the 14th century the main churches of Hanover
Hanover
were built, as well as a city wall with three city gates. The beginning of industrialization in Germany
Germany
led to trade in iron and silver from the northern Harz
Harz
Mountains, which increased the city's importance. In 1636 George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ruler of the Brunswick-Lüneburg
Brunswick-Lüneburg
principality of Calenberg, moved his residence to Hanover. The Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Brunswick-Lüneburg
were elevated by the Holy Roman Emperor to the rank of Prince-Elector
Prince-Elector
in 1692, and this elevation was confirmed by the Imperial Diet in 1708. Thus the principality was upgraded to the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, colloquially known as the Electorate of Hanover
Hanover
after Calenberg's capital (see also: House of Hanover). Its electors would later become monarchs of Great Britain
Great Britain
(and from 1801, of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland). The first of these was George I Louis, who acceded to the British throne in 1714. The last British monarch who ruled in Hanover
Hanover
was William IV. Semi-Salic law, which required succession by the male line if possible, forbade the accession of Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
in Hanover. As a male-line descendant of George I, Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
was herself a member of the House of Hanover. Her descendants, however, bore her husband's titular name of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Three kings of Great Britain, or the United Kingdom, were concurrently also Electoral Princes of Hanover. During the time of the personal union of the crowns of the United Kingdom and Hanover
Hanover
(1714–1837), the monarchs rarely visited the city. In fact, during the reigns of the final three joint rulers (1760–1837), there was only one short visit, by George IV in 1821. From 1816 to 1837 Viceroy
Viceroy
Adolphus represented the monarch in Hanover. During the Seven Years' War, the Battle of Hastenbeck
Battle of Hastenbeck
was fought near the city on 26 July 1757. The French army defeated the Hanoverian Army of Observation, leading to the city's occupation as part of the Invasion of Hanover. It was recaptured by Anglo-German forces led by Ferdinand of Brunswick the following year. 19th century[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Am Kröpcke, 1895

Schloss Herrenhausen, 1895

After Napoleon imposed the Convention of Artlenburg (Convention of the Elbe) on July 5, 1803, about 35,000 French soldiers occupied Hanover. The Convention also required disbanding the army of Hanover. However, George III
George III
did not recognize the Convention of the Elbe. This resulted in a great number of soldiers from Hanover
Hanover
eventually emigrating to Great Britain, where the King's German Legion
King's German Legion
was formed. It was only troops from Hanover
Hanover
and Brunswick that consistently opposed France throughout the entire Napoleonic wars. The Legion later played an important role in the Battle of Waterloo
Battle of Waterloo
in 1815. The Congress of Vienna in 1815 elevated the electorate to the Kingdom of Hanover. The capital town Hanover
Hanover
expanded to the western bank of the Leine
Leine
and since then has grown considerably. In 1837, the personal union of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Hanover
Hanover
ended because William IV's heir in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
was female (Queen Victoria). Hanover
Hanover
could be inherited only by male heirs. Thus, Hanover
Hanover
passed to William IV's brother, Ernest Augustus, and remained a kingdom until 1866, when it was annexed by Prussia
Prussia
during the Austro-Prussian war. Despite Hanover
Hanover
being expected to defeat Prussia at the Battle of Langensalza, Prussia
Prussia
employed Moltke the Elder's Kesselschlacht order of battle to instead destroy the Hanoverian army. The city of Hanover
Hanover
became the capital of the Prussian Province of Hanover. After the annexation, the people of Hanover
Hanover
generally opposed the Prussian government. To Hanover's industry, however, the new connection with Prussia
Prussia
meant an improvement in business. The introduction of free trade promoted economic growth and led to the recovery of the Gründerzeit
Gründerzeit
(the founders' era). Between 1879 and 1902 Hanover's population grew from 87,600 to 313,940.[citation needed] In 1842 the first horse railway was inaugurated, and from 1893 an electric tram was installed. In 1887 Hanover's Emile Berliner
Emile Berliner
invented the record and the gramophone.

The Synagogue

Nazi Germany[edit] After 1937 the Lord Mayor
Lord Mayor
and the state commissioners of Hanover
Hanover
were members of the NSDAP (Nazi party). A large Jewish population then existed in Hanover. In October 1938, 484 Hanoverian Jews of Polish origin were expelled to Poland, including the Grynszpan family. However, Poland
Poland
refused to accept them, leaving them stranded at the border with thousands of other Polish-Jewish deportees, fed only intermittently by the Polish Red Cross and Jewish welfare organisations. The Grynszpans' son Herschel Grynszpan
Herschel Grynszpan
was in Paris
Paris
at the time. When he learned of what was happening, he drove to the German embassy in Paris
Paris
and shot the German diplomat Eduard Ernst vom Rath, who died shortly afterwards.[6] The Nazis took this act as a pretext to stage a nationwide pogrom known as Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
(9 November 1938).[7] On that day, the synagogue of Hanover, designed in 1870 by Edwin Oppler in neo-romantic style, was burnt by the Nazis. In September 1941, through the "Action Lauterbacher" plan, a ghettoisation of the remaining Hanoverian Jewish families began. Even before the Wannsee Conference, on 15 December 1941, the first Jews from Hanover
Hanover
were deported to Riga.[8] A total of 2,400 people were deported, and very few survived. During the war seven concentration camps were constructed in Hanover, in which many Jews were confined.[9] Of the approximately 4,800 Jews who had lived in Hannover in 1938, fewer than 100 were still in the city when troops of the United States Army
United States Army
arrived on 10 April 1945 to occupy Hanover
Hanover
at the end of the war.[citation needed] Today, a memorial at the Opera Square is a reminder of the persecution of the Jews in Hanover. After the war a large group of Orthodox Jewish survivors of the nearby Bergen-Belsen concentration camp settled in Hanover.[10]

The Aegidienkirche was not rebuilt and its ruins were kept as a WWII memorial.

World War II[edit]

WWII map of Hanover
Hanover
in 1943

Main article: Bombing of Hanover
Hanover
in World War II As an important railroad and road junction and production center, Hanover
Hanover
was a major target for strategic bombing during World War II, including the Oil Campaign. Targets included the AFA (Stöcken), the Deurag-Nerag refinery (Misburg), the Continental plants (Vahrenwald and Limmer), the United light metal works (VLW) in Ricklingen and Laatzen
Laatzen
(today Hanover
Hanover
fairground), the Hanover/Limmer rubber reclamation plant, the Hanomag
Hanomag
factory (Linden) and the tank factory M.N.H. Maschinenfabrik Niedersachsen (Badenstedt). Residential areas were also targeted, and more than 6,000 civilians were killed by the Allied bombing raids. More than 90% of the city center was destroyed in a total of 88 bombing raids.[11] After the war, the Aegidienkirche was not rebuilt and its ruins were left as a war memorial. The Allied ground advance into Germany
Germany
reached Hanover
Hanover
in April 1945.[12] The US 84th Infantry Division captured the city on 10 April 1945.[13] Hanover
Hanover
was in the British zone of occupation of Germany, and became part of the new state (Land) of Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
in 1946. Today Hanover
Hanover
is a Vice-President City of Mayors for Peace, an international mayoral organisation mobilising cities and citizens worldwide to abolish and eliminate nuclear weapons by the year 2020.[14] Population development[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1190 1,500 —    

1435 5,000 +233.3%

1811 16,816 +236.3%

1836 23,898 +42.1%

1855 33,148 +38.7%

1875 106,667 +221.8%

1895 209,535 +96.4%

1905 250,632 +19.6%

1919 321,200 +28.2%

1939 477,100 +48.5%

1945 325,841 −31.7%

1965 555,228 +70.4%

1985 508,298 −8.5%

2005 515,729 +1.5%

2010 522,686 +1.3%

2012 514,137 −1.6%

2013 518,386 +0.8%

2014 523,642 +1.0%

2015 532,163 +1.6%

Geography[edit] Climate[edit] Hanover
Hanover
experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb).

Climate data for Hannover, Germany
Germany
for 1981–2010, extremes 1936-2015 (Source: DWD)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 15.7 (60.3) 18.3 (64.9) 24.4 (75.9) 29.7 (85.5) 32.2 (90) 33.9 (93) 36.4 (97.5) 38.1 (100.6) 33.0 (91.4) 26.7 (80.1) 20.6 (69.1) 16.3 (61.3) 38.1 (100.6)

Average high °C (°F) 4.0 (39.2) 4.9 (40.8) 8.9 (48) 13.9 (57) 18.5 (65.3) 20.9 (69.6) 23.5 (74.3) 23.2 (73.8) 18.9 (66) 13.7 (56.7) 8.1 (46.6) 4.5 (40.1) 13.6 (56.5)

Daily mean °C (°F) 1.6 (34.9) 1.9 (35.4) 5.0 (41) 8.9 (48) 13.4 (56.1) 16.0 (60.8) 18.4 (65.1) 17.9 (64.2) 14.2 (57.6) 9.9 (49.8) 5.5 (41.9) 2.3 (36.1) 9.6 (49.3)

Average low °C (°F) −1.1 (30) −1.1 (30) 1.2 (34.2) 3.8 (38.8) 7.8 (46) 10.8 (51.4) 13.1 (55.6) 12.9 (55.2) 9.9 (49.8) 6.4 (43.5) 2.8 (37) −0.2 (31.6) 5.5 (41.9)

Record low °C (°F) −22.4 (−8.3) −24.3 (−11.7) −18.3 (−0.9) −7.4 (18.7) −3.2 (26.2) 0.3 (32.5) 3.3 (37.9) 3.3 (37.9) −1.3 (29.7) −7.9 (17.8) −17.1 (1.2) −20.9 (−5.6) −24.3 (−11.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 55.9 (2.201) 41.1 (1.618) 54.8 (2.157) 39.6 (1.559) 56.1 (2.209) 59.2 (2.331) 61.0 (2.402) 68.7 (2.705) 57.2 (2.252) 52.8 (2.079) 54.7 (2.154) 60.2 (2.37) 661.3 (26.035)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 50.0 71.4 108.1 166.2 216.4 204.5 213.4 199.5 144.4 107.2 52.7 38.9 1,566

Source: Data derived from Deutscher Wetterdienst[15]

Subdivisions[edit]

Hanover, seen from the International Space Station

Boroughs of Hanover

Hanover
Hanover
Region

Districts[edit]

Mitte Vahrenwald-List Bothfeld-Vahrenheide Buchholz-Kleefeld Misburg-Anderten Kirchrode-Bemerode-Wülferode Südstadt-Bult Döhren-Wülfel Ricklingen Linden-Limmer Ahlem-Badenstedt-Davenstedt Herrenhausen-Stöcken Nord

Quarters[edit]

Nordstadt Südstadt Oststadt Zoo (for the zoo itself, see Hanover
Hanover
Zoo) Herrenhausen Kronsberg

Largest groups of foreign residents[16]

Nationality Population (2018)

 Turkey 15,960

 Poland 8,290

 Greece 4,610

 Syria 4,000

 Iraq 3,690

 Bulgaria 3,640

 Ukraine 3,200

 Italy 3,180

 Russia 3,070

 Spain 2,860

 Serbia 2,760

 Romania 2,730

 China 2,080

 Croatia 1,960

 Iran 1,860

 Afghanistan 1,690

 Ghana 1,530

 Vietnam 1,260

 Kosovo 1,240

 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,110

Main sights[edit]

Panoramic view from the viewing platform at the New Town Hall

Ernst August memorial, central railway station

The Staatsoper Hanover
Hanover
("state opera") is housed in its classical 19th century opera house.

Maschsee seen from the new city hall

Market Church in Hanover

Old Town Hall

Leine
Leine
River At Hanover
Hanover
City

Waterloo Column in Hanover

Anzeiger Tower Block

One of the most famous sights is the Royal Gardens of Herrenhausen: The Great Garden is an important European baroque garden. The palace itself was largely destroyed by Allied bombing but has been reconstructed and reopened in 2013.[17] Among the points of interest is the Grotto. Its interior was designed by the French artist Niki de Saint Phalle).[18] The Great Garden consists of several parts and contains Europe's highest garden fountain. The historic Garden Theatre hosted the musicals of the German rock musician Heinz Rudolf Kunze.[19] The Berggarten is a botanical garden with the most varied collection of orchids in Europe.[20] Some points of interest are the Tropical House, the Cactus House, the Canary House and the Orchid House, and free-flying birds and butterflies. Near the entrance to the Berggarten is the historic Library Pavillon. The Mausoleum of the Guelphs is also located in the Berggarten. Like the Great Garden, the Berggarten also consists of several parts, for example the Paradies and the Prairie Garden. There is also the Sea Life Centre Hanover, which is the first tropical aquarium in Germany.[21] The Georgengarten
Georgengarten
is an English landscape garden. The Leibniz Temple and the Georgen Palace are two points of interest there. The landmark of Hanover
Hanover
is the New Town Hall (Neues Rathaus). Inside the building are four scale models of the city. A worldwide unique diagonal/arch elevator goes up the large dome at a 17 degree angle to an observation deck.[22] The Hanover
Hanover
Zoo received the Park Scout Award for the fourth year running in 2009/10, placing it among the best zoos in Germany.[23] The zoo consists of several theme areas: Sambesi, Meyers Farm, Gorilla-Mountain, Jungle-Palace, and Mullewapp. Some smaller areas are Australia, the wooded area for wolves, and the so-called swimming area with many seabirds. There is also a tropical house, a jungle house, and a show arena. The new Canadian-themed area, Yukon Bay, opened in 2010. In 2010 the Hanover
Hanover
Zoo had over 1.6 million visitors.[23] Another point of interest is the Old Town. In the centre are the large Marktkirche (Church St. Georgii et Jacobi, preaching venue of the bishop of the Lutheran Landeskirche Hannovers) and the Old Town Hall. Nearby are the Leibniz House, the Nolte House, and the Beguine Tower. The Kreuz-Church-Quarter around the Kreuz Church contains many little lanes. Nearby is the old royal sports hall, now called the Ballhof theatre. On the edge of the Old Town are the Market Hall, the Leine Palace, and the ruin of the Aegidien Church which is now a monument to the victims of war and violence. Through the Marstall Gate you arrive at the bank of the river Leine, where the Nanas of Niki de Saint Phalle are located. They are part of the Mile of Sculptures, which starts from Trammplatz, leads along the river bank, crosses Königsworther Square, and ends at the entrance of the Georgengarten. Near the Old Town is the district of Calenberger Neustadt where the Catholic Basilica Minor
Basilica Minor
of St. Clemens, the Reformed Church and the Lutheran Neustädter Hof- und Stadtkirche St. Johannis are located. Some other popular sights are the Waterloo Column, the Laves House, the Wangenheim Palace, the Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
State Archives, the Hanover Playhouse, the Kröpcke
Kröpcke
Clock, the Anzeiger Tower Block, the Administration Building of the NORD/LB, the Cupola Hall of the Congress Centre, the Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
Stock, the Ministry of Finance, the Garten Church, the Luther Church, the Gehry Tower (designed by the American architect Frank O. Gehry), the specially designed Bus
Bus
Stops, the Opera House, the Central Station, the Maschsee lake and the city forest Eilenriede, which is one of the largest of its kind in Europe. With around 40 parks, forests and gardens, a couple of lakes, two rivers and one canal, Hanover
Hanover
offers a large variety of leisure activities. Since 2007 the historic Leibniz Letters, which can be viewed in the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Library, are on UNESCO's Memory of the World Register. Outside the city centre is the EXPO-Park, the former site of EXPO 2000. Some points of interest are the Planet M., the former German Pavillon, some nations' vacant pavilions, the Expowale, the EXPO-Plaza and the EXPO-Gardens (Parc Agricole, EXPO-Park South and the Gardens of change). The fairground can be reached by the Exponale, one of the largest pedestrian bridges in Europe. The Hanover
Hanover
fairground is the largest Exhibition Centre in the world.[24] It provides 496,000 square metres of covered indoor space, 58,000 square metres of open-air space, 27 halls and pavilions. Many of the Exhibition Centre's halls are architectural highlights. Furthermore, it offers the Convention Center with its 35 function rooms, glassed-in areas between halls, grassy park-like recreation zones and its own heliport. Two important sights on the fairground are the Hermes Tower (88.8 metres high) and the EXPO Roof, the largest wooden roof in the world.[25] In the district of Anderten is the European Cheese Centre, the only Cheese Experience Centre in Europe. Another tourist sight in Anderten is the Hindenburg Lock, which was the biggest lock in Europe at the time of its construction in 1928. The Tiergarten (literally the "animals' garden") in the district of Kirchrode is a large forest originally used for deer and other game for the king's table. In the district of Groß-Buchholz the 282-metre-high Telemax
Telemax
is located, which is the tallest building in Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
and the highest television tower in Northern Germany. Some other notable towers are the VW-Tower in the city centre and the old towers of the former middle-age defence belt: Döhrener Tower, Lister Tower and the Horse Tower. The 36 most important sights of the city centre are connected with a 4.2 kilometres (3 mi)-long red line, which is painted on the pavement. This so-called Red Thread marks out a walk that starts at the Tourist Information Office and ends on the Ernst-August-Square in front of the central station. There is also a guided sightseeing-bus tour through the city. Society and culture[edit] Religious life[edit] Hanover
Hanover
is headquarters for several Protestant
Protestant
organizations, including the World Communion of Reformed Churches, the Evangelical Church in Germany, the Reformed Alliance, the United Evangelical Lutheran Church of Germany, and the Independent Evangelical-Lutheran Church. In 2015, 31.1% of the population were Protestant
Protestant
and 13.4% were Roman Catholic. The majority 55.5% were irreligious or other faith.[26] Museums and galleries[edit]

Hannover
Hannover
from sky

The Historic Museum describes the history of Hanover, from the medieval settlement "Honovere" to the world-famous Exhibition City of today. The museum focuses on the period from 1714 to 1834 when Hanover had a strong relationship with the British royal house. With more than 4,000 members, the Kestnergesellschaft
Kestnergesellschaft
is the largest art society in Germany. The museum hosts exhibitions from classical modernist art to contemporary art. One big focus is put on film, video, contemporary music and architecture, room installments and big presentations of contemporary paintings, sculptures and video art. The Kestner-Museum
Kestner-Museum
is located in the House of 5.000 windows. The museum is named after August Kestner
August Kestner
and exhibits 6,000 years of applied art in four areas: Ancient cultures, ancient Egypt, applied art and a valuable collection of historic coins. The KUBUS is a forum for contemporary art. It features mostly exhibitions and projects of famous and important artists from Hanover. The Kunstverein Hannover
Hannover
(Art Society Hanover) shows contemporary art and was established in 1832 as one of the first art societies in Germany. It is located in the Künstlerhaus (House of artists). There are around 7 international monografic and thematic Exhibitions in one year. The Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
State Museum is the largest museum in Hanover. The State Gallery shows the European Art from the 11th to the 20th century, the Nature Department shows the zoology, geology, botanic, geology and a Vivarium with fishes, insects, reptiles and amphibians. The Primeval Department shows the primeval history of Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
and the Folklore Department shows the cultures from all over the world. The Sprengel Museum shows the art of the 20th century. It is one of the most notable art museums in Germany. The focus is put on the classical modernist art with the collection of Kurt Schwitters, works of German expressionism, and French cubism, the cabinet of abstracts, the graphics and the department of photography and media. Furthermore, the museum shows the famous works of the French artist Niki de Saint-Phalle. The Theatre Museum shows an exhibition of the history of the theatre in Hanover
Hanover
from the 17th century up to now: opera, concert, drama and ballet. The museum also hosts several touring exhibitions during the year. The Wilhelm Busch Museum
Wilhelm Busch Museum
is the German Museum of Caricature and Critical Graphic Arts. The collection of the works of Wilhelm Busch and the extensive collection of cartoons and critical graphics is this museum unique in Germany. Furthermore, the museum hosts several exhibitions of national and international artists during the year. A cabinet of coins is the Münzkabinett der TUI-AG. The Polizeigeschichtliche Sammlung Niedersachsen is the largest police museum in Germany. Textiles from all over the world can be visited in the Museum for textile art. The EXPOseeum is the museum of the world-exhibition "EXPO 2000 Hannover". Carpets and objects from the orient can be visited in the Oriental Carpet Museum. The Blind Man Museum is a rarity in Germany, another one is only in Berlin. The Museum of veterinary medicine is unique in Germany. The Museum for Energy History describes the 150 years old history of the application of energy. The Home Museum Ahlem shows the history of the district of Ahlem. The Mahn- und Gedenkstätte Ahlem describes the history of the Jewish people in Hanover
Hanover
and the Stiftung Ahlers Pro Arte / Kestner Pro Arte shows modern art. Modern art is also the main topic of the Kunsthalle Faust, the Nord/LB Art Gellery and of the Foro Artistico / Eisfabrik. Some leading art events in Hanover
Hanover
are the Long Night of the museums and the Zinnober Kunstvolkslauf which features all the galleries in Hanover. People who are interested in astronomy should visit the Observatory Geschwister Herschel on the Lindener Mountain or the small planetarium inside of the Bismarck School. Theatre, cabaret and musical[edit]

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Around 40 theatres are located in Hanover. The Opera House, the Schauspielhaus (Play House), the Ballhof eins, the Ballhof zwei and the Cumberlandsche Galerie belong to the Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
State Theatre. The Theater am Aegi is Hanover's big theatre for musicals, shows and guest performances. The Neues Theater (New Theatre) is the boulevard theatre of Hanover. The Theater für Niedersachsen is another big theatre in Hanover, which also has an own musical company. Some of the most important musical productions are the rock musicals of the German rock musician Heinz Rudolph Kunze, which take place at the Garden-Theatre in the Great Garden. Some important theatre-events are the Tanztheater International, the Long Night of the Theatres, the Festival Theaterformen and the International Competition for Choreographs. Hanover's leading cabaret-stage is the GOP Variety theatre which is located in the Georgs Palace. Some other famous cabaret-stages are the Variety Marlene, the Uhu-Theatre. the theatre Die Hinterbühne, the Rampenlich Variety and the revue-stage TAK. The most important cabaret event is the Kleines Fest im Großen Garten (Little Festival in the Great Garden) which is the most successful cabaret festival in Germany. It features artists from around the world. Some other important events are the Calenberger Cabaret Weeks, the Hanover Cabaret Festival and the Wintervariety. Music[edit] Classical music[edit] Hanover
Hanover
has two symphony orchestras: The Lower Saxon State Orchestra Hanover
Hanover
and the NDR Radiophilharmonie (North German Radio Philharmonic Orchestra). Two notable choirs have their homes in Hanover: the Girls Choir Hanover
Hanover
(Mädchenchor Hannover) and the Knabenchor Hannover (Boys Choir Hanover). There are/were two big international competitions for classical music in Hanover:

Hanover
Hanover
International Violin Competition (since 1991) Classica Nova International Music Competition[27] (1997) (Non profit association Classica Nova exists in Hanover
Hanover
with the aim of continuing the Classica Nova competition).

Popular music[edit]

