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Chengdu
Chengdu
([ʈʂʰə̌ŋ.tú] ( listen)), formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of China's Sichuan
Sichuan
province. It is one of the three most populous cities in Western China
China
(the other two are Chongqing
Chongqing
and Xi'an). As of 2014[update], the administrative area houses 14,427,500 inhabitants, with an urban population of 10,152,632. At the time of the 2010 census, Chengdu
Chengdu
was the 5th-most populous agglomeration in China, with 10,484,996 inhabitants in the built-up area including Xinjin County and Deyang's Guanghan
Guanghan
City. The surrounding Chengdu Plain is also known as the "Country of Heaven" (Chinese: 天府之国; pinyin: Tiānfǔ zhi Guó) and the "Land of Abundance". Its prehistoric settlers included the Sanxingdui
Sanxingdui
culture. Founded by the state of Shu prior to its incorporation into China, Chengdu
Chengdu
is unique as a major Chinese settlement that has maintained its name (nearly) unchanged throughout the imperial, republican, and communist eras. It was the capital of Liu Bei's Shu during the Three Kingdoms Era, as well as several other local kingdoms during the Middle Ages.[citation needed]After the fall of Nanjing
Nanjing
to the Japanese in 1937, Chengdu
Chengdu
briefly served as the capital of China. It is now one of the most important economic, financial, commercial, cultural, transportation, and communication centers in Western China. Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport that hub of Air China
China
and Sichuan Airlines is one of the 30 busiest airports in the world, and Chengdu Railway Station is one of the six biggest in China. Chengdu
Chengdu
also hosts many international companies and more than 12 consulates. More than 260 Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies have established branches in Chengdu.

Contents

1 Name 2 Logo 3 History

3.1 Early history 3.2 Imperial era 3.3 Modern era

4 Geography

4.1 Climate 4.2 Administrative divisions

5 Cityscape

5.1 Ancient fortress wall

6 Demography 7 Culture

7.1 Literature 7.2 Fine art 7.3 Education 7.4 Theater 7.5 Language 7.6 Culinary art and tea culture 7.7 Teahouse 7.8 Hot Pot 7.9 Mahjong 7.10 Rural tourism: Nong Jia Le 7.11 Customs and festivals

7.11.1 Grand Temple Fair 7.11.2 Lantern Festival 7.11.3 Dujiangyan Water Releasing Festival 7.11.4 Huanglongxi
Huanglongxi
Fire Dragon Festival 7.11.5 South China
China
Snow and Ice Festival

8 Home of the giant panda 9 Main sights

9.1 World natural and cultural heritage sites

9.1.1 Mount Qingcheng 9.1.2 Dujiangyan Irrigation System 9.1.3 Sichuan
Sichuan
Giant Panda
Giant Panda
Sanctuaries

9.2 Culture of poetry and the Three Kingdoms

9.2.1 Wuhou Shrine 9.2.2 Du Fu
Du Fu
thatched cottage

9.3 Ancient Shu civilization

9.3.1 Jinsha Ruins 9.3.2 Golden Sun Bird 9.3.3 Sanxingdui
Sanxingdui
Museum

9.4 Buddhist and Taoist cultures

9.4.1 Chengdu
Chengdu
Daci Monastery 9.4.2 Wenshu Monastery 9.4.3 Baoguang Monastery 9.4.4 Qingyang
Qingyang
Taoist Temple

9.5 Featured streets and historic towns

9.5.1 The Wide and Narrow Lanes 9.5.2 Jinli 9.5.3 Huanglongxi
Huanglongxi
Historic Town 9.5.4 Chunxi Road 9.5.5 Anren Historic Town 9.5.6 Luodai Historic Town 9.5.7 Du Fu
Du Fu
Thatched Cottage

10 Economy

10.1 Electronics and IT industries 10.2 Financial industry 10.3 Modern logistic industry 10.4 Modern business and trade 10.5 Convention and exhibition industry 10.6 Software and service outsourcing industry 10.7 New energy industry 10.8 Electronics and information industry 10.9 Automobile industry 10.10 Modern agriculture 10.11 Defense industry 10.12 Investment 10.13 Industrial zones 10.14 Real estate

11 Transport

11.1 Air 11.2 Railway 11.3 Metropolitan expressways 11.4 Coach 11.5 Highways 11.6 Chengdu
Chengdu
Metro 11.7 Bus 11.8 River transport

12 Education

12.1 Colleges and universities 12.2 International schools 12.3 Major secondary schools

13 Consulates 14 Sports

14.1 Tennis 14.2 Football/ Chengdu Blades F.C.
Chengdu Blades F.C.
(association football) 14.3 Major sports venues

15 Sister or twin cities 16 See also 17 Notes 18 References

18.1 Citations 18.2 Bibliography

19 Further reading 20 External links

Name[edit] The name Chengdu
Chengdu
is attested in sources dating back to shortly after its founding. It has been called the only major city in China
China
to have remained at an unchanged location with an unchanged name throughout the imperial, republican, and communist eras,[4] although it also had other names, for example it was briefly known as Xijing in the 17th century.[5] The Song-era geographical work A Universal Geography of the Taiping Era states that the ninth king of Shu's Kaiming dynasty named his new capital Chengdu
Chengdu
after a statement by King Tai of Zhou that a settlement needed "one year to become a town, two to become a city, and three to become a metropolis".[a][6] (The character for cheng 成 may mean "turned into" while du 都 can mean either a metropolis or a capital.) There are, however, several versions of why the capital had been moved from nearby Pi County
Pi County
and modern scholars sometimes theorize that the name was a transcription of an earlier name into Chinese characters.[citation needed] The present spelling is based on pinyin romanization; its Postal Map romanization was "Chengtu". Its former status as the seat of the Chengdu
Chengdu
Prefecture prompted Marco Polo's spellings Sindafu, Sin-din-fu, &c.[7][8] and the Protestant missionaries' romanization Ching-too Foo.[9] Although the official name of the city has remained (almost) constant, the surrounding area has sometimes taken other names, including Yizhou (益州). Chinese nicknames for the city include the Turtle City, variously derived from the old city walls' shape on a map or a legend that Zhang Yi had planned their course by following a turtle's tracks; the Brocade
Brocade
City, a contraction of the earlier "City of the Brocade Official", after an imperial office established under the Western Han; the Hibiscus
Hibiscus
City, from the hibiscus which King Mengchang of the Later Shu ordered planted upon the city wall during the 10th century.[1][10] Logo[edit] The city logo adopted in 2011 is inspired by the Golden Sun Bird excavated from the Jinsha Ruins.[11] History[edit]

The archaeological site of Jinsha is a major discovery in Chengdu
Chengdu
in 2001.

Early history[edit] Archaeological discoveries at the Sanxingdui
Sanxingdui
and Jinsha sites have established that the area surrounding Chengdu
Chengdu
was inhabited over four thousand years ago. At the time of China's Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties, it represented a separate ancient bronze-wielding culture which—following its partial sinification—became known to the Chinese as Shu.[12][13] In the early 4th century BC, the ninth king of Shu's Kaiming dynasty relocated from nearby Pi County, giving his new capital the name Chengdu. Shu was conquered by Qin in 316 BC and the settlement refounded by the Qin general Zhang Yi. (A Chinese legend explains the town's nickname "Turtle City" by claiming Zhang planned the course of his city walls by following a turtle's tracks.) Although he had argued against the invasion, the settlement thrived and the additional resources from Sichuan
Sichuan
helped enable the First Emperor of Qin to unify the Warring States
Warring States
which had succeeded the Zhou. Imperial era[edit]

The Dujiangyan Irrigation System
Dujiangyan Irrigation System
built in 256 BC still functions today.

Tomb doors from Pi County
Pi County
showing men in hanfu, one with a shield and the other a broom (1st or 2nd century).

Under the Han, the brocade produced at Chengdu
Chengdu
became fashionable and was exported throughout China. A " Brocade
Brocade
Official" (錦官, jinguan) was established to oversee its quality and supply. After the fall of the Eastern Han, Liu Bei
Liu Bei
ruled Shu, the southwestern of the Three Kingdoms, from Chengdu. His minister Zhuge Liang
Zhuge Liang
called the area the "Land of Abundance". Under the Tang, Chengdu
Chengdu
was considered the second most prosperous city in China
China
after Yangzhou.[b] Both Li Bai
Li Bai
and Du Fu lived in the city. Li Bai
Li Bai
praised it as "lying above the empyrean". The city's present Caotang ("Grass Hall") was constructed in 1078 in honor of an earlier, more humble structure of that name erected by Du Fu in 760, the second year of his 4-year stay. The Taoist Qingyang Gong ("Green Goat Temple") was built in the 9th century. Chengdu
Chengdu
was the capital of Wang Jian's Former Shu
Former Shu
from 907 to 925, when it was conquered by the Later Han. The Later Shu
Later Shu
was founded by Meng Zhixiang in 934, with its capital at Chengdu. Its King Mengchang beautified the city by ordering hibiscus to be planted upon the city walls. The Song conquered the city in 965 and used it for the introduction of the first widely used paper money in the world. Su Shi
Su Shi
praised it as "the southwestern metropolis". At the fall of the Song, a rebel leader set up a short-lived kingdom known as Great Shu (大蜀, Dàshǔ). The Mongols sacked Chengdu
Chengdu
in 1279 with a general slaughter that Horner estimated at over a million.[14] During their Yuan dynasty, Marco Polo visited Chengdu[7][15] and wrote about the Anshun Bridge
Anshun Bridge
or an earlier version of it.[c] At the fall of the Ming, the rebel Zhang Xianzhong
Zhang Xianzhong
established his Great Western Kingdom (大西) with its capital at Chengdu; it lasted only from 1643 to 1646.[5] Zhang was said to have massacred large number of people in Chengdu
Chengdu
and throughout Sichuan. In any case, Chengdu
Chengdu
was said to have become a virtual ghost town frequented by tigers[16] and the depopulation of Sichuan
Sichuan
necessitated the resettlement of millions of people from other provinces during the Qing dynasty. Following the Columbian Exchange, the Chengdu
Chengdu
Plain became one of China's principal sources of tobacco. Pi County
Pi County
was considered to have the highest quality in Sichuan, which was the center of the country's cigar and cigarette production, the rest of the country long continuing to consume snuff instead.[9] Modern era[edit]

Huangchengba in 1911

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In 1911, Chengdu's branch of the Railway Protection Movement
Railway Protection Movement
helped trigger the Wuchang Uprising, which led to the Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
that overthrew the Qing dynasty.[17][18] During World War II, the capital city of China
China
was forced to move inland from Nanjing
Nanjing
to Wuhan
Wuhan
in 1937 and from Wuhan
Wuhan
to Chengdu, then from Chengdu
Chengdu
to Chongqing
Chongqing
in 1938, as the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(KMT) government under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
ultimately retreated to Sichuan
Sichuan
to escape from the invading Japanese forces. They brought with them into Sichuan
Sichuan
business people, workers and academics, who founded many of the industries and cultural institutions which continue to make Chengdu
Chengdu
an important cultural and commercial production center. Chengdu
Chengdu
had become a military center for the KMT to regroup in the War of Resistance, and while out of reach of the Imperial Japanese ground forces and escort fighter planes, the then highly advanced twin-engine long-ranged G3M "Nell" medium bombers were routinely flown in to conduct massive aerial bombardments of both civilian and military targets in Chongqing
Chongqing
and Chengdu;[19] the massed formation of the G3M bombers provided heavy firepower against Chinese fighter planes assigned to the defense of Chongqing
Chongqing
and Chengdu, which continued to cause problems for the Japanese attacks.[20][21] However, in late 1940, unbeknownst to the Americans and European allies, the Imperial Japanese appeared in the skies over Chongqing
Chongqing
and Chengdu
Chengdu
with the world's most advanced fighter plane at the time: the A6M "Zero" fighter that dominated the skies over China
China
against the increasingly obsolete Russian-made Polikarpov I-15/I-153s and I-16s that were the principal fighter planes of the Chinese Nationalist Air Force; that which would later prove to be a rude awakening for the Allied forces in the Pacific War following the attack on Pearl Harbor.[22] One of the first American ace fighter pilots of the war and volunteer for the Chinese Nationalist Air Force, Major Wong Sun-shui (nicknamed "Buffalo" by his comrades) died as a result of battling the Zero fighters in defense of Chengdu
Chengdu
on 14 March 1941.[23][24]

40th Bombardment Group Boeing B-29-5-BW Superfortress 42-6281 "20th Century Unlimited" at Hsinching Airfield (A-1), China, advanced China Base of the 40th Bomb Group after completion of a raid on Anshan, Manchuria. Mission #4, 29 July 1944

In 1944, the American XX Bomber Command
XX Bomber Command
launched Operation Matterhorn, an ambitious plan to base B-29 Superfortresses in Chengdu
Chengdu
and strategically bomb the Japanese Home Islands.[25] The Operating base was located in Xinjin Airport
Xinjin Airport
in the southwestern part of the Chengdu metropolitan area.[26][27] Because the operation required a massive airlift of fuel and supplies over the Himalayas, it was not a significant military success, but it did earn Chengdu
Chengdu
the distinction of launching the first serious retaliation against the Japanese homeland.[28]

People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
troops entered Chengdu
Chengdu
on December 27, 1949

