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Dumfries
Dumfries
(/dʌmˈfriːs/ ( listen) dum-FREESS; possibly from Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Phris) is a market town and former royal burgh within the Dumfries and Galloway
Dumfries and Galloway
council area of Scotland, United Kingdom. It is located near the mouth of the River Nith
River Nith
into the Solway Firth. Dumfries
Dumfries
is the traditional county town of the historic county of Dumfriesshire.[3] Dumfries
Dumfries
is nicknamed Queen of the South.[4] People from Dumfries
Dumfries
are known colloquially as Doonhamers.

Contents

1 Toponymy 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Medieval period 2.3 Eighteenth century 2.4 20th century and beyond

3 Notable people 4 Climate 5 Geography 6 Governance

6.1 Politics

7 Economy 8 Culture

8.1 Museums 8.2 Theatre and cinema 8.3 Concert and event venues 8.4 Visual arts 8.5 Festivals

9 Sport 10 Education 11 Healthcare 12 Transport 13 Parks 14 Broadcasting 15 Local journalism 16 Architectural geology 17 Surrounding places of interest 18 Other places subsequently named Dumfries

18.1 Canada 18.2 USA 18.3 Other

19 Twin towns 20 See also 21 References 22 External links

Toponymy[edit] There are at least three theories on the etymology of the name. One is that the name Dumfries
Dumfries
originates from the Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
name Dùn Phris which means "Fort of the Thicket". Another is that it comes from a Brythonic cognate of the alleged Gaelic derivation (c.f. Welsh Din Prys). According to a third theory, the name is a corruption of two Old English
Old English
or Old Norse
Old Norse
words which mean the Friars’ Hill; those who favour this idea allege the formation of a religious house near the head of what is now the Friars’ Vennel.[5] If the name were English or Norse, however, the expected form would have the elements in reversed orientation (compare Clarendon). History[edit] Early history[edit] No positive information has been obtained of the era and circumstances in which the town of Dumfries
Dumfries
was founded.[5] Some writers hold that Dumfries
Dumfries
flourished as a place of distinction during the Roman occupation of North Great Britain. The Selgovae inhabited Nithsdale
Nithsdale
at the time and may have raised some military works of a defensive nature on or near the site of Dumfries; and it is more than probable that a castle of some kind formed the nucleus of the town. This is inferred from the etymology of the name, which, according to one theory, is resolvable into two Gaelic terms signifying a castle or fort in the copse or brushwood. Dumfries
Dumfries
was once within the borders of the Kingdom of Northumbria. The district around Dumfries
Dumfries
was for several centuries ruled over and deemed of much importance by the invading Romans. Many traces of Roman presence in Dumfriesshire
Dumfriesshire
are still to be found; coins, weapons, sepulchral remains, military earthworks, and roads being among the relics left by their lengthened sojourn in this part of Scotland. The apostle Paul claimed rank and privilege as a Roman citizen on account of his birth at Tarsus; the Caledonian tribes in the south of Scotland
Scotland
were invested with the same rights by an edict of Antoninus Pius. The Romanized natives received freedom (the burrows, cairns, and remains of stone temples still to be seen in the district tell of a time when Druidism
Druidism
was the prevailing religion) as well as civilisation from their conquerors. Late in the fourth century, the Romans bade farewell to the country.[5] According to another theory, the name is a corruption of two words which mean the Friars’ Hill; those who favour this idea allege that St. Ninian, by planting a religious house near the head of what is now the Friars’ Vennel, at the close of the fourth century, became the virtual founder of the Burgh; however Ninian, so far as is known, did not originate any monastic establishments anywhere and was simply a missionary. In the list of British towns given by the ancient historian Nennius, the name Caer Peris occurs, which some modern antiquarians suppose to have been transmuted, by a change of dialect, into Dumfries.[5] Twelve of King Arthur's battles were recorded by Nennius in Historia Brittonum. The Battle of Tribruit (the 10th battle), has been suggested as having possibly been near Dumfries
Dumfries
or near the mouth of the river Avon near Bo'ness. After the Roman departure the area around Dumfries
Dumfries
had various forms of visit by Picts, Anglo-Saxons, Scots and Norse culminating in a decisive victory for Gregory, King of Scots
King of Scots
at what is now Lochmaben over the native Britons in 890.[5] Medieval period[edit] When, in 1069, Malcolm Canmore
Malcolm Canmore
and William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
held a conference regarding the claims of Edgar Ætheling
Edgar Ætheling
to the English Crown, they met at Abernithi – a term which in the old British tongue means a port at the mouth of the Nith. It has been argued, the town thus characterised must have been Dumfries; and therefore it must have existed as a port in the Kingdom of Strathclyde, if not in the Roman days. However, against this argument is that the town is situated eight to nine miles (14 km) distant from the sea,[5] although the River Nith
River Nith
is tidal and navigable all the way into the town itself.

Lincluden Collegiate Church, also known as Lincluden Abbey, c.1789

Although at the time 1 mile (1.6 km) upstream and on the opposite bank of the Nith from Dumfries, Lincluden Abbey was founded circa 1160. The abbey ruins are on the site of the bailey of the very early Lincluden Castle, as are those of the later Lincluden Tower. This religious house was used for various purposes, until its abandonment around 1700. Lincluden Abbey and its grounds are now within the Dumfries
Dumfries
urban conurbation boundary. William the Lion
William the Lion
granted the charter to raise Dumfries
Dumfries
to the rank of a royal burgh in 1186. Dumfries
Dumfries
was very much on the frontier during its first 50 years as a burgh and it grew rapidly as a market town and port.[6] Alexander III visited Dumfries
Dumfries
in 1264 to plan an expedition against the Isle of Man, previously Scots but for 180 years subjected by the crown of Norway. Identified with the conquest of Man, Dumfries
Dumfries
shared in the well being of Scotland
Scotland
for the next 22 years until Alexander's accidental death brought an Augustan era in the town's history to an abrupt finish.[5] A royal castle, which no longer exists, was built in the 13th century on the site of the present Castledykes Park. In the latter part of the century William Wallace
William Wallace
chased a fleeing English force southward through the Nith valley. The English fugitives met the gates of Dumfries Castle that remained firmly closed in their presence. With a body of the town's people joining Wallace and his fellow pursuers when they arrived, the fleeing English met their end at Cockpool on the Solway Coast. After resting at Caerlaverock Castle
Caerlaverock Castle
a few miles away from the bloodletting, Wallace again passed through Dumfries
Dumfries
the day after as he returned north to Sanquhar.[citation needed] In the invasion of 1300, Edward I of England
Edward I of England
lodged for a few days in June with the Minorite Friars of the Vennel, before at the head of the then greatest invasion force to attack Scotland
Scotland
he laid siege to Caerlaverock
Caerlaverock
Castle. After Caerlaverock
Caerlaverock
eventually succumbed, Edward passed through Dumfries
Dumfries
again as he crossed the Nith to take his invasion into Galloway. With the Scottish nobility having requested Vatican support for their cause, Edward on his return to Caerlaverock was presented with a missive directed to him by Pope Boniface VIII. Edward held court in Dumfries
Dumfries
at which he grudgingly agreed to an armistice. On 30 October, the truce solicited by Pope Boniface was signed by Edward at Dumfries. Letters from Edward, dated at Dumfries, were sent to his subordinates throughout Scotland, ordering them to give effect to the treaty. The peace was to last till Whitsunday in the following year.[5]

The killing of John Comyn in the Greyfriars church in Dumfries, as seen by Felix Philippoteaux, a 19th-century illustrator.

Before becoming King of Scots, Robert the Bruce
Robert the Bruce
slew his rival the Red Comyn at Greyfriars Kirk in the town on 10 February 1306. His uncertainty about the fatality of his stabbing caused one of his followers, Roger de Kirkpatrick, to utter the famous, "I mak siccar" ("I make sure") and finish the Comyn off. Bruce was subsequently excommunicated as a result, less for the murder than for its location. Regardless, for Bruce the die was cast at the moment in Greyfriars and so began his campaign by force for the independence of Scotland. Swords were drawn by supporters of both sides, the burial ground of the Monastery becoming the theatre of battle. Bruce and his party then attacked Dumfries
Dumfries
Castle. The English garrison surrendered and for the third time in the day Bruce and his supporters were victorious. He was crowned King of Scots
King of Scots
barely seven weeks after. Bruce later triumphed at the Battle of Bannockburn
Battle of Bannockburn
and led Scotland
Scotland
to independence. Once Edward received word of the revolution that had started in Dumfries, he again raised an army and invaded Scotland. Dumfries
Dumfries
was again subjected to the control of Bruce's enemies. Sir Christopher Seton (Bruce's brother in law) had been captured at Loch Doon
Loch Doon
and was hurried to Dumfries
Dumfries
to be tried for treason in general and more specifically for being present at Comyn's killing. Still in 1306 and along with two companions, Seton was condemned and executed by hanging and then beheading at the site of what is now St Mary's Church.

Burns statue and Greyfriars Church currently under development

In 1659 ten women were accused of diverse acts of witchcraft by Dumfries
Dumfries
Kirk Session although the Kirk Session minutes itself records nine witches. The Justiciary Court found them guilty of the several articles of witchcraft and on 13 April between 2 pm and 4 pm they were taken to the Whitesands, strangled at stakes and their bodies burnt to ashes.[7] Eighteenth century[edit] Opposite the fountain in Dumfries
Dumfries
High Street, adjacent to the present Marks & Spencer, was the Commercial and later the County Hotel. Although the latter was demolished in the 1980s, the original facade of the building was retained and incorporated into new retail premises. Room No. 6 of the hotel was known as Bonnie Prince Charlie's Room and appropriately carpeted in the Royal Stewart tartan. The Young Pretender had his headquarters here during a 3-day sojourn in Dumfries towards the end of 1745. £2,000 was demanded by the Prince, together with 1,000 pairs of brogues for his kilted Jacobite rebel army, which was camping in a field not one hundred yards distant. A rumour that the Duke of Cumberland was approaching, made Bonnie Prince Charlie decide to leave with his army, with only £1,000 and 255 pairs of shoes having been handed over.[8] Robert Burns
Robert Burns
moved to Dumfriesshire
Dumfriesshire
in 1788 and Dumfries
Dumfries
itself in 1791, living there until his death on 21 July 1796. Today's Greyfriars Church overlooks the location of a statue of Burns, which was designed by Amelia Paton Hill, sculpted in Carrara, Italy
Italy
in 1882, and was unveiled by future Prime Minister, Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery on 6 April 1882.[9] Today, it features on the 2007 series of £5 notes issued by the Bank of Scotland, alongside the Brig o' Doon.[10] After working with Patrick Miller of Dalswinton, inventor William Symington intended to carry out a trial in order to show than an engine would work on a boat without the boat catching fire. The trial finally took place on Dalswinton Loch near Dumfries
Dumfries
on 14 October 1788. The experiment demonstrated that a steam engine would work on a boat. Symington went on to become the builder of the first practical steamboat. 20th century and beyond[edit] The first official intimation that RAF Dumfries
RAF Dumfries
was to be built was made in late 1938. The site chosen had accommodated light aircraft since about 1914. Work progressed quickly, and on 17 June 1940, the 18 Maintenance Unit was opened at Dumfries. The role of the base during the war also encompassed training. RAF Dumfries
RAF Dumfries
had a moment of danger on 25 March 1943, when a German Dornier Do 217
Dornier Do 217
aircraft shot up the airfield beacon, but crashed shortly afterwards. The pilot, Oberleutnant Martin Piscke was later interred in Troqueer
Troqueer
Cemetery in Dumfries
Dumfries
town, with full military honours. On the night of 3/4 August 1943 an Vickers Wellington
Vickers Wellington
bomber with engine problems diverted to but crashed 1 1⁄2 miles (2.4 km) short of the Dumfries runway.[11] In World War II the bulk of the Norwegian Army
Norwegian Army
during their years in exile in Britain consisted of a brigade in Dumfries.[12] When the army High Command took over, there were 70 officers and about 760 privates in the camp. The camp was established in June 1940 and named Norwegian Reception Camp, consisting of some 500 men and women, mainly foreign-Norwegian who had volunteered for war duty in Norway during the Nazi occupation in early 1940. Through the summer the number was built up to around 1,500 under the command of General
General
Carl Gustav Fleischer. Within a few miles of Dumfries
Dumfries
are the villages of Tinwald, Torthorwald
Torthorwald
and Mouswald
Mouswald
all of which were settled by Vikings. Dumfries
Dumfries
has experienced two Boxing Day
Boxing Day
earthquakes. These were in 1979 (measuring 4.7 ML centred near Longtown)[13] and 2006 (centred in the Dumfries
Dumfries
locality measuring 3.6 ML).[14] There were no serious consequences of either. There was also an earthquake on 16 February 1984[15] and a further earthquake on 7 June 2010.[16] Notable people[edit] For a list of all people from Dumfries
Dumfries
with a article, see Category:People from Dumfries.