Hanover's own band, Scorpions

The rock bands Scorpions and Fury in the Slaughterhouse
Fury in the Slaughterhouse
are originally from Hanover. Acclaimed DJ Mousse T also has his main recording studio in the area. Rick J. Jordan, member of the band Scooter was born here in 1968. Eurovision Song Contest winner of 2010, Lena, is also from Hanover. Sport[edit] Hannover
Hannover
96 (nickname Die Roten or 'The Reds') is the top local football team that is again playing in the Bundesliga
Bundesliga
top division after being relegated to the 2. Bundesliga
Bundesliga
after the 2015–16 season. Home games are played at the HDI-Arena, which hosted matches in the 1974 and 2006 World Cups and the Euro 1988. Their reserve team Hannover
Hannover
96 II plays in the fourth league. Their home games were played in the traditional Eilenriedestadium till they moved to the HDI Arena due to DFL directives. Arminia Hannover
Hannover
is another very traditional soccer team in Hanover
Hanover
that has played in the first league for years and plays now in the Niedersachsen-West Liga (Lower Saxony League West). Home matches are played in the Rudolf-Kalweit-Stadium. The Hannover
Hannover
Indians are the local ice hockey team. They play in the third tier. Their home games are played at the traditional Eisstadion am Pferdeturm. The Hannover
Hannover
Scorpions played in Hanover
Hanover
in Germany's top league until 2013 when they sold their license and moved to Langenhagen. Hanover
Hanover
was one of the Rugby union
Rugby union
capitals in Germany. The first German Rugby team was founded in Hanover
Hanover
in 1878. Hanover-based teams dominated the German Rugby scene for a long time. DRC Hannover
Hannover
plays in the first division, and SV Odin von 1905 as well as SG 78/08 Hannover
Hannover
play in the second division. The first German Fencing
Fencing
Club was founded in Hanover
Hanover
in 1862. Today there are three more Fencing
Fencing
Clubs in Hanover. The Hannover
Hannover
Korbjäger are the city's top basketball team. They play their home games at the IGS Linden. Hanover
Hanover
is a centre for Water sports. Thanks to the lake Maschsee, the rivers Ihme and Leine
Leine
and to the channel Mittellandkanal, Hanover hosts sailing schools, yacht schools, waterski clubs, rowing clubs, canoe clubs and paddle clubs. The water polo team WASPO W98 plays in the first division. The Hannover
Hannover
Regents play in the third Bundesliga
Bundesliga
(baseball) division. The Hannover
Hannover
Grizzlies are the local American Football Team. The Hannover
Hannover
Marathon
Marathon
is the biggest running event in Hanover
Hanover
with more than 11,000 participants and usually around 200.000 spectators. Some other important running events are the Gilde Stadtstaffel (relay), the Sport-Check Nachtlauf (night-running), the Herrenhäuser Team-Challenge, the Hannoversche Firmenlauf (company running) and the Silvesterlauf (sylvester running). Hanover
Hanover
hosts also an important international cycle race: The Nacht von Hannover
Hannover
(night of Hanover). The race takes place around the Market Hall. The lake Maschsee hosts the International Dragon Boat
Dragon Boat
Races and the Canoe Polo-Tournament. Many regattas take place during the year. "Head of the river Leine" on the river Leine
Leine
is one of the biggest rowing regattas in Hanover. One of Germany's most successful dragon boat teams, the All Sports Team Hannover, which has won since its foundation in year 2000 more than 100 medals on national and international competitions, is doing practising on the Maschsee in the heart of Hannover. The All Sports Team has received the award "Team of the Year 2013" in Lower Saxony.[28] Some other important sport events are the Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
Beach Volleyball
Volleyball
Tournament, the international horse show "German Classics" and the international ice hockey tournament Nations Cup. Regular events[edit]

CeBIT
CeBIT
2008 conference centre in Hanover

Hanover
Hanover
is one of the leading Exhibition Cities in the world. Each year Hanover
Hanover
hosts more than 60 international and national exhibitions. The most popular ones are the CeBIT, the Hanover
Hanover
Fair, the Domotex, the Ligna, the IAA Nutzfahrzeuge and the Agritechnica. Hanover
Hanover
also hosts a huge number of congresses and symposiums like International Symposium on Society and Resource Management[29] But Hanover
Hanover
is not only one of the most important Exhibition Cities in the world, it is also one of the German capitals for marksmen. The Schützenfest Hannover
Hannover
is the largest Marksmen's Fun Fair in the world and takes place once a year (late June to early July) (2014 - July 4th to the 13th).[30] It consists of more than 260 rides and inns, five large beer tents and a big entertainment programme. The highlight of this fun fair is the 12 kilometres (7 mi) long Parade of the Marksmen with more than 12.000 participants from all over the world, among them around 5.000 marksmen, 128 bands and more than 70 wagons, carriages and big festival vehicles. It is the longest procession in Europe. Around 2 million people visit this fun fair every year. The landmark of this Fun Fair is the biggest transportable Ferris Wheel in the world (60 m or 197 ft high). The origins of this fun fair is located in the year 1529. Hanover
Hanover
also hosts one of the two largest Spring Festivals in Europe with around 180 rides and inns, 2 large beer tents and around 1.5 million visitors each year. The Oktoberfest Hannover
Hannover
is the second largest Oktoberfest in the world with around 160 rides and inns, two large beer tents and around 1 million visitors each year. The Maschsee Festival takes place around the Maschsee Lake. Each year around 2 million visitors come to enjoy live music, comedy, cabaret and much more. It is the largest Volksfest of its kind in Northern Germany. The Great Garden hosts every year the International Fireworks Competition, and the International Festival Weeks Herrenhausen
Herrenhausen
with lots of music and cabaret. The Carnival Procession is around 3 kilometres (2 mi) long and consists of 3.000 participants, around 30 festival vehicles and around 20 bands and takes place every year. Some more festivals are for example the Festival Feuer und Flamme (Fire and Flames), the Gartenfestival (Garden Festival), the Herbstfestival (Autumn Festival), the Harley Days, the Steintor Festival (Steintor is a party area in the city centre) and the Lister-Meile-Festival (Lister Meile is a large pedestrian area). Hanover
Hanover
also hosts Food Festivals, for example the Wine Festival and the Gourmet Festival. Furthermore, Hanover
Hanover
hosts some special markets. The Old Town Flea Market is the oldest flea market in Germany[citation needed]and the Market for Art and Trade has a high reputation. Some other big markets are of course the Christmas Markets of the City of Hanover
Hanover
in the Old Town and city centre and the Lister Meile. Transport[edit]

Hannover
Hannover
Hauptbahnhof

Citaro G natural gas bus designed by James Irvine

TW 2000
TW 2000
tram designed by Herbert Lindinger and Jasper Morrison

TUI AG
TUI AG
headquarters in Hanover

Rail[edit] The city's central station, Hannover
Hannover
Hauptbahnhof, is a hub of the German high-speed ICE network. It is the starting point of the Hanover- Würzburg
Würzburg
high-speed rail line and also the central hub for the Hanover
Hanover
S-Bahn. It offers many international and national connections. Air[edit] Hanover
Hanover
and its area is served by Hanover/ Langenhagen
Langenhagen
International Airport (IATA code: HAJ; ICAO code: EDDV) Road[edit] Hanover
Hanover
is also an important hub of Germany's Autobahn
Autobahn
network; the junction of two major autobahns, the A2 and A7 is at Kreuz Hannover-Ost, at the northeastern edge of the city. Local autobahns are A 352 (a short cut between A7 [north] and A2 [west], also known as the airport autobahn because it passes Hanover Airport) and the A 37. The Schnellweg (en: expressway) system, a number of Bundesstraße roads, forms a structure loosely resembling a large ring road together with A2 and A7. The roads are B 3, B 6 and Bundesstraße
Bundesstraße
65B 65, called Westschnellweg (B6 on the northern part, B3 on the southern part), Messeschnellweg (B3, becomes A37 near Burgdorf, crosses A2, becomes B3 again, changes to B6 at Seelhorster Kreuz, then passes the Hanover
Hanover
fairground as B6 and becomes A37 again before merging into A7) and Südschnellweg (starts out as B65, becomes B3/B6/B65 upon crossing Westschnellweg, then becomes B65 again at Seelhorster Kreuz). Bus
Bus
and light rail[edit] Main article: Hanover
Hanover
Stadtbahn Hanover
Hanover
has an extensive Stadtbahn
Stadtbahn
and bus system, operated by üstra. The city is famous for its designer buses and tramways, the TW 6000 and TW 2000
TW 2000
trams being the most well-known examples. Bicycle[edit] Cycle paths are very common in the city centre. At off-peak hours you are allowed to take your bike on a tram or bus.[31] Economy[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Various industrial businesses are located in Hannover. The Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles Transporter (VWN) factory at Hannover-Stöcken is the biggest employer in the region and operates a huge plant at the northern edge of town adjoining the Mittellandkanal and Motorway A2. Jointly with a factory of German tire and automobile parts manufacturer Continental AG, they have a coal-burning power plant. Continental AG, founded in Hanover
Hanover
in 1871, is one of the city's major companies, as is Sennheiser. Since 2008 a take-over is in progress: the Schaeffler Group
Schaeffler Group
from Herzogenaurach
Herzogenaurach
(Bavaria) holds the majority of the stock but were required due to the financial crisis to deposit the options as securities at banks.[32] TUI AG
TUI AG
has its HQ in Hanover.[33] Hanover
Hanover
is home to many insurance companies e.g. Talanx, VHV Group, Concordia Insurance. One major global reinsurance company is Hannover
Hannover
Re, whose headquarters are east of the city centre. List of largest employers in Hanover[edit]

Employer

est. Hanover
Hanover
located employees[34]

Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles
Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles
(VWN) 1956 14.500

Klinikum Region Hannover 2005 8.500

Hannover
Hannover
Medical School 1961 7.600

Continental 1871 7.500

Deutsche Bahn 1994 6.000

TUI 2002 4.600

DHL 1969 4.400

Nord/LB 1970 4.000

Talanx 1996 4.000

WABCO 2007 2.600

Key figures[edit] In 2012, the city generated a GDP of €29.5 billion, which is equivalent to €74,822 per employee. The gross value of production in 2012 was €26.4 billion, which is equivalent to €66,822 per employee. [35] Around 300,000 employees were counted in 2014. Of these, 189,000 had their primary residence in Hanover, while 164,892 commute into the city every day.[36] In 2014 the city was home to 34,198 businesses, of which 9,342 were registered in the German Trade Register and 24,856 counted as small businesses.[37] Hence, more than half of the metropolitan area's businesses in the German Trade Register are located in Hanover
Hanover
(17,485 total). [38] Business development[edit] Hannoverimpuls GMBH is a joint business development company from the city and region of Hannover. The company was founded in 2003 and supports the start-up, growth and relocation of businesses in the Hannover
Hannover
Region. The focus is on seven sectors, which stand for sustainable economic growth: Automotive, Energy Solutions, Information and Communications Technology, Life Sciences, Optical Technologies, Creative Industries
Creative Industries
and Production Engineering.[39] A range of programmes supports companies from the key industries in their expansion plans in Hannover
Hannover
or abroad. Three regional centres specifically promote international economic relations with Russia, India
India
and Turkey. Education[edit] The Leibniz University Hannover
Hannover
is the largest funded institution in Hanover
Hanover
for providing higher education to the students from around the world. Below are the names of the universities and some of the important schools, including newly opened Hannover
Hannover
Medical Research School in 2003 for attracting the students from biology background from around the world. There are several universities in Hanover:

Leibniz University Hannover, host institution to the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics Hochschule für Musik, Theater und Medien Hannover[40] Hannover
Hannover
Medical School[41] School of Veterinary Medicine Hanover
Hanover
(Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover) GISMA Business School, part of the for-profit education company Global University Systems.

There is one University of Applied Science and Arts in Hanover:

Hochschule Hannover
Hannover
(the former Fachhochschule)[42]

The Schulbiologiezentrum Hannover
Hannover
maintains practical biology schools in four locations (Botanischer Schulgarten Burg, Freiluftschule Burg, Zooschule Hannover, and Botanischer Schulgarten Linden). The University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover
Hanover
also maintains its own botanical garden specializing in medicinal and poisonous plants, the Heil- und Giftpflanzengarten der Tierärztlichen Hochschule Hannover. People and residents of Hanover[edit]

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Wilhelm Busch

Gerhard Schröder

The following is a selection of famous Hanover-natives, personalities connected with the city and honorary citizens:

Hannah Arendt
Hannah Arendt
(1906–1975), German-born American political theorist Rudolf Augstein
Rudolf Augstein
(1923–2003), German journalist, founder of the weekly journal Der Spiegel Hermann Bahlsen
Hermann Bahlsen
(1859–1919), businessman, inventor of the Leibniz-Keks Rudolf von Bennigsen
Rudolf von Bennigsen
(1824–1902), liberal politician Champion Jack Dupree
Champion Jack Dupree
(1910–1992), American Born Blues Musician Emil Berliner
Emil Berliner
(1851–1929), inventor of the phonograph Walter Bruch
Walter Bruch
(1908–1990), inventor of the PAL
PAL
color television system Wilhelm Busch
Wilhelm Busch
(1832–1908), caricaturist, painter and poet Niki de Saint Phalle
Niki de Saint Phalle
(1930–2002), sculptor, painter and film maker Fury in the Slaughterhouse, rock band George I, King of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland, prince elector of Hanover George II, King of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland, prince elector of Hanover George III, King of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland, prince elector of Hanover Georg Friedrich Grotefend
Georg Friedrich Grotefend
(1775–1853), epigraphist and philologist Conrad Wilhelm Hase, (1818–1902), architect, founder of the Hanover school of architecture Caroline Herschel
Caroline Herschel
and William Herschel
William Herschel
(1738–1822), astronomers Manfred Kohrs
Manfred Kohrs
(born 1957), tattooist, conceptual artist and Master of Economics Georg Ludwig Friedrich Laves
Georg Ludwig Friedrich Laves
(1788–1864), architect Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
(1646–1716), philosopher, mathematician, developed differential and integral calculus Per Mertesacker
Per Mertesacker
(born 1984), German football player for Arsenal F.C. and Germany Otto Fritz Meyerhof
Otto Fritz Meyerhof
(1884–1951), recipient of the Nobel prize in medicine, 1922 Lena Meyer-Landrut
Lena Meyer-Landrut
(born 1991), winner of the Eurovision Song Contest 2010 Reiner E. Moritz (born 1938), German film director and producer Gerhard Schröder
Gerhard Schröder
(born 1944), German politician (SPD) (former Chancellor of Germany) Christian Wulff
Christian Wulff
(born 1959), politician (CDU), former President of Germany Kurt Schumacher
Kurt Schumacher
(1895–1952), politician, re-organiser of the SPD after World War II Kurt Schwitters
Kurt Schwitters
(1887–1948), artist Wyn Hoop (born 1936), singer Uli Stein (artist)
Uli Stein (artist)
(born 1954), artist, cartoonist Scorpions (band)
Scorpions (band)
(formed in 1965), rock band Dieter Roth
Dieter Roth
(1930–1998), artist, print-maker, author, poet, world renowned composer

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Hanover
Hanover
is twinned with:[43]

City Country

Bristol[43][44] United Kingdom

Perpignan[43] France

Rouen[43] France

Blantyre[43] Malawi

Poznań[43][45][46] Poland

Hiroshima[43][47] Japan

Leipzig[43][48] Germany

See also[edit]

Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
portal

CeBIT
CeBIT
( CeBIT
CeBIT
Computer Messe) Expo 2000 Hanover
Hanover
Fair ( Hannover
Hannover
Messe) Metropolitan region Hannover-Braunschweig-Göttingen-Wolfsburg Schützenfest Hannover

References[edit]

^ "Schostok zieht ins Rathaus" (in German). Hannoversche Allgemeine. 6 October 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-14.  ^ Landesbetrieb für Statistik und Kommunikationstechnologie Niedersachsen, 102 Bevölkerung - Basis Zensus 2011, Stand 31. Dezember 2015 (Tabelle K1020014) ^ Encyclopædia Britannica uses "Hannover". It says "English Hanover" but uses "Hannover" in the prose. ^ Microsoft Encarta gives the primary spelling as "Hannover". ^ "Official Website of the City and Region of Hannover". Hannover.de. 2009-10-27. Retrieved 2011-04-07.  ^ Schwab, Gerald (1990). The Day the Holocaust Began: The Odyssey of Herschel Grynszpan. Praeger. p. 14.  ^ "Kristallnacht: A Nationwide Pogrom, November 9–10, 1938". Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 30 June 2015.  ^ Meyer, Michael (2000). Deutsch-jüdische Geschichte der Neuzeit. Band IV (in German). Munich: C.H. Beck. ISBN 3-406-39705-0.  ^ Fröbe, Rainer (1989). Konzentrationslager in Hannover
Hannover
- KZ-Arbeit und Rüstungsindustrie in der Spätphase des Zweiten Weltkriegs. Hildesheim: August Lax. ISBN 3-7848-2422-6.  ^ Mlynek, Klaus (2009). 'Stadtlexikon Hannover: Von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart' (in German). Hannover: Schlütersche. p. 17.  ^ "History of Hanover
Hanover
1866-1945, official web site of the city (German)". Hannover.de. Retrieved 2011-04-07.  ^ Video: Allies Overrun Germany
Germany
Etc. (1945). Universal Newsreel. 1945. Retrieved February 21, 2012.  ^ Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939-1946 (Revised Edition, 2006), Stackpole Books, p. 156. ^ "Mayors for Peace". 2020visioncampaign.org. Archived from the original on 2011-04-18. Retrieved 2011-04-07.  ^ "Ausgabe der Klimadaten: Monatswerte".  ^ "Ausgewählte Daten zur Struktur der Bevölkerung mit Migrationshintergrund in der Landeshauptstadt Hannover". 2015: 10.  ^ Herrenhausen
Herrenhausen
Palace and Museum. In: Hannover.de. ^ The Grotto by Niki de Saint Phalle. In: Hannover.de. ^ Ronald Meyer-Arlt: Was wird aus dem Gartentheater? In: Hannoversche Allgemeine Zeitung, 28 August 2017 (German). ^ Berggarten. In: Hannover.de. ^ crowncom2009.org ^ https://storki.wordpress.com/2014/05/09/the-old-new-town-hall-rathaus-in-hannover-germany/ ^ a b " Hannover
Hannover
hat den "Besten Zoo" Aktuelle Nachricht Erlebnis-Zoo Hannover
Hannover
- Top Freizeitziel und Sehenswürdigkeit Niedersachsen" (in German). Zoo-hannover.de. Archived from the original on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2011-04-07.  ^ "Exhibition Grounds - Deutsche Messe AG, Hannover
Hannover
- Germany". Messe.de. 2005-04-20. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2011-04-07.  ^ Natterer, Julius. "Roof of the Main Hall for EXPO 2000 in Hanover, Germany," in Structural Engineering International, August 2000, n. 3 v. 10 ^ Hannover
Hannover
in Zahlen: Einwohner, hannover.de, abgerufen am 6. Februar 2017 ^ "Classica Nova Competition Cycle". Brainin.org. Retrieved 2011-04-07.  ^ Voting for Athletes on the Year 2013 in Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
Archived 2009-11-21 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "ISSRM 2014 Hannover". Eventegg.  ^ HANNOVER.DE - Portal
Portal
der Landeshauptstadt und der Region Hannover ^ "Transport of bicycles and animals". www.uestra.de. 2016-04-29. Retrieved 2016-04-29.  ^ Profile of Continental AG, retrieved on 10 September 2009. ^ "Contact TUI Group." TUI AG. Retrieved on 29 May 2009. ^ "Die 10 größten Arbeitgeber in Hannover". Jobs-hannover.org. Retrieved 11 February 2016.  ^ "Hannovers Wirtschaft in Zahlen: Volkswirtschaftliche Gesamtrechnung" (in German). Stadt Hannover. 2015-09-10. Retrieved 2015-09-13.  ^ "Alles im Blick: Trends und Fakten 2015" (PDF). Wirtschaftsförderung Hannover
Hannover
(in German). Landeshauptstadt Hannover, Region Hannover, hannoverimpuls GmbH. Retrieved 2015-09-13. [permanent dead link] ^ "IHK Hannover: Anzahl der Betriebe in den Gemeinden per 01.01.2014" (PDF) (in German). IHK Hannover. Retrieved 2015-09-13. [permanent dead link] ^ "IHK Hannover: Im Handelsregister eingetragene Betriebe per 1.1.2014" (PDF) (in German). IHK Hannover. Retrieved 2015-09-13. [permanent dead link] ^ "hannoverimpuls.com". hannoverimpuls.com. Retrieved 2011-04-07.  ^ "HMT-Hannover.de". HMT-Hannover.de. Retrieved 2011-04-07.  ^ "MH-hannover.de". MH-hannover.de. Retrieved 2011-04-07.  ^ "hs-hannover.de". hs-hannover.de. Retrieved 2013-07-16.  ^ a b c d e f g h " Hanover
Hanover
- Twin Towns" (official website). V.i.S.d.P. Presse- und Öffentlichkeitsarbeit der Landeshauptstadt Hannover. Retrieved 2015-12-07.  ^ " Bristol
Bristol
City - Town twinning". Bristol
Bristol
City Council. Archived from the original on 2011-07-28. Retrieved 2009-07-17.  ^ " Poznań
Poznań
- Miasta partnerskie". 1998–2013 Urząd Miasta Poznania (in Polish). City of Poznań. Archived from the original on 2013-09-23. Retrieved 2013-12-11.  ^ " Poznań
Poznań
Official Website - Twin Towns". Urząd Miasta Poznania. Retrieved 2008-11-29.  ^ "広島市の姉妹・友好都市". City.hiroshima.jp. Archived from the original on 2009-06-07. Retrieved 2009-07-17.  ^ " Leipzig
Leipzig
- International Relations". 2009 Leipzig
Leipzig
City Council, Office for European and International Affairs. Archived from the original on 2009-06-29. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Hanover External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hannover.

Hanover
Hanover
travel guide from Wikivoyage City's own website Official website for tourism, holiday and leisure in Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
and Hanover

Places adjacent to Hanover

Bremen Hamburg

Osnabrück

Hanover

Braunschweig

Detmold, Bielefeld Kassel Hildesheim

v t e

Capitals of states of the Federal Republic of Germany

Capitals of area states

Dresden
Dresden
(Saxony) Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
(North Rhine-Westphalia) Erfurt
Erfurt
(Thuringia) Hanover
Hanover
(Lower Saxony) Kiel
Kiel
(Schleswig-Holstein) Magdeburg
Magdeburg
(Saxony-Anhalt) Mainz
Mainz
(Rhineland-Palatinate) Munich
Munich
(Bavaria) Potsdam
Potsdam
(Brandenburg) Saarbrücken
Saarbrücken
(Saarland) Schwerin
Schwerin
(Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) Stuttgart
Stuttgart
(Baden-Württemberg) Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
(Hesse)

City-states1

Berlin City of Bremen
Bremen
(State of Bremen) Hamburg

Capitals of former states

Freiburg im Breisgau
Freiburg im Breisgau
(South Baden, 1949–1952) Stuttgart
Stuttgart
(Württemberg-Baden, 1949–1952) Tübingen
Tübingen
(Württemberg-Hohenzollern, 1949–1952)

1 Unlike the mono-city states Berlin
Berlin
and Hamburg, the State of Bremen consists of two cities, thus state and capital are not identical.

v t e

Cities in Germany
Germany
by population

1,000,000+

Berlin Cologne Hamburg Munich

500,000+

Bremen Dortmund Dresden Düsseldorf Essen Frankfurt Hanover Leipzig Nuremberg Stuttgart

200,000+

Aachen Augsburg Bielefeld Bochum Bonn Braunschweig Chemnitz Duisburg Erfurt Freiburg im Breisgau Gelsenkirchen Halle (Saale) Karlsruhe Kiel Krefeld Lübeck Magdeburg Mainz Mannheim Münster Mönchengladbach Oberhausen Rostock Wiesbaden Wuppertal

100,000+

Bergisch Gladbach Bottrop Bremerhaven Cottbus Darmstadt Erlangen Fürth Göttingen Hagen Hamm Heidelberg Heilbronn Herne Hildesheim Ingolstadt Jena Kassel Koblenz Leverkusen Ludwigshafen Moers Mülheim
Mülheim
an der Ruhr Neuss Offenbach am Main Oldenburg Osnabrück Paderborn Pforzheim Potsdam Recklinghausen Regensburg Remscheid Reutlingen Saarbrücken Salzgitter Siegen Solingen Trier Ulm Wolfsburg Würzburg

complete list municipalities metropolitan regions cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants

v t e

Towns and municipalities in Hanover
Hanover
Region

Barsinghausen Burgdorf Burgwedel Garbsen Gehrden Hanover Hemmingen Isernhagen Laatzen Langenhagen Lehrte Neustadt am Rübenberge Pattensen Ronnenberg Seelze Sehnde Springe Uetze Wedemark Wennigsen Wunstorf

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 126622508 LCCN: n79093323 ISNI: 0000 0001 2331 5273 GND: 4023349-2 SUDOC: 14872552X BNF:

.