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—— Tannaitic ——

Mishnah Tosefta

—— Amoraic (Gemara) ——

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud Babylonian Talmud

—— Later ——

Minor Tractates

Halakhic Midrash

—— Exodus ——

Mekhilta of Rabbi
Rabbi
Ishmael Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
Mekhilta of Rabbi Shimon
bar Yohai

—— Leviticus ——

Sifra
Sifra
(Torat Kohanim)

—— Numbers and Deuteronomy ——

Sifre Sifrei Zutta on Numbers (Mekhilta le-Sefer Devarim)

Aggadic Midrash

—— Tannaitic ——

Seder Olam Rabbah Alphabet of Rabbi
Rabbi
Akiva Baraita
Baraita
of the Forty-nine Rules Baraita
Baraita
on the Thirty-two Rules Baraita
Baraita
on the Erection of the Tabernacle

—— 400–600 ——

Genesis Rabbah Lamentations Rabbah Pesikta de-Rav Kahana Esther Rabbah Midrash
Midrash
Iyyob Leviticus Rabbah Seder Olam Zutta Tanhuma Megillat Antiochus

—— 650–900 ——

Avot of Rabbi
Rabbi
Natan Pirke De- Rabbi
Rabbi
Eliezer Tanna Devei Eliyahu Alphabet of Sirach Ecclesiastes Rabbah Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah Deuteronomy Rabbah Devarim Zutta Pesikta Rabbati Midrash
Midrash
Shmuel Midrash
Midrash
Proverbs Ruth Rabbah Baraita
Baraita
of Samuel Targum
Targum
Sheni

—— 900–1000 ——

Ruth Zuta Eichah Zuta Midrash
Midrash
Tehillim Midrash
Midrash
Hashkem Exodus Rabbah Shir ha-Shirim Zutta

—— 1000–1200 ——

Midrash
Midrash
Tadshe Sefer haYashar

—— Later ——

Yalkut Shimoni Machir ben Abba Mari Midrash
Midrash
Jonah Ein Yaakov Midrash
Midrash
HaGadol Numbers Rabbah Smaller midrashim

Targum

—— Torah
Torah
——

Targum
Targum
Onkelos Targum
Targum
Pseudo-Jonathan Fragment Targum Targum
Targum
Neofiti

—— Nevi'im
Nevi'im
——

Targum
Targum
Jonathan

—— Ketuvim
Ketuvim
——

Targum
Targum
Tehillim Targum
Targum
Mishlei Targum
Targum
Iyyov Targum
Targum
to the Five Megillot Targum Sheni
Targum Sheni
to Esther Targum
Targum
to Chronicles

v t e

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Mishneh Torah Tur Shulchan Aruch Mishnah
Mishnah
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Holy cities / places

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Important figures

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Prayers

Shema (Sh'ma) Amidah Aleinu Kaddish Minyan Birkat Hamazon Shehecheyanu Hallel Havdalah Tachanun Kol Nidre Selichot
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(S'lichot)

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Judaism
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portal

v t e

The Talmud
The Talmud
(/ˈtɑːlmʊd, -məd, ˈtæl-/; Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism
Judaism
and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.[1][2][3] Until the advent of modernity, in nearly all Jewish communities, the Talmud
Talmud
was the centerpiece of Jewish cultural life and was foundational to "all Jewish thought and aspirations", serving also as "the guide for the daily life" of Jews.[4] The term "Talmud" normally refers to the collection of writings named specifically the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
( Talmud
Talmud
Bavli), although there is also an earlier collection known as the Jerusalem Talmud
Jerusalem Talmud
(Talmud Yerushalmi).[5] When referring to the post-biblical periods during which the Talmud
Talmud
was being compiled, those of the Talmudic academies and the Babylonian exilarchate, Jewish sources used the term "Babylonia" long after its geopolitical obsolescence.[6] It may also traditionally be called Shas (ש״ס), a Hebrew abbreviation of shisha sedarim, or the "six orders" of the Mishnah. The Talmud
The Talmud
has two components; the Mishnah
Mishnah
(Hebrew: משנה, c. year 200 CE), a written compendium of Rabbinic Judaism's Oral Torah; and the Gemara
Gemara
(circa year 500), an elucidation of the Mishnah
Mishnah
and related Tannaitic writings that often ventures onto other subjects and expounds broadly on the Hebrew Bible. "Talmud" translates literally as "instruction" in Hebrew, and the term may refer to either the Gemara alone, or the Mishnah
Mishnah
and Gemara
Gemara
together. The entire Talmud
Talmud
consists of 63 tractates, and in standard print is over 6,200 pages long. It is written in Tannaitic Hebrew and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and contains the teachings and opinions of thousands of rabbis (dating from before the Common Era
Common Era
through to the fifth century) on a variety of subjects, including Halakha (law), Jewish ethics, philosophy, customs, history, lore and many other topics. The Talmud
The Talmud
is the basis for all codes of Jewish law, and is widely quoted in rabbinic literature.

Contents

1 History 2 Structure

2.1 Mishnah 2.2 Baraita 2.3 Gemara 2.4 Halakha and Aggadah 2.5 Minor tractates

3 Bavli and Yerushalmi

3.1 Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi ( Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud) 3.2 Babylonian Talmud 3.3 Comparison of style and subject matter

4 Language 5 Printing

5.1 Bomberg Talmud
Talmud
1523 5.2 Benveniste
Benveniste
Talmud
Talmud
1645 5.3 Slavuta
Slavuta
Talmud
Talmud
1795 and Vilna Talmud
Talmud
1835 5.4 Goldschmidt Talmud
Talmud
1897–1909, and German translation 5.5 Critical editions 5.6 Editions for a wider audience

6 Translations

6.1 Talmud
Talmud
Bavli 6.2 Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi

7 Scholarship

7.1 Geonim 7.2 Halakhic and Aggadic extractions 7.3 Commentaries 7.4 Pilpul 7.5 Sephardic approaches 7.6 Brisker method 7.7 Critical method

7.7.1 Textual emendations

7.8 Historical analysis, and higher textual criticism 7.9 Contemporary scholarship

8 Role in Judaism

8.1 Sadducees 8.2 Karaism 8.3 Reform Judaism 8.4 Humanistic Judaism 8.5 Present day

9 In visual arts

9.1 In Carl Schleicher's paintings 9.2 Jewish art

10 Other contexts 11 Criticism

11.1 Middle Ages 11.2 19th century and after 11.3 Contemporary accusations

12 See also 13 Notes 14 References

14.1 Logic and methodology 14.2 Modern scholarly works

14.2.1 On individual tractates

14.3 Historical study

15 External links

15.1 General 15.2 Refutation of allegations concerning the Talmud 15.3 Full text resources 15.4 Manuscripts and textual variants 15.5 Layout 15.6 "Daf Yomi" program 15.7 Audio

History[edit] Main article: Oral Torah

An early printing of the Talmud
Talmud
( Ta'anit
Ta'anit
9b); with commentary by Rashi

The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a

Originally, Jewish scholarship was oral. Rabbis expounded and debated the Torah
Torah
(the written Torah
Torah
expressed in the Hebrew Bible) and discussed the Tanakh
Tanakh
without the benefit of written works (other than the Biblical books themselves), though some may have made private notes (megillot setarim), for example of court decisions. This situation changed drastically, mainly as the result of the destruction of the Jewish commonwealth and the Second Temple
Second Temple
in the year 70 and the consequent upheaval of Jewish social and legal norms. As the Rabbis were required to face a new reality—mainly Judaism
Judaism
without a Temple (to serve as the center of teaching and study) and Judea without at least partial autonomy—there was a flurry of legal discourse and the old system of oral scholarship could not be maintained. It is during this period that rabbinic discourse began to be recorded in writing.[7][8] The earliest recorded oral Torah
Torah
may have been of the midrashic form, in which halakhic discussion is structured as exegetical commentary on the Pentateuch. But an alternative form, organized by subject matter instead of by biblical verse, became dominant around the year 200, when Rabbi
Rabbi
Judah the Prince redacted the Mishnah
Mishnah
(משנה).[citation needed] The Oral Torah
Torah
was far from monolithic; rather, it varied among various schools. The most famous two were the School of Shammai
Shammai
and the School of Hillel. In general, all valid opinions, even the non-normative ones, were recorded in the Talmud.[citation needed] The oldest full manuscript of the Talmud, known as the Munich Talmud (Cod.hebr. 95), dates from 1342 and is available online. Structure[edit] The structure of the Talmud
Talmud
follows that of the Mishnah, in which six orders (sedarim; singular: seder) of general subject matter are divided into 60 or 63 tractates (masekhtot; singular: masekhet) of more focused subject compilations, though not all tractates have Gemara. Each tractate is divided into chapters (perakim; singular: perek), 517 in total, that are both numbered according to the Hebrew alphabet and given names, usually using the first one or two words in the first mishnah. A perek may continue over several (up to tens of) pages.[9] Each perek will contain several mishnayot[10] with their accompanying exchanges that form the "building-blocks" of the Gemara; the name for a passage of gemara is a sugya (סוגיא; plural sugyot). A sugya, including baraita or tosefta, will typically comprise a detailed proof-based elaboration of a Mishnaic statement, whether halakhic or aggadic. A sugya may, and often does, range widely off the subject of the mishnah. The sugya is not punctuated in the conventional sense used in the English language, but by using specific expressions that help to divide the sugya into components, usually including a statement, a question on the statement, an answer, a proof for the answer or a refutation of the answer with its own proof.[citation needed] In a given sugya, scriptural, Tannaic and Amoraic statements are cited to support the various opinions. In so doing, the Gemara
Gemara
will highlight semantic disagreements between Tannaim and Amoraim
Amoraim
(often ascribing a view to an earlier authority as to how he may have answered a question), and compare the Mishnaic views with passages from the Baraita. Rarely are debates formally closed; in some instances, the final word determines the practical law, but in many instances the issue is left unresolved. There is a whole literature on the procedural principles to be used in settling the practical law when disagreements exist: see under #Logic and methodology below. Mishnah[edit] Main article: Mishnah The Mishnah
Mishnah
is a compilation of legal opinions and debates. Statements in the Mishnah
Mishnah
are typically terse, recording brief opinions of the rabbis debating a subject; or recording only an unattributed ruling, apparently representing a consensus view. The rabbis recorded in the Mishnah
Mishnah
are known as the Tannaim.[citation needed] Since it sequences its laws by subject matter instead of by biblical context, the Mishnah
Mishnah
discusses individual subjects more thoroughly than the Midrash, and it includes a much broader selection of halakhic subjects than the Midrash. The Mishnah's topical organization thus became the framework of the Talmud
Talmud
as a whole. But not every tractate in the Mishnah
Mishnah
has a corresponding Gemara. Also, the order of the tractates in the Talmud
Talmud
differs in some cases from that in the Mishnah.

v t e

The Six Orders of the Mishnah
Mishnah
(ששה סדרי משנה‬)

Zeraim (Seeds) (זרעים‬) Moed (Festival) (מועד‬) Nashim (Women) (נשים‬) Nezikin (Damages) (נזיקין‬) Kodashim (Holies) (קדשים‬) Tohorot (Purities) (טהרות‬)

Berakhot Pe'ah Demai Kil'ayim Shevi'it Terumot Ma'aserot Ma'aser Sheni Hallah Orlah Bikkurim

Shabbat Eruvin Pesahim Shekalim Yoma Sukkah Beitza Rosh Hashanah Ta'anit Megillah Mo'ed Katan Hagigah

Yevamot Ketubot Nedarim Nazir Sotah Gittin Kiddushin

Bava Kamma Bava Metzia Bava Batra Sanhedrin Makkot Shevu'ot Eduyot Avodah Zarah Avot Horayot

Zevahim Menahot Hullin Bekhorot Arakhin Temurah Keritot Me'ilah Tamid Middot Kinnim

Keilim Oholot Nega'im Parah Tohorot Mikva'ot Niddah Makhshirin Zavim Tevul Yom Yadayim Uktzim

Baraita[edit] Main article: Baraita In addition to the Mishnah, other tannaitic teachings were current at about the same time or shortly thereafter. The Gemara
Gemara
frequently refers to these tannaitic statements in order to compare them to those contained in the Mishnah
Mishnah
and to support or refute the propositions of the Amoraim. All such non-Mishnaic tannaitic sources are termed baraitot (lit. outside material, "works external to the Mishnah"; sing. baraita ברייתא). The baraitot cited in the Gemara
Gemara
are often quotations from the Tosefta (a tannaitic compendium of halakha parallel to the Mishnah) and the Midrash halakha
Midrash halakha
(specifically Mekhilta, Sifra
Sifra
and Sifre). Some baraitot, however, are known only through traditions cited in the Gemara, and are not part of any other collection.[citation needed] Gemara[edit] Main article: Gemara In the three centuries following the redaction of the Mishnah, rabbis in Israel
Israel
and Babylonia
Babylonia
analyzed, debated, and discussed that work. These discussions form the Gemara
Gemara
(גמרא). Gemara
Gemara
means “completion” (from the Hebrew gamar גמר: "to complete") or "learning" (from the Aramaic: "study"). The Gemara
Gemara
mainly focuses on elucidating and elaborating the opinions of the Tannaim. The rabbis of the Gemara
Gemara
are known as Amoraim
Amoraim
(sing. Amora אמורא).[citation needed] Much of the Gemara
Gemara
consists of legal analysis. The starting point for the analysis is usually a legal statement found in a Mishnah. The statement is then analyzed and compared with other statements used in different approaches to Biblical exegesis in rabbinic Judaism
Judaism
(or - simpler - interpretation of text in Torah
Torah
study) exchanges between two (frequently anonymous and sometimes metaphorical) disputants, termed the makshan (questioner) and tartzan (answerer). Another important function of Gemara
Gemara
is to identify the correct Biblical basis for a given law presented in the Mishnah
Mishnah
and the logical process connecting one with the other: this activity was known as talmud long before the existence of the "Talmud" as a text.[11] Halakha and Aggadah[edit] The Talmud
The Talmud
is a wide-ranging document that touches on a great many subjects. Traditionally Talmudic statements are classified into two broad categories, halakhic and aggadic statements. Halakhic statements directly relate to questions of Jewish law and practice (halakha). Aggadic statements are not legally related, but rather are exegetical, homiletical, ethical, or historical in nature. Minor tractates[edit] Main article: Minor tractate In addition to the six Orders, the Talmud
Talmud
contains a series of short treatises of a later date, usually printed at the end of Seder Nezikin. These are not divided into Mishnah
Mishnah
and Gemara. Bavli and Yerushalmi[edit] The process of "Gemara" proceeded in what were then the two major centers of Jewish scholarship, Galilee and Babylonia. Correspondingly, two bodies of analysis developed, and two works of Talmud
Talmud
were created. The older compilation is called the Jerusalem Talmud
Jerusalem Talmud
or the Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi. It was compiled in the 4th century in Galilee. The Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
was compiled about the year 500, although it continued to be edited later. The word "Talmud", when used without qualification, usually refers to the Babylonian Talmud. While the editors of Jerusalem Talmud
Jerusalem Talmud
and Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
each mention the other community, most scholars believe these documents were written independently; Louis Jacobs writes, "If the editors of either had had access to an actual text of the other, it is inconceivable that they would not have mentioned this. Here the argument from silence is very convincing."[12] Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi ( Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud)[edit] Main article: Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud

A page of a medieval Jerusalem Talmud
Jerusalem Talmud
manuscript, from the Cairo Geniza

The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud, also known as the Palestinian Talmud, or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael ( Talmud
Talmud
of the Land of Israel), was one of the two compilations of Jewish religious teachings and commentary that was transmitted orally for centuries prior to its compilation by Jewish scholars in the Land of Israel.[13] It is a compilation of teachings of the schools of Tiberias, Sepphoris and Caesarea. It is written largely in Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, a Western Aramaic language
Aramaic language
that differs from its Babylonian counterpart.[citation needed] This Talmud
Talmud
is a synopsis of the analysis of the Mishnah
Mishnah
that was developed over the course of nearly 200 years by the Academies in Galilee (principally those of Tiberias
Tiberias
and Caesarea.) Because of their location, the sages of these Academies devoted considerable attention to analysis of the agricultural laws of the Land of Israel. Traditionally, this Talmud
Talmud
was thought to have been redacted in about the year 350 by Rav Muna and Rav Yossi in the Land of Israel. It is traditionally known as the Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi (" Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud"), but the name is a misnomer, as it was not prepared in Jerusalem. It has more accurately been called " The Talmud
The Talmud
of the Land of Israel".[14] Its final redaction probably belongs to the end of the 4th century, but the individual scholars who brought it to its present form cannot be fixed with assurance. By this time Christianity
Christianity
had become the state religion of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and Jerusalem
Jerusalem
the holy city of Christendom. In 325, Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, said "let us then have nothing in common with the detestable Jewish crowd."[15] This policy made a Jew an outcast and pauper. The compilers of the Jerusalem Talmud
Jerusalem Talmud
consequently lacked the time to produce a work of the quality they had intended. The text is evidently incomplete and is not easy to follow. The apparent cessation of work on the Jerusalem Talmud
Jerusalem Talmud
in the 5th century has been associated with the decision of Theodosius II
Theodosius II
in 425 to suppress the Patriarchate and put an end to the practice of semikhah, formal scholarly ordination. Some modern scholars have questioned this connection: for more detail see Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud: Place and date of composition. Despite its incomplete state, the Jerusalem Talmud
Jerusalem Talmud
remains an indispensable source of knowledge of the development of the Jewish Law in the Holy Land. It was also an important resource in the study of the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
by the Kairouan
Kairouan
school of Chananel ben Chushiel and Nissim ben Jacob, with the result that opinions ultimately based on the Jerusalem Talmud
Jerusalem Talmud
found their way into both the Tosafot
Tosafot
and the Mishneh Torah
Torah
of Maimonides. Following the formation of the modern state of Israel
Israel
there is some interest in restoring Eretz Yisrael traditions. For example, Rabbi David
David
Bar-Hayim of the Makhon Shilo institute has issued a siddur reflecting Eretz Yisrael practice as found in the Jerusalem Talmud
Jerusalem Talmud
and other sources. Babylonian Talmud[edit]

A full set of the Babylonian Talmud

The Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
( Talmud
Talmud
Bavli) consists of documents compiled over the period of Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
(3rd to 5th centuries).[16] During this time the most important of the Jewish centres in Mesopotamia, a region called "Babylonia" in Jewish sources and later known as Iraq, were Nehardea, Nisibis (modern Nusaybin), Mahoza (al-Mada'in, just to the south of what is now Baghdad), Pumbedita
Pumbedita
(near present-day al Anbar Governorate), and the Sura Academy, probably located about 60 km south of Baghdad.[17] The Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
comprises the Mishnah
Mishnah
and the Babylonian Gemara, the latter representing the culmination of more than 300 years of analysis of the Mishnah
Mishnah
in the Talmudic Academies in Babylonia. The foundations of this process of analysis were laid by Abba Arika (175–247 CE), a disciple of Judah the Prince. Tradition ascribes the compilation of the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
in its present form to two Babylonian sages, Rav Ashi
Rav Ashi
and Ravina II.[18] Rav Ashi
Rav Ashi
was president of the Sura Academy
Sura Academy
from 375-427. The work begun by Rav Ashi
Rav Ashi
was completed by Ravina, who is traditionally regarded as the final Amoraic expounder. Accordingly, traditionalists argue that Ravina’s death in 475 CE[19] is the latest possible date for the completion of the redaction of the Talmud. However, even on the most traditional view a few passages are regarded as the work of a group of rabbis who edited the Talmud
Talmud
after the end of the Amoraic period , known as the Savoraim or Rabbanan Savora'e (meaning "reasoners" or "considerers"). The question as to when the Gemara
Gemara
was finally put into its present form is not settled among modern scholars. Some, like Louis Jacobs, argue that the main body of the Gemara
Gemara
is not simple reportage of conversations, as it purports to be, but a highly elaborate structure contrived by the Savoraim (roughly 500–650 CE), who must therefore be regarded as the real authors. On this view the text did not reach its final form until around 700. Some modern scholars use the term Stammaim (from the Hebrew Stam, meaning "closed", "vague" or "unattributed") for the authors of unattributed statements in the Gemara. (See eras within Jewish law.) Comparison of style and subject matter[edit] There are significant differences between the two Talmud
Talmud
compilations. The language of the Jerusalem Talmud
Jerusalem Talmud
is a western Aramaic dialect, which differs from the form of Aramaic in the Babylonian Talmud. The Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi is often fragmentary and difficult to read, even for experienced Talmudists. The redaction of the Talmud
Talmud
Bavli, on the other hand, is more careful and precise. The law as laid down in the two compilations is basically similar, except in emphasis and in minor details. The Jerusalem Talmud
Jerusalem Talmud
has not received much attention from commentators, and such traditional commentaries as exist are mostly concerned with comparing its teachings to those of the Talmud
Talmud
Bavli. Neither the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
nor the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
covers the entire Mishnah: for example, a Babylonian Gemara
Gemara
exists only for 37 out of the 63 tractates of the Mishnah. In particular:

The Jerusalem Talmud
Jerusalem Talmud
covers all the tractates of Zeraim, while the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
covers only tractate Berachot. The reason might be that most laws from the Orders Zeraim (agricultural laws limited to the land of Israel) had little practical relevance in Babylonia
Babylonia
and were therefore not included.[20] The Jerusalem Talmud
Jerusalem Talmud
has a greater focus on the Land of Israel
Israel
and the Torah's agricultural laws pertaining to the land because it was written in the Land of Israel where the laws applied. The Jerusalem Talmud
Jerusalem Talmud
does not cover the Mishnaic order of Kodashim, which deals with sacrificial rites and laws pertaining to the Temple, while the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
does cover it. It is not clear why this is, as the laws were not directly applicable in either country following the Temple's 70 CE destruction. In both Talmuds, only one tractate of Tohorot (ritual purity laws) is examined, that of the menstrual laws, Niddah.

The Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
records the opinions of the rabbis of the Ma'arava (the West, meaning Israel/Palestine) as well as of those of Babylonia, while the Jerusalem Talmud
Jerusalem Talmud
only seldom cites the Babylonian rabbis. The Babylonian version also contains the opinions of more generations because of its later date of completion. For both these reasons it is regarded as a more comprehensive collection of the opinions available. On the other hand, because of the centuries of redaction between the composition of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the Babylonian Talmud, the opinions of early amoraim might be closer to their original form in the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud. The influence of the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
has been far greater than that of the Yerushalmi. In the main, this is because the influence and prestige of the Jewish community of Israel
Israel
steadily declined in contrast with the Babylonian community in the years after the redaction of the Talmud
Talmud
and continuing until the Gaonic era. Furthermore, the editing of the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
was superior to that of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
version, making it more accessible and readily usable. According to Maimonides
Maimonides
(whose life began almost a hundred years after the end of the Gaonic era), all Jewish communities during the Gaonic era formally accepted the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
as binding upon themselves, and modern Jewish practice follows the Babylonian Talmud's conclusions on all areas in which the two Talmuds conflict. Language[edit] Of the two main components of the Babylonian Talmud, the Mishnah
Mishnah
is written in Mishnaic Hebrew. Within the Gemara, the quotations from the Mishnah
Mishnah
and the Baraitas and verses of Tanakh
Tanakh
quoted and embedded in the Gemara
Gemara
are in Hebrew. The rest of the Gemara, including the discussions of the Amoraim
Amoraim
and the overall framework, is in a characteristic dialect of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic.[21] There are occasional quotations from older works in other dialects of Aramaic, such as Megillat Taanit. Overall, Hebrew constitutes somewhat less than half of the text of the Talmud. This difference in language is due to the long time period elapsing between the two compilations. During the period of the Tannaim (rabbis cited in the Mishnah), a late form of Hebrew known as Rabbinic or Mishnaic Hebrew
Mishnaic Hebrew
was still in use as a spoken vernacular among Jews
Jews
in Judaea (alongside Greek and Aramaic), whereas during the period of the Amoraim
Amoraim
(rabbis cited in the Gemara), which began around 200 CE, the spoken vernacular was almost exclusively Aramaic. Hebrew continued to be used for the writing of religious texts, poetry, and so forth.[22] Printing[edit] Bomberg Talmud
Talmud
1523[edit] The first complete edition of the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
was printed in Venice
Venice
by Daniel Bomberg
Daniel Bomberg
1520–23[citation needed] with the support of Pope Leo X[23][24][25][26]. In addition to the Mishnah
Mishnah
and Gemara, Bomberg's edition contained the commentaries of Rashi
Rashi
and Tosafot. Almost all printings since Bomberg have followed the same pagination. Bomberg's edition was considered relatively free of censorship.[27] Benveniste
Benveniste
Talmud
Talmud
1645[edit] Following Ambrosius Frobenius's publication of most of the Talmud
Talmud
in installments in Basel, Immanuel Benveniste
Benveniste
published the whole Talmud in installments in Amsterdam 1644–1648,[28] Though according to Raphael Rabbinovicz the Benveniste
Benveniste
Talmud
Talmud
may have been based on the Lublin
Lublin
Talmud
Talmud
and included many of the censors' errors.[29] Slavuta
Slavuta
Talmud
Talmud
1795 and Vilna Talmud
Talmud
1835[edit] The edition of the Talmud
Talmud
published by the Szapira brothers in Slavuta in 1795 is particularly prized by many rebbes of Hasidic Judaism. In 1835, after an acrimonious dispute with the Szapira family, a new edition of the Talmud
Talmud
was printed by Menachem Romm of Vilna. Known as the Vilna Edition Shas, this edition (and later ones printed by his widow and sons, the Romm publishing house) has been used in the production of more recent editions of Talmud
Talmud
Bavli. A page number in the Vilna Talmud
Talmud
refers to a double-sided page, known as a daf, or folio in English; each daf has two amudim labeled א and ב, sides A and B ( Recto
Recto
and Verso). The convention of referencing by daf is relatively recent and dates from the early Talmud
Talmud
printings of the 17th century, though the actual pagination goes back to the Bomberg edition. Earlier rabbinic literature generally refers to the tractate or chapters within a tractate (e.g. Berachot Chapter 1, ברכות פרק א׳). It sometimes also refers to the specific Mishnah
Mishnah
in that chapter, where "Mishnah" is replaced with "Halakha", here meaning route, to "direct" the reader to the entry in the Gemara corresponding to that Mishna (e.g. Berachot Chapter 1 Halakha 1, ברכות פרק א׳ הלכה א׳ would refer to the first Mishnah of the first chapter in Tractate Berachot, and its corresponding entry in the Gemara). However, this form is nowadays more commonly (though not exclusively) used when referring to the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud. Nowadays, reference is usually made in format [Tractate daf a/b] (e.g. Berachot 23b, ברכות כג ב׳). Increasingly, the symbols "." and ":" are used to indicate Recto
Recto
and Verso, respectively (thus, e.g. Berachot 32:, :ברכות כג. These references always refer to the pagination of the Vilna Talmud. In the Vilna edition of the Talmud there are 5,894 folio pages. Goldschmidt Talmud
Talmud
1897–1909, and German translation[edit] Lazarus Goldschmidt published an edition from the "uncensored text" of the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
with a German translation in 9 vols. (commenced Leipzig, 1897–1909, edition completed, following emigration to England in 1933, by 1936).[30] Critical editions[edit] The text of the Vilna editions is considered by scholars not to be uniformly reliable, and there have been a number of attempts to collate textual variants.

In the early 20th century Nathan Rabinowitz published a series of volumes called Dikduke Soferim showing textual variants from early manuscripts and printings. In 1960 work started on a new edition under the name of Gemara Shelemah (complete Gemara) under the editorship of Menachem Mendel Kasher: only the volume on the first part of tractate Pesachim appeared before the project was interrupted by his death. This edition contained a comprehensive set of textual variants and a few selected commentaries. Some thirteen volumes have been published by the Institute for the Complete Israeli Talmud
Talmud
(a division of Yad Harav Herzog), on lines similar to Rabinowitz, containing the text and a comprehensive set of textual variants (from manuscripts, early prints and citations in secondary literature) but no commentaries.[31]

There have been critical editions of particular tractates (e.g. Henry Malter's edition of Ta'anit), but there is no modern critical edition of the whole Talmud. Modern editions such as those of the Oz ve-Hadar Institute correct misprints and restore passages that in earlier editions were modified or excised by censorship but do not attempt a comprehensive account of textual variants. One edition, by Rabbi
Rabbi
Yosef Amar,[32] represents the Yemenite tradition, and takes the form of a photostatic reproduction of a Vilna-based print to which Yemenite vocalization and textual variants have been added by hand, together with printed introductory material. Collations of the Yemenite manuscripts of some tractates have been published by Columbia University.[33] Editions for a wider audience[edit] A number of editions have been aimed at bringing the Talmud
Talmud
to a wider audience. The main ones are as follows.

The Steinsaltz Talmud, which contains the text with punctuation, detailed explanations and translation. The Steinsaltz Edition is available in two formats: one with the traditional Vilna page and one without. It is available in modern Hebrew (first volume published 1969), English (first volume published 1989), French, Russian and other languages. In May 2012, Koren Publishers Jerusalem
Jerusalem
launched the new Koren Talmud Bavli, a new version of the Steinsaltz Talmud
Talmud
which features a new, modern English translation and the commentary of Rabbi
Rabbi
Adin Steinsaltz. This edition won widespread praise as "America's most important Jewish event",[34] and for its "beautiful page" and "clean type".[35] It includes color photos and illustrations, and Steinsaltz's historical, biographical and linguistic notes in modern English translation. Opened as a Hebrew book, this edition preserves the traditional Vilna page layout and includes vowels and punctuation; the Rashi
Rashi
commentary too is punctuated. Opened as an English book, this edition breaks down the Talmud
Talmud
text into small, thematic units and features the supplementary notes along the margins. The Schottenstein Talmud, published by ArtScroll: the first volume was published in 1990, and the series was completed in 2004. Each page is printed in the traditional Vilna format, and accompanied by an expanded paraphrase in English, in which the translation of the text is shown in bold and explanations are interspersed in normal type. The Metivta edition, published by the Oz ve-Hadar Institute. This contains the full text in the same format as the Vilna-based editions, with a full explanation in modern Hebrew on facing pages as well as an improved version of the traditional commentaries.[36] A previous project of the same kind, called Talmud
Talmud
El Am, " Talmud
Talmud
to the people", was published in Israel
Israel
in the 1960s-80s. The Talmud
The Talmud
El Am contains Hebrew text, English translation and commentary by Rabbi Dr A. Ehrman, with short 'realia', marginal notes, often illustrated, written by experts in the field for the whole of Tractate Berakhot, 2 chapters of Bava Mezia and the halachic section of Qiddushin, chapter 1.

See also under Translations, below. Translations[edit] Talmud
Talmud
Bavli[edit]

Part of a series of articles on

Editions of the Babylonian Talmud

Editions:

Neusner Translation Rodkinson Translation Schottenstein Edition Soncino Edition Steinsaltz Edition

v t e

There are six contemporary translations of the Talmud
Talmud
into English:

The Noé Edition of the Koren Talmud
Talmud
Bavli, Adin Steinsaltz, Koren Publishers Jerusalem. This work was launched in 2012. Opened from the Hebrew side, this edition features the traditional Vilna page with vowels and punctuation in the original Aramaic text. The Rashi commentary appears in Rashi
Rashi
script with vowels and punctuation. Opened from the English side, the edition features bi-lingual text with side-by-side English/Aramaic translation. The margins include color maps, illustrations and notes based on Rabbi
Rabbi
Adin Steinsaltz’s Hebrew language
Hebrew language
translation and commentary of the Talmud. Rabbi
Rabbi
Dr. Tzvi Hersh Weinreb serves as the Editor-in-Chief. As of March 2017, 28 volumes have been published. The entire set will be 42 volumes.

Koren Talmud
Talmud
Bavli

The Talmud: The Steinsaltz Edition Adin Steinsaltz, Random House. This work is an English edition of Rabbi
Rabbi
Steinsaltz' complete Hebrew language translation of and commentary on the entire Talmud. Incomplete—22 volumes and a reference guide. Schottenstein Edition of the Talmud, Mesorah Publications (73 volumes). In this translation, each English page faces the Aramaic/Hebrew page. The English pages are elucidated and heavily annotated; each Aramaic/Hebrew page of Talmud
Talmud
typically requires three English pages of translation and notes. Complete. The Soncino Talmud, Isidore Epstein, Soncino Press (26 volumes; also formerly an 18 volume edition was published). Notes on each page provide additional background material. This translation is published both on its own and in a parallel text edition, in which each English page faces the Aramaic/Hebrew page. It is available also on CD-ROM. Complete. The Talmud
The Talmud
of Babylonia. An American Translation, Jacob
Jacob
Neusner, Tzvee Zahavy, others. Atlanta: 1984-1995: Scholars Press for Brown Judaic Studies. Complete. The Babylonian Talmud, translated by Michael L. Rodkinson. (1903, contains all of the tractates in the Orders of Mo'ed/Festivals and Nezikin/Damages, plus some additional material related to these Orders.) This is inaccurate[citation needed] and was wholly superseded by the Soncino translation: it is sometimes linked to from the internet because, for copyright reasons, it was until recently the only translation freely available on the Web (see below, under Full text resources). The Babylonian Talmud: A Translation and Commentary, edited by Jacob Neusner[37] and translated by Jacob
Jacob
Neusner, Tzvee Zahavy, Alan Avery-Peck, B. Barry Levy, Martin S. Jaffe, and Peter Haas, Hendrickson Pub; 22-Volume Set Ed., Feb. 2011. It is a revision of " The Talmud
The Talmud
of Babylonia: An Academic Commentary," published by the University of South Florida Academic Commentary Series (1994-1999). Neusner gives commentary on transition in use langes from Biblical Aramaic to Biblical Hebrew. Neusner also gives references to Mishneh, Torah, and other classical works in Orthodox Judaism.

There is one translation of the Talmud
Talmud
into Arabic, published in 2012 in Jordan
Jordan
by the Center for Middle Eastern Studies. The translation was carried out by a group of 90 Muslim and Christian
Christian
scholars.[38] The introduction was characterized by Dr. Raquel Ukeles, Curator of the Israel
Israel
National Library's Arabic collection, as "racist", but she considers the translation itself as "not bad".[39] In February 2017, the William Davidson Talmud
Talmud
was released to Sefaria.[40] This translation is a version of the Steinsaltz edition which was released under creative commons license. [41] Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi[edit]

Talmud
Talmud
of the Land of Israel: A Preliminary Translation and Explanation Jacob
Jacob
Neusner, Tzvee Zahavy, others. University of Chicago Press. This translation uses a form-analytical presentation that makes the logical units of discourse easier to identify and follow. This work has received many positive reviews. However, some consider Neusner's translation methodology idiosyncratic. One volume was negatively reviewed by Saul Lieberman
Saul Lieberman
of the Jewish Theological Seminary. Schottenstein Edition of the Yerushalmi Talmud
Talmud
Mesorah/Artscroll. This translation is the counterpart to Mesorah/Artscroll's Schottenstein Edition of the Talmud
Talmud
(i.e. Babylonian Talmud). The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud, Edition, Translation and Commentary, ed. Guggenheimer, Heinrich W., Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin, Germany German Edition, Übersetzung des Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi, published by Martin Hengel, Peter Schäfer, Hans-Jürgen Becker, Frowald Gil Hüttenmeister, Mohr&Siebeck, Tübingen, Germany Modern Elucidated Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi, ed. Joshua Buch. Uses the Leiden manuscript as its based text corrected according to manuscripts and Geniza Fragments. Draws upon Traditional and Modern Scholarship - www.talmudyerushalmi.org/talmud-yerushalmi-mevoar/

Scholarship[edit] From the time of its completion, the Talmud
Talmud
became integral to Jewish scholarship. A maxim in Pirkei Avot
Pirkei Avot
advocates its study from the age of 15.[42] This section outlines some of the major areas of Talmudic study. Geonim[edit] The earliest Talmud
Talmud
commentaries were written by the Geonim (c. 800 - 1000, CE) in Babylonia. Although some direct commentaries on particular treatises are extant, our main knowledge of Gaonic era Talmud
Talmud
scholarship comes from statements embedded in Geonic responsa that shed light on Talmudic passages: these are arranged in the order of the Talmud
Talmud
in Levin's Otzar ha-Geonim. Also important are practical abridgments of Jewish law such as Yehudai Gaon's Halachot Pesukot, Achai Gaon's Sheeltot and Simeon Kayyara's Halachot Gedolot. After the death of Hai Gaon, however, the center of Talmud
Talmud
scholarship shifts to Europe and North Africa. Halakhic and Aggadic extractions[edit] One area of Talmudic scholarship developed out of the need to ascertain the Halakha. Early commentators such as Rabbi
Rabbi
Isaac
Isaac
Alfasi (North Africa, 1013–1103) attempted to extract and determine the binding legal opinions from the vast corpus of the Talmud. Alfasi's work was highly influential, attracted several commentaries in its own right and later served as a basis for the creation of halakhic codes. Another influential medieval Halakhic work following the order of the Babylonian Talmud, and to some extent modelled on Alfasi, was "the Mordechai", a compilation by Mordechai ben Hillel (c. 1250 – 1298). A third such work was that of Rabbi
Rabbi
Asher ben Yechiel (d. 1327). All these works and their commentaries are printed in the Vilna and many subsequent editions of the Talmud. A 15th-century Spanish rabbi, Jacob
Jacob
ibn Habib (d. 1516), composed the Ein Yaakov. Ein Yaakov
Ein Yaakov
(or En Ya'aqob) extracts nearly all the Aggadic material from the Talmud. It was intended to familiarize the public with the ethical parts of the Talmud
Talmud
and to dispute many of the accusations surrounding its contents. Commentaries[edit] Main article: Rabbinic literature The Talmud
The Talmud
is often cryptic and difficult to understand. Its language contains many Greek and Persian words that became obscure over time. A major area of Talmudic scholarship developed to explain these passages and words. Some early commentators such as Rabbenu Gershom of Mainz (10th century) and Rabbenu Ḥananel (early 11th century) produced running commentaries to various tractates. These commentaries could be read with the text of the Talmud
Talmud
and would help explain the meaning of the text. Another important work is the Sefer ha-Mafteaḥ ( Book
Book
of the Key) by Nissim Gaon, which contains a preface explaining the different forms of Talmudic argumentation and then explains abbreviated passages in the Talmud
Talmud
by cross-referring to parallel passages where the same thought is expressed in full. Commentaries (ḥiddushim) by Joseph ibn Migash on two tractates, Bava Batra and Shevuot, based on Ḥananel and Alfasi, also survive, as does a compilation by Zechariah Aghmati called Sefer ha-Ner.[43] Using a different style, Rabbi
Rabbi
Nathan b. Jechiel created a lexicon called the Arukh in the 11th century to help translate difficult words. By far the best known commentary on the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
is that of Rashi
Rashi
( Rabbi
Rabbi
Solomon
Solomon
ben Isaac, 1040–1105). The commentary is comprehensive, covering almost the entire Talmud. Written as a running commentary, it provides a full explanation of the words, and explains the logical structure of each Talmudic passage. It is considered indispensable to students of the Talmud. Medieval Ashkenazic Jewry produced another major commentary known as Tosafot
Tosafot
("additions" or "supplements"). The Tosafot
Tosafot
are collected commentaries by various medieval Ashkenazic Rabbis on the Talmud (known as Tosafists or Ba'alei Tosafot). One of the main goals of the Tosafot
Tosafot
is to explain and interpret contradictory statements in the Talmud. Unlike Rashi, the Tosafot
Tosafot
is not a running commentary, but rather comments on selected matters. Often the explanations of Tosafot differ from those of Rashi. Among the founders of the Tosafist school were Rabbi
Rabbi
Jacob
Jacob
ben Meir (known as Rabbeinu Tam), who was a grandson of Rashi, and, Rabbenu Tam's nephew, Rabbi
Rabbi
Isaac
Isaac
ben Samuel. The Tosafot
Tosafot
commentaries were collected in different editions in the various schools. The benchmark collection of Tosafot
Tosafot
for Northern France was that of R. Eliezer of Touques. The standard collection for Spain was that of Rabbenu Asher ("Tosefot Harosh"). The Tosafot
Tosafot
that are printed in the standard Vilna edition of the Talmud
Talmud
are an edited version compiled from the various medieval collections, predominantly that of Touques.[44] Over time, the approach of the Tosafists spread to other Jewish communities, particularly those in Spain. This led to the composition of many other commentaries in similar styles. Among these are the commentaries of Nachmanides
Nachmanides
(Ramban), Solomon
Solomon
ben Adret (Rashba), Yom Tov of Seville (Ritva) and Nissim of Gerona (Ran). A comprehensive anthology consisting of extracts from all these is the Shittah Mekubbetzet of Bezalel Ashkenazi. Other commentaries produced in Spain and Provence were not influenced by the Tosafist style. Two of the most significant of these are the Yad Ramah by Rabbi
Rabbi
Meir Abulafia and Bet Habechirah by Rabbi
Rabbi
Menahem haMeiri, commonly referred to as "Meiri". While the Bet Habechirah is extant for all of Talmud, we only have the Yad Ramah for Tractates Sanhedrin, Baba Batra and Gittin. Like the commentaries of Ramban and the others, these are generally printed as independent works, though some Talmud
Talmud
editions include the Shittah Mekubbetzet in an abbreviated form. In later centuries, focus partially shifted from direct Talmudic interpretation to the analysis of previously written Talmudic commentaries. These later commentaries include "Maharshal" (Solomon Luria), "Maharam" (Meir Lublin) and "Maharsha" (Samuel Edels), and are generally printed at the back of each tractate. Another very useful study aid, found in almost all editions of the Talmud, consists of the marginal notes Torah
Torah
Or, Ein Mishpat Ner Mitzvah and Masoret ha-Shas by the Italian rabbi Joshua Boaz, which give references respectively to the cited Biblical passages, to the relevant halachic codes and to related Talmudic passages. Most editions of the Talmud
Talmud
include brief marginal notes by Akiva Eger under the name Gilyonot ha-Shas, and textual notes by Joel Sirkes and the Vilna Gaon
Vilna Gaon
(see Textual emendations below), on the page together with the text. Pilpul[edit] During the 15th and 16th centuries, a new intensive form of Talmud study arose. Complicated logical arguments were used to explain minor points of contradiction within the Talmud. The term pilpul was applied to this type of study. Usage of pilpul in this sense (that of "sharp analysis") harks back to the Talmudic era and refers to the intellectual sharpness this method demanded. Pilpul practitioners posited that the Talmud
Talmud
could contain no redundancy or contradiction whatsoever. New categories and distinctions (hillukim) were therefore created, resolving seeming contradictions within the Talmud
Talmud
by novel logical means. In the Ashkenazi world the founders of pilpul are generally considered to be Jacob
Jacob
Pollak (1460–1541) and Shalom Shachna. This kind of study reached its height in the 16th and 17th centuries when expertise in pilpulistic analysis was considered an art form and became a goal in and of itself within the yeshivot of Poland and Lithuania. But the popular new method of Talmud
Talmud
study was not without critics; already in the 15th century, the ethical tract Orhot Zaddikim ("Paths of the Righteous" in Hebrew) criticized pilpul for an overemphasis on intellectual acuity. Many 16th- and 17th-century rabbis were also critical of pilpul. Among them may be noted Judah Loew ben Bezalel (the Maharal of Prague), Isaiah Horowitz, and Yair Bacharach. By the 18th century, pilpul study waned. Other styles of learning such as that of the school of Elijah b. Solomon, the Vilna Gaon, became popular. The term "pilpul" was increasingly applied derogatorily to novellae deemed casuistic and hairsplitting. Authors referred to their own commentaries as "al derekh ha-peshat" (by the simple method) to contrast them with pilpul.[45] Sephardic approaches[edit] Among Sephardi and Italian Jews
Jews
from the 15th century on, some authorities sought to apply the methods of Aristotelian logic, as reformulated by Averroes.[46] This method was first recorded, though without explicit reference to Aristotle, by Isaac
Isaac
Campanton (d. Spain, 1463) in his Darkhei ha- Talmud
Talmud
("The Ways of the Talmud"),[47] and is also found in the works of Moses
Moses
Chaim Luzzatto.[48] According to the present-day Sephardi scholar José Faur, traditional Sephardic Talmud
Talmud
study could take place on any of three levels.[49]

The most basic level consists of literary analysis of the text without the help of commentaries, designed to bring out the tzurata di-shema'ta, i.e. the logical and narrative structure of the passage.[50] The intermediate level, 'iyyun (concentration), consists of study with the help of commentaries such as Rashi
Rashi
and the Tosafot, similar to that practised among the Ashkenazim.[51] Historically Sephardim studied the Tosefot ha-Rosh and the commentaries of Nahmanides
Nahmanides
in preference to the printed Tosafot.[52] A method based on the study of Tosafot, and of Ashkenazi authorities such as Maharsha
Maharsha
(Samuel Edels) and Maharshal ( Solomon
Solomon
Luria), was introduced in late seventeenth century Tunisia by Rabbis Abraham
Abraham
Hakohen (d. 1715) and Tsemaḥ Tsarfati (d. 1717) and perpetuated by Rabbi
Rabbi
Isaac
Isaac
Lumbroso[53] and is sometimes referred to as 'Iyyun Tunisa'i.[54] The highest level, halachah (Jewish law), consists of collating the opinions set out in the Talmud
Talmud
with those of the halachic codes such as the Mishneh Torah
Torah
and the Shulchan Aruch, so as to study the Talmud as a source of law. (A project called Halacha Brura,[55] founded by Abraham
Abraham
Isaac
Isaac
Kook, presents the Talmud
Talmud
and a summary of the halachic codes side by side in book form so as to enable this kind of collation.)

Today most Sephardic yeshivot follow Lithuanian approaches such as the Brisker method: the traditional Sephardic methods are perpetuated informally by some individuals. 'Iyyun Tunisa'i is taught at the Kisse Rahamim yeshivah in Bnei Brak. Brisker method[edit] In the late 19th century another trend in Talmud
Talmud
study arose. Rabbi Hayyim Soloveitchik (1853–1918) of Brisk (Brest-Litovsk) developed and refined this style of study. Brisker method involves a reductionistic analysis of rabbinic arguments within the Talmud
Talmud
or among the Rishonim, explaining the differing opinions by placing them within a categorical structure. The Brisker method is highly analytical and is often criticized as being a modern-day version of pilpul. Nevertheless, the influence of the Brisker method is great. Most modern day Yeshivot study the Talmud
Talmud
using the Brisker method in some form. One feature of this method is the use of Maimonides' Mishneh Torah
Torah
as a guide to Talmudic interpretation, as distinct from its use as a source of practical halakha. Rival methods were those of the Mir and Telz yeshivas.[56] Critical method[edit] As a result of Jewish emancipation, Judaism
Judaism
underwent enormous upheaval and transformation during the 19th century. Modern methods of textual and historical analysis were applied to the Talmud. Textual emendations[edit] The text of the Talmud
Talmud
has been subject to some level of critical scrutiny throughout its history. Rabbinic tradition holds that the people cited in both Talmuds did not have a hand in its writings; rather, their teachings were edited into a rough form around 450 CE ( Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi) and 550 CE ( Talmud
Talmud
Bavli.) The text of the Bavli especially was not firmly fixed at that time. The Gaonic responsa literature addresses this issue. Teshuvot Geonim Kadmonim, section 78, deals with mistaken biblical readings in the Talmud. This Gaonic responsum states:

"...But you must examine carefully in every case when you feel uncertainty [as to the credibility of the text] - what is its source? Whether a scribal error? Or the superficiality of a second rate student who was not well versed?....after the manner of many mistakes found among those superficial second-rate students, and certainly among those rural memorizers who were not familiar with the biblical text. And since they erred in the first place....[they compounded the error.] — Teshuvot Geonim Kadmonim, Ed. Cassel, Berlin 1858, Photographic reprint Tel Aviv 1964, 23b.

In the early medieval era, Rashi
Rashi
already concluded that some statements in the extant text of the Talmud
Talmud
were insertions from later editors. On Shevuot 3b Rashi
Rashi
writes "A mistaken student wrote this in the margin of the Talmud, and copyists subsequently put it into the Gemara."[57] The emendations of Yoel Sirkis and the Vilna Gaon
Vilna Gaon
are included in all standard editions of the Talmud, in the form of marginal glosses entitled Hagahot ha-Bach and Hagahot ha-Gra respectively; further emendations by Solomon
Solomon
Luria are set out in commentary form at the back of each tractate. The Vilna Gaon's emendations were often based on his quest for internal consistency in the text rather than on manuscript evidence;[58] nevertheless many of the Gaon's emendations were later verified by textual critics, such as Solomon
Solomon
Schechter, who had Cairo Genizah
Cairo Genizah
texts with which to compare our standard editions.[59] In the 19th century Raphael Nathan Nota Rabinovicz published a multi-volume work entitled Dikdukei Soferim, showing textual variants from the Munich and other early manuscripts of the Talmud, and further variants are recorded in the Complete Israeli Talmud
Talmud
and Gemara Shelemah editions (see Printing, above). Today many more manuscripts have become available, in particular from the Cairo Geniza. The Academy of the Hebrew Language
Academy of the Hebrew Language
has prepared a text on CD-ROM for lexicographical purposes, containing the text of each tractate according to the manuscript it considers most reliable,[60] and images of some of the older manuscripts may be found on the website of the Jewish National and University Library.[61] The JNUL, the Lieberman Institute (associated with the Jewish Theological Seminary of America), the Institute for the Complete Israeli Talmud (part of Yad Harav Herzog) and the Friedberg Jewish Manuscript Society all maintain searchable websites on which the viewer can request variant manuscript readings of a given passage.[62] Further variant readings can often be gleaned from citations in secondary literature such as commentaries, in particular those of Alfasi, Rabbenu Ḥananel and Aghmati, and sometimes the later Spanish commentators such as Nachmanides
Nachmanides
and Solomon
Solomon
ben Adret. Historical analysis, and higher textual criticism[edit] Historical study of the Talmud
Talmud
can be used to investigate a variety of concerns. One can ask questions such as: Do a given section's sources date from its editor's lifetime? To what extent does a section have earlier or later sources? Are Talmudic disputes distinguishable along theological or communal lines? In what ways do different sections derive from different schools of thought within early Judaism? Can these early sources be identified, and if so, how? Investigation of questions such as these are known as higher textual criticism. (The term "criticism", it should be noted, is a technical term denoting academic study.) Religious scholars still debate the precise method by which the text of the Talmuds reached their final form. Many believe that the text was continuously smoothed over by the savoraim. In the 1870s and 1880s Rabbi
Rabbi
Raphael Natan Nata Rabbinovitz engaged in historical study of Talmud
Talmud
Bavli in his Diqduqei Soferim. Since then many Orthodox rabbis have approved of his work, including Rabbis Shlomo Kluger, Yoseph Shaul Ha-Levi Natanzohn, Yaaqov Ettlinger, Isaac Elhanan Spektor and Shimon Sofer. During the early 19th century, leaders of the newly evolving Reform movement, such as Abraham
Abraham
Geiger and Samuel Holdheim, subjected the Talmud
Talmud
to severe scrutiny as part of an effort to break with traditional rabbinic Judaism. They insisted that the Talmud
Talmud
was entirely a work of evolution and development. This view was rejected as both academically incorrect, and religiously incorrect, by those who would become known as the Orthodox movement. Some Orthodox leaders such as Moses
Moses
Sofer (the Chatam Sofer) became exquisitely sensitive to any change and rejected modern critical methods of Talmud
Talmud
study. Some rabbis advocated a view of Talmudic study that they held to be in-between the Reformers and the Orthodox; these were the adherents of positive-historical Judaism, notably Nachman Krochmal
Nachman Krochmal
and Zecharias Frankel. They described the Oral Torah
Torah
as the result of a historical and exegetical process, emerging over time, through the application of authorized exegetical techniques, and more importantly, the subjective dispositions and personalities and current historical conditions, by learned sages. This was later developed more fully in the five volume work Dor Dor ve-Dorshav by Isaac
Isaac
Hirsch Weiss. (See Jay Harris Guiding the Perplexed in the Modern Age Ch. 5) Eventually their work came to be one of the formative parts of Conservative Judaism. Another aspect of this movement is reflected in Graetz's History of the Jews. Graetz attempts to deduce the personality of the Pharisees based on the laws or aggadot that they cite, and show that their personalities influenced the laws they expounded. The leader of Orthodox Jewry in Germany Samson Raphael Hirsch, while not rejecting the methods of scholarship in principle, hotly contested the findings of the Historical-Critical method. In a series of articles in his magazine Jeschurun (reprinted in Collected Writings Vol. 5) Hirsch reiterated the traditional view, and pointed out what he saw as numerous errors in the works of Graetz, Frankel and Geiger. On the other hand, many of the 19th century's strongest critics of Reform, including strictly orthodox Rabbis such as Zvi Hirsch Chajes, utilized this new scientific method. The Orthodox Rabbinical seminary of Azriel Hildesheimer
Azriel Hildesheimer
was founded on the idea of creating a "harmony between Judaism
Judaism
and science". Another Orthodox pioneer of scientific Talmud
Talmud
study was David
David
Zvi Hoffman. The Iraqi rabbi Yaakov Chaim Sofer
Yaakov Chaim Sofer
notes that the text of the Gemara has had changes and additions, and contains statements not of the same origin as the original. See his Yehi Yosef (Jerusalem, 1991) p. 132 "This passage does not bear the signature of the editor of the Talmud!" Orthodox scholar Daniel Sperber writes in "Legitimacy, of Necessity, of Scientific Disciplines" that many Orthodox sources have engaged in the historical (also called "scientific") study of the Talmud. As such, the divide today between Orthodoxy and Reform is not about whether the Talmud
Talmud
may be subjected to historical study, but rather about the theological and halakhic implications of such study. Contemporary scholarship[edit] Some trends within contemporary Talmud
Talmud
scholarship are listed below.

Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
maintains that the oral Torah
Torah
was revealed, in some form, together with the written Torah. As such, some adherents, most notably Samson Raphael Hirsch
Samson Raphael Hirsch
and his followers, resisted any effort to apply historical methods that imputed specific motives to the authors of the Talmud. Other major figures in Orthodoxy, however, took issue with Hirsch on this matter, most prominently David
David
Tzvi Hoffmann.[63] Some scholars hold that there has been extensive editorial reshaping of the stories and statements within the Talmud. Lacking outside confirming texts, they hold that we cannot confirm the origin or date of most statements and laws, and that we can say little for certain about their authorship. In this view, the questions above are impossible to answer. See, for example, the works of Louis Jacobs and Shaye J.D. Cohen. Some scholars hold that the Talmud
Talmud
has been extensively shaped by later editorial redaction, but that it contains sources we can identify and describe with some level of reliability. In this view, sources can be identified by tracing the history and analyzing the geographical regions of origin. See, for example, the works of Lee I. Levine and David
David
Kraemer. Some scholars hold that many or most of the statements and events described in the Talmud
Talmud
usually occurred more or less as described, and that they can be used as serious sources of historical study. In this view, historians do their best to tease out later editorial additions (itself a very difficult task) and skeptically view accounts of miracles, leaving behind a reliable historical text. See, for example, the works of Saul Lieberman, David
David
Weiss Halivni, and Avraham Goldberg. Modern academic study attempts to separate the different "strata" within the text, to try to interpret each level on its own, and to identify the correlations between parallel versions of the same tradition. In recent years, the works of R. David
David
Weiss Halivni and Dr. Shamma Friedman have suggested a paradigm shift in the understanding of the Talmud
Talmud
(Encyclopaedia Judaica 2nd ed. entry "Talmud, Babylonian"). The traditional understanding was to view the Talmud
Talmud
as a unified homogeneous work. While other scholars had also treated the Talmud
Talmud
as a multi-layered work, Dr. Halivni's innovation (primarily in the second volume of his Mekorot u-Mesorot) was to differentiate between the Amoraic statements, which are generally brief Halachic decisions or inquiries, and the writings of the later "Stammaitic" (or Saboraic) authors, which are characterised by a much longer analysis that often consists of lengthy dialectic discussion. It has been noted that the Jerusalem Talmud
Jerusalem Talmud
is in fact very similar to the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
minus Stammaitic activity (Encyclopaedia Judaica (2nd ed.), entry " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud"). Shamma Y. Friedman's Talmud Aruch on the sixth chapter of Bava Metzia (1996) is the first example of a complete analysis of a Talmudic text using this method. S. Wald has followed with works on Pesachim ch. 3 (2000) and Shabbat ch. 7 (2006). Further commentaries in this sense are being published by Dr Friedman's "Society for the Interpretation of the Talmud".[64] Some scholars are indeed using outside sources to help give historical and contextual understanding of certain areas of the Babylonian Talmud. See for example the works of the Prof Yaakov Elman[65] and of his student Dr. Shai Secunda,[66] which seek to place the Talmud
Talmud
in its Iranian context, for example by comparing it with contemporary Zoroastrian texts.

Role in Judaism[edit] The Talmud
The Talmud
represents the written record of an oral tradition. It became the basis for many rabbinic legal codes and customs, most importantly for the Mishneh Torah
Torah
and for the Shulchan Aruch. Orthodox and, to a lesser extent, Conservative Judaism
Judaism
accepts the Talmud
Talmud
as authoritative, while Samaritan, Karaite, Reconstructionist, and Reform Judaism
Judaism
do not. This section briefly outlines past and current movements and their view of the Talmud's role. Sadducees[edit] The Jewish sect of the Sadducees
Sadducees
(Hebrew: צְדוּקִים) flourished during the Second Temple
Second Temple
period. Principal distinctions between them and the Pharisees
Pharisees
(later known as Rabbinic Judaism) involved their rejection of an Oral Torah
Torah
and their denying a resurrection after death. Karaism[edit] Another movement that rejected the oral Torah
Torah
was Karaism. It arose within two centuries of the completion of the Talmud. Karaism developed as a reaction against the Talmudic Judaism
Judaism
of Babylonia. The central concept of Karaism is the rejection of the Oral Torah, as embodied in the Talmud, in favor of a strict adherence to the Written Torah
Torah
only. This opposes the fundamental Rabbinic concept that the Oral Torah
Torah
was given to Moses
Moses
on Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
together with the Written Torah. Some later Karaites took a more moderate stance, allowing that some element of tradition (called sevel ha-yerushah, the burden of inheritance) is admissible in interpreting the Torah
Torah
and that some authentic traditions are contained in the Mishnah
Mishnah
and the Talmud, though these can never supersede the plain meaning of the Written Torah. Reform Judaism[edit] The rise of Reform Judaism
Judaism
during the 19th century saw more questioning of the authority of the Talmud. Reform Jews
Jews
saw the Talmud as a product of late antiquity, having relevance merely as a historical document. For example, the "Declaration of Principles" issued by the Association of Friends of Reform Frankfurt in August 1843 states among other things that:

The collection of controversies, dissertations, and prescriptions commonly designated by the name Talmud
Talmud
possesses for us no authority, from either the dogmatic or the practical standpoint.

Some took a critical-historical view of the written Torah
Torah
as well, while others appeared to adopt a neo-Karaite "back to the Bible" approach, though often with greater emphasis on the prophetic than on the legal books. Humanistic Judaism[edit] Within Humanistic Judaism, Talmud
Talmud
is studied as a historical text, in order to discover how it can demonstrate practical relevance to living today.[67] Present day[edit]

See also Halakha: Views today and Halakha: The sources and process of Halakha.

Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
continues to stress the importance of Talmud
Talmud
study as a central component of Yeshiva
Yeshiva
curriculum, in particular for those training to become Rabbis. This is so even though Halakha is generally studied from the medieval and early modern codes and not directly from the Talmud. Talmudic study amongst the laity is widespread in Orthodox Judaism, with daily or weekly Talmud
Talmud
study particularly common in Haredi Judaism
Judaism
and with Talmud
Talmud
study a central part of the curriculum in Orthodox Yeshivas and day schools. The regular study of Talmud among laymen has been popularized by the Daf Yomi, a daily course of Talmud
Talmud
study initiated by Rabbi
Rabbi
Meir Shapiro
Meir Shapiro
in 1923; its 13th cycle of study began on August, 2012. The Rohr Jewish Learning Institute
Rohr Jewish Learning Institute
has popularized the "MyShiur - Explorations in Talmud" to show how the Talmud
Talmud
is relevant to a wide range of people.[68] Conservative Judaism
Judaism
similarly emphasizes the study of Talmud
Talmud
within its religious and rabbinic education. Generally, however, Conservative Jews
Jews
study the Talmud
Talmud
as a historical source-text for Halakha. The Conservative approach to legal decision-making emphasizes placing classic texts and prior decisions in historical and cultural context, and examining the historical development of Halakha. This approach has resulted in greater practical flexibility than that of the Orthodox. Talmud
Talmud
study forms part of the curriculum of Conservative parochial education at many Conservative day-schools, and an increase in Conservative day-school enrollments has resulted in an increase in Talmud
Talmud
study as part of Conservative Jewish education among a minority of Conservative Jews. See also: The Conservative Jewish view of the Halakha. Reform Judaism
Judaism
does not emphasize the study of Talmud
Talmud
to the same degree in their Hebrew schools, but they do teach it in their rabbinical seminaries; the world view of liberal Judaism
Judaism
rejects the idea of binding Jewish law, and uses the Talmud
Talmud
as a source of inspiration and moral instruction. Ownership and reading of the Talmud is not widespread among Reform and Reconstructionist Jews, who usually place more emphasis on the study of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh. In visual arts[edit] In Carl Schleicher's paintings[edit] Rabbis and talmudists studying and debating Talmud
Talmud
abound in the art of Austrian painter Carl Schleicher (1825-1903); active in Vienna, especially c. 1859–1871.

Jewish Scene II

A Controversy Whatsoever on Talmud.[69]

At the Rabbi's.

Jewish Scene I.

Jewish art[edit]

Jews
Jews
studying Talmud, París, c. 1880-1905

Samuel Hirszenberg, Talmudic School, c. 1895-1908.

Ephraim Moses
Moses
Lilien, The Talmud
The Talmud
Students, engraving, 1915

Maurycy Trębacz, The Dispute, c. 1920-1940

Solomon's Haggadoth, bronze relief from the Knesset Menorah, Jerusalem, by Benno Elkan, 1956.

Hilel's Teachings, bronze relief from the Knesset Menorah

Jewish Mysticism: Jochanan ben Sakkai, bronze relief from the Knesset Menorah

Other contexts[edit] The study of Talmud
Talmud
is not restricted to those of the Jewish religion and has attracted interest in other cultures. Christian
Christian
scholars have long expressed an interest in the study of Talmud
Talmud
which has helped illuminate their own scriptures. Talmud contains biblical exegesis and commentary on Tanakh
Tanakh
that will often clarify elliptical and esoteric passages. The Talmud
The Talmud
contains possible references to Jesus
Jesus
Christ and his disciples, while the Christian canon makes mention of Talmudic figures and contains teachings that can be paralleled within the Talmud
Talmud
and Midrash. The Talmud
The Talmud
provides cultural and historical context to the Gospel
Gospel
and the writings of the Apostles.[70] South Koreans reportedly hope to emulate Jews' high academic standards by studying Jewish literature. Almost every household has a translated copy of a book they call "Talmud", which parents read to their children, and the book is part of the primary-school curriculum.[71][72] The "Talmud" in this case is usually one of several possible volumes, the earliest translated into Korean from the Japanese. The original Japanese books were created through the collaboration of Japanese writer Hideaki Kase and Marvin Tokayer, an Orthodox American rabbi serving in Japan in the 1960s and 70s. The first collaborative book was 5,000 Years of Jewish Wisdom: Secrets of the Talmud
Talmud
Scriptures, created over a three-day period in 1968 and published in 1971. The book contains actual stories from the Talmud, proverbs, ethics, Jewish legal material, biographies of Talmudic rabbis, and personal stories about Tokayer and his family. Tokayer and Kase published a number of other books on Jewish themes together in Japanese.[73] The first South Korean publication of 5,000 Years of Jewish Wisdom was in 1974, by Tae Zang publishing house. Many different editions followed in both Korea and China, often by black-market publishers. Between 2007 and 2009, Reverend Yong-soo Hyun of the Shema Yisrael Educational Institute published a 6-volume edition of the Korean Talmud, bringing together material from a variety of Tokayer's earlier books. He worked with Tokayer to correct errors and Tokayer is listed as the author. Tutoring centers based on this and other works called "Talmud" for both adults and children are popular in Korea and "Talmud" books (all based on Tokayer's works and not the original Talmud) are widely read and known.[73] Criticism[edit]

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v t e

Historian Michael Levi Rodkinson, in his book The History of the Talmud, wrote that detractors of the Talmud, both during and subsequent to its formation, "have varied in their character, objects and actions" and the book documents a number of critics and persecutors, including Nicholas Donin, Johannes Pfefferkorn, Johann Andreas Eisenmenger, the Frankists, and August Rohling.[74] Many attacks come from antisemitic sources, particularly Christians such as Justinas Pranaitis, Elizabeth Dilling
Elizabeth Dilling
or David
David
Duke. Criticisms also arise from Muslim sources,[75][76][77] Jewish sources,[78] and atheists and skeptics.[79] Accusations against the Talmud
Talmud
include alleged:[74][80][81][82][83][84][85]

Anti- Christian
Christian
or anti-Gentile content[86][87][88][89] Absurd or sexually immoral content[90] Falsification of scripture[91][92][93]

Defenders of the Talmud
Talmud
argue that many of these criticisms, particularly those in antisemitic sources, are based on quotations that are taken out of context, and thus misrepresent the meaning of the Talmud's text. Sometimes the misrepresentation is deliberate, and other times simply due to an inability to grasp the subtle and sometimes confusing narratives in the Talmud. Some quotations provided by critics deliberately omit passages in order to generate quotes that appear to be offensive or insulting.[94][95] Middle Ages[edit] At the very time that the Babylonian savoraim put the finishing touches to the redaction of the Talmud, the emperor Justinian issued his edict against deuterosis (doubling, repetition) of the Hebrew Bible.[96] It is disputed whether, in this context, deuterosis means "Mishnah" or "Targum": in patristic literature, the word is used in both senses. Full-scale attacks on the Talmud
Talmud
took place in the 13th century in France, where Talmudic study was then flourishing. In the 1230s, Nicholas Donin, a Jewish convert to Christianity, pressed 35 charges against the Talmud
Talmud
to Pope Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX
by translating a series of blasphemous passages about Jesus, Mary or Christianity. There is a quoted Talmudic passage, for example, where Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth is sent to Hell to be boiled in excrement for eternity. Donin also selected an injunction of the Talmud
Talmud
that permits Jews
Jews
to kill non-Jews. This led to the Disputation of Paris, which took place in 1240 at the court of Louis IX of France, where four rabbis, including Yechiel of Paris and Moses
Moses
ben Jacob
Jacob
of Coucy, defended the Talmud
Talmud
against the accusations of Nicholas Donin. The translation of the Talmud
Talmud
from Hebrew to non- Jewish languages
Jewish languages
stripped Jewish discourse from its covering, something that was resented by Jews
Jews
as a profound violation.[97] The Disputation of Paris
Disputation of Paris
led to the condemnation and the first burning of copies of the Talmud
Talmud
in Paris in 1242.[98][99][100] The burning of copies of the Talmud
Talmud
continued.[101] The Talmud
The Talmud
was likewise the subject of the Disputation of Barcelona in 1263 between Nahmanides
Nahmanides
( Rabbi
Rabbi
Moses
Moses
ben Nahman) and Christian convert, Pablo Christiani. This same Pablo Christiani made an attack on the Talmud
Talmud
that resulted in a papal bull against the Talmud
Talmud
and in the first censorship, which was undertaken at Barcelona by a commission of Dominicans, who ordered the cancellation of passages deemed objectionable from a Christian
Christian
perspective (1264).[102][103] At the Disputation of Tortosa
Disputation of Tortosa
in 1413, Geronimo de Santa Fé brought forward a number of accusations, including the fateful assertion that the condemnations of "pagans," "heathens," and "apostates" found in the Talmud
Talmud
were in reality veiled references to Christians. These assertions were denied by the Jewish community and its scholars, who contended that Judaic thought made a sharp distinction between those classified as heathen or pagan, being polytheistic, and those who acknowledge one true God (such as the Christians) even while worshipping the true monotheistic God incorrectly. Thus, Jews
Jews
viewed Christians as misguided and in error, but not among the "heathens" or "pagans" discussed in the Talmud.[103] Both Pablo Christiani and Geronimo de Santa Fé, in addition to criticizing the Talmud, also regarded it as a source of authentic traditions, some of which could be used as arguments in favour of Christianity. Examples of such traditions were statements that the Messiah
Messiah
was born around the time of the destruction of the Temple, and that the Messiah
Messiah
sat at the right hand of God.[104] In 1415, Antipope Benedict XIII, who had convened the Tortosa disputation, issued a papal bull (which was destined, however, to remain inoperative) forbidding the Jews
Jews
to read the Talmud, and ordering the destruction of all copies of it. Far more important were the charges made in the early part of the 16th century by the convert Johannes Pfefferkorn, the agent of the Dominicans. The result of these accusations was a struggle in which the emperor and the pope acted as judges, the advocate of the Jews
Jews
being Johann Reuchlin, who was opposed by the obscurantists; and this controversy, which was carried on for the most part by means of pamphlets, became in the eyes of some a precursor of the Reformation.[103][105] An unexpected result of this affair was the complete printed edition of the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
issued in 1520 by Daniel Bomberg
Daniel Bomberg
at Venice, under the protection of a papal privilege.[106] Three years later, in 1523, Bomberg published the first edition of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud. After thirty years the Vatican, which had first permitted the Talmud to appear in print, undertook a campaign of destruction against it. On the New Year, Rosh Hashanah (September 9, 1553) the copies of the Talmud
Talmud
confiscated in compliance with a decree of the Inquisition
Inquisition
were burned at Rome, in Campo dei Fiori (auto de fé). Other burnings took place in other Italian cities, such as the one instigated by Joshua dei Cantori at Cremona
Cremona
in 1559. Censorship of the Talmud
Talmud
and other Hebrew works was introduced by a papal bull issued in 1554; five years later the Talmud
Talmud
was included in the first Index Expurgatorius; and Pope Pius IV
Pope Pius IV
commanded, in 1565, that the Talmud
Talmud
be deprived of its very name. The convention of referring to the work as "Shas" (shishah sidre Mishnah) instead of "Talmud" dates from this time.[107] The first edition of the expurgated Talmud, on which most subsequent editions were based, appeared at Basel
Basel
(1578–1581) with the omission of the entire treatise of 'Abodah Zarah and of passages considered inimical to Christianity, together with modifications of certain phrases. A fresh attack on the Talmud
Talmud
was decreed by Pope Gregory XIII (1575–85), and in 1593 Clement VIII renewed the old interdiction against reading or owning it.[citation needed] The increasing study of the Talmud
Talmud
in Poland led to the issue of a complete edition (Kraków, 1602-5), with a restoration of the original text; an edition containing, so far as known, only two treatises had previously been published at Lublin
Lublin
(1559–76). In 1707 some copies of the Talmud were confiscated in the province of Brandenburg, but were restored to their owners by command of Frederick, the first king of Prussia.[citation needed] A further attack on the Talmud
Talmud
took place in Poland (in what is now Ukrainian territory) in 1757, when Bishop Dembowski, at the instigation of the Frankists, convened a public disputation at Kamianets-Podilskyi, and ordered all copies of the work found in his bishopric to be confiscated and burned.[108] The external history of the Talmud
Talmud
includes also the literary attacks made upon it by some Christian
Christian
theologians after the Reformation, since these onslaughts on Judaism
Judaism
were directed primarily against that work, the leading example being Eisenmenger's Entdecktes Judenthum ( Judaism
Judaism
Unmasked) (1700).[109][110][111] In contrast, the Talmud
Talmud
was a subject of rather more sympathetic study by many Christian theologians, jurists and Orientalists from the Renaissance
Renaissance
on, including Johann Reuchlin, John Selden, Petrus Cunaeus, John Lightfoot and Johannes Buxtorf
Johannes Buxtorf
father and son.[112] 19th century and after[edit] The Vilna edition of the Talmud
Talmud
was subject to Russian government censorship, or self-censorship to meet government expectations, though this was less severe than some previous attempts: the title "Talmud" was retained and the tractate Avodah Zarah was included. Most modern editions are either copies of or closely based on the Vilna edition, and therefore still omit most of the disputed passages. Although they were not available for many generations, the removed sections of the Talmud, Rashi, Tosafot
Tosafot
and Maharsha
Maharsha
were preserved through rare printings of lists of errata, known as Chesronos Hashas ("Omissions of the Talmud").[113] Many of these censored portions were recovered from uncensored manuscripts in the Vatican Library. Some modern editions of the Talmud
Talmud
contain some or all of this material, either at the back of the book, in the margin, or in its original location in the text.[114] In 1830, during a debate in the French Chamber of Peers regarding state recognition of the Jewish faith, Admiral Verhuell declared himself unable to forgive the Jews
Jews
whom he had met during his travels throughout the world either for their refusal to recognize Jesus
Jesus
as the Messiah
Messiah
or for their possession of the Talmud.[115] In the same year the Abbé Chiarini published a voluminous work entitled Théorie du Judaïsme, in which he announced a translation of the Talmud, advocating for the first time a version that would make the work generally accessible, and thus serve for attacks on Judaism: only two out of the projected six volumes of this translation appeared.[116] In a like spirit 19th-century anti-Semitic agitators often urged that a translation be made; and this demand was even brought before legislative bodies, as in Vienna. The Talmud
The Talmud
and the " Talmud
Talmud
Jew" thus became objects of anti-Semitic attacks, for example in August Rohling's Der Talmudjude (1871), although, on the other hand, they were defended by many Christian
Christian
students of the Talmud, notably Hermann Strack.[117] Further attacks from anti-Semitic sources include Justinas Pranaitis' The Talmud
The Talmud
Unmasked: The Secret Rabbinical Teachings Concerning Christians (1892)[118] and Elizabeth Dilling's The Plot against Christianity
Christianity
(1964).[119] The criticisms of the Talmud
Talmud
in many modern pamphlets and websites are often recognisable as verbatim quotes from one or other of these.[citation needed] Contemporary accusations[edit] Criticism of the Talmud
Talmud
is widespread, in great part through the internet.[120] The Anti-Defamation League's report on this topic states that antisemitic critics of the Talmud
Talmud
frequently use erroneous translations or selective quotations in order to distort the meaning of the Talmud's text, and sometimes fabricate passages. In addition, the attackers rarely provide full context of the quotations, and fail to provide contextual information about the culture that the Talmud was composed in, nearly 2,000 years ago.[121] One such example concerns the line "If a Jew be called upon to explain any part of the rabbinic books, he ought to give only a false explanation. Who ever will violate this order shall be put to death." alleged to be a quote from a book titled Libbre David
David
(alternatively Livore David). No such book exists in the Talmud
Talmud
or elsewhere.[122] The title is assumed to be a corruption of Dibre David, a work published in 1671.[123] Reference to the quote is found in an early Holocaust denial
Holocaust denial
book, The Six Million Reconsidered by William Grimstad.[124] Gil Student, an internet author, states that many attacks on the Talmud
Talmud
are merely recycling discredited material that originated in the 13th-century disputations, particularly from Raymond Marti and Nicholas Donin, and that the criticisms are based on quotations taken out of context, and are sometimes entirely fabricated.[125] See also[edit]

Judaism
Judaism
portal

Baraita Daf Yomi Ein Yaakov Hadran (Talmud) Jesus
Jesus
in the Talmud List of logical arguments in the Talmud Minor Tractates Rashi Shas Pollak Siyum Siyum
Siyum
HaShas Talmudic Academies in Babylonia Talmudic Academies in Syria Palaestina Talmudical hermeneutics

Notes[edit]

^ Steinberg, Paul; Greenstein Potter, Janet (2007). Celebrating the Jewish Year: The Fall Holidays: Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur. The Jewish Publication Society. p. 42. ISBN 9780827608429.  ^ Steinsaltz, Adin (2009). "What is the Talmud?". The Essential Talmud (30th anniversary ed.). Basic Books. ISBN 9780786735419.  ^ Neusner, Jacob
Jacob
(2003). The Formation of the Babylonian Talmud. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. ix. ISBN 9781592442195.  ^ Safrai, S. (1969). "The Era of the Mishnah
Mishnah
and Talmud
Talmud
(70-640)". In Ben-Sasson, H. H. A History of the Jewish People. Translated by Weidenfeld, George. Harvard University Press (published 1976). p. 379. ISBN 9780674397316.  ^ Goldberg, Abraham
Abraham
(1987). "The Palestinian Talmud". In Safrai, Shmuel. The Literature of the Jewish People in the Period of the Second Temple
Second Temple
and the Talmud, Volume 3 The Literature of the Sages. Brill. doi:10.1163/9789004275133_008.  ^ Jastrow, Morris Jr.; Rogers, Robert W.; Gottheil, Richard; Krauss, Samuel (1901–1906). Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk and Wagnalls. Retrieved 17 September 2015. The Talmud
The Talmud
gives the boundaries of as much of Babylonia
Babylonia
as contained Jewish residents  ^ See, Strack, Hermann, Introduction to the Talmud
Talmud
and Midrash, Jewish Publication Society, 1945. pp.11-12. "[The Oral Torah] was handed down by word of mouth during a long period...The first attempts to write down the traditional matter, there is reason to believe, date from the first half of the second post- Christian
Christian
century." Strack theorizes that the growth of a Christian
Christian
canon (the New Testament) was a factor that influenced the Rabbis to record the oral Torah
Torah
in writing. ^ The theory that the destruction of the Temple and subsequent upheaval led to the committing of Oral Torah
Torah
into writing was first explained in the Epistle of Sherira Gaon and often repeated. See, for example, Grayzel, A History of the Jews, Penguin Books, 1984, p. 193. ^ For the meaning of "page" in this context see under #Printing. ^ Jacobs, Louis, Structure and form in the Babylonian Talmud, Cambridge University Press, 1991, p.2 ^ e.g. Pirkei Avot
Pirkei Avot
5.21: "five for the Torah, ten for Mishnah, thirteen for the commandments, fifteen for talmud". ^ "Talmud". A Concise Companion to the Jewish Religion. Louis Jacobs. Oxford University Press, 1999, page 261 ^ "Palestinian Talmud". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010. Retrieved August 4, 2010.  ^ The Yerushalmi--the Talmud
Talmud
of the land of Israel: an introduction, Jacob
Jacob
Neusner, J. Aronson, 1993 ^ Eusebius. "XVIII: He speaks of their Unanimity respecting the Feast of Easter, and against the Practice of the Jews". Vita Constantini. III (circa 330 CE). Retrieved June 21, 2009.  ^ " Talmud
Talmud
and Midrash
Midrash
(Judaism) :: The making of the Talmuds: 3rd-6th century". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2008. Retrieved 28 October 2013.  ^ Moshe Gil (2004). Jews
Jews
in Islamic Countries in the Middle Ages. p. 507.  ^ Nosson Dovid Rabinowich (ed), The Iggeres of Rav Sherira Gaon, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
1988, pp. 79, 116 ^ Nosson Dovid Rabinowich (ed), The Iggeres of Rav Sherira Gaon, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
1988, p. 116 ^ Steinsaltz, Adin (1976). The Essential Talmud. BasicBooks, A Division of HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-465-02063-1.  ^ "Judaic Treasures of the Library of Congress: The Talmud". American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise.  ^ Sáenz-Badillos, Ángel and John Elwolde. 1996. A history of the Hebrew language. P.170-171: "There is general agreement that two main periods of RH (Rabbinical Hebrew) can be distinguished. The first, which lasted until the close of the Tannaitic era (around 200 CE), is characterized by RH as a spoken language gradually developing into a literary medium in which the Mishnah, Tosefta, baraitot, and Tannaitic midrashim would be composed. The second stage begins with the Amoraim, and sees RH being replaced by Aramaic as the spoken vernacular, surviving only as a literary language. Then it continued to be used in later rabbinic writings until the 10th century in, for example, the Hebrew portions of the two Talmuds and in midrashic and haggadic literature." ^ Dalin 2012, p. 25. ^ Gottheil & Broydé 1906. ^ Heller 2005, p. 73. ^ Amram 1909, p. 162. ^ Amnon Raz-Krakotzkin. The Censor, the Editor, and the Text: The Catholic Church and the Shaping of the Jewish Canon in the Sixteenth Century. Trans. Jackie Feldman. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007. viii + 314 ISBN 978-0-8122-4011-5. p104 ^ Christiane Berkvens-Stevelinck Le Magasin De L'Univers - The Dutch Republic As the Centre of the European Book
Book
Trade (Brill's Studies in Intellectual History) ^ Printing the Talmud: a history of the individual treatises p239 Marvin J. Heller - 1999 "The Benveniste
Benveniste
Talmud, according to Rabbinovicz, was based on the Lublin
Lublin
Talmud
Talmud
which included many of the censors' errors" ^ The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia Isaac
Isaac
Landman - 1941 "His greatest work was the translation of the entire Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
into German, which, as it was made from the uncensored text and was the only complete translation in a European language, was of great value for students." ^ Friedman, “Variant Readings in the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
— A Methodological Study Marking the Appearance of 13 Volumes of the Institute for the Complete Israeli Talmud’s Edition,” Tarbiz 68 (1998). ^ Amar, Yosef. " Talmud
Talmud
Bavli be-niqqud Temani". Nosachteiman.co.il.  ^ Julius Joseph Price, The Yemenite ms. of Megilla (in the Library of Columbia university), 1916; Pesahim, 1913; Mo'ed Katon, 1920. ^ Ackerman, Matthew. “America’s Most Important Jewish Event?”, 'Commentary', June 26, 2012. ^ "Queen for a Day", Tablet Magazine, 5 February 2013 ^ The other Oz ve-Hadar editions are similar but without the explanation in modern Hebrew. ^ Neusner, Jacob
Jacob
(2011-02-01). The Babylonian Talmud: A Translation and Commentary (22-Volume Set ed. edition ed.). Peabody, Mass: Hendrickson Pub. ISBN 9781598565263. CS1 maint: Extra text (link) ^ Introducing: Talmud
Talmud
in Arabic ^ "Arab translation of Talmud
Talmud
includes anti-Israeli messages".  ^ " Talmud
Talmud
(William Davidson)". www.sefaria.org. Retrieved 4 June 2017.  ^ http://www.jta.org/2017/02/07/news-opinion/united-states/with-full-talmud-translation-online-library-hopes-to-make-sages-accessible ^ As Pirkei Avot
Pirkei Avot
is a tractate of the Mishnah, