The CHANNEL ISLANDS (Norman : Îles d'la Manche, French : Îles
Anglo-Normandes or Îles de la
Manche ) are an archipelago in the
English Channel , off the French coast of
Normandy . They include two
Crown dependencies : the
Bailiwick of Jersey, consisting of
the largest of the islands; and the
Guernsey , consisting
Sark and some smaller islands. They are
considered the remnants of the Duchy of
Normandy and, although they
are not part of the
United Kingdom , it is responsible for the
defence and international relations of the islands. The Crown
dependencies are not members of the
Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations or of the
European Union . They have a total population of about 168,000, and
the bailiwicks' capitals ,
Saint Helier and
Saint Peter Port , have
populations of 33,500 and 16,488, respectively. The total area of the
islands is 198 km2.
The two bailiwicks have been administered separately since the late
13th century; each has its own independent laws, elections, and
representative bodies (although in modern times, politicians from the
islands' legislatures are in regular contact). Any institution common
to both is the exception rather than the rule. The
Guernsey is divided into three jurisdictions – Guernsey, Alderney
Sark – each with its own legislature .
The term "Channel Islands" began to be used around 1830, possibly
first by the
Royal Navy as a collective name for the islands. :158
* 1 Geography
* 2 History
* 2.1 Prehistory
* 2.2 From the
* 2.3 From the Duchy of
* 2.4 From the seventeenth century
* 2.5 20th century
World War II
World War II
* 2.5.2 Post-1945
* 3 Politics
* 4 Economy
* 5 Transport and communications
* 5.1 Post
* 5.2 Transport
* 5.2.1 Road
* 5.2.2 Sea
* 5.2.3 Air
* 5.2.4 Rail
* 5.3 Media
* 5.4 Telephone
* 5.5 Internet
* 6 Culture
* 6.1 Faith and religious history
* 7 Other islands in the
* 8 See also
* 9 Notes
* 10 References
* 11 Bibliography
* 12 External links
Channel Islands and adjacent coast of France. Viewed
from Jersey's north coast,
Sark are hazy outlines on
The permanently inhabited islands of the
Channel Islands are:
There are also several uninhabited islets. Four are part of the
Bailiwick of Jersey:
Pierres de Lecq (the Paternosters)
These lie off Alderney:
These lie off Guernsey:
* Grande Amfroque
Lihou (occupied for part of the year)
(See also List of islands of the
In general the larger islands have the -ey suffix, and the smaller
ones have the
-hou suffix; these are believed to be from the Old Norse
ey and holmr, respectively which means island and islet.
Chausey Islands south of
Jersey are not generally included in the
geographical definition of the
Channel Islands but are occasionally
described in English as 'French Channel Islands' in view of their
French jurisdiction. They were historically linked to the Duchy of
Normandy, but they are part of the French territory along with
continental Normandy, and not part of the
British Isles or of the
Channel Islands in a political sense. They are an incorporated part of
the commune of Granville (
Manche ). While they are popular with
visitors from France, Channel Islanders rarely visit them as there are
no direct transport links from the other islands.
Jersey French , the islands are called 'Îles de la
Manche', while in France, the term 'Îles Anglo-normandes'
(Anglo-Norman isles) is used to refer to the British 'Channel Islands'
in contrast to other islands in the Channel.
Chausey is referred to as
an 'Île normande' (as opposed to anglo-normande). 'Îles Normandes'
and 'Archipel Normand' have also, historically, been used in Channel
Island French to refer to the islands as a whole.
The very large tidal variation provides an environmentally rich
inter-tidal zone around the islands, and some islands such as
Écréhous , and the
Minquiers have been designated
Ramsar sites .