Robert Burns
Robert Burns
House in Dumfries

A number of well-known people were educated at Dumfries
Dumfries
Academy, among them Henry Duncan, founder of the world's first commercial savings bank, Sir James Anderson, who captained the SS Great Eastern
SS Great Eastern
on the transatlantic telegraph cable laying voyages in 1865 and 1866,[17] James Matthew Barrie, author of Peter Pan, musician John Law Hume of the Titanic orchestra, Jane Haining, international diplomat Alexander Knox Helm, John Laurie, actor (Private Fraser in Dad's Army), artist Chris J Fergusson (1876–1957), artist Sir Robin Philipson, artist Nan S Fergusson (1910–1984), (singer John Hanson, Alex Graham, cartoonist best known for the Fred Basset
Fred Basset
series and Jock Wishart, who in 1998 set a new world record for circumnavigating the globe in a powered vessel.[18][19] Roger White, CEO of soft drinks group A.G. Barr is a local lad who went to Dumfries
Dumfries
Academy. Following William A. F. Browne's 1838 appointment as Superintendent of the Crichton hospital, his son, James Crichton-Browne, was educated at the Academy. William Charles Wells, predecessor to Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
on the theory of natural selection was another schooled in Dumfries. Geologist
Geologist
Robert Harkness was schooled in Dumfries
Dumfries
and subsequently resided in the town. Sir Frank Williams
Sir Frank Williams
of F1 motor racing fame was educated at St Joseph's College, Dumfries
Dumfries
as was Charles Forte, Baron Forte. St Joseph's was founded by Brother Walfrid, the founder of Celtic F.C. International chart-topping record producer Calvin Harris
Calvin Harris
is from Dumfries. Dumfries
Dumfries
was the hometown of Calvin Harris
Calvin Harris
until he left in 2008. Ray Wilson, lead singer of Stiltskin and later Genesis was born in Dumfries
Dumfries
as were fellow musicians Geoffrey Kelly
Geoffrey Kelly
and Ian Carr. Bill Drummond of KLF
KLF
is from Newton Stewart
Newton Stewart
and Emma's Imagination singer Emma Gillespie is from Dumfries. Opera
Opera
singer Nicky Spence was born in Dumfries
Dumfries
as was Britain's Got Talent
Britain's Got Talent
singer Andrew Johnston. Nigel Sinclair CBE is a Hollywood
Hollywood
film producer. Michael Carter's acting career has seen him appear in a variety or productions ranging from Return of the Jedi
Return of the Jedi
to Rebus. Dumfries
Dumfries
has produced a steady stream of professional footballers and managers. The best known footballers of their eras to come from Dumfries
Dumfries
are probably Dave Halliday,[20] Ian Dickson,[20] Bobby Ancell, Billy Houliston,[20] Jimmy McIntosh,[21] Willie McNaught and Ted McMinn.[20] Halliday, Dickson, Houliston and McMinn played for home town club, Queen of the South during their careers. Dominic Matteo[22][23] was born in Dumfries
Dumfries
but moved to England while still a young boy. Barry Nicholson lost 4–3 to Queens playing for Aberdeen in the 2008 Scottish Cup
Scottish Cup
semi-finals despite scoring[24] against the team he supported as a boy.[23] Ancell, Houliston, McNaught and Nicholson have represented Scotland
Scotland
and were joined in having done so in season 2010/11 by Cammy Bell and Grant Hanley. Matteo gained 6 full caps for Scotland[23] after having represented England at under-21 level. Halliday was overlooked by Scotland
Scotland
in favour of Hughie Gallacher.[20] Gallacher played for Queens but was not from Dumfries. It was as a manager rather than a player that Thomas Mitchell made his name as a multiple FA Cup
FA Cup
winner at Blackburn Rovers[25] before joining Woolwich Arsenal as Arsenal F.C.
Arsenal F.C.
were then named. Dumfries
Dumfries
is also the hometown of three-times 24 Hours of Le Mans winner, Allan McNish,[26] as it was to David Leslie (racing driver).[26] Another racing driver, David Coulthard
David Coulthard
was born in Dumfries
Dumfries
and raised in nearby Twynholm.[26] Scotland
Scotland
rugby union internationalists Duncan Hodge, Nick De Luca, Craig Hamilton and Alex Dunbar were born in Dumfries
Dumfries
as were professional golfers Andrew Coltart[27] and Robert Dinwiddie. Curling
Curling
world champions David Murdoch, Euan Byers and Craig Wilson were all born in Dumfries. Former darts champion Rab Smith is another Doonhamer. BBC
BBC
Broadcaster Kirsty Wark
Kirsty Wark
was born in the town as was fellow broadcaster Stephen Jardine.[28] Neil Oliver
Neil Oliver
(archaeologist, historian, author and broadcaster), grew up in Ayr and Dumfries. Author and earth scientist Dougal Dixon is from Dumfries. Hunter Davies (author, journalist and broadcaster) lived in Dumfries
Dumfries
for four years as a boy.[29] James Hannay as well as being a novelist and journalist spent the last five years of his life as the British consul in Barcelona. John Mayne was born in Dumfries
Dumfries
in 1759 and contributed in the field of poetry. World War I poet William Hamilton was another born in Dumfries. Archibald Gracie, shipping magnate and business tycoon in USA, was from Dumfries. John McFarlane, CEO of Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Limited (ANZ) originates from the town, as does William ("Bill") Nelson (ADFP) who was also with the ANZ (formerly AXA, AMP and Westpac) and also father of the great Alice Nelson, now CEO of Centurion Wealth Advisers. The architect George Corson
George Corson
who worked mainly in Leeds, England, was born in Dumfries
Dumfries
and articled to Walter Newall in the town. Politician David Mundell
David Mundell
was born in Dumfries
Dumfries
as were William Dickson, William Pattison Telford Sr. and Ambrose Blacklock all of whom made their mark politically in Canada. Malcolm H. Wright was also born in Dumfries, father of Sophie B. Wright
Sophie B. Wright
– New Orleans' educator and pioneer for women and children's rights. Suffragette and feminist campaigner Dora Marsden
Dora Marsden
spent the last 25 years of her life being cared for in Dumfries
Dumfries
after her psychological breakdown. Dr Ian Gibson is another to leave his mark on politics. James Edward Tait
James Edward Tait
was a Dumfries-born recipient of the Victoria Cross. William Robertson and Edward Spence are other Victoria Cross recipients. Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, UK Prime Minister from 1812 to 1827, was quartered in Dumfries
Dumfries
in 1796 during his military service. John Richardson, naturalist, explorer and naval surgeon was born in Dumfries
Dumfries
as was John Craig, mathematician, and polymath James Crichton. Benjamin Bell
Benjamin Bell
after being born in Dumfries
Dumfries
went on to become considered the first Scottish scientific surgeon. His great grandson was Joseph Bell
Joseph Bell
who Arthur Conan Doyle
Arthur Conan Doyle
has credited Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes
as being loosely based on from Bell's observant manner. Doyle's father, artist Charles Altamont Doyle, died in Dumfries. Thomas Peter Anderson Stuart left Dumfries
Dumfries
to go on and found the University of Sydney Medical School. John Allan Broun's contribution to science were his discoveries around magnetism and meteorology. James Braid, surgeon and pioneer of hypnotism and hypnotherapy, practised in Dumfries
Dumfries
from 1825 to 1828 in partnership with William Maxwell. Ian Callum
Ian Callum
is eminent in the world of motor engineer. A Church of Scotland
Scotland
minister of Troqueer
Troqueer
in Dumfries
Dumfries
produced eleven children of whom some have made a notable mark. Peter Ewart was an engineer who was influential in developing the technologies of turbines and theories of thermodynamics. His brother Joseph Ewart became British ambassador to Prussia. John, a doctor, became Chief Inspector of East India Company
East India Company
hospitals in India. William, father of William Ewart, was business partner of Sir John Gladstones (sic), father of four times Prime Minister
Prime Minister
William Ewart Gladstone. Gladstone junior was named after Ewart, his godfather. Climate[edit] As with the rest of the British Isles
British Isles
and Scotland, Dumfries experiences a maritime climate with cool summers and mild winters. It is one of the less snowy locations in Scotland
Scotland
owing to its sheltered, low lying position in the South West of the country. From 2 July 1908 the town held the record for the highest temperature reading in Scotland, 32.8 °C (91.0 °F) until being surpassed in Greycrook on 9 August 2003.[30]

Climate data for Dumfries
Dumfries
49m asl, 1961–1990, extremes 1951–1980

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 14.3 (57.7) 13.3 (55.9) 17.8 (64) 19.3 (66.7) 25.2 (77.4) 28.3 (82.9) 32.8 (91) 28.6 (83.5) 25.6 (78.1) 22.8 (73) 15.6 (60.1) 13.9 (57) 32.8 (91)

Average high °C (°F) 6.0 (42.8) 6.2 (43.2) 8.3 (46.9) 11.1 (52) 14.3 (57.7) 17.2 (63) 18.5 (65.3) 18.2 (64.8) 15.7 (60.3) 12.9 (55.2) 8.6 (47.5) 6.8 (44.2) 11.9 (53.4)

Average low °C (°F) 0.7 (33.3) 0.6 (33.1) 1.8 (35.2) 3.3 (37.9) 5.8 (42.4) 8.8 (47.8) 10.5 (50.9) 10.4 (50.7) 8.6 (47.5) 6.3 (43.3) 2.6 (36.7) 1.3 (34.3) 5.0 (41)

Record low °C (°F) −13.9 (7) −11.1 (12) −12.2 (10) −3.9 (25) −2.2 (28) 0.6 (33.1) 2.8 (37) 2.2 (36) −1.1 (30) −3.9 (25) −9 (16) −10.6 (12.9) −13.9 (7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 110 (4.33) 76 (2.99) 81 (3.19) 53 (2.09) 72 (2.83) 63 (2.48) 71 (2.8) 93 (3.66) 104 (4.09) 117 (4.61) 100 (3.94) 107 (4.21) 1,047 (41.22)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 44.7 68.7 98.4 145.0 180.1 176.7 162.2 156.7 110.8 89.8 61.5 37.9 1,333.5

Source #1: Met Office[31]

Source #2: ScotClim[32]

Geography[edit]

Devorgilla
Devorgilla
Bridge with Old Bridge House Museum at the end of the furthest span from the camera

Whitesands suspension footbridge over the Nith

The fountain and midsteeple on Dumfries
Dumfries
High St

Whitesands, from Buccleuch Street

Like the rest of Dumfries
Dumfries
and Galloway, of Scotland's three major geographical areas Dumfries
Dumfries
lies in the Southern Uplands. The river Nith runs through Dumfries
Dumfries
toward the Solway Firth
Solway Firth
in a southwards direction splitting the town into East and West. At low tide, the sea recedes to such an extent on the shallow sloping sands of the Solway that the length of the Nith is extended by 13 km to 113.8 km (70.7 mi). This makes the Nith Scotland's seventh longest river. There are several bridges across the river within the town. In between the Devorgilla
Devorgilla
(also known as 'The Old Bridge') and the suspension bridge is a weir colloquially known as 'The Caul'. In wetter months of the year the Nith can flood the surrounding streets. Dumfries
Dumfries
has numerous suburbs including Summerhill, Summerville, Troqueer, Georgetown, Larchfield, Calside, Lochside, Lincluden, Newbridge Drive, Sandside, Heathhall, Locharbriggs, Noblehill and Marchmount. Maxwelltown
Maxwelltown
to the west of the river Nith, was formerly a Burgh in its own right within The Stewartry of Kirkcudbright
The Stewartry of Kirkcudbright
(also known as Kirkcudbrightshire) until its incorporation into Dumfries
Dumfries
in 1928; Summerhill, Troqueer, Lochside, Lincluden, Sandside are among other suburbs located on the Maxwelltown
Maxwelltown
side of the river. Palmerston Park, home to the town's senior football team Queen of the South, is on Terregles Street, also on the Maxwelltown
Maxwelltown
side of the river. Queensberry Square and High Street are the central focal points of the town and this area hosts many of the historical, social and commercial enterprises and events of Dumfries. During the 1990s, these areas enjoyed various aesthetic recognitions from organisations including Britain in Bloom. Governance[edit] Scottish communities granted Royal Burgh status by the monarch guarded the honour jealously and with vigour. Riding the Marches maintains the tradition of an occasion that was, in its day, of great importance. Dumfries
Dumfries
has been a Royal Burgh since 1186, its charter being granted by King William the Lion
William the Lion
in a move that ensured the loyalty of its citizens to the Monarch. Although far from the centre of power in Scotland, Dumfries
Dumfries
had obvious strategic significance sitting as it does on the edge of Galloway
Galloway
and being the centre of control for the south west of Scotland. With the River Nith
River Nith
on two sides and the Lochar Moss on another, Dumfries
Dumfries
was a town with good natural defences. Consequently, it was never completely walled. A careful eye still had to be kept on the clearly defined boundaries of the burgh, a task that had to be taken each year by the Provost, Baillies, Burgesses and others within the town. Neighbouring landowners might try to encroach on the town boundaries, or the Marches as they were known, moving them back 100 yards or so to their own benefit. It had to be made clear to anyone thinking of or trying to encroach that they dare not do so. In return for the Royal status of the town and the favour of the King, the Provost and his council, along with other worthies of the town had to be diligent in ensuring the boundaries were strictly observed. Although steeped in history, Scotland's burghs remained the foundation of the country's system of local government for centuries. Burgh status conferred on its citizens the right to elect their own town councils, run their own affairs and raise their own local taxes or rates. In 1974 the burghs became part of larger districts and regions. Those boundaries lost the significance they were granted by Royal statute. Ancient titles like Provost and Bailie were discarded or retained only for ceremonial purposes. Robes and chains often found their way into museums as a reminder of the past. Dumfries
Dumfries
remains a centre of local government for a much bigger area than just the town itself. But its people, the Doonhamers still retain a pride in their town and distinctive identity. This is never more so than during the week-long Guid Nychburris Festival and its highlight the Riding of the Marches which takes place on the third Saturday in June each year. Politics[edit] Dumfries
Dumfries
is located in the council area of Dumfries
Dumfries
and Galloway. It is the seat of the local council, whose headquarters are located on the edge of the town centre. Until 1995 Dumfries
Dumfries
was also home to the council for the local district of Nithsdale. Dumfries
Dumfries
also lends its name to the lieutenancy area of Dumfries, which is similar in boundaries to the former Dumfriesshire
Dumfriesshire
county. Dumfries
Dumfries
lies in the UK Parliament constituency of Dumfries
Dumfries
and Galloway
Galloway
which is represented by Alister Jack
Alister Jack
of the Scottish Conservative Party. For Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
elections, Dumfries
Dumfries
is in the South Scotland
Scotland
electoral region and split between two constituencies. The western wards of Abbey and North West Dumfries
Dumfries
are in the constituency of Galloway
Galloway
and West Dumfries, while the eastern wards of Nith and Lochar are in the constituency of Dumfriesshire. The respective MSPs are Finlay Carson and Oliver Mundell, both of the Conservative Party. On the Dumfries and Galloway
Dumfries and Galloway
council, Dumfries
Dumfries
is covered by four 4-seat wards: Abbey, Lochar, Nith and North West Dumfries. North West Dumfries
Dumfries
is the only ward that solely covers areas within the town itself, with the others incorporating outlying areas. In the 2017 council election, these wards elected 6 Labour, 5 Conservative and 4 SNP councillors. Economy[edit] Dumfries
Dumfries
has a long history as a county town, and as the market town of a surrounding rural hinterland. Dumfries
Dumfries
is a relatively prosperous community but the town centre has been exposed to the centrifugal forces that have seen retail, business, educational, residential and other uses gravitate towards the town's urban fringe.[33] This was started in the 1980s with the building of the Dumfries
Dumfries
bypass. The immediate effect of this was as intended the diversion of transiting traffic away from the town centre. This brought with it an accompanying reduction in economic input to the town centre. The second effect of this has been more pronounced. Sites close to the bypass have attracted development to utilise the bypass as a high speed urban highway without the bottlenecks of the town centre and without the constraining limited town centre parking. In a bid to re-stimulate development in Dumfries
Dumfries
town centre, both economically and in a social context, several strategies have been proposed by the controlling authorities.[34] Culture[edit] Dumfries
Dumfries
got its nickname 'Queen of the South' from David Dunbar, a local poet,[35] who in 1857 stood in the general election. In one of his addresses he called Dumfries
Dumfries
"Queen of the South" and this became synonymous with the town.[24][36] The term doonhamer comes from the way that natives of Dumfries
Dumfries
over the years have referred to the area when working away from home, specifically 19th-century railway workers from Dumfries
Dumfries
who worked in Glasgow. The town is often referred to as doon hame (down home). The term doonhamer followed, to describe those that originate from Dumfries.[37] The Doonhamers is also the nickname of Queen of the South who represent Dumfries
Dumfries
and the surrounding area in the Scottish Football League.[24] The crest of Dumfries
Dumfries
contains the words, "A Lore Burne". In the history of Dumfries
Dumfries
close to the town was the marsh through which ran the Loreburn whose name became the rallying cry of the town in times of attack – A Lore Burne (meaning 'to the muddy stream').[24][38] in 2017 Dumfries
Dumfries
was ranked the happiest place in Scotland
Scotland
by Rightmove[39] Museums[edit]

Dumfries Museum
Dumfries Museum
and camera obscura

Located on top of a small hill, Dumfries Museum
Dumfries Museum
is centred on the 18th-century windmill which stands above the town. Included are fossil footprints left by prehistoric reptiles, the wildlife of the Solway marshes, tools and weapons of the earliest peoples of the region and stone carvings of Scotland's first Christians. On the top floor of the museum is a camera obscura.[38] Based in the control tower near Tinwald Downs, the aviation museum has an extensive indoor display of memorabilia which strives to preserve aviation heritage, much of which has come via various recovery activities. During the second world war, aerial navigation was taught at Dumfries
Dumfries
also at Wigtown
Wigtown
and nearby Annan was a fighter training unit. RAF Dumfries
RAF Dumfries
doubled as an important maintenance unit and aircraft storage unit. The museum is run by the Dumfries
Dumfries
and Galloway Aviation
Aviation
Group and is the only private aviation museum in Scotland.[40] The restored control tower of the former World War II airfield is now a listed building. The museum is run by volunteers and houses a large and ever expanding aircraft collection, aero engines and a display of artefacts and personal histories relating to aviation, past and present. It is also home to the Loch Doon
Loch Doon
Spitfire. Both civil aviation and military aviation are represented.[11] Theatre and cinema[edit]

The Theatre Royal in Dumfries. In the background can be seen the spire of the old St Andrew's Cathedral: the rest of the building burned down in 1961[41] and was replaced with a new church on the same site.