During the Chinese Civil War, Chengdu
Chengdu
was the last city on the Chinese mainland to be held by the Kuomintang. President Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
and his son Chiang Ching-kuo
Chiang Ching-kuo
directed the defence of the city from Chengdu Central Military Academy until 1949, when the city fell into Communist hands. The People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
took the city without any resistance after a deal was negotiated between the People's Liberation Army and the commander of the KMT Army guarding the city. On 10 December the remnants of the Nationalist Chinese government evacuated to Taiwan.[29][30] The industrial base is very broad, including light and heavy manufacturing, aluminum smelting and chemicals. The textile industry remains important, with cotton and wool milling added to the traditional manufacturing of silk brocade and satin. Chengdu
Chengdu
is the headquarters of the Chengdu
Chengdu
Military Region. Until the end of the year 2015, due to the revocation of military reform in Chengdu, West Theater is founded and Headquarter is stationed in Chengdu. The Chengdu Tianfu District Great City is a sustainable planned city that will be outside of Central Chengdu, and is expected to be completely built later in the decade. The city is also planned to be self-sustaining, with every residence being a two-minute walk from a park.[31] Geography[edit] The vast plain on which Chengdu
Chengdu
is located has an elevation ranging from 450 to 720 metres (1,480 to 2,360 feet). Northwest Chengdu
Chengdu
is bordered by the high and steep Longmen Mountain and in the west by the Qionglai Mountains, the elevation of which exceeds 3,000 m (9,800 ft) and includes Miao Jiling (5,364 m, 17,598 ft) and Xiling Snow Mountain (5,164 m, 16,942 ft). The western mountainous area is also home to a large primitive forest with abundant biological resources and a giant panda habitat. East of Chengdu
Chengdu
stands the low Longquan Mountains
Longquan Mountains
and the west bordering area of the hilly land of middle reaches of Min River, an area noted by several converging rivers. Since ancient times, Chengdu
Chengdu
has been known as "the Abundant Land" owing to its fertile soil, favorable climate, and novel Dujiangyan Irrigation System. Chengdu
Chengdu
is located at the western edge of the Sichuan
Sichuan
Basin and sits on the Chengdu
Chengdu
Plain; the dominating terrain is plains. The prefecture ranges in latitude from 30° 05' to 31° 26' N, while its longitude ranges from 102° 54' to 104° 53' E, stretching for 192 kilometres (119 mi) from east to west and 166 km (103 mi) south to north, administering 12,390 square kilometres (4,780 sq mi) of land. Neighbouring prefectures are Deyang
Deyang
(NE), Ziyang
Ziyang
(SE), Meishan
Meishan
(S), Ya'an
Ya'an
(SW), and the Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture (N). The urban area, with an elevation of 500 m (1,600 ft), features a few rivers, three of them being the Jin, Fu, and Sha Rivers. Outside of the immediate urban area, the topography becomes more complex: to the east lies the Longquan Mountains (龙泉山脉) and the Penzhong Hills (盆中丘陵); to the west lie the Qionglai Mountains, which rise to 5,364 m (17,598 ft) in Dayi County. The lowest point in Chengdu Prefecture, at 378 m (1,240 ft), lies in the southeast in Jintang County. Climate[edit] Chengdu
Chengdu
has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) and is largely mild and humid. It has four distinct seasons, with moderate rainfall concentrated mainly in the warmer months, and relieved from both sweltering summers and freezing winters. The Qin Mountains (Qinling) to the far north help shield the city from cold Siberian winds in the winter; because of this, the short winter is milder than in the Lower Yangtze. The 24-hour daily mean temperature in January is 5.6 °C (42.1 °F), and snow is rare but there are a few periods of frost each winter. The summer is hot and humid, but not to the extent of the "Three Furnaces" cities of Chongqing, Wuhan, and Nanjing, all which lie in the Yangtze
Yangtze
basin.[32] The 24-hour daily mean temperature in July and August is around 25 °C (77 °F), with afternoon highs sometimes reaching 33 °C (91 °F); sustained heat as found in much of eastern China
China
is rare. Rainfall is common year-round but is the greatest in July and August, with very little of it in the cooler months. Chengdu also has one of the lowest annual sunshine totals nationally, with less sunshine annually than much of Northern Europe, and most days are overcast even if without rain. This is especially so in the winter months, when it is typically interminably grey and dreary, compounding the poor air quality. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 16 percent in December to 38 percent in August, the city receives 1,073 hours of bright sunshine annually. Spring (March–April) tends to be sunnier and warmer in the day than autumn (October–November). The annual mean is 16.27 °C (61.3 °F), and extremes have ranged from −4.6 °C (24 °F) to 37.5 °C (99.5 °F).

Climate data for Chengdu
Chengdu
(1981−2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 18.9 (66) 24.0 (75.2) 31.8 (89.2) 32.5 (90.5) 35.2 (95.4) 37.5 (99.5) 37.3 (99.1) 36.6 (97.9) 36.2 (97.2) 30.1 (86.2) 26.2 (79.2) 18.4 (65.1) 37.5 (99.5)

Average high °C (°F) 9.4 (48.9) 11.8 (53.2) 16.3 (61.3) 21.9 (71.4) 26.6 (79.9) 28.1 (82.6) 29.8 (85.6) 29.6 (85.3) 25.8 (78.4) 20.9 (69.6) 16.3 (61.3) 10.7 (51.3) 20.6 (69.07)

Daily mean °C (°F) 5.6 (42.1) 7.9 (46.2) 11.5 (52.7) 16.6 (61.9) 21.3 (70.3) 23.8 (74.8) 25.4 (77.7) 24.9 (76.8) 21.6 (70.9) 17.2 (63) 12.4 (54.3) 7.1 (44.8) 16.27 (61.29)

Average low °C (°F) 2.9 (37.2) 5.1 (41.2) 8.1 (46.6) 12.7 (54.9) 17.3 (63.1) 20.6 (69.1) 22.2 (72) 21.7 (71.1) 18.9 (66) 14.8 (58.6) 9.8 (49.6) 4.5 (40.1) 13.22 (55.79)

Record low °C (°F) −4.6 (23.7) −2.6 (27.3) −1.8 (28.8) 4.0 (39.2) 6.3 (43.3) 14.2 (57.6) 16.6 (61.9) 16.0 (60.8) 12.2 (54) 3.1 (37.6) 0.2 (32.4) −4.1 (24.6) −4.6 (23.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 8.9 (0.35) 12.9 (0.508) 22.4 (0.882) 47.6 (1.874) 76.9 (3.028) 114.3 (4.5) 208.1 (8.193) 197.2 (7.764) 111.0 (4.37) 35.5 (1.398) 14.8 (0.583) 6.1 (0.24) 855.7 (33.69)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 7.0 8.5 10.9 13.0 14.7 15.2 17.6 15.8 15.6 13.1 7.7 5.2 144.3

Average relative humidity (%) 85 83 81 80 77 82 86 86 85 85 84 85 83.3

Mean monthly sunshine hours 53.3 51.4 83.1 113.9 121.7 117.2 131.9 155.0 77.6 59.4 57.2 51.6 1,073.3

Percent possible sunshine 17 17 23 30 29 28 31 38 21 17 18 16 24

Source #1: China
China
Meteorological Data Service Center

Source #2: China
China
Meteorological Administration(precipitation days, sunshine hours 1971-2000)

Administrative divisions[edit] Chengdu
Chengdu
is a sub-provincial city[33] which has served as the capital of Sichuan
Sichuan
since Chongqing's restoration to provincial status in 1997.[34] It has direct jurisdiction over 11 districts, 4 county-level cities and 5 counties:

Administrative divisions of Chengdu

1 2 3 4 5 Longquanyi Qingbaijiang Xindu Wenjiang Shuangliu Pidu Jintang County Dayi County Pujiang County Xinjin County Dujiangyan (city) Pengzhou (city) Qionglai (city) Chongzhou (city) Jianyang (city) 1. Jinjiang 2. Qingyang 3. Jinniu 4. Wuhou 5. Chenghua

Division code[35] Division Area in km2 Population 2010[36] Seat Postal code Subdivisions[37]

Subdistricts Towns Townships Residential communities Administrative villages

510100 Chengdu 14,378.18 14,047,625 Wuhou 610000 112 205 55 1549 2735

510104 Jinjiang 60.24 690,422 Shuyuan Subdistrict 610000 16     117  

510105 Qingyang 65.89 828,140 Xinhua West Road Subdistrict 610000 14     76  

510106 Jinniu 107.03 1,200,776 Fuqin Subdistrict 610000 15     109  

510107 Wuhou 123.44 1,083,806 Jiangxi
Jiangxi
Street Subdistrict 610000 17     113  

510108 Chenghua 109.28 938,785 Mengzhuiwan Subdistrict 610000 14     101  

510112 Longquanyi 558.74 767,203 Longquan
Longquan
Subdistrict 610100 4 7(5) 1 65 76

510113 Qingbaijiang 392.41 381,792 Hongyang Subdistrict 610300 2 7(4) 2 27 94

510114 Xindu 480.65 775,703 Xindu Subdistrict 610500 3 10(10)   128 127

510115 Wenjiang 276.91 457,070 Liucheng Subdistrict 611100 4 6(3)   79 35

510116 Shuangliu 1,067.83 1,158,516 Dongsheng Subdistrict 610200 7 18   153 116

510117 Pidu 437.45 756,047 Pitong Subdistrict 611700 3 13   60 139

510121 Jintang Co. 1,155.60 717,225 Zhaozhen Subdistrict 610400 1 18 2 47 185

510129 Dayi Co. 1,318.80 502,198 Jinyuan Subdistrict 611300 1 16 3 66 152

510131 Pujiang Co. 579.17 239,562 Heshan Subdistrict 611600 1 7 4 25 107

510132 Xinjin Co. 329.93 302,199 Wujin Subdistrict 611400 1 10 1 26 80

510181 Dujiangyan 1,207.98 657,996 Guankou Subdistrict 611800 5 13 1 69 197

510182 Pengzhou 1,419.38 762,887 Tianpeng Town 611900   20   102 251

510183 Qionglai 1,384.44 612,753 Linqiong Subdistrict 611500 1 17 6 62 202

510184 Chongzhou 1,088.01 661,120 Chongyang Subdistrict 611200 1 18 6 65 188

510185 Jianyang 2,215.02 1,420,000 Jiancheng Subdistrict 611400 2 25 29 49 796

Divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations

English Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Sichuanese Pinyin

Chengdu
Chengdu
City 成都市 Chéngdū Shì cen2 du1 si4

Jinjiang District 锦江区 Jǐnjiāng Qū

Qingyang
Qingyang
District 青羊区 Qīngyáng Qū

Jinniu District 金牛区 Jīnniú Qū

Wuhou District 武侯区 Wǔhóu Qū

Chenghua District 成华区 Chénghuá Qū

Longquanyi
Longquanyi
District 龙泉驿区 Lóngquányì Qū

Qingbaijiang District 青白江区 Qīngbáijiāng Qū

Xindu District 郫都区 Xīndū Qū

Xindu District 新都区 Xīndū Qū

Wenjiang District 温江区 Wēnjiāng Qū

Shuangliu District 双流区 Shuāngliú Qū

Pidu District 郫都区 Pídū Qū

Jintang County 金堂县 Jīntáng Xiàn

Dayi County 大邑县 Dàyì Xiàn

Pujiang County 蒲江县 Pújiāng Xiàn

Xinjin County 新津县 Xīnjīn Xiàn

Jianyang 简阳市 Jiǎnyáng Shì

Dujiangyan 都江堰市 Dūjiāngyàn Shì

Pengzhou 彭州市 Péngzhōu Shì

Qionglai 邛崃市 Qiónglái Shì

Chongzhou 崇州市 Chóngzhōu Shì

Tianfu New Area Chengdu
Chengdu
Economic and Technological Development Zone Chengdu
Chengdu
Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone

Chengdu
Chengdu
Tianfu Software Park Chengdu
Chengdu
Export Processing Zone

Cityscape[edit] Most bridges, streets and alleys were well-preserved until 1949 when new construction started.[citation needed] As of July 2013, the world's largest building, the New Century Global Centre is located in the city. The 100-metre-tall (330 ft) structure is 500 by 400 metres (1,600 by 1,300 ft) in size with 1,700,000 square metres (18,000,000 sq ft) of floor space. The Centre houses retail outlets, a 14-theater cinema, offices, hotels, the Paradise Island waterpark, an artificial beach, a 164 yards (150 m)-long LED screen, skating rink, pirate ship, fake Mediterranean village, 24-hour artificial sun, and a 15,000-spot parking area.[38]

Hongzhaobi, South Renmin Road, Chengdu

South Renmin Road, Chengdu

IFS, Hongxing Road, Chengdu

Zongfu Road, Shudu Ave., Chengdu

Nijia Qiao, South Renmin Road, Chengdu

Jin River, Shangri-la Hotel Chengdu

Sichuan
Sichuan
Library

Ancient fortress wall[edit]

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The ancient fortress wall of Chengdu, 10 metres (33 ft) high and 11 km (6.8 mi) long, was built during the Qing Empire Era. Surrounding the city, the wall's bottom measures 10 m (33 ft) wide while the top measures 6 m (20 ft) wide, almost equivalent to the width of a street. 8,122 crenels, four octagons and four turrets were built on the wall. Four gates were constructed on all sides of the wall, with hibiscus trees planted outside. Demography[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1953 857,000 —    

1964 1,583,000 +84.7%

1970 6,922,918 +337.3%

1975 7,819,732 +13.0%

1980 8,225,399 +5.2%

1985 8,626,770 +4.9%

1990 9,195,004 +6.6%

1995 9,715,977 +5.7%

2000 10,392,531 +7.0%

2005 10,820,285 +4.1%

2010 14,047,625 +29.8%

Population size may be affected by changes on administrative divisions.

The municipality had 14,047,625 inhabitants at the 2010 census whom 8,311,752 in the city considered as 11 urban and suburban administrative districts. The built-up (or metro) area was home to 10,484,996 inhabitants including the 11 previous districts plus Guanghan
Guanghan
City (in Deyang) and Xinjin County
Xinjin County
being urbanized quickly.[39] The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as of 2010[update], a population of 18.1 million.[40][3] Culture[edit]

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is strongly suggested. (October 2013)

Jinli
Jinli
historical district of Chengdu

In 2006, China
China
Daily named Chengdu
Chengdu
China's 4th-most-livable city.[41] Literature[edit] Some of China's most important literature comes from Chengdu: Chengdu has been home to literary giants, such as Sima Xiangru
Sima Xiangru
and Yang Xiong, two masters of Hanfu, a mixture of descriptive prose and verse during the Han dynasty; Li Bai
Li Bai
and Su Shi, the most eminent poets of the Tang and Song dynasties respectively; Yang Shen'an, a famous scholar of the Ming dynasty; and Guo Moruo
Guo Moruo
and Ba Jin, two well-known modern writers. Chang Qu, a historian of Chengdu
Chengdu
during the Jin dynasty, compiled the earliest local historical records, the Record of Hua Yang State. Zhao Chongzuo, a poet in Chengdu
Chengdu
during the Later Shu
Later Shu
Kingdom, edited Among the Flowers, the first anthology of Ci in China's history. Meng Chang, the king of Later Shu, wrote the first couplet for the Spring Festival, which says, "A harvest year accepts celebrations, good festivals foreshadow long springs." Fine art[edit] During the period of the Five Dynasties, Huang Quan, a painter in Chengdu, initiated the Fine-Brush Flower-and-Bird Painting school with other painters. At that time, "Hanlin Painting Academy" was the earliest royal academy in China. Education[edit] Wen Weng, administer of Chengdu
Chengdu
during the Han dynasty, established the first local public school now named Shishi (literally a stone house), in the world. The school site has not changed for more than 2,000 years, which remains the site of today's Shishi High School.[42] Theater[edit] The saying "Shu opera towers above all other performances in the world" reflects the achievement of Sichuan
Sichuan
Opera and Zaju
Zaju
(an ancient form of comedic drama involving dancing, singing, poetry, and miming). In the city, the first named opera "Bullfighting" was written in the Warring States
Warring States
Period.[clarification needed] The first detailed recorded opera was staged in the royal court of Shu Kingdom during the Three Kingdom Period. China's first clearly recorded Zaju
Zaju
was also performed in Chengdu. Tombs of witty Han dynasty
Han dynasty
poets were excavated in Chengdu. And face-changing masks and fire breathing remain hallmarks of the Sichuan
Sichuan
Opera. Language[edit] The native language in Chengdu
Chengdu
is Sichuanese, otherwise referred as Sichuan
Sichuan
dialect. More precisely, " Chengdu
Chengdu
Dialect" (成都话/成都方言) is widely used in lieu of "Sichuanese" due to the largely different accents of Sichuanese speakers residing elsewhere. Culinary art and tea culture[edit] See also: Sichuan
Sichuan
cuisine

Teahouse in Chengdu

The distinct characteristic of Sichuan
Sichuan
cuisine is the use of spicy chilies and peppercorns. Local dishes include Mapo doufu, Chengdu
Chengdu
Hot pot, and Dan Dan Mien (meaning "Noodles carried on a pole" Dan Dan Noodles). All three dishes are spicy. Mapo Doufu and Dan Dan Mien contain Sichuan
Sichuan
peppers to give them additional flavor. An article[43] by the Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
(2006) called Chengdu
Chengdu
"China's party city" for its carefree lifestyle. Chengdu
Chengdu
has more tea houses and bars than Shanghai
Shanghai
despite having less than half the population. Sichuanese cuisine features careful pairings of boldness and subtlety in dishes, snacks, banquets, and hotpot. A characteristic adage goes: 'one dish, one style; one hundred dishes, one hundred flavors; flexible use of hot chilis and delicate flavors.' Of thousands of dishes, each has a story behind it. The local snacks in Chengdu
Chengdu
are known for creative ingredients, skilled preparation, wide variety, and cheap prices. Tastes range from sweet and spicy to sour and hot in a range of cooking techniques including frying, stewing, baking, steaming and boiling. Common snacks found across town include noodles, wontons, dumplings, pastries, tangyuan (sweet rice balls), drinks, salads and soups. With over a thousand years of history, Chinese tea culture is perhaps best exemplified by the bamboo chairs and wooden tables found in the hundreds of tea houses throughout Chengdu, with jasmine tea served as the local staple. As early as the Western Han period, both tea trade and tea culture were very prosperous in Sichuan
Sichuan
with Chengdu
Chengdu
the starting point of the Southern Silk Road. Chengdu
Chengdu
is an officially recognised UNESCO
UNESCO
City of Gastronomy.[44] Teahouse[edit] Traditional tea houses in Chengdu
Chengdu
usually feature bamboo chairs and wooden tables and offer jasmine, long jing and biluochun tea. Modern tea houses can be spotted on almost every city corner. The price for tea varies from 5 RMB to several hundred. Besides tea and snacks, almost all tea houses offer Majiang sets, tables, and sometimes separate majiang rooms. Most locals go to tea houses to play majiang with friends. Some luxury tea houses in Chengdu
Chengdu
also offer live entertainment such as Sichuan
Sichuan
opera shows.[45] Hot Pot[edit] Hot pot
Hot pot
is a traditional Sichuanese food, made by putting vegetables, fish, or meat into a specially-made soup. It is spicy but delicious. Chengdu
Chengdu
residents eat hot pot often, sometimes inviting friends to go with them to one of the many hot pot restaurants that are widely-distributed throughout Chengdu. Hot pot
Hot pot
is a typical part of Chengdu
Chengdu
residents' daily diet. Mahjong[edit]

Mahjong

Mahjong
Mahjong
has been an essential part of most local peoples' lives. After every day' s working, people gather their friends in their home or in the tea houses on the street to play Mahjong. On sunny days, local people like to play Mahjong
Mahjong
on the sidewalks to enjoy the sunshine and also the time with friends. Almost every person plays Mahjong
Mahjong
with money: rich people play with more money, and the poor people play with less money. In all, everyone is excited and interested in playing with money. Mahjong
Mahjong
is the most popular entertainment choice among locals for several reasons. Chengdu
Chengdu
locals have simplified the rules and made it easier to play as compared to, Cantonese
Cantonese
Mahjong. Also, Mahjong
Mahjong
in Chengdu
Chengdu
is a way to meet old friends and to strengthen family relationships. In fact, many business people negotiate deals while playing Mahjong.[46] Furthermore, the elderly like to play Mahjong because they believe Mahjong
Mahjong
makes them think and prevents dementia. Rural tourism: Nong Jia Le[edit] Chengdu
Chengdu
claims to have first practiced the modern business model of 'Nong Jia Le' (Happy Rural Homes). It refers to the practice of suburban and rural residents converting their houses into restaurants, hotels and entertainment spaces in order to attract city dwellers. Nong Jia Le features different styles and price levels and have been thriving around Chengdu. They provide gateways for city dwellers to escape the city, offer delicious and affordable home-made dishes, and provide mahjong facilities. Some of the most popular ones are located in Sansheng Village east of Chengdu, and Nongke Village in Pixian欧特美家 County, northwest of Chengdu. Customs and festivals[edit] Grand Temple Fair[edit] Chengdu's annual Grand Temple Fair is held every year during the Spring Festival (Chinese New Year) in Wuhou Shrine, Jinli, the Culture Park, and several other city parks. The 15-day-long festival showcases both traditional Sichuan
Sichuan
folk art and modern fashions of the city. Food stalls on site offer over 100 varieties of freshly made local snacks. Lantern Festival[edit] Chengdu’s annual Lantern Festival is held every year during the Spring Festival in Tazishan Park in the eastern part of Chengdu. Lanterns of different designs and themes are on display with traditional art performances including Sichuan
Sichuan
opera, acrobatics shows, and local talk shows. Dujiangyan Water Releasing Festival[edit] The Dujiangyan Water-Releasing Festival takes place on 5 April each year in Du Jiang Yan, 58 km (36 mi) away from Chengdu. Residents dress up in ancient costumes and read elegies for Li Bing and his sons, in order to honor them for their contribution to the irrigation project they built over 2,000 years ago. Huanglongxi
Huanglongxi
Fire Dragon Festival[edit] Fire Dragon Festival of HuangLongXi is celebrated from the 2nd to the 15th day of the first lunar month of each new year. The festival originated from South Song dynasty
Song dynasty
(1127–1279 AD). Celebrations include lighting paper dragons, a lion dance, floating lanterns on the water, and various street activities. South China
China
Snow and Ice Festival[edit] The South China
China
Snow and Ice Festival takes place from January to March at the Xiling Snow Mountain Ski Resort, 95 kilometres (59 miles) west of downtown Chengdu. The festival is popular among locals, especially children, since it rarely snows in Chengdu
Chengdu
and people relish the sight of snow. A large variety of snow activities are offered during the festival. Home of the giant panda[edit]

Pandas, in Chengdu

The Giant Panda, a Chinese national treasure, is one of the rarest animals in the world. The total number is estimated to be 1,500, including those living in the wild, 80 percent of which are in Sichuan Province. A breeding center for giant pandas called Chengdu
Chengdu
Research Base of Giant Panda
Giant Panda
Breeding was founded in the north suburbs of Chengdu. It is the only one of its kind in the world that's located in a metropolitan area. In order to better protect wild giant pandas, Chengdu
Chengdu
has established nature reserves in Dujiangyan City, Chongzhou City, and Dayi County. Sichuan
Sichuan
Wolong Giant Panda
Giant Panda
Nature Reserve, the biggest of its kind in the world, is only 130 km (81 mi) outside Chengdu. After the Wenchuan earthquake, most of it was moved to Ya'an. The western world came to know giant pandas only after a French missionary named David first encountered this species in Sichuan
Sichuan
in 1869.[47] Now, the somewhat clumsy giant panda is a symbol representing the World Wildlife Fund. They are also a messenger of friendly communication between Chengdu
Chengdu
and international cities. Currently, giant pandas are also reared in U.S.A, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Japan, Thailand
Thailand
as well as Mexico. Chengdu
Chengdu
has established the world-renowned breeding and research base for giant pandas, which attracts almost 100,000 visitors each year. Covering tens of hectares with bamboo groves and a native-like habitat, the base is the only one of its kind located in an urban area. A museum is open to the public throughout the year. In 2008, after the release of the American animation movie Kung Fu Panda, DreamWorks CEO Jeffrey Katzenberg and other DreamWorks members visited the city of Chengdu. In addition to seeing live pandas, crew members learned about the local culture. Katzenberg has stated that Kung Fu Panda
Kung Fu Panda
2 incorporates many elements of Chengdu
Chengdu
in the film. The film's landscape and architecture also found inspiration from those found at Mount Qingcheng, a renowned Taoist mountain. In an interview with Movieline, Berger stated that ‘we never really thought of this as a movie set in China
China
for Americans; it's a movie set in a mythical, universalized China
China
for everyone in the world'. On 11 January 2012, six captive-bred pandas were released to a "semi-wild" environment in Dujiangyan, Chengdu. Scientists believe that success in the reintroduction project would potentially help save the endangered giant panda. Retired NBA basketball star and animal activist Yao Ming attended the ceremony. Main sights[edit] World natural and cultural heritage sites[edit]

This article is written like a travel guide rather than an encyclopedic description of the subject. Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. If a travel guide is intended, use of Wikivoyage
Wikivoyage
is strongly suggested. (October 2013)

Mount Qingcheng[edit] Mount Qingcheng
Mount Qingcheng
is amongst the most important centres of Taoism (Daoism) in China. It is situated in the suburbs of Dujiangyan City and connected to downtown Chengdu
Chengdu
70 km (43 mi) away by the Cheng-Guan Expressway. With its peak 1,600 m (5,200 ft) above sea level, Mount Qingcheng enjoys a cool climate, but remains a lush green all year round and surrounded by hills and waterways. Mount Qingcheng's Fujian Temple, Tianshi Cave, and Shizu Hall are some of the existing more well-known Taoist holy sites. Shangqing Temple is noted for an evening phosphorescent glow locally referred to as "holy lights". Dujiangyan Irrigation System[edit] The Dujiangyan Irrigation System
Dujiangyan Irrigation System
(58 km (36 mi) away from Chengdu
Chengdu
proper) is the oldest existing irrigation project in the world with a history of over 2000 years diverting water without a dam to distribute water and filter sand with an inflow-quantity control. The great engineer was built by Libing and his son. The irrigation system contains floods and droughts throughout the Plain of Chengdu, and people in Chengdu
Chengdu
sing the praises of their great job that have done for them. Sichuan
Sichuan
Giant Panda
Giant Panda
Sanctuaries[edit]

Sichuan
Sichuan
Giant Panda
Giant Panda
Sanctuaries

Covering a total of 9,245 km2 (3,570 sq mi) over 12 distinct counties and 4 cities, Sichuan
Sichuan
Giant Panda
Giant Panda
Sanctuaries, lie on the transitional alp-canyon belt between the Sichuan
Sichuan
Basin and the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. It is the largest remaining continuous habitat for giant pandas and home to more than 80 percent of the world’s wild giant pandas. Globally speaking, it is also the most abundant temperate zone of greenery. The reserves of the habitat are 100–200 km (62–124 mi) away from Chengdu. The Sichuan
Sichuan
Giant Panda
Giant Panda
Sanctuaries are the most well-known of their kind in the world, with Wolong Nature Reserve, generally considered as the "homeland of pandas". It is a core habitat with unique natural conditions, complicated landforms, and a temperate climate with diverse wildlife. Siguniang Mountain, sometimes called the "Oriental Alpine" is approximately 230 km (140 mi) away from Chengdu, and is composed of four adjacent peaks of the Traversal Mountain Range. Among the four peaks, the fourth and highest stands 6,250 m (20,510 ft) above sea level, and is perpetually covered by snow. Culture of poetry and the Three Kingdoms[edit] Wuhou Shrine[edit] Wuhou Shrine (Temple of Marquis Wu) is perhaps the most influential museum of Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
relics in China. It was built in the Western Jin period (265–316) in the honor of Zhuge Liang, the famous military and political strategist who was Prime Minister of the Shu Han State during the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period (220–280). The Shrine highlights the Zhuge Liang
Zhuge Liang
Memorial Temple and the Hall of Liu Bei (founder of the Shu Han
Shu Han
state), along with statues of other historical figures of Shu Han, as well as cultural relics like stone inscriptions and tablets. The Hui Mausoleum of Liu Bei
Liu Bei
represents a unique pattern of enshrining both the emperor and his subjects in the same temple, a rarity in China. Du Fu
Du Fu
thatched cottage[edit] Main article: Du Fu
Du Fu
Thatched Cottage Du Fu
Du Fu
was one of the most noted Tang dynasty poets; during the Lushan-Shi Siming Rebellion, he left Xi'an
Xi'an
(then Chang'an) to take refuge in Chengdu. With the help from his friends, the thatched cottage was built along the Huanhua Stream in the west suburbs of Chengdu, where Du Fu
Du Fu
spent four years of his life and produced more than 240 now-famous poems. During the Song dynasty, people started to construct gardens and halls on the site of his thatched cottage to honor his life and memory. Currently, a series of memorial buildings representing Du Fu's humble life stand on the river bank, along with a large collection of relics and various editions of his poems. Ancient Shu civilization[edit] Jinsha Ruins[edit] The Jinsha Ruins are the first significant archeological discovery in China
China
this millennium and were selected in 2006 as the key conservation unit of the nation. The Jinsha Relics Museum is located in the northwest of Chengdu, about 5 km (3.1 mi) from downtown. As a theme-park-style museum, it is for the protection, research, and display of Jinsha archaeological relics and findings. The museum covers 300,000 m2 (3,200,000 sq ft), primarily housing the relics, exhibitions, and a conservation center.[48] Golden Sun Bird[edit]

The Golden Sun Bird

The Golden Sun Bird
Golden Sun Bird
was excavated by archaeologists from Jinsha ruins on 25 February 2001. In 2005, it was designated as the official logo of Chinese cultural heritage by the China
China
National Relic
Relic
Bureau. The round, foil plaque dates back to the ancient Shu people and is 94.2 percent pure gold and extremely thin. It contains four birds around the perimeter, representing the four seasons and directions. The center cutout contains 12 beams of sunlight, representing the 12 months. The exquisite design is remarkable for a 3,000-year-old piece. Sanxingdui
Sanxingdui
Museum[edit] Situated in the northeast of the state-protected Sanxingdui
Sanxingdui
Site, Sanxingdui
Sanxingdui
Museum is 40 km (25 mi) north of Chengdu, covering a total area of 7,000 square metres (75,000 square feet). The main collection highlights the Ancient City of Chengdu, Shu State & its culture, while displaying thousands of valuable relics including earthenware, jade wares, bone objects, gold wares, and bronzes that have been unearthed from Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
sacrificial sites. Buddhist and Taoist cultures[edit] Chengdu
Chengdu
Daci Monastery[edit] Known as the "Nonpareil Monastery" in China, the Daci Monastery in downtown Chengdu
Chengdu
was first built during the Wei and Jin dynasties, with its cultural height during the Tang and Song dynasties. Xuanzang, an eminent Tang dynasty monk, was initiated into monkhood and studied for several years here; during this time, he gave frequent sermons in Daci Monastery.

Wenshu Monastery

Wenshu Monastery[edit] Also named Xinxiang
Xinxiang
Monastery, Wenshu Monastery is the best preserved Buddhist temple in Chengdu. Initially built during the Tang dynasty, it has a history dating back 1,300 years. Parts of Xuanzang's skull are held in consecration here (as a relic). Baoguang Monastery[edit] Located in Xindu District, Baoguang (meaning divine light) Monastery enjoys a long history and a rich collection of relics. It is believed that it was constructed during the East Han
East Han
period and has appeared in written records since the Tang dynasty. It was destroyed during the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
in the early 16th century. In 1607, the ninth year of the reign of the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
of the Qing dynasty, it was rebuilt.

Qingyang
Qingyang
Taoist Temple

Qingyang
Qingyang
Taoist Temple[edit] Located in the western part of Chengdu, Qingyang
Qingyang
Temple ('Green Goat Temple') is not only the largest and oldest Taoist temple in the city, but also the largest Taoist temple in Southwest China. The only existing copy of "Daozang Jiyao", a collection of classic Taoist scriptures, is preserved in the temple. According to history, Qingyang
Qingyang
Temple was the place where Lao Tzu preached his famous Dao De Jing
Dao De Jing
to his disciple, Ying Xi. Featured streets and historic towns[edit] The Wide and Narrow Lanes[edit] The Wide and Narrow Lanes (Kuan Xiangzi and Zhai Xiangzi) were first built during the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
for Manchu
Manchu
soldiers. The lanes remained residential until 2003 when the local government turned the area into a mixed-use strip of restaurants, teahouses, bars, avant-garde galleries, and residential houses. Historic architecture has been well preserved in the Wide and Narrow lanes.

The night of Jin Li

Jinli[edit] Nearby Wuhou Shrine, Jinli
Jinli
is a popular commercial and dining area resembling the style of traditional architecture of western Sichuan. "Jinli" (锦里) is the name of an old street in Chengdu
Chengdu
dating from the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
and means "making perfection more perfect". The ancient Jinli
Jinli
Street was one of the oldest and the most commercialized streets in the history of the Shu state and was well known throughout the country during the Qin, Han and Three Kingdoms periods. Many aspects of the urban life of Chengdu
Chengdu
are present in the current-day Jinli
Jinli
area: teahouses, restaurants, bars, theatres, handicraft stores, local snack vendors, and specialty shops.

Huanglongxi
Huanglongxi
Historic Town

Huanglongxi
Huanglongxi
Historic Town[edit] Facing the Jinjiang River to the east and leaning against Muma Mountain to the north, the ancient town of Huanglongxi
Huanglongxi
is approximately 40 km (25 mi) southeast of Chengdu. It was a large military stronghold for the ancient Shu Kingdom. The head of the Shu Han
Shu Han
State in the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period was seated in Huanglongxi, and for some time, the general government offices for Renshou, Pengshan, and Huayang counties were also located here. The ancient town has preserved the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
architectural style, as seen in the design of its streets, shops, and buildings. Chunxi Road[edit] Located in the center of downtown Chengdu, Chunxi Road
Chunxi Road
(春熙路) is a trendy and bustling commercial strip with a long history. It was built in 1924 and was named after a part of the Tao Te Ching. Today, it is one of the most well-known and popular fashion and shopping center of Chengdu, lined with shopping malls, luxury brand stores, and boutique shops. Anren Historic Town[edit] Anren Historic Town is located 39 km (24 mi) west of Chengdu. It was the hometown of Liu Wencai, a Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
warlord, landowner and millionaire. His 27 historic mansions have been well preserved and turned into museums. Three old streets built during the Republic of China
China
period are still being used today by residents. Museums in Anren have a rich collection of more of than 8 million pieces of relics and artifacts. A museum dedicated to the memorial of the 2008 Sichuan
Sichuan
earthquake was built in 2010. Luodai Historic Town[edit] Luodai was built, like many historic structures in the area, during the period of the Three Kingdoms. According to legend, the Shu Han emperor Liu Shan
Liu Shan
dropped his jade belt into a well when he passed through this small town. Thus, the town was named 'lost belt' (落带). It later evolved into its current name 洛带 with the same pronunciation, but a different first character. Luodai Historic Town is one of the five major Hakka settlements in China. Three or four hundred years ago, a group of Hakka people
Hakka people
moved to Luodai from coastal cities. It has since grown into the largest community for Hakka people. Du Fu
Du Fu
Thatched Cottage[edit] Chinese name 杜甫草堂,24 acre, at the western outskirts of Chengdu, adjacent to the Huanhua Xi (Flower Rinsing Creek). Key buildings in the Du Fu
Du Fu
Cao Tang Park were constructed in the early 16th century during the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
and extensively renovated in 1811 during the Qing dynasty. Economy[edit]

Map of Chengdu
Chengdu
showing infrastructures and land use, made by the CIA in 1989. Note that city mostly ends at what is today's second ring road.

Chunxi Road

China's state council has designated Chengdu
Chengdu
as the country's western center of logistics, commerce, finance, science and technology, as well as a hub of transportation and communication. It is also an important base for manufacturing and agriculture. According to the World Bank's 2007 survey report on global investment environments, Chengdu
Chengdu
was declared "a benchmark city for investment environment in inland China".[49] Also based on a research report undertaken by the Nobel economics laureate, Dr. Robert Mundell and the celebrated Chinese economist, Li Yining, published by the State Information Center in 2010, Chengdu
Chengdu
has become an "engine" of the Western Development Program, a benchmark city for investment environment in inland China, and a major leader in new urbanization. In 2010, 12 of the Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies, including ANZ Bank, Nippon Steel Corporation, and Electricite De France, have opened offices, branches, or operation centers in Chengdu, the largest number in recent years. Meanwhile, the Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies that have opened offices in Chengdu, including JP Morgan Chase, Henkel, and GE, increased their investment and upgraded the involvement of their branches in Chengdu. By the end of 2010, over 200 Fortune 500 companies had set up branches in Chengdu, ranking it first in terms of the number of Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies in Central and Western China. Of these, 149 are foreign enterprises and 40 are domestic companies. According to the 2010 AmCham China
China
White Paper on the State of American Business in China, Chengdu
Chengdu
has become a top investment destination in China. The main industries in Chengdu—including machinery, automobile, medicine, food, and information technology—are supported by numerous large-scale enterprises. In addition, an increasing number of high-tech enterprises from outside Chengdu
Chengdu
have also settled down there. Chengdu
Chengdu
is becoming one of the favorite cities for investment in Central and Western China.[50] Among the world's 500 largest companies, 133 multinational enterprises have had subsidiaries or branch offices in Chengdu
Chengdu
by October 2009.[50] These MNEs include Intel, Cisco, Sony and Toyota that have assembly and manufacturing bases, as well as Motorola, Ericsson, and Microsoft
Microsoft
that have R&D centers in Chengdu.,[50] The National Development and Reform Commission has formally approved Chengdu's proposed establishment of a national bio-industry base there. The government of Chengdu
Chengdu
has recently unveiled a plan to create a 90 billion CNY bio pharmaceutical sector by 2012.[51] China's aviation industries have begun construction of a high-tech industrial park in the city that will feature space and aviation technology. The local government plans to attract overseas and domestic companies for service outsourcing and become a well-known service outsourcing base in China
China
and worldwide. Electronics and IT industries[edit] Chengdu
Chengdu
has long been established as a national base for the electronics and IT industries. The first telecom R&D centre was set up by an Indian company called Primetel in 1996 and since then the city has developed as the global centre for the telecom R&D industry. Chengdu's growth accelerated alongside the growth of the telecom services sector in India
India
and China, which together account for over 70 percent of the world telecommunications market. Several key national electronics R&D institutes are located in Chengdu. Chengdu Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone
Chengdu Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone
has attracted a variety of multinationals, at least 30 Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies and 12,000 domestic companies, including Intel, IBM, Cisco, Nokia, Motorola, SAP, Siemens, Canon, HP, Xerox, Microsoft, Tieto, NIIT, MediaTek, and Wipro, as well as domestic powerhouses such as Lenovo.[52] Dell
Dell
plans to open its second major China
China
operations center in 2011 in Chengdu
Chengdu
as its center in Xiamen
Xiamen
expands in 2010.[53] Intel
Intel
Capital acquired a strategic stake in Primetel, Chengdu's first foreign technology company in 2001. Intel's Chengdu
Chengdu
factory, set up in 2005 is its second in China, after its Shanghai
Shanghai
factory, and the first such large-scale foreign investment in the electronics industry in interior mainland China. Intel, the world's largest chipmaker, has invested US$525 million in two assembly and testing facilities in Chengdu. Following the footsteps of Intel, Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation (SMIC), the world's third largest foundry, set up an assembly and testing plant in Chengdu. Intel's rival AMD
AMD
is likewise set to open an R&D center in this city. In November 2006, IBM
IBM
signed an agreement with the Chengdu
Chengdu
High-Tech Zone to establish a Global Delivery Center, its fourth in China
China
after Dalian, Shanghai
Shanghai
and Shenzhen, within the Chengdu
Chengdu
Tianfu Software Park. Scheduled to be operational by February 2007, this new center will provide multilingual application development and maintenance services to clients globally in English, Japanese and Chinese, and to the IBM
IBM
Global Procurement Center, recently located to the southern Chinese city of Shenzhen.[54] On 23 March 2008, IBM
IBM
announced at the "West China
China
Excellent Enterprises CEO Forum" that the southwest working team of IBM
IBM
Global Business Services is now formally stationed in Chengdu. On 28 May 2008, Zhou Weikun, president of IBM
IBM
China disclosed that IBM
IBM
Chengdu
Chengdu
would increase its staff number from the present 600 to nearly 1,000 by the end of the year.[55][56] Over the past few years, Chengdu's economy has flourished rapidly. Chengdu
Chengdu
is a major base for communication infrastructure, with one of China's nine top level postal centers and one of six national telecom exchanges hub. In 2009, Chengdu
Chengdu
hosted the World Cyber Games
World Cyber Games
Grand Finals (11–15 November). It was the first time China
China
hosted the world's largest computer and video game tournament.[57] Financial industry[edit] Chengdu
Chengdu
is positioning itself to be a financial center for Western China
China
and has attracted a large number of foreign financial institutions, including Citigroup, HSBC, Standard Chartered Bank, ABN AMRO, BNP Paribas, JPMorgan Chase, ANZ and The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ. In 1988, Dr. Joseph Fowler, a British professor of optoelectronics from Cambridge founded Scsi Capital, Asia's first venture capital firm focused on opportunities in the digital age, in Chengdu. Scsi currently manages an active portfolio in excess of CNY 300 billion and has operations in India, Israel, Singapore
Singapore
and USA. Scsi Capital is the world's largest private equity investor and fund of funds in the photovoltaic, compound semiconductor, multilayer cmos, ceramic packaging, display and advanced materials sector. Historically, Chengdu
Chengdu
has marked its name in the history of financial innovation. The world's first paper currency 'Jiao Zi' was seen in Chengdu
Chengdu
in the year 1023, during the Song dynasty. Now, Chengdu
Chengdu
is not only the gateway of Western China
China
for foreign financial institutions, but also a booming town for Chinese domestic financial firms. The Chinese monetary authority, People's Bank of China
China
(China's central bank), set its southwest China
China
headquarters in Chengdu
Chengdu
City. In addition, almost all domestic banks and securities brokerage firms located their regional headquarters or branches in Chengdu. At the same time, the local financial firms of Chengdu
Chengdu
are strengthening their presences nationally, notably, Huaxi Securities, Sinolink Securities and Bank of Chengdu. Moreover, on top of banks and brokerage firms, the flourish of local economy lured more and more financial service firms to the city to capitalise on the economic growth. Grant Thornton, KPMG, PWC and Ernst & Young are the four global accountants and business advisers with West China
China
headoffices in the city. It is expected that by 2012, value-added financial services will make up 14 percent of the added-value service industry and 7 percent of the regional GDP. By 2015, those figures are expected to grow to 18 percent and 9 percent respectively. Modern logistic industry[edit] Because of its logistic infrastructure, professional network, and resources in science, technology, and communication, Chengdu
Chengdu
has become home to 43 foreign-funded logistic enterprises, including UPS, TNT, DHL, and Maersk, as well as a number of well-known domestic logistic enterprises including COSCO, CSCL, SINOTRANS, CRE, Transfar Group, South Logistic Group, YCH, and STO. By 2012, the logistic industry in Chengdu
Chengdu
will realize a value added of RMB 50 billion, with an average annual growth exceeding 18 percent. Ten new international direct flights will be in service; five railways for five-scheduled block container trains will be put into operation; and 50 large logistic enterprises are expected to have annual operation revenue exceeding RMB 100 million. Modern business and trade[edit] Chengdu
Chengdu
is the largest trade center in western China
China
with a market covering all of Sichuan
Sichuan
province, exerting influence on a population of 250 million in six provinces, cities, and districts in western China. Chengdu
Chengdu
ranks first among cities in western China
China
in terms of the scale of foreign investment in commerce and trade. Out of the 40 World Top 250 retail enterprises based in China, 15 have opened branches in Chengdu. In downtown Chengdu, there are 71 department stores whose business area exceeds 10,000 sq. m, with the total business area reaching 2,600,000 sq. m. By 2012, total retail sales of consumer goods in Chengdu
Chengdu
will exceed RMB 300 billion, up 18 percent annually on average; the total wholesales will exceed RMB 400 billion, with an annual increase of 25 percent. Total retail sales of the catering industry will exceed RMB 60 billion, up 20 percent annually; and the total exports and imports of Chengdu
Chengdu
will be above US$35 billion, increasing 30 percent annually. Convention and exhibition industry[edit] Boasting the claim as "China’s Famous Exhibition City", Chengdu takes the lead in central and western China
China
for its scale of convention economy. It has become one of the five largest convention and exhibition cities in China. In 2010, direct revenue from the convention and exhibition industry was RMB 3.2 billion, with a year-on-year growth of 26.9 percent. The growth reached a historical high. More than 13.2 million people have come to Chengdu
Chengdu
to participate in conventions and exhibitions from foreign countries and other parts of China. Numerous convention and exhibition companies have invested in Chengdu
Chengdu
such as the UK-based Reed Exhibition, as well as domestic companies such as the Chinese European Art Center, Sanlian Exhibition, and Eastpo International Expo. Software and service outsourcing industry[edit] Chengdu
Chengdu
is one of the first service outsourcing bases in China. More than 150,000 people in Chengdu
Chengdu
are engaged in software-related work. Among the Top 10 service outsourcing enterprises in the world, Accenture, IBM, and Wipro
Wipro
are based in Chengdu. In addition, 20 international enterprises including Motorola, Ubi Soft Entertainment, and Agilent, have set up internal shared service centers or R&D centers in Chengdu. Maersk Global Document Processing Center and Logistic Processing Sub-center, DHL Chengdu
Chengdu
Service Center, Financial Accounting Center for DHL China, and Siemens
Siemens
Global IT Operation Center will be put into operation. In 2010, offshore service outsourcing in Chengdu
Chengdu
realized a registered contract value of US$336 million, 99 percent higher than the previous year. New energy industry[edit] Chengdu
Chengdu
is the "National High-Tech Industry Base for New Energy Industry", as approved by the National Development and Reform Commission. Leading enterprises are operating in Chengdu
Chengdu
and providing research and technology support such as Tianwei New Energy Holding Co., Ltd., Sichuan
Sichuan
Sanzhou Special
Special
Steel Tube Co., Ltd., Zhejiang Tianma Bearing Co., Ltd., and key research institutions such as the Nuclear Power Institute of China, Southwestern Institute of Physics, Southwest Electric Power Design Institute. In 2010, the new energy enterprises above realized 31.1 billion RMB in revenue from main operations, 43.2 percent more than the previous year. Chengdu
Chengdu
ranked first again in the list of China's 15 "Cities with Highest Investment Value for New Energies" released at the beginning of 2011, and Shuangliu County
Shuangliu County
under its jurisdiction entered "2010 China's Top 100 Counties of New Energies". By 2012, Chengdu's new energy industry will realize an investment over 20 billion RMB and sales revenue of 50 billion RMB. Electronics and information industry[edit] Chengdu
Chengdu
is home to the most competitive IT industry cluster in western China, an important integrated circuit industry base in China, and one of the five major national software industry bases. Manufacturing chains are already formed in integrated circuits, optoelectronics displays, digital video & audio, optical communication products, and original-equipment products of electronic terminals, represented by such companies as IBM, Intel, Texas Instruments, Microsoft, Motorola, Nokia, Ericsson, Dell, Lenovo, Foxconn, Compal, Wistron, and others. Automobile industry[edit] Chengdu
Chengdu
has built a comprehensive automobile industry system, and preliminarily formed a system integrated with trade, exhibitions, entertainment, R&D, and manufacturing of spare parts and whole vehicles (e.g., sedans, coaches, sport utility vehicles, trucks, special vehicles). There are whole vehicle makers, such as Dongfeng-PSA (Peugeot-Citroën), Volvo, FAW-Volkswagen, FAW-Toyota, Yema, and Sinotruk Wangpai, as well as nearly 200 core parts makers covering German, Japanese, and other lines of vehicles. In 2011, Volvo announced that its first manufacturing base in China with an investment of RMB 5.4 billion was to be built in Chengdu. By 2015, the automobile production capacity of Chengdu's Comprehensive Function Zone of Automobile Industry is expected to reach 700,000 vehicles and 1.25 million in 2020. Modern agriculture[edit] Chengdu
Chengdu
enjoys favorable agricultural conditions and rich natural resources. It is an important base for high-quality agricultural products. A national commercial grain and edible oil production base, the vegetable and food supply base as well as the key agricultural products processing center and the logistics distribution center of western China
China
are located in Chengdu. Defense industry[edit] Located within the city limits is the Chengdu
Chengdu
Aircraft Company which produces the recently declassified J-10 Vigorous Dragon combat aircraft as well as the JF-17 Thunder, in a joint collaborative effort with Pakistan
Pakistan
Air Force. Chengdu
Chengdu
Aircraft Company is also currently developing the J-20 Black Eagle stealth fighter. The company is one of the major manufacturers of Chinese Military aviation technology. Investment[edit] The Chengdu
Chengdu
Statistics Bureau reports that the total investment in fixed assets in 2008 was 301.29 billion yuan (US$43.38 billion). Domestic investment was 180.52 billion yuan (US$26 billion), an increase of 23.5 percent from 2007. The total amount of foreign direct investment reached US$2.25 billion, an increase of 97.3 percent from 2007. Industrial zones[edit]

Chengdu
Chengdu
Economic and Technological Development Zone

Main article: Sichuan § Chengdu_Economic_and_Technological_Development_Zone

Chengdu
Chengdu
Export Processing Zone

Main article: Sichuan
Sichuan
§ Chengdu_Export_Processing_Zone

Chengdu
Chengdu
Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone

Main article: Sichuan § Chengdu_Hi-Tech_Industrial_Development_Zone

Chengdu
Chengdu
National Cross-Strait Technology Industry Development Park

This was established in 1992 as the Chengdu
Chengdu
Taiwanese Investment Zone.[58] Real estate[edit] In 1988, The Implementation Plan for a Gradual Housing System Reform in Cities and Towns marked the beginning of overall housing reform in urban areas of China. More than 20 real estate companies set up in Chengdu, which was the first step for Chengdu's real estate development. The comprehensive Funan River renovation project in the 1990s had been another step towards promoting Chengdu
Chengdu
environmental development. In 1992, Singapore
Singapore
capitals brought into Chengdu
Chengdu
helped constructing Jinxiu Garden (锦绣花园), which was the first elite residential area. Its advertisement was "Driving Volkswagen, Living in Jinxiu Garden.". In 1992, the first real estate management service company set up in Chengdu. Chengdu
Chengdu
started the Five Main Roads & One Bridge project in 1997. Three of the roads supported the east part of the city, the other two led to the south. It established the foundation of the Eastern and Southern sub-centers of Chengdu. The two major sub-centers determined people's eastward and southward living trends. Large numbers of buildings appeared around the east and south of the 2nd Ring Road. The Shahe River renovation project together with Jin River project also set off a fashion for people living by the two rivers. It was said that the map of Chengdu
Chengdu
should update every three months.[59] In 2000, dozens of commercial real estate projects also appeared.[60] While promoting the real estate market, the Chinese government encouraged citizens to buy their own houses by providing considerable subsidies. Houses were included in commodities. In 2013, Chengdu
Chengdu
along with Beijing, Shanghai
Shanghai
and Guangzhou
Guangzhou
were regarded as the Tier One Cities in terms of real estate market in mainland China. Transport[edit] Air[edit]

Terminal 1, Chengdu
Chengdu
Shuangliu International Airport

Chengdu
Chengdu
is served by the Chengdu
Chengdu
Shuangliu International Airport located in Shuangliu County
Shuangliu County
16 km (9.9 mi) southwest of downtown. Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport
Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport
is the busiest airport in Central and Western China
China
and the nation's 5th-busiest airport, with a total passenger traffic of 42.2 million in 2015.[61] Shuangliu Airport is one of the two core hubs for Air China, together with Beijing, as well as the main hub and headquarters for Sichuan Airlines, Chengdu
Chengdu
Airlines, China
China
Eastern Airlines, China
China
Southern Airlines, Shenzhen
Shenzhen
Airlines, Lucky Air
Lucky Air
and Tibet Airlines
Tibet Airlines
also have bases at Shuangliu Airport. Chengdu
Chengdu
airport is also a 72-hour visa-free transit airport for foreigners from many countries. The airport has two runways and is capable of landing the Airbus A-380, currently the largest passenger aircraft in operation. Chengdu is the fourth city in China
China
with two commercial-use runways, after Beijing, Shanghai
Shanghai
and Guangzhou. On 26 May 2009, Air China, Chengdu City Government and Sichuan
Sichuan
Airport Group signed an agreement to improve the infrastructure of the airport and increase the number of direct international flights to and from Chengdu. The objective is to increase passenger traffic to more than 40 million by 2015, making Chengdu
Chengdu
Airport the fourth-largest international hub in China, after Beijing, Shanghai
Shanghai
and Guangzhou, top 30 largest airports in the world.[62][63] Chengdu
Chengdu
has already begun building a second international airport—— Chengdu Tianfu International Airport
Chengdu Tianfu International Airport
which will have six runways and a capacity to handle between 80 and 90 million passengers per year. Railway[edit] Chengdu
Chengdu
is the primary railway hub city and rail administrative center in southwestern China. It is the terminus for Baoji- Chengdu
Chengdu
Rail, Chengdu- Chongqing
Chongqing
Rail, Chengdu- Kunming
Kunming
Rail and Chengdu- Dazhou
Dazhou
Rail, as well as the Shanghai–Wuhan– Chengdu
Chengdu
High-speed Rail, Chengdu- Lanzhou
Lanzhou
Railway, Xi'an- Chengdu
Chengdu
High-speed Railway, Chengdu- Guiyang
Guiyang
High-speed Railway, and Chengdu-Dujiangyan High-Speed Railway. Chengdu Railway Bureau manages the railway system of Sichuan Province, Chongqing
Chongqing
City, Guizhou
Guizhou
Province and Yunnan
Yunnan
Province. Since April 2013, companies are able to ship goods three times a week (initially only once a week)[64] to Europe on trains originating at Chengdu
Chengdu
Qingbaijiang Station bound for Łódź, Poland. It is the first express cargo train linking China
China
and Europe, taking 12 days to complete the full journey. Chengdu
Chengdu
has four main freight railway stations. Among them, the Chengdu
Chengdu
North Marshalling Station is one of the largest marshalling stations in Asia.[65] There are three major passenger stations servicing Chengdu. They are Chengdu Railway Station
Chengdu Railway Station
(commonly referred to as the "North Station"), Chengdu
Chengdu
South Railway Station ( Chengdu
Chengdu
nan Railway Station) and Chengdu East Railway Station
Chengdu East Railway Station
( Chengdu
Chengdu
dong Railway Station). In addition, Chengdu
Chengdu
West Railway Station is under construction and is scheduled to open in 2016. Chengdu–Dujiangyan intercity railway
Chengdu–Dujiangyan intercity railway
is a high-speed rail line connecting Central Chengdu
Chengdu
with the satellite city of Dujiangyan and the World Heritage of Mountain Qingcheng. The line is 65 km (40 mi) in length with 15 stations. CRH1 train sets on the line reach a maximum speed of 220 km/h (140 mph) and complete the full trip in 30 minutes. The line was built in 18 months and entered operation on 12 May 2010.[66] CRH trains services from Chengdu
Chengdu
to Chongqing
Chongqing
are in operation via the Chengdu-Suining- Chongqing
Chongqing
Railway. Also, the Chengdu-Chongqing High-speed Rail is planned to operate from 1 October 2015.[67] CRH Trains also provide service from Chengdu
Chengdu
( Chengdu
Chengdu
East Railway Station) to Suining, Nanchong
Nanchong
and Dazhou
Dazhou
on the Dazhou-Chengdu Railway. In addition, Jiangyou, Mianyang, Deyang, Meishan, Leshan
Leshan
and Emeishan are connected to Chengdu
Chengdu
by the Jiangyou-Chengdu-E'meishan High-speed Railway. Passengers can take the CRH trains to travel to the cities above at Chengdu
Chengdu
East(Dong) Railway Station, Chengdu South(Nan) Railway Station and Shuangliu Airport Station (Terminal 2, Chengdu
Chengdu
Shuangliu International Airport). Furthermore, passengers can take CRH train from Chengdu
Chengdu
to Wuhan, Nanjing, Hangzhou, Shanghai, Beijing, Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
etc. Moreover, the Chengdu- Guiyang
Guiyang
High-speed Rail, Chengdu-Lanzhou High-speed Rail and Chengdu- Kunming
Kunming
High-speed Rail are under construction. Metropolitan expressways[edit] Chengdu's transport network is well developed, and Chengdu
Chengdu
serves as the starting point for many national highways, with major routes going from Sichuan–Shanxi, Sichuan–Tibet, and Sichuan–Yunnan. Several major road projects have been constructed: a 15 km (9.3 mi) tunnel from Shuangliu Taiping to Jianyang Sancha Lake; alteration of the National Expressway 321, from Jiangyang
Jiangyang
to Longquanyi. There will also be a road that connects Longquan
Longquan
Town to Longquan
Longquan
Lake; it is connected to the Chengdu–Jianyang Expressway and hence shorten the journey by 10 km (6.2 mi). By the end of 2008, there are ten expressways, connecting the centre of Chengdu to its suburbs. The expressways are Chenglin Expressway, extensions of Guanghua Avenue, Shawan Line, and an expressway from Chengdu
Chengdu
to Heilongtan. The toll-free Chengjin Expressway in the east of Chengdu
Chengdu
is 38.7 km (24.0 mi) long. After it opens to the public, it will take only about half an hour to drive from central Chengdu
Chengdu
to Jintang, half the time of the current journey. The expressway between Chengdu
Chengdu
to Heilongtan
Heilongtan
( Chengdu
Chengdu
section), going to the south of the city, is 42 km (26 mi) long. It is also toll-free and a journey from downtown Chengdu
Chengdu
to Heilongtan
Heilongtan
will only take half an hour. The extension of Guanghua Avenue, going towards the west of the city. It make the journey time from Chongzhou
Chongzhou
City to Sanhuan Road to less than half an hour. The extension of Shawan Road going north is designed for travel at 60 km/h (37 mph). After it is connected to the expressways Pixian–Dujiangyan and Pixian–Pengzhou, it will take only 30 minutes to go from Chengdu
Chengdu
to Pengzhou. Coach[edit] There are many major intercity bus stations in Chengdu, and they serve different destinations. Chadianzi (茶店子): Hongyuan, Jiuzhaigou, Rilong Town, Ruo Ergai, Songpan
Songpan
County, Wolong and Langzhong Xinnanmen (新南门: Daocheng, Emei Shan, Jiǔzhàigōu, Kangding, Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Ya'an
Ya'an
and Leshan Wuguiqiao (五桂桥): Chongqing Jinsha (金沙): Qionglai, Pi County
Pi County
and Huayang (华阳) Chengdu
Chengdu
East railway Station Highways[edit]

National Highway G5 Beijing-Kunming National Highway G42 Shanghai-Chengdu National Highway G76 Xiamen-Chengdu National Highway G93 Chengdu- Chongqing
Chongqing
Region Circle National Highway G4201 Chengdu
Chengdu
1st Circle National Highway G4202 Chengdu
Chengdu
2nd Circle

Chengdu
Chengdu
Metro[edit] Main article: Chengdu
Chengdu
Metro

Luomashi Station of the Chengdu
Chengdu
Metro

The Chengdu Metro
Chengdu Metro
officially opened on 1 October 2010.[68] Line 1 runs from Shengxian Lake to Guangdu (south-north). Line 2 opened on September 2012. Line 3 opened on July 2016. Line 4 opened on December 2015. Line 3 (Phase 2 and Phase 3), Line 5 (Phase 1, Phase 2), Line 6, Line 7, Line 8, Line 9, Line 10 ( Phase 2), Line 18 (Phase 1) are currently under construction. Future plans call for more than twenty lines.[69] Bus[edit] Bus transit is the most important mode of public transport in Chengdu. There are more than 400 bus lines in Chengdu
Chengdu
with nearly 12,000 buses in total. In addition, the Chengdu BRT
Chengdu BRT
offers services on the Second Ring Road Elevated Road. Bus cards are available that permit free bus changes for three hours.

Chengdu
Chengdu
BRT

River transport[edit] Historically, the Jin River was used for boat traffic in and out of Chengdu. However, due to the size of the river itself and the reduced water depth over time, the Brocade
Brocade
River is no longer capable of carrying any type of water traffic. Therefore, Chengdu
Chengdu
has no direct access to the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
or any other larger river. However, to ensure that Chengdu's goods have access to the river efficiently, inland port cities of Yibin
Yibin
and Luzhou—both of which are reachable from Chengdu
Chengdu
within hours by expressways—on the Yangtze
Yangtze
have commenced large-scale port infrastructure development. As materials and equipment for the rebuilding of northern Sichuan
Sichuan
are sent in from the East Coast to Sichuan, these ports will see significant increases in throughput. Education[edit] Chengdu
Chengdu
is home to the greatest number of universities and research institutes in Southwestern China. It has 49 colleges and universities, including University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Sichuan
Sichuan
University, and Southwestern University of Finance and Economics. In 2010, over 140,000 students graduated from the colleges and universities, more than half of them majored in IT, finance, economics, business management, or foreign languages studies. Colleges and universities[edit]

West China
China
Medical Center of Sichuan
Sichuan
University

Chengdu
Chengdu
is the center of higher education and scientific research in Southwest China.

Sichuan University
Sichuan University
(SCU) (Founded in 1896), including the West China Medical Center of Sichuan
Sichuan
University Southwest Jiaotong University
Southwest Jiaotong University
(Founded in 1896) Southwestern University of Finance and Economics
Southwestern University of Finance and Economics
(Founded in 1925) University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
China
(Founded in 1956) Sichuan
Sichuan
Agricultural University (Founded in 1906) [70] Sichuan
Sichuan
Normal University (Founded in 1946) Southwest University for Nationalities (Founded in 1951) Chengdu University of Technology
Chengdu University of Technology
(Founded in 1956) Southwest Petroleum University
Southwest Petroleum University
(Founded in 1958) Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
(CDUTCM) (Founded in 1956)[71] Sichuan
Sichuan
Conservatory of Music (Founded in 1939) Chengdu University of Information Technology
Chengdu University of Information Technology
(CUIT) (Founded in 1951) Chengdu Kinesiology University
Chengdu Kinesiology University
(Founded in 1942) Xihua University
Xihua University
(Founded in 1960) Chengdu University
Chengdu University
(Founded in 1978) Chengdu Medical College
Chengdu Medical College
(Founded in 1947) Chengdu
Chengdu
Technological University (Founded in 1913)

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed. International schools[edit]

Chengdu
Chengdu
Meishi International School Chengdu
Chengdu
International School Eton House The Léman International School – Chengdu Malvern College Chengdu Oxford International College of Chengdu Quality Schools International: QSI International School of Chengdu

Major secondary schools[edit]

Chengdu No.7 High School
Chengdu No.7 High School
(Founded in 1902) Chengdu Shishi High School
Chengdu Shishi High School
(Founded in 143 BC) Chengdu Shude High School
Chengdu Shude High School
(Founded in 1929) The Affiliated High School of Sichuan
Sichuan
University The Affiliated High School of Sichuan
Sichuan
Normal University Chengdu
Chengdu
Experimental Foreign Languages School Chengdu
Chengdu
Foreign Languages School Chengdu
Chengdu
Jiaxiang Foreign Language School

Consulates[edit] The United States
United States
Consulate General at Chengdu
Chengdu
opened on 16 October 1985. It was the first foreign consulate in west-central China
China
since 1949. Currently fourteen countries have consulates in Chengdu. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
also has a visa application center in Chengdu.

Consulate year Consular District

United States
United States
Consulate General Chengdu 1986 Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou/Tibet AR

Germany
Germany
Consulate General Chengdu 2003 Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou

Republic of Korea Consulate General Chengdu 2004 Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou

Thailand
Thailand
Consulate General Chengdu 2004 Sichuan/Chongqing

France
France
Consulate General Chengdu 2005 Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou

Singapore
Singapore
Consulate General Chengdu 2006 Sichuan/Chongqing/Shaanxi

Pakistan
Pakistan
Consulate General Chengdu 2007 Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou

Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Consulate Chengdu 2009 Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou/Shaanxi

Australia
Australia
Consulate General Chengdu 2013 Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou

Israel
Israel
Consulate General Chengdu 2014 Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou

New Zealand
New Zealand
Consulate General Chengdu 2014 Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou

Poland
Poland
Consulate General Chengdu 2015 Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou

Czech Consulate General Chengdu 2015 Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou

India
India
Consulate General Chengdu 2015 Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou

Swiss Consulate General Chengdu 2017 Sichuan/Chongqing/Yunnan/Guizhou

Sports[edit] Tennis[edit] Chengdu
Chengdu
is the hometown of Grand Slam champions Zheng Jie
Zheng Jie
and Yan Zi, who won the women's double championships at both the Australian Open and Wimbledon in 2006, and Li Na
Li Na
who won the 2011 French Open
2011 French Open
and 2014 Australian Open, has led to increased interest in tennis in Chengdu. Over 700 standard tennis courts have been built in the city in the past 10 years (2006 - 2016), and the registered membership for the Chengdu
Chengdu
Tennis Association have grown to over 10,000 from the original 2,000 in the 1980s.[72] Thanks to the boom the country has now 30,000 tennis courts and an estimated 14 million people in China
China
regularly playing tennis, up from 1 million when the sport returned to the Olympics in 1988, according to the WTA Tour. The Chinese government is aiming to increase that by 15 percent every year. The nation’s tennis market has reached $4 billion annually, according to Tom Cannon, a professor and sports finance expert at the University of Liverpool Management School in England. The women’s tour upgraded the China
China
Open in Beijing
Beijing
to become the only combined event with the men’s tour in Asia. Played at the Beijing
Beijing
Olympic Tennis Center with combined prize money of $6.6 million and a main stadium that holds 10,000 spectators, the China Open is now one of the WTA’s top four tournaments. The ATP’s other flagship tournament in Asia is the $8.1 million Shanghai
Shanghai
Masters. Chengdu
Chengdu
is now part of an elite group of cities to host an ATP (Association of Tennis Professionals) Champions Tour tournament, along with London, Zürich, São Paulo
São Paulo
and Delray Beach. Chengdu
Chengdu
Open, an ATP Championships Tour starting in 2009, have successfully invited star players including Pete Sampras, Marat Safin, Carlos Moya, Tomas Enqvist, and Mark Philippoussis.[73] Football/ Chengdu Blades F.C.
Chengdu Blades F.C.
(association football)[edit] Football is a popular sport in Chengdu. Currently, Chengdu
Chengdu
Blades Football Club, Chengdu's football team, plays in the 42,000-seat Chengdu
Chengdu
Sports Stadium in the Chinese League One. The club was founded on 26 February 1996 and was formerly known as Chengdu
Chengdu
Wuniu (Five Bulls) named after their first sponsor, the Wuniu (Five Bulls) Cigarette
Cigarette
Company. The English professional football club, Sheffield United F.C., took over the club on 11 December 2005.[74] The club was later promoted into the China
China
Super League until they were embroiled in a match-fixing scandal in 2009. Punished with relegation the owners eventually sold their majority on 9 December 2010 to Hung Fu Enterprise Co., Ltd and Scarborough Development (China) Co., Ltd.[75][76] On 23 May 2013 the Tiancheng Investment Group announced the acquisition of the club.[77] Chengdu
Chengdu
Longquanyi
Longquanyi
Football Stadium was one of the four venues which hosted the 2004 AFC Asian Cup. Chengdu, along with Shanghai, Hangzhou, Tianjin
Tianjin
and Wuhan, hosted the 2007 FIFA Women's World Cup. Major sports venues[edit] The Chengdu Sports Centre
Chengdu Sports Centre
is located in downtown Chengdu, covering 140 acres (57 ha) and has 42,000 seats. As one of the landmarks of Chengdu, it is the first large multi-purpose venue in Chengdu
Chengdu
that can accommodate sports competitions, trainings, social activities, and performances. It is the home stadium of the Chengdu
Chengdu
Blades, Chengdu's football team. The stadium hosted the 2007 FIFA Women's World Cup. The Sichuan
Sichuan
International Tennis Center, located 16 km (10 mi) away from Chengdu's Shuangliu International Airport, covers an area of 250,000 square metres (2,700,000 square feet). It is the largest tennis center in southwest China
China
and the fourth tennis center in China
China
meeting ATP competition standards, after Beijing, Shanghai
Shanghai
and Nanjing. This center is equipped with 36 standard tennis courts and 11,000 seats. Since 2009, the Chengdu
Chengdu
Open, an ATP Championship Tour tournament, is held here annually. The Chengdu Goldenport Circuit
Chengdu Goldenport Circuit
is a motorsport racetrack that has hosted the A1 Grand Prix, Formula V6 Asia, China
China
Formula 4 Championship and China
China
GT Championship. Sister or twin cities[edit]

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Baku, Azerbaijan Bengaluru, India Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany Cebu City, Philippines
Philippines
[78] Dalarna, Sweden Flemish Brabant, Flanders, Belgium Gimcheon, North Gyeongsang Province, South Korea Kofu, Yamanashi
Kofu, Yamanashi
Prefecture, Japan Honolulu, Hawaii, United States Horsens, Denmark Kandy, Sri Lanka Knoxville, Tennessee, United States Lahore, Pakistan Linz, Austria (1983) Maastricht, Limburg, Netherlands

Medan, North Sumatra, Indonesia Montpellier, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
France
(22 June 1981) Palermo, Italy Perth, Western Australia, Australia Phoenix, Arizona, United States Saint Petersburg, Russia Sheffield, England, United Kingdom Valencia, Spain Volgograd, Russia Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada (1988)

See also[edit]

Geography portal Asia portal China
China
portal

Baiguolin List of cities in China
China
by population List of current and former capitals of subnational entities of China List of twin towns and sister cities in China

Notes[edit]

^ Chinese: 以周太王从梁王止岐山,一年而所居成聚,二年成邑,三年成都,因名之成都。 ^ Chinese: t 揚一益二, s 扬一益二, "Yang[zhou] 1[st], Yi[zhou] 2[nd]". ^ "Let us now speak of a great Bridge which crosses this River within the city. This bridge is of stone; it is seven paces in width and half a mile in length (the river being that much in width as I told you); and all along its length on either side there are columns of marble to bear the roof, for the bridge is roofed over from end to end with timber, and that all richly painted. And on this bridge there were houses in which a great deal of trade and industry is carried on. But these houses were all of wood merely, and they are put up in the morning and taken down in the evening. Also there stands upon the bridge the Great Kaan's _Comercque_, that is to say, his custom-house, where his toll and tax were levied."[8]

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ a b "龟城刘备审阿斗_中华文本库". Chinadmd.com (in Chinese). 29 June 2015. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 31 December 2015.  ^ a b "3-2各市(州)年末常住人口、出生率、死亡率、自然增长率、城镇化率和人口密度(2014年)". www.tjsql.com. Archived from the original on 1 July 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-06.  ^ a b OECD
OECD
Urban Policy Reviews: China
China
2015, OECD
OECD
READ edition. OECD iLibrary. OECD. 18 April 2015. p. 37. doi:10.1787/9789264230040-en. ISBN 9789264230033. ISSN 2306-9341. Linked from the OECD
OECD
here

^ "Chengdu, the City Whose Name hasn't changed for 2300 years". cd.wenming.cn. 6 January 2011. Retrieved 6 January 2011.  ^ a b "Chang Hsien-chung". Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period. Qing Research Portal, Dartmouth College.  ^ Wilkinson, Endymion (2000), Chinese History: A Manual, Harvard University Asia Center, p. 849  ^ a b Quian, Jack, Chengdu: A City of Paradise

, 2006. Cf. p.109 ^ a b Yule, Henry; et al. (eds.), The Travels of Marco Polo, Vol. II, Ch. XLIV  ^ a b Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. (1878), Vol. V, "China". ^ "成都味道 PDF – 综合课件 – 道客巴巴". Doc88.com. 2013-06-02. Retrieved 2015-12-31.  ^ " Chengdu
Chengdu
Unveils its New City Logo". news.ifeng.com. 2011-12-30. Retrieved 2012-02-10.  ^ Sage, Steven F. (1992). Ancient Sichuan
Sichuan
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China
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Lonely Planet
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Sichuan
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^ 重返新津机场美国老兵泪光闪烁

(in Chinese) ^ United States
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, Washington D.C. 1 July 1946. Page 16. ^ Cook, Chris Cook. Stevenson, John. [2005] (2005). The Routledge Companion to World History Since 1914. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-34584-7. p 376. ^ Han Cheung (4 December 2016). " Taiwan
Taiwan
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Taipei
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China
Is Building A Huge Eco-City Where No One Will Need To Drive". Business Insider. Retrieved 27 January 2013.  ^ 为什么重庆、武汉、南京有"三大火炉"之称? (in Chinese). Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Popular Science News Net (广州科普资讯网). 12 September 2007. Archived from the original on 12 November 2014. Retrieved 29 November 2010.  ^ "中央机构编制委员会印发《关于副省级市若干问题的意见》的通知. 中编发[1995]5号". 豆丁网. 19 February 1995. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-28.  ^ "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions-Sichuan". PRC Central Government Official Website. 2001. Retrieved 11 May 2014.  ^ "中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码". 中华人民共和国民政部.  ^ shi, Guo wu yuan ren kou pu cha ban gong; council, Guo jia tong ji ju ren kou he jiu ye tong ji si bian = Tabulation on the 2010 population census of the people's republic of China
China
by township / compiled by Population census office under the state; population, Department of; statistics, employment statistics national bureau of (2012). Zhongguo 2010 nian ren kou pu cha fen xiang, zhen, jie dao zi liao (Di 1 ban. ed.). Beijing
Beijing
Shi: Zhongguo tong ji chu ban she. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.  ^ 中华人民共和国民政部 (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》. 中国统计出版社. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.  ^ Roberto A. Ferdman (3 July 2013). "The world's new largest building is four times the size of Vatican City". Quartz. Quartz. Retrieved 4 July 2013.  ^ "China: Administrative Division of Sìchuān / 四川省 (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts". Citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2015-12-31.  ^ CNBC.com, Justina Crabtree; special to (20 September 2016). "A tale of megacities: China's largest metropolises". CNBC. slide 7  ^ Jing, Fu (2006-01-03). " Beijing
Beijing
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China
Daily.  ^ "成都石室中学". Cdshishi.net. Archived from the original on 17 December 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013.  ^ Lee, Don (2006-02-08). "People's Party Animals". Los Angeles Times.  ^ "Gastronomy – United Nations". UNESCO. 2012-07-30.  ^ "阳光下最热闹的地方 外地人眼中的成都茶文化". Sina Sichuan. 2011-04-13. Retrieved 2012-02-09.  ^ "Playing Mahjong
Mahjong
games, the popular way of relaxation in Chengdu". What'sonchengdu.com. 2011-01-28. Retrieved 2012-02-09.  ^ [2] Archived 14 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine.

14 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ [3] Archived 24 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine.

24 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine. ^ [4] Archived 3 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine.

3 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c " Chengdu
Chengdu
Leading the West (in Chinese)". 2009-10-21.  ^ " Chengdu
Chengdu
Eyes a ¥90b Biopharma Industry (in Chinese)". Thechinaperspective.com. 2009-10-20. Retrieved 2013-12-10.  ^ "Branches of Fortune 500
Fortune 500
Businesses in Chengdu". Investchengdu.gov.cn. 29 October 2007. Archived from the original on 8 December 2008. Retrieved 10 December 2013.  ^ " Dell
Dell
To Build Flagship Manufacturing and Customer Support Center In Chengdu
Chengdu
To Support Western China
China
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Operations". Dell. 16 September 2010. Archived from the original on 28 September 2010. Retrieved 24 September 2010.  ^ " IBM
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Expands Global Delivery Capabilities to Inland China". IBM Press Room. 2006-11-27. Retrieved 2009-08-28.  ^ " IBM
IBM
成都分公司" (in Chinese). IBM
IBM
Press Room. Archived from the original on 4 May 2007.  ^ " IBM
IBM
to Further Investment in Chengdu". People's Government of Sichuan
Sichuan
Province.  ^ "WCG 2009 in Chengdu, China". Sk-gaming.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.  ^ "Welcome to Invest Chengdu!". Chengduinvest.gov.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10.  ^ "Real estate changes Chengdu". Chengdu
Chengdu
Business Newspaper. 23 December 2008. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016.  ^ Zhang Zhiying (2008). "30-year history of Chengdu
Chengdu
real estate market". Shanghai
Shanghai
Real Estate vol.7. p. 14.  ^ zh:中华人民共和国机场运营统计列表 ^ "Agreement to build an airport hub in Chengdu". People's Net. 2009-05-26.  ^ " Chengdu
Chengdu
airport". Sina. 2009-05-26.  ^ "Poland- China
China
cargo train a success". wbj.pl. 3 June 2013. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013.  ^ " Chengdu
Chengdu
city info southwest china". Retrieved 2010-03-05.  ^ (Chinese) "四川建首条城际快客 连通成都和都江堰" 新民晚报

2014-05-12 ^ "Chengyu Passenger Line achieves breakthrough – video – CQNEWS_English". English.cqnews.net. 2013-12-17. Retrieved 2015-12-31.  ^ " Chengdu Metro
Chengdu Metro
Company website". Cdmetro.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10.  ^ "我国中西部地区第一条地铁开通_新闻中心_新浪网". News.sina.com.cn. 2010-09-28. Retrieved 2011-03-15.  ^ " Sichuan
Sichuan
Agricultural University". Ghc.sicau.edu.cn. 2010-03-10. Retrieved 2011-03-15.  ^ " Chengdu University
Chengdu University
of Traditional chinese Medicine website". Cdutcm.org. 2009-11-09. Retrieved 2011-03-15.  ^ "成都网球协会". Cd-wx.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.  ^ 最適な水~水素水を作る整水器、軟水を作る業務用軟水器~ 軟水を作る業務用軟水器、水素水を作る整水器について (in Japanese). Chengduchampions.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.  ^ "Hongkong 2008/09". Rsssf.com. 2009-09-24. Retrieved 2015-12-31.  ^ [5] Archived 3 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine.

3 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "英投资方决定成都谢菲联不出售 尽快解决欠薪稳军心_国内足球-中超_新浪竞技风暴_新浪网". Sports.sina.com.cn. Retrieved 2015-12-31.  ^ "成足更名天诚谢菲联 短期内回中超3年内进亚冠-搜狐体育". Sports.sohu.com. 2010-09-09. Retrieved 2015-12-31.  ^ "Cebu, Chengdu
Chengdu
sign sister-city agreement". Cebu Daily News. June 22, 2017. Retrieved June 23, 2017. 

Bibliography[edit]

Mayhew, Bradley; Miller, Korina; English, Alex, South-West China, Lonely Planet
Lonely Planet
Publications, 1998 (2nd edition 2002). Cf. p. 444 for its article on Chengdu. Quian, Jack, Chengdu: A City of Paradise, 2006

Further reading[edit]

Ling Zhu, "Chengdu, the city of spice and tea", China
China
Daily, Government of China, Friday, 22 December 2006 Anna Zhang, "City Profile: Chengdu
Chengdu
– Land of Abundance", Shanghai Business Review, July 2012.

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage
Wikivoyage
has a travel guide for Chengdu.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chengdu.

Official Website of the Chengdu
Chengdu
Government Official Website of the Chengdu
Chengdu
Government (in simplified Chinese) Geographic data related to Chengdu
Chengdu
at OpenStreetMap

Preceded by Chongqing Capital of the Republic of China 30 Nov 1949 – 27 Dec 1949 Succeeded by Taipei

v t e

County-level divisions of Sichuan
Sichuan
Province

Chengdu
Chengdu
(capital)

Sub-provincial city

Chengdu

Qingyang
Qingyang
District Jinjiang District Jinniu District Wuhou District Chenghua District Longquanyi
Longquanyi
District Qingbaijiang District Xindu District Wenjiang District Shuangliu District Pidu District Dujiangyan City Pengzhou
Pengzhou
City Qionglai City Chongzhou
Chongzhou
City Jianyang City Jintang County Dayi County Pujiang County Xinjin County

Prefecture-level cities

Zigong

Ziliujing District Da'an District Gongjing District Yantan District Rong County Fushun
Fushun
County

Panzhihua

Dong District Xi District Renhe District Miyi County Yanbian County

Luzhou

Jiangyang
Jiangyang
District Naxi District Longmatan District Lu County Hejiang County Xuyong County Gulin County

Deyang

Jingyang District Luojiang District Shifang
Shifang
City Guanghan
Guanghan
City Mianzhu
Mianzhu
City Zhongjiang County

Mianyang

Fucheng District Youxian District Anzhou District Jiangyou
Jiangyou
City Santai County Yanting County Zitong County Pingwu County Beichuan Autonomous County

Guangyuan

Lizhou District Zhaohua District Chaotian District Wangcang County Qingchuan County Jiange County Cangxi County

Suining

Chuanshan District Anju District Pengxi County Shehong County Daying County

Neijiang

Shizhong District Dongxing District Longchang
Longchang
City Weiyuan County Zizhong County

Leshan

Shizhong District Shawan District Wutongqiao District Jinkouhe District Emeishan City Qianwei County Jingyan County Jiajiang County Muchuan County Ebian Autonomous County Mabian Autonomous County

Nanchong

Shunqing District Gaoping
Gaoping
District Jialing District Langzhong
Langzhong
City Nanbu County Xichong County Yingshan County Yilong County Peng'an County

Meishan

Dongpo District Pengshan District Renshou County Hongya County Danleng County Qingshen County

Yibin

Cuiping District Nanxi District Yibin
Yibin
County Jiang'an County Changning County Gao County Junlian County Gong County Xingwen County Pingshan County

Guang'an

Guang'an
Guang'an
District Qianfeng District Huaying
Huaying
City Yuechi County Wusheng County Linshui County

Dazhou

Tongchuan
Tongchuan
District Dachuan District Wanyuan
Wanyuan
City Xuanhan County Kaijiang County Dazhu County Qu County

Ya'an

Yucheng District Mingshan District Yingjing County Hanyuan County Shimian County Tianquan County Lushan County Baoxing County

Bazhong

Bazhou District Enyang District Tongjiang County Nanjiang County Pingchang County

Ziyang

Yanjiang District Lezhi County Anyue County

Autonomous prefectures

Aba

Barkam
Barkam
City Wenchuan County Li County Mao County Songpan
Songpan
County Jiuzhaigou County Jinchuan County Xiaojin County Heishui County Zamtang County Ngawa County Zoigê County Hongyuan County

Ganzi

Kangding
Kangding
City Luding County Danba County Jiulong County Yajiang County Dawu County Luhuo County Garzê County Xinlong County Dêgê County Baiyü County Sêrxü County Sêrtar County Litang County Batang County Xiangcheng County Daocheng
Daocheng
County Dêrong County

Liangshan

Xichang
Xichang
City Yanyuan County Dechang County Huili County Huidong County Ningnan County Puge County Butuo County Jinyang County Zhaojue County Xide County Mianning County Yuexi County Ganluo County Meigu County Leibo County Mili Autonomous County

Special
Special
jurisdictions

Wolong Special
Special
Administrative Region

v t e

Metropolitan cities of China

Major Metropolitan regions

Jingjinji
Jingjinji
(JJJ) Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
(PRD) / Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Delta (YRD)

Central Plain (Zhongyuan) Chengyu Cross-Strait Western Coast Guanzhong Mid-Southern Liaoning Shandong
Shandong
Peninsula Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Mid-Reaches ( Yangtze River
Yangtze River
Valley)

Major Cities

National Central Cities

Beijinga Chongqinga Guangzhoub2 Shanghaia2 Tianjina2

Special
Special
Administrative Regions

Hong Kong Macau

Regional Central Cities

Chengdub Nanjingb Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb

Sub-provincial cities

Changchunb Chengdub Dalianc2 Guangzhoub2 Hangzhoub Harbinb Jinanb Nanjingb Ningboc2 Qingdaoc2 Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb Xiamenc1

Provincial capitals (Prefecture-level)

Changsha Fuzhou2 Guiyang Haikou Hefei Kunming Lanzhou Nanchang Shijiazhuang Taiyuan Xining Zhengzhou Taibei5

Autonomous regional capitals

Hohhot Lhasa Nanning Ürümqi Yinchuan

Comparatively large cities

Anshan Baotou Benxi Datong Fushun Handan Huainan Jilin Luoyang Suzhou Tangshan Qiqihar Wuxi Xuzhou Zibo

Prefecture-level cities
Prefecture-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Shijiazhuang* Tangshan* Qinhuangdao2 Handan* Xingtai Baoding Zhangjiakou Chengde Cangzhou Langfang Hengshui

Shanxi

Taiyuan* Datong* Yangquan Changzhi Jincheng Shuozhou Jinzhong Yuncheng Xinzhou Linfen Lüliang

Inner Mongolia

Hohhot* Baotou* Wuhai Chifeng Tongliao Ordos Hulunbuir Bayannur Ulanqab

Liaoning

Shenyang* Dalian* Anshan* Fushun* Benxi* Dandong Jinzhou Yingkou Fuxin Liaoyang Panjin Tieling Chaoyang Huludao

Jilin

Changchun* Jilin Siping Liaoyuan Tonghua Baishan Songyuan Baicheng

Heilongjiang

Harbin* Qiqihar* Jixi Hegang Shuangyashan Daqing Yīchun Jiamusi Qitaihe Mudanjiang Heihe Suihua

Jiangsu

Nanjing* Wuxi* Xuzhou* Changzhou Suzhou* Nantong Lianyungang2 Huai'an Yancheng Yangzhou Zhenjiang Tàizhou Suqian

Zhejiang

Hangzhou* Ningbo* Wenzhou2 Jiaxing Huzhou Shaoxing Jinhua Quzhou Zhoushan Tāizhou Lìshui

Anhui

Hefei* Wuhu Bengbu Huainan* Ma'anshan Huaibei Tongling Anqing Huangshan Chuzhou Fùyang Sùzhou Lu'an Bozhou Chizhou Xuancheng

Fujian

Fúzhou* Xiamen* Putian Sanming Quanzhou Zhangzhou Nanping Longyan Ningde

Jiangxi

Nanchang* Jingdezhen Píngxiang Jiujiang Xinyu Yingtan Ganzhou Jí'ān Yíchun Fǔzhou Shangrao

Shandong

Jinan* Qingdao* Zibo* Zaozhuang Dongying Yantai2 Weifang Jĭning Tai'an Weihai Rizhao Laiwu Linyi Dezhou Liaocheng Binzhou Heze

Henan

Zhengzhou* Kaifeng Luoyang* Pingdingshan Anyang Hebi Xinxiang Jiaozuo Puyang Xuchang Luohe Sanmenxia Nanyang Shangqiu Xinyang Zhoukou Zhumadian

Hubei

Wuhan* Huangshi Shiyan Yichang Xiangyang Ezhou Jingmen Xiaogan Jinzhou Huanggang Xianning Suizhou

Hunan

Changsha* Zhuzhou Xiangtan Hengyang Shaoyang Yueyang Changde Zhangjiajie Yiyang Chenzhou Yongzhou Huaihua Loudi

Guangdong

Guangzhou* Shaoguan Shenzhen* Zhuhai1 Shantou1 Foshan Jiangmen Zhanjiang2 Maoming Zhaoqing Huizhou Meizhou Shanwei Heyuan Yangjiang Qingyuan Dongguan Zhongshan Chaozhou Jieyang Yunfu

Guangxi

Nanning* Liuzhou Guilin Wuzhou Beihai2 Fangchenggang Qinzhou Guigang Yùlin Baise Hezhou Hechi Laibin Chongzuo

Hainan1

Haikou* Sanya Sansha4 Danzhou

Sichuan

Chengdu* Zigong Panzhihua Luzhou Deyang Mianyang Guangyuan Suining Neijiang Leshan Nanchong Meishan Yibin Guang'an Dazhou Ya'an Bazhong Ziyang

Guizhou

Guiyang* Liupanshui Zunyi Anshun Bijie Tongren

Yunnan

Kunming* Qujing Yuxi Baoshan Zhaotong Lìjiang Pu'er Lincang

Tibet

Lhasa* Shigatse Chamdo Nyingchi Shannan

Shaanxi

Xi'an* Tongchuan Baoji Xianyang Weinan Yan'an Hanzhong Yúlin Ankang Shangluo

Gansu

Lanzhou* Jiayuguan Jinchang Baiyin Tianshui Wuwei Zhangye Pingliang Jiuquan Qingyang Dingxi Longnan

Qinghai

Xining* Haidong

Ningxia

Yinchuan* Shizuishan Wuzhong Guyuan Zhongwei

Xinjiang

Ürümqi* Karamay Turpan Hami

Taiwan5

(none)

Other cities (partly shown below)

Prefecture-level capitals (County-level)

(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot Xilinhot) Jiagedaqi3, Heilongjiang Enshi, Hubei Jishou, Hunan (Sichuan:Xichang Kangding Barkam) (Guizhou: Xingyi Kaili Duyun) (Yunnan: Chuxiong Mengzi Wenshan Jinghong Dali Mangshi Shangri-La Lushui) (Gansu: Linxia Hezuo) (Qinghai: Yushu Delingha) (Xinjiang: Changji Bole Korla Yining Artux Aksu Kashgar1 Hotan Tacheng Altay)

Province-governed cities (Sub-prefecture-level)

Jiyuan, Henan (Hubei: Xiantao Qiánjiang Tianmen Shennongjia) (Hainan1: Wuzhishan Qionghai Wenchang Wanning Dongfang) ( Xinjiang
Xinjiang
- XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi Aral Tumxuk Wujiaqu Beitun Tiemenguan Shuanghe Kokdala Kunyu)

Former Prefecture-level cities

Chaohu, Anhui Yumen,Gansu Dongchuan, Yunnan Shashi, Hubei (Sichuan: Fuling Wanxian) (Jilin: Meihekou Gongzhuling)

Sub-prefecture-level cities (Prefecture-governed)

Qian'an, Hebei Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia Erenhot, Inner Mongolia Golmud, Qinghai

County-level cities
County-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Xinji Jinzhou Xinle Zunhua Qian'an* Wu'an Nangong Shahe Zhuozhou Dingzhou Anguo Gaobeidian Botou Renqiu Huanghua Hejian Bazhou Sanhe Shenzhou

Shanxi

Gujiao Lucheng Gaoping Jiexiu Yongji Hejin Yuanping Houma Huozhou Xiaoyi Fenyang

Inner Mongolia

Holingol Manzhouli* Yakeshi Zhalantun Ergun Genhe Fengzhen Ulanhot* Arxan Erenhot* Xilinhot*

Liaoning

Xinmin Wafangdian Zhuanghe Haicheng Donggang Fengcheng Linghai Beizhen Gaizhou Dashiqiao Dengta Diaobingshan Kaiyuan Beipiao Lingyuan Xingcheng

Jilin

Yushu Dehui Jiaohe Huadian Shulan Panshi Gongzhuling Shuangliao Meihekou Ji'an Linjiang Fuyu Taonan Da'an Yanji Tumen Dunhua Hunchun Longjing Helong

Heilongjiang

Shangzhi Wuchang Nehe Hulin Mishan Tieli Tongjiang Fujin Fuyuan Suifenhe Hailin Ning'an Muling Dongning Bei'an Wudalianchi Anda Zhaodong Hailun

Jiangsu

Jiangyin Yixing Xinyi Pizhou Liyang Changshu Zhangjiagang Kunshan Taicang Qidong Rugao Haimen Dongtai Yizheng Gaoyou Danyang Yangzhong Jurong Jingjiang Taixing Xinghua

Zhejiang

Jiande Lin'an Yuyao Cixi Fenghua Rui'an Yueqing Haining Pinghu Tongxiang Zhuji Shengzhou Lanxi Yiwu Dongyang Yongkang Jiangshan Wenling Linhai Longquan

Anhui

Chaohu Jieshou Tongcheng Tianchang Mingguang Ningguo

Fujian

Fuqing Changle Yong'an Shishi Jinjiang Nan'an Longhai Shaowu Wuyishan Jian'ou Zhangping Fu'an Fuding

Jiangxi

Leping Ruichang Gongqingcheng Lushan Guixi Ruijin Jinggangshan Fengcheng Zhangshu Gao'an Dexing

Shandong

Zhangqiu Jiaozhou Jimo Pingdu Laixi Tengzhou Longkou Laiyang Laizhou Penglai Zhaoyuan Qixia Haiyang Qingzhou Zhucheng Shouguang Anqiu Gaomi Changyi Qufu Zoucheng Xintai Feicheng Rongcheng Rushan Laoling Yucheng Linqing

Henan

Gongyi Xingyang Xinmi Xinzheng Dengfeng Yanshi Wugang Ruzhou Linzhou Weihui Huixian Qinyang Mengzhou Yuzhou Changge Yima Lingbao Dengzhou Yongcheng Xiangcheng Jiyuan*

Hubei

Daye Danjiangkou Yidu Dangyang Zhijiang Laohekou Zaoyang Yicheng Zhongxiang Yingcheng Anlu Hanchuan Shishou Honghu Songzi Macheng Wuxue Chibi Guangshui Enshi* Lichuan Xiantao* Qianjiang* Tianmen*

Hunan

Liuyang Liling Xiangxiang Shaoshan Leiyang Changning Wugang Miluo Linxiang Jinshi Yuanjiang Zixing Hongjiang Lengshuijiang Lianyuan Jishou*

Guangdong

Lechang Nanxiong Taishan Kaiping Heshan Enping Lianjiang Leizhou Wuchuan Gaozhou Huazhou Xinyi Sihui Xingning Lufeng Yangchun Yingde Lianzhou Puning Luoding

Guangxi

Cenxi Dongxing Guiping Beiliu Jingxi Yizhou Heshan Pingxiang

Hainan

Wuzhishan* Qionghai* Wenchang* Wanning* Dongfang*

Sichuan

Dujiangyan Pengzhou Qionglai Chongzhou Jianyang Guanghan Shifang Mianzhu Jiangyou Emeishan Langzhong Huaying Wanyuan Barkam* Kangding* Xichang*

Guizhou

Qingzhen Chishui Renhuai Xingyi* Kaili* Duyun* Fuquan

Yunnan

Anning Xuanwei Tengchong Chuxiong* Mengzi* Gejiu Kaiyuan Mile Wenshan* Jinghong* Dali* Ruili Mangshi* Lushui* Shangri-La*

Tibet

(none)

Shaanxi

Xingping Hancheng Huayin

Gansu

Yumen Dunhuang Linxia* Hezuo*

Qinghai

Yushu* Golmud* Delingha*

Ningxia

Lingwu Qingtongxia

Xinjiang

Changji* Fukang Bole* Alashankou Korla* Aksu* Artux* Kashgar* Hotan* Yining* Kuytun Korgas Tacheng* Wusu Altay* Shihezi* Aral* Tumxuk* Wujiaqu* Beitun* Tiemenguan* Shuanghe* Kokdala* Kunyu*

Taiwan5

(none)

Notes

* Indicates this city has already occurred above. aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
as part of it. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China
China
Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. 5The claimed province of Taiwan
Taiwan
no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
China
instead. All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by province.

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in China Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2010)

Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.

Shanghai

Beijing 1 Shanghai Shanghai 20,217,700 11 Foshan Guangdong 6,771,900

Chongqing

Guangzhou

2 Beijing Beijing 16,858,700 12 Nanjing Jiangsu 6,238,200

3 Chongqing Chongqing 12,389,500 13 Shenyang Liaoning 5,890,700

4 Guangzhou Guangdong 10,641,400 14 Hangzhou Zhejiang 5,849,500

5 Shenzhen Guangdong 10,358,400 15 Xi'an Shaanxi 5,399,300

6 Tianjin Tianjin 10,007,700 16 Harbin Heilongjiang 5,178,000

7 Wuhan Hubei 7,541,500 17 Dalian Liaoning 4,222,400

8 Dongguan Guangdong 7,271,300 18 Suzhou Jiangsu 4,083,900

9 Chengdu Sichuan 7,112,000 19 Qingdao Shandong 3,990,900

10 Hong Kong Hong Kong 7,055,071 20 Zhengzhou Henan 3,677,000

v t e

Provincial capitals of China

Changchun
Changchun
(Jilin) Changsha
Changsha
(Hunan) Chengdu
Chengdu
(Sichuan) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
(Fujian) Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Guangdong) Guiyang
Guiyang
(Guizhou) Haikou
Haikou
(Hainan) Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(Zhejiang) Harbin
Harbin
(Heilongjiang) Hefei
Hefei
(Anhui) Hohhot
Hohhot
(Inner Mongolia) Jinan
Jinan
(Shandong) Kunming
Kunming
(Yunnan) Lanzhou
Lanzhou
(Gansu) Lhasa (Tibet) Nanchang
Nanchang
(Jiangxi) Nanjing
Nanjing
(Jiangsu) Nanning
Nanning
(Guangxi) Shenyang
Shenyang
(Liaoning) Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
(Hebei) Taibei¹ (Taiwan¹) Taiyuan
Taiyuan
(Shanxi) Ürümqi
Ürümqi
(Xinjiang) Wuhan
Wuhan
(Hubei) Xi'an
Xi'an
(Shaanxi) Xining
Xining
(Qinghai) Yinchuan
Yinchuan
(Ningxia) Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
(Henan)

Note: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People's Republic of China
China
but administered by the Republic of China
China
(see Political status of Taiwan).

v t e

World's fifty most-populous urban areas

Tokyo– Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin) Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila) Seoul– Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou– Foshan
Foshan
(Guangfo)

São Paulo Mexico
Mexico
City (Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe– Kyoto
Kyoto
(Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata

Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima

Chengdu Greater London Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad

Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Klang Valley) Quanzhou

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 265184140 GND: 4249575-1 BNF: cb13745600g (d

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