The waters around the islands include the following:
The Swinge (between
Alderney and Burhou)
* The Little Swinge (between
Burhou and Les Nannels)
* La Déroute (between
Jersey and Sark, and
Jersey and the Cotentin)
* Le Raz Blanchard, or Race of
Alderney and the
Great Russel (between Sark, Jéthou and Herm)
Little Russel (between Guernsey,
Herm and Jéthou)
* Souachehouais (between Le Rigdon and L'Étacq, Jersey)
* Le Gouliot (between
Sark and Brecqhou)
* La Percée (between
Herm and Jéthou)
The highest point in the islands is
Les Platons in
Jersey at 143
metres (469 ft) above sea level. The lowest point is the Atlantic
Ocean (sea level).
Main articles: History of
Jersey , History of
Guernsey , and German
occupation of the
Channel Islands La Gran'mère du Chimquière,
Statue menhir , Saint Martin,
The earliest evidence of human occupation of the
Channel Islands has
been dated to 250,000 years ago when they were attached to the
landmass of continental Europe. The islands became detached by rising
sea levels in the Neolithic period. The numerous dolmens and other
archaeological sites extant and recorded in history demonstrate the
existence of a population large enough and organised enough to
undertake constructions of considerable size and sophistication, such
as the burial mound at
La Hougue Bie in
Jersey or the statue menhirs
FROM THE IRON AGE
Hoards of Armorican coins have been excavated, providing evidence of
trade and contact in the
Iron Age period. Evidence for Roman
settlement is sparse, although evidently the islands were visited by
Roman officials and traders. The Roman name for the Channel Islands
was I. Lenuri (Lenur Islands) and is included in the Peutinger Table
:4 The traditional Latin names used for the islands (Caesarea for
Jersey, Sarnia for Guernsey, Riduna for Alderney) derive (possibly
mistakenly) from the
Antonine Itinerary . Gallo-Roman culture was
adopted to an unknown extent in the islands.
In the sixth century, Christian missionaries visited the islands.
Samson of Dol ,
Magloire are among saints
associated with the islands. In the sixth century, they were already
included in the diocese of Coutances where they remained until
The islands were inhabited by Britons , who also inhabited
England and nearby
Brittany having moved away from invading
Anglo-Saxons . From the beginning of the ninth century, Norse raiders
appeared on the coasts. Norse settlement succeeded initial attacks,
and it is from this period that many place names of Norse origin
appear, including the modern names of the islands.
FROM THE DUCHY OF NORMANDY
In 933, the islands were granted to
William I Longsword by Raoul King
of Western Francia and annexed to the Duchy of
Normandy . In 1066,
William II of
Normandy invaded and conquered England, becoming William
I of England, also known as William the Conqueror. In the period
1204–1214, King John lost the
Angevin lands in northern France,
including mainland Normandy, to King
Philip II of France
Philip II of France , but managed
to retain control of the Channel Islands. In 1259, his successor,
Henry III of England
Henry III of England , by the Treaty of Paris , officially surrendered
his claim and title to the Duchy of Normandy, while the King of France
gave up claim to the Channel Islands, which was based upon his
position as feudal overlord of the Duke of Normandy. Since then, the
Channel Islands have been governed as possessions of the Crown and
were never absorbed into the
Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England and its successor
Great Britain and the United Kingdom.
The islands were invaded by the French in 1338, who held some
territory until 1345.
Edward III of England
Edward III of England granted a Charter in July
1341 to Jersey, Guernsey,
Sark and Alderney, confirming their customs
and laws to secure allegiance to the English Crown. :2–4 Owain
Lawgoch , a mercenary leader of a
Free Company in the service of the
French Crown, attacked
Guernsey in 1372, and in 1373
Bertrand du Guesclin besieged
Mont Orgueil . The young King Richard
England reconfirmed in 1378 the Charter rights granted by his
grandfather, followed in 1394 with a second Charter granting, because
of great loyalty shown to the Crown, exemption for ever, from English
tolls, customs and duties. :5–10
Jersey was occupied by the French
in 1461 as part of an exchange of helping the Lancastrians fight
against the Yorkists during
The War of the Roses . It was retaken by
the Yorkists in 1468. In 1483 a
Papal bull decreed that the islands
would be neutral during time of war. This privilege of neutrality
enabled islanders to trade with both
England and was
respected until 1689 when it was abolished by Order in Council
Glorious Revolution in Great Britain.