The Theatre Royal, Dumfries
Theatre Royal, Dumfries
was built in 1792 and is the oldest working theatre in Scotland.[42] The theatre is owned by the Guild of Players who bought it in 1959, thereby saving it from demolition, and is run on a voluntary basis by the members of the Guild of Players. It is funded entirely by Guild membership subscriptions, and by box office receipts. It does not currently receive any grant aid towards running costs. In recent years the theatre has been re-roofed and the outside refurbished. It is the venue for the Guild of Players' own productions and for performances from visiting companies. These include: Scottish Opera, TAG, the Borderline and 7:84. There are two cinemas in Dumfries. The Odeon typically shows mainstream films. The Robert Burns
Robert Burns
Centre is the art house cinema in Dumfries.[43] Concert and event venues[edit]

Construction of DG One centre in 2007

The Loreburn Hall
Loreburn Hall
(sometimes known colloquially as The Drill Hall)[44] has hosted concerts by performers such as Black Sabbath,[45] Big Country,[46] The Proclaimers
The Proclaimers
and Scottish Opera.[44] The hall has hosted sporting events such as wrestling.[47] The new DG One sport, fitness and entertainment centre became the principal indoor event venue in Dumfries
Dumfries
in 2007,[48] but as of October 2014 has been closed since major defects were discovered in the building. Repairs are expected to take a long time: meanwhile, a temporary swimming pool has been erected in the grounds of the Ice Bowl, and gym facilities installed in Loreburn Hall.[49] The Theatre Royal has also reopened following renovation work. Visual arts[edit] With a collection of over 400 Scottish paintings, Gracefield Arts Centre hosts a changing programme of exhibitions featuring regional, national and international artists and craft-makers.[50] Dumfries
Dumfries
Art Trail brings together artists, makers, galleries and craft shops with venues accessible all year round.[51] Festivals[edit] There are a number of festivals which take place throughout the year, mostly based on traditional values. Guid Nychburris (Middle Scots, meaning Good Neighbours) is the main festival of the year, a ceremony which is largely based on the theme of a positive community spirit. The ceremony on Guid Nychburris Day, follows a route and sequence of events laid down in the mists of time. Formal proceedings start at 7.30 am with the gathering of up to 250 horses waiting for the courier to arrive and announce that the Pursuivant is on his way, and at 8.00 am leave the Midsteeple and ride out to meet the Pursuivant. They then proceed to Ride the Marches and Stob and Nog (mark the boundary with posts and flags) before returning to the Midsteeple at 12.15 pm to meet the Provost and then the Charter is proclaimed to the towns people of Dumfries. This is then followed by the crowning of the Queen of the South.[52] Since 2013, Dumfries
Dumfries
has seen the annual Nithraid, a small boat race up the Nith from Carsethorn, celebrating the town's historical relationship with the river. The region is also home to a number of thriving music festivals such as the Wickerman Festival (in Dundrennan), Eden Festival (at St Ann's near Moffat), the Moniaive
Moniaive
Folk Festival, Thornhill Music Festival and Electric Fields (at Drumlanrig Castle). Sport[edit]

2008 Scottish Cup
Scottish Cup
semi final result on the scoreboard at Hampden Park

Queen of the South represent Dumfries
Dumfries
and the surrounding area in the second level of the country's professional football system, the Scottish Championship. Palmerston Park
Palmerston Park
on Terregles Street is the home ground of the team. This is on the Maxwelltown
Maxwelltown
side of the River Nith. They reached the 2008 Scottish Cup
Scottish Cup
Final, losing 3–2 to Rangers.[24] Dumfries
Dumfries
Saints Rugby Club is one of Scotland's oldest rugby clubs having been admitted to the Scottish Rugby Union
Scottish Rugby Union
in 1876–77 as " Dumfries
Dumfries
Rangers".[53] Dumfries
Dumfries
is also home to a number of golf courses:

The Crichton Golf Club The Dumfries
Dumfries
and County Golf Club The Dumfries and Galloway
Dumfries and Galloway
Golf Club The Dumfriesshire
Dumfriesshire
Golf Centre and Pines Golf Club

Of those is listed only the Dumfries and Galloway
Dumfries and Galloway
Golf Club is on the Maxwelltown
Maxwelltown
side of the River Nith. This course is also bisected into 2 halves of 9 holes each by the town's Castle Douglas
Castle Douglas
Road. The club house and holes 1 to 7 and 17 and 18 are on the side nearest to Summerhill, Dumfries. Holes 8 to 16 are on the side nearest to Janefield. The opening stage of the 2011 Tour of Britain
2011 Tour of Britain
started in Peebles
Peebles
and finished 105.8 miles (170.3 km) later in Dumfries. The stage was won by sprint specialist and reigning Tour de France green jersey champion, Mark Cavendish, with his teammate lead out man, Mark Renshaw finishing second. Cavendish had been scheduled to be racing in the 2011 Vuelta a España. However Cavendish was one a number of riders to withdraw having suffered in the searing Spanish heat. This allowed Cavendish to be a late addition to the Tour of Britain line up in his preparation for what was to be a successful bid two weeks later in the 2011 UCI Road World Championships – Men's road race. Cavendish in a smiling post race TV interview in Dumfries
Dumfries
described the wet and windy race conditions through the Southern Scottish stage as 'horrible'.[54] DG One complex includes a national event-sized competition swimming pool. The David Keswick Athletic Centre is the principal facility in Dumfries
Dumfries
for athletics.[55] Dumfries
Dumfries
is home to Nithsdale
Nithsdale
Amateur Rowing Club.[56][57] The rowers share their clubhouse with Dumfries
Dumfries
Sub-Aqua Club.[58] The town is also home to Solway Sharks ice hockey team. The team are current Northern Premier League winners. The team's home rink is Dumfries
Dumfries
Ice Bowl. Dumfries
Dumfries
Ice bowl is also recognised as Scotland's only centre of ice hockey excellence, and trials for the Scottish Jr national team are carried out at this venu. Dumfries
Dumfries
Ice Bowl is also home to two synchronised skating teams, Solway Stars and Solway Eclipse. In addition, Dumfries
Dumfries
Ice Bowl is also home to several curling teams, competitions and leagues. Junior curling teams from Dumfries, consisting of curlers under the age of 21, regularly compete in the Dutch Junior Open based in Zoetermeer, the Netherlands. In 2007, 2008 and 2009 a Dumfries-based team have been the winners of the competition's Hogline Trophy. Dumfries
Dumfries
hosts three outdoor bowls clubs:[59]

Dumfries
Dumfries
Bowling Club Marchmount Bowling Club Maxwelltown
Maxwelltown
Bowling Club

Dumfries
Dumfries
hosts cycling organisations and cycling holidays.[60][61][62] Education[edit] Dumfries
Dumfries
has several primary schools, approximately one per key district, and four main secondary schools. All of these institutions are governed by Dumfries and Galloway
Dumfries and Galloway
council. The secondary schools are:

Dumfries
Dumfries
Academy Dumfries
Dumfries
High School Maxwelltown
Maxwelltown
High School St Joseph's College

Dumfries Academy
Dumfries Academy
was a grammar school until adopting a comprehensive format in 1983. In 2013 plans for a 'super school' were announced. These plans were later dismissed in favour of renovating existing schools.[63] In 1999 Scotland's first multi-institutional university campus was established in Dumfries, in the 85-acre (340,000 m2) Crichton estate. In order of campus presence it is host to the University of the West of Scotland
Scotland
(UWS) (formerly known as University of Paisley & Bell College), Dumfries
Dumfries
& Galloway
Galloway
College, and the University of Glasgow. Still in its infancy, the campus offers a range of degree courses in initial teacher education, business, computing, environmental studies, tourism, heritage, social work, health, social studies, nursing, liberal arts and humanities.[64][65] Despite the short-lived threat of closure to the University of Glasgow
University of Glasgow
part of the campus in 2006, a campaign by students, academics and local supporters ensured that the University of Glasgow
University of Glasgow
remained open in Dumfries. The University of Glasgow, since maintaining its provision in Dumfries, has launched a new undergraduate programme in primary teaching.[66] Healthcare[edit] Dumfries and Galloway
Dumfries and Galloway
Royal Infirmary is the principal secondary care referral centre for Dumfries and Galloway
Dumfries and Galloway
region. It now includes a maternity wing which replaced the old Cresswell Maternity Hospital. The Crichton Royal Hospital is part of the Royal Infirmary complex and provides a regional psychiatric, psychological and specialist addictions service within Dumfries
Dumfries
and Galloway. In 1838 William A. F. Browne accepted the position of Physician Superintendent at the newly created Crichton. It is at the Crichton where Ursula Fleming gained much of her education and experience. Transport[edit]

Maxwelltown
Maxwelltown
Railway Path, Dumfries
Dumfries
(looking towards Hardthorn Road bridge)

Dumfries
Dumfries
Railway Station

Dumfries
Dumfries
is linked to the Northbound A74(M) motorway at Beattock
Beattock
via the A701 road. The A75 road
A75 road
eastbound links Dumfries
Dumfries
to the southbound A74(M), leading to the M6 motorway
M6 motorway
and Carlisle. The A75 road
A75 road
west links Dumfries
Dumfries
with the ferry port of Stranraer. The A76 road
A76 road
connects to Kilmarnock
Kilmarnock
in Ayrshire. Dumfries railway station
Dumfries railway station
lies on the Glasgow South Western Line. It was awarded Best Station Awards by British Rail
British Rail
in 1986 and 1987. The train service is now operated by private company Abellio
Abellio
ScotRail ( Abellio
Abellio
is a subsidiary of Nederlandse Spoorwegen) which provides services to Glasgow Central and Carlisle, and less frequent services direct to Newcastle. The nearest station to Dumfries
Dumfries
on the West Coast Main Line is 14 miles (23 km) east along the A709 road at Lockerbie, and the nearest West Coast Main Line
West Coast Main Line
station linking directly to Dumfries
Dumfries
by rail is Carlisle. Maxwelltown
Maxwelltown
station in the Summerhill district of the town was closed along with the direct line to Stranraer
Stranraer
via Castle Douglas
Castle Douglas
as part of the Beeching Axe
Beeching Axe
in 1965. Part of the disused railway track in Dumfries
Dumfries
was later converted to a cycle path. Parks[edit] The most significant of the parks in Dumfries
Dumfries
are all within walking distance of the town centre:-

Dock Park – located on the East bank of the Nith just to the South of St Michael's Bridge Castledykes Park – as the name suggests on the site of a former castle Mill Green (also known as deer park, although the deer formerly accommodated there have since been relocated) – on the West bank of the Nith opposite Whitesands

Broadcasting[edit] Dumfries
Dumfries
is home to one of the 11 BBC
BBC
studios in Scotland. West Sound FM, part of Bauer Media Group, broadcasts from Dumfries. Christianity-based community radio station Alive Radio 107.3 broadcasts on FM for Dumfries
Dumfries
and online.[67] Local journalism[edit] The two local newspapers that specifically cover Dumfries
Dumfries
and the surrounding are:-

Dumfries and Galloway
Dumfries and Galloway
Standard[68] (established 1843) publishing on Tuesdays and Fridays Dumfries
Dumfries
Courier[69] publishing on Fridays

Architectural geology[edit]

Sandstone buildings in Buccleuch Street

There are many buildings in Dumfries
Dumfries
made from sandstone of the local Locharbriggs
Locharbriggs
quarry. The quarry is situated off the A701 on the north of Dumfries
Dumfries
at Locharbriggs
Locharbriggs
close to the nearby aggregates quarry. This dimension stone quarry is a large quarry. Quarry working at Locharbriggs
Locharbriggs
dates from the 18th century, and the quarry has been worked continuously since 1890.[70] There are good reserves of stone that can be extracted at several locations. On average the stone is available at depths of 1m on bed although some larger blocks are obtainable. The average length of a block is 1.5m but 2.6m blocks can be obtained. Locharbriggs
Locharbriggs
is from the New Red Sandstone of the Permian age. It is a medium-grained stone ranging in colour from dull red to pink. It is the sandstone used in the Queen Alexandra Bridge
Queen Alexandra Bridge
in Sunderland, the Manchester International Convention Centre
Manchester International Convention Centre
and the base of the Statue of Liberty.[70] Surrounding places of interest[edit] As the largest settlement in Southern Scotland, Dumfries
Dumfries
is recognised as a centre for visiting surrounding points of interest.[71] The following are all within easy reach:

Ae village and forest Caerlaverock
Caerlaverock
Castle[40] Criffel
Criffel
– a hill on the Solway Coast
Solway Coast
popular with hill walkers for its views of the Southern Scottish coastline and across the Solway Firth to the Lake District
Lake District
of Cumbria Drumlanrig Castle[40] Ecclefechan
Ecclefechan
– Thomas Carlyle's birthplace "The Arched House" is a tourist attraction and has been maintained by the National Trust for Scotland
Scotland
since 1936.[40] Ecclefechan
Ecclefechan
lies at the foot of the large Roman Fort, Burnswark, which dominates the horizon with its flat top. Gretna Green
Gretna Green
and the Old Blacksmith's Shop famous for runaway marriages.[40] John Paul Jones Cottage Museum – The traditional Scottish cottage in which John Paul Jones
John Paul Jones
was born in 1747.[72] Kagyu Samye Ling Monastery and Tibetan Centre
Kagyu Samye Ling Monastery and Tibetan Centre
was the first Tibetan Buddhist Centre to have been established in the West. It is a centre within the Karma Kagyu
Karma Kagyu
tradition of Tibetan Buddhism. It is in the village of Eskdalemuir
Eskdalemuir
in the Scottish Southern Uplands[73] Lochmaben
Lochmaben
with its lochs popular with boaters and also its history with Robert the Bruce Mabie Forest – popular destinations for outdoor recreation such as mountain bike and walking Moffat
Moffat
and the views nearby of The Devil's Beef Tub, The Grey Mare's Tail waterfall and the A708 from Moffat
Moffat
past the Grey Mare's Tail to St Mary's Loch. Moniaive
Moniaive
conservation village New Abbey
New Abbey
Corn Mill Museum and Sweetheart Abbey[40] Solway Coast Threave Castle
Threave Castle
in Castle Douglas, home to the Douglas Clan of James Douglas who fought with Robert the Bruce[40] Twynholm
Twynholm
and the David Coulthard
David Coulthard
Museum.[40] Wanlockhead
Wanlockhead
– Britain's highest village registered at 1,531 feet (467 m) above sea level and the Lead Mining Museum[40]

Other places subsequently named Dumfries[edit] Canada[edit]

Dumfries, New Brunswick
Dumfries, New Brunswick
in Canada South Dumfries
Dumfries
Township, Ontario, Canada North Dumfries, Ontario, Canada

USA[edit]

Dumfries, Virginia
Dumfries, Virginia
in the US was formally established on land at the head of the harbour of Quantico Creek, provided by John Graham. He named the town after his birthplace, Dumfries
Dumfries
in Scotland. Dumfries, Minnesota, USA Dumfries, Iowa,[74] USA

Other[edit]

Dumfries, Cat Island, Bahamas[75] Dumfries, on the Grenadine island of Carriacou, Grenada[76]

Twin towns[edit] – Annapolis, Maryland,[77] is home to the United States
United States
Naval Academy where John Paul Jones
John Paul Jones
lies in the crypt beneath the chapel. – Gifhorn,[78] Germany – Cantù, Italy. Dumfries and Galloway
Dumfries and Galloway
Council has not been involved in any official twinning link between the two towns for some time. The bond has been maintained through the Friends of Cantu and the Nithsdale
Nithsdale
Twinning Association.[79] See also[edit]

Abecediary—An example from St Mary Grey Friars church List of places in Dumfries
Dumfries
and Galloway

References[edit]

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'super school' project that never took off" – via www.bbc.co.uk.  ^ ceu@scotland.gsi.gov.uk, Scottish Government, St. Andrew's House, Regent Road, Edinburgh EH1 3DG Tel:0131 556 8400 (20 August 2007). "Support for Crichton and South of Scotland".  ^ "Crichton University Campus Dumfries
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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dumfries.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Dumfries.

Dumfries and Galloway
Dumfries and Galloway
Council Website www.loreburne.co.uk A Guide to .....Dumfries Dumfries and Galloway
Dumfries and Galloway
Museums National Library of Scotland: Scottish Screen Archive—selection of archive films about Dumfries Dumfries
Dumfries
Civil Parish Historical Tax Rolls in Dumfriesshire Video footage and history of Dumfries
Dumfries
railway station Video and history of the Burns Mausoleum, Dumfries.

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Civil parishes in Dumfries
Dumfries
and Galloway

Dumfriesshire

Annan Applegarth Caerlaverock Canonbie Closeburn Cummertrees Dalton Dornock Dryfesdale Dumfries Dunscore Durisdeer Eskdalemuir Ewes Glencairn Gretna Half Morton Hoddom Holywood Hutton and Corrie Johnstone Keir Kirkconnel Kirkmahoe Kirkmichael Kirkpatrick-Fleming Kirkpatrick-Juxta Langholm Lochmaben Middlebie Moffat Morton Mouswald Penpont Ruthwell Sanquhar St Mungo Tinwald Torthorwald Tundergarth Tynron Wamphray Westerkirk

Kirkcudbrightshire

Anwoth Balmaclellan Balmaghie Borgue Buittle Carsphairn Colvend and Southwick Crossmichael Dalry Girthon Kells Kelton Kirkbean Kirkcudbright Kirkgunzeon Kirkmabreck Kirkpatrick Durham Kirkpatrick Irongray Lochrutton Minnigaff New Abbey Parton Rerrick Terregles Tongland Troqueer Twynholm Urr

Wigtownshire

Inch Glasserton Kirkcolm Kirkcowan Kirkinner Kirkmaiden Leswalt Mochrum New Luce Old Luce Penninghame Portpatrick Sorbie Stoneykirk Stranraer Whithorn Wigtown

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 156016247 GN

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