Various attempts to transfer the islands from the diocese of
Coutances (to Nantes (1400), Salisbury (1496), and Winchester (1499))
had little effect until an
Order in Council of 1569 brought the
islands formally into the diocese of Winchester . Control by the
bishop of Winchester was ineffectual as the islands had turned
overwhelmingly Calvinist and the episcopacy was not restored until
Jersey and 1663 in Guernsey.
Sark in the 16th century was uninhabited until colonised from Jersey
in the 1560s. The grant of seigneurship from
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England in
1565 forms the basis of Sark's constitution today.
FROM THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY
Channel Islands in the Wars of the Three Kingdoms
Wars of the Three Kingdoms ,
Jersey held out strongly for
the Royalist cause, providing refuge for Charles, Prince of
1646 and 1649–1650, while the more strongly Presbyterian Guernsey
more generally favoured the parliamentary cause (although Castle
Cornet was held by Royalists and did not surrender until October 1651.
The islands acquired commercial and political interests in the North
American colonies. Islanders became involved with the Newfoundland
fisheries in the seventeenth century. In recognition for all the help
given to him during his exile in
Jersey in the 1640s, Charles II gave
George Carteret , Bailiff and governor, a large grant of land in the
American colonies, which he promptly named New
Jersey , now part of
the United States of America. Sir
Edmund Andros of
Guernsey was an
early colonial governor in North America, and head of the short-lived
Dominion of New England
Dominion of New England .
In the late eighteenth century, the Islands were dubbed "the French
Isles". Wealthy French émigrés fleeing the Revolution sought
residency in the islands. Many of the town domiciles existing today
were built in that time. In
Saint Peter Port , a large part of the
harbour had been built by 1865.
German fortifications , built during the Second World War, are
present scattered throughout the landscape of the Channel Islands.
World War II
German occupation of the Channel Islands During
the German occupation of
Jersey , a stonemason repairing the paving of
the Royal Square incorporated a V for victory under the noses of the
occupiers. This was later amended to refer to the
Red Cross ship Vega.
The addition of the date 1945 and a more recent frame has transformed
it into a monument.
The islands were the only British territory to be occupied by the
German Army during
World War II
World War II .
British Government demilitarised the islands in June 1940, and
the lieutenant-governors were withdrawn on 21 June, leaving the
insular administrations to continue government as best they could
under impending military occupation.
Before German troops landed, between 30 June and 4 July 1940,
evacuation took place (many young men had already left to join the
Allied armed forces): 6,600 out of 50,000 left
Jersey while 17,000 out
of 42,000 left Guernsey. Thousands of children were evacuated with
their schools to
Scotland . Crowds cheer as the
Channel Islands are liberated at
Saint Peter Port in 1945
The population of
Sark largely remained where they were; but in
Alderney , the entire population, save for six persons, left. In
Alderney, the occupying Germans built four camps in which over 700
people out of a total worker population of about 6,000 died. Due to
the destruction of documents, it is impossible to state how many
forced workers died in the other islands.
Alderney had the only Nazi
concentration camps on British soil.
Royal Navy blockaded the islands from time to time, particularly
following the Invasion of
Normandy in June 1944. There was
considerable hunger and privation during the five years of German
occupation, particularly in the final months when the population was
close to starvation. Intense negotiations resulted in some
humanitarian aid being sent via the
Red Cross , leading to the arrival
Red Cross parcels in the supply ship SS Vega in December 1944.
The German occupation of 1940–45 was harsh: over 2,000 Islanders
were deported by the Germans, some Jews were sent to concentration
camps ; Partisan resistance and retribution, accusations of
collaboration , and slave labour also occurred. Many Spaniards,
initially refugees from the
Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War , were brought to the
islands to build fortifications . Later, Russians and Central
Europeans continued the work. Many land mines were laid, with 65,718
land mines laid in
There was no resistance movement in the
Channel Islands on the scale
of that in mainland France. This has been ascribed to a range of
factors including the physical separation of the Islands, the density
of troops (up to one German for every two Islanders), the small size
of the Islands precluding any hiding places for resistance groups, and
the absence of the
Gestapo from the occupying forces. Moreover, much
of the population of military age had joined the British Army already.
The end of the occupation came after
VE-Day on 8 May 1945,
Guernsey being liberated on 9 May. The German garrison in
left until 16 May, and it was one of the last of the Nazi German
remnants to surrender. The first evacuees returned on the first
Great Britain on 23 June, but the people of Alderney
were unable to start returning until December 1945. Many of the
evacuees who returned home had difficulty reconnecting with their
families after five years of separation.
Following the liberation of 1945, reconstruction led to a
transformation of the economies of the islands, attracting immigration
and developing tourism. The legislatures were reformed and non-party
governments embarked on social programmes, aided by the incomes from
offshore finance , which grew rapidly from the 1960s. The islands
decided not to join the
European Economic Community
European Economic Community when the UK
joined, and remain outside. Since the 1990s declining profitability
of agriculture and tourism has challenged the governments of the
Crown dependencies , Politics of
Jersey , Politics of
Guernsey , and Politics of
Channel Islands fall into two separate self-governing bailiwicks,
Guernsey and the
Jersey . Both are
Crown dependencies , and neither is part of the United
Kingdom. They have been part of the Duchy of
Normandy since the tenth
century, and Queen Elizabeth II is often referred to by her
traditional and conventional title of Duke of
Normandy . However,
pursuant to the
Treaty of Paris (1259) , she governs in her right as
The Queen (the "Crown in right of Jersey", and the "Crown in right of
the république of the
Bailiwick of Guernsey"), and not as the Duke.
This notwithstanding, it is a matter of local pride for monarchists to
treat the situation otherwise: the Loyal Toast at formal dinners is to
'The Queen, our Duke', rather than to 'Her Majesty, The Queen' as in
A bailiwick is a territory administered by a bailiff. Although the
words derive from a common root ('bail' = 'to give charge of') there
is a vast difference between the meaning of the word 'bailiff'
(English) and 'Bailiff' (CI). (The former is a court-appointed private
debt-collector authorised to collect judgment debts, while the latter
is the most important citizen within his Bailiwick.) The Bailiff in
each bailiwick is the civil head, presiding officer of the States, and
also head of the judiciary .
In the early part of the twenty-first century, the existence of
governmental offices such as the bailiffs' which incorporate multiple
roles straddling the different branches of Government came under
increased scrutiny for their apparent contravention of the doctrine of
separation of powers—most notably in the
Guernsey case of McGonnell
United Kingdom (2000) 30 EHRR 289, which following final judgement
at the European Court of Human Rights became part of the impetus for
much recent constitutional change, particularly the Constitutional
Reform Act 2005 (2005 c.4) in the UK itself, including the separation
of the roles of the Lord Chancellor, the abolition of the House of
Lords' judicial role, and its replacement by the UK Supreme Court. The
Islands' bailiffs, however, still retain their historic roles.
The systems of government in the Islands date from Norman times,
which accounts for the names of the legislatures, the States, derived
from the Norman 'États' or 'estates ' (i.e. the Crown, the Church,
and the people). The States have evolved over the centuries into
democratic parliaments. Entrance to the public gallery of the
States Chamber in Jersey.
UK Parliament has power to legislate for the Islands, but Acts of
Parliament do not extend to the Islands automatically. Usually, the
Act gives power to extend the application of the Act to the Islands by
an Order in Council, after consultation. For the most part the Islands
legislate for themselves. Each island has its own primary
legislature, known as the States of
Guernsey and the States of Jersey
, with Chief Pleas in
Sark and the States of
Alderney – the Channel
Islands are not represented in the
UK Parliament . Laws passed by the
States are given
Royal Assent by The Queen in Council , to whom the
islands' governments are responsible.
The islands are not part of the
European Union and, thus, were not a
party to the 2016 referendum on the EU membership, but are part of the
Customs Territory of the
European Community by virtue of Protocol
Three to the Treaty on
European Union . In September 2010, a Channel
Islands Brussels Office was set up jointly by the two Bailiwicks to
develop the Channel Islands' influence with the EU, to advise the
Channel Islands' governments on European matters, and to promote
economic links with the EU.
Both bailiwicks are members of the
British–Irish Council , and
Guernésiais are recognised regional languages of the
The legal courts are separate; separate courts of appeal have been in
place since 1961. Among the legal heritage from Norman law is the
Clameur de Haro . The basis of the legal systems of both Bailiwicks is
Norman customary law (
Coutume ) rather than the English
Common Law ,
although elements of the latter have become established over time.
Islanders are full British citizens, and therefore European citizens.
Any British citizen who applies for a passport in
Jersey or Guernsey
receives a passport bearing the words "
British Islands ,
Jersey" or "British Islands,
Bailiwick of Guernsey". Under the
provisions of Protocol Three, Channel Islanders who do not have a
close connection with the UK (no parent or grandparent from the UK,
and have never been resident in the UK for a five-year period) do not
automatically benefit from the EU provisions on free movement within
the EU, and their passports receive an endorsement to that effect.
This affects only a minority of islanders.
Under the UK
Interpretation Act 1978 , the
Channel Islands are deemed
to be part of the British Islands, not to be confused with the
British Isles . For the purposes of the
British Nationality Act 1981 ,
the “British Islands” include the
United Kingdom (Great Britain
and Northern Ireland), the
Channel Islands and the
Isle of Man
Isle of Man , taken
together, unless the context otherwise requires.
Main article: Economy of
Jersey See also:
Guernsey pound and Jersey
Tourism is the major industry in the smaller islands (with some
Guernsey have, since the 1960s,
become major offshore financial centres on the scale of the Cayman
Bermuda . Guernsey's horticultural and greenhouse
activities have been more significant than in Jersey, and
maintained light industry as a higher proportion of its economy than
Jersey. Jersey's economy since the 1980s has been substantially more
reliant on finance. Both islands are now heavily dependent on the
finance industry, this along with a high cost of living has resulted
in a general widening between the rich and poor.
Both bailiwicks issue their own banknotes and coins, which circulate
freely in all the islands alongside UK coinage and Bank of
Scottish banknotes. There are many exports, largely consisting of
crafted goods and farmed produce.
TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATIONS
Jersey Post and
Guernsey have operated postal administrations
independently of the UK's
Royal Mail , with their own postage stamps,
which can be used for postage only in their respective Bailiwicks. UK
stamps are no longer valid, but mail to the islands, and to the Isle
of Man , is charged at UK inland rates. It was not until the early
1990s that the islands joined the UK\'s postcode system, Jersey
postcodes using the initials JE and
Main articles: Transport in
Guernsey and Transport in
Main article: Roads in
Each of the three largest islands has a distinct vehicle registration
Guernsey (GBG): a number of up to five digits;
Jersey (GBJ): J followed by up to six digits (JSY vanity plates
are also issued);
Alderney (GBA): AY followed by up to five digits (four digits are
the most that have been used, as redundant numbers are re-issued).
Sark , where most motor traffic is prohibited, the few vehicles
– nearly all tractors – do not display plates. Bicycles display
In the 1960s, names used for the cross-Channel ferries plying the
mail route between the islands and Weymouth , Dorset, were taken from
the popular Latin names for the islands: Caesarea (Jersey), Sarnia
(Guernsey) and Riduna (Alderney). Fifty years later, the ferry route
Channel Islands and the UK is operated by Condor Ferries
from both St Helier,
Jersey and St Peter Port, Guernsey, using
high-speed catamaran fast craft to
Poole in the UK. A regular
passenger ferry service on the Commodore Clipper goes from both
Channel Island ports to
Portsmouth daily, and carries both passengers
Ferry services to
Normandy are operated by
Manche Îles Express, and
Saint Malo are operated by Compagnie
Corsaire and Condor Ferries.
The Isle of
Sark Shipping Company operates small ferries to Sark.
On 20 August 2013, Huelin-Renouf , which had operated a "lift-on
lift-off" container service for 80 years between the Port of
Southampton and the Port of
Jersey , ceased trading. Senator Alan
Maclean , a
Jersey politician had previously tried to save the 90-odd
jobs furnished by the company to no avail. On 20 September, it was
announced that Channel Island Lines would continue this service, and
would purchase the MV Huelin Dispatch from Associated British Ports
who in turn had purchased them from the receiver in the bankruptcy.
The new operator was to be funded by Rockayne Limited , a closely held
There are three airports in the Channel Islands;
Alderney Airport ,
Guernsey Airport and
Jersey Airport , which are directly connected to
each other by services operated by
Blue Islands and
Historically there have been railway networks on Jersey, Guernsey,
and Alderney, but all of the lines on
Guernsey have been
closed and dismantled. Today there are three working railways in the
Channel Islands, of which the
Alderney Railway is the only one
providing a regular timetabled passenger service. The other two are a
7 1⁄4 in (184 mm) gauge miniature railway, also on Alderney, and the
heritage steam railway operated on
Jersey as part of the Pallot
Heritage Steam Museum .
Regional television and radio broadcasts are available in the
islands. These services are provided by BBC Radio
Jersey , BBC Radio
Guernsey , BBC
Channel Islands ,
ITV Channel Television ,
Island FM ,
Channel 103 . Jubilee Hospital Radio provided
with a radio service, Radio Lions serves
Television programmes are broadcast from the Frémont Point
transmitting station . A local television service was called Channel
Islands Live started transmitting in early 2016, from the studios at
Dorset Street, St. Helier, Jersey, Channel Islands.
There are several local newspapers including the
Guernsey Press and
Jersey Evening Post and magazines.
Main article: Telecommunications in
Jersey always operated its own telephone services independently of
Britain's national system,
Guernsey established its own telephone
service in 1968. Both islands still form part of the British telephone
numbering plan , but
Ofcom on the mainlines does not have
responsibility for telecommunications regulatory and licensing issues
on the islands. It is responsible for wireless telegraphy licensing
throughout the islands, and by agreement, for broadcasting regulation
in the two large islands only.
Modern broadband speeds are available in all the islands, including
VDSL for home and business. Providers include Sure and JT .
The two Bailiwicks each have their own internet domain, .GG
(Guernsey, Alderney, Sark) and
.JE (Jersey), which are managed by
Main articles: Culture of
Jersey and Culture of
Guernsey See also:
Music of the Channel Islands A sea festival advertised using
Norman language predominated in the islands until the nineteenth
century, when increasing influence from English-speaking settlers and
easier transport links led to Anglicisation. There are four main
dialects/languages of Norman in the islands,
extinct in late twentieth century),
Jèrriais (Jersey) and
Sercquiais (Sark, an offshoot of Jèrriais).
Victor Hugo spent many years in exile, first in
Jersey and then in
Guernsey, where he finished
Les Misérables .
Guernsey is the setting
of Hugo's later novel, Les Travailleurs de la Mer (The Toilers of the
Sea ). A "Guernsey-man" also makes an appearance in chapter 91 of
Herman Melville 's
The annual "
Muratti ", the inter-island football match, is considered
the sporting event of the year, although, due to broadcast coverage,
it no longer attracts the crowds of spectators, travelling between the
islands, that it did during the twentieth century.
Cricket is popular in the Channel Islands. The
Jersey cricket team
Guernsey cricket team are both Associate members of the
Cricket Council . The teams have played each other in
Inter-insular match since 1957. In 2001 and 2002, the Channel
Islands entered a team into the
MCCA Knockout Trophy , the one-day
tournament of the
Minor counties of English and Welsh cricket .
Channel Island sportsmen and women compete in the Commonwealth Games
for their respective islands and the islands have also been
enthusiastic supporters of the
Island Games . Shooting is a popular
sport, in which islanders have won Commonwealth medals.
Guernsey's traditional colour for sporting and other purposes is
green and Jersey's is red. This statue of a crapaud (toad) in St
Helier represents the traditional nickname for
The main islanders have traditional animal nicknames:
* Guernsey: les ânes ("donkeys " in French and Norman): the
St Peter Port streets required beasts of burden, but
Guernsey people also claim it is a symbol of their strength of
character – which
Jersey people traditionally interpret as
* Jersey: les crapauds ("toads " in French and Jèrriais): Jersey
has toads and snakes, which
* Sark: les corbins ("crows " in
Jèrriais , les corbeaux in French): crows could be seen from the sea
on the island's coast.
* Alderney: les lapins ("rabbits " in French and
Auregnais ): the
island is noted for its warrens .
FAITH AND RELIGIOUS HISTORY
Main article: List of churches, chapels and meeting halls in the
Christianity was brought to the islands around the sixth century;
according to tradition,
Jersey was evangelised by St
Helier , Guernsey
Samson of Dol , and the smaller islands were occupied at various
times by monastic communities representing strands of Celtic
Christianity . At the Reformation , the islands turned Calvinist under
the influence of an influx of French-language pamphlets published in
Anglicanism was imposed in the seventeenth century, but the
Non-Conformist tendency re-emerged with a strong adoption of Methodism
. The presence of long-term Catholic communities from
seasonal workers from
Normandy added to the mix of
denominations. In late twentieth Century, a strong Roman Catholic
presence re-emerged with the many Portuguese workers (both from
Portugal and the Island of
Madeira ) coming to live in the
islands then more recently Polish Roman Catholics and other Eastern
Europe worshipers. Services in a number of languages can be found
along with many new more evangelical churches.
39% of the population are non-religious.
OTHER ISLANDS IN THE ENGLISH CHANNEL
There are other islands in the
English Channel which are not part of
the Channel Islands. Among these are the French islands Bréhat , Île
de Batz ,
Îles Saint-Marcouf . The Isle of
Wight , which is part of England, is between the Channel and the
Channel Islands portal
United Kingdom portal
German occupation of the Channel Islands
List of Ramsar wetlands of international importance
* List of churches, chapels and meeting halls in the Channel Islands
* ^ The term Îles de la
Manche is the official French appellation
in the islands themselves, whereas in
France the usual term is Îles
* ^ "Royal.gov.uk". Royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 21
September 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
* ^ Ministry of Justice. "Fact sheet on the UK\'s relationship with
the Crown Dependencies" (PDF). GOV.UK. Retrieved 14 February 2016. HM
Government is responsible for the defence and international relations
of the Islands.
* ^ Graham, Richard (2015). At their Majesties’ Service. Gateway
Publishing. ISBN 9781902471129 .
* ^ "Thisisjersey.com". Thisisjersey.com. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
* ^ "Thisisjersey.com". Thisisjersey.com. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
* ^ Rule, Margaret. A Gallo-Roman Trading Vessel from Guernsey.
Guernsey Museums & Galleries. ISBN 978-1871560039 .
* ^ Balleine's History of Jersey, Marguerite Syvret and Joan
Stevens (1998) ISBN 1-86077-065-7
* ^ Stapleton, Thomas (1840). Magni rotuli scaccarii Normanniæ sub
regibus Angliæ. p. lii.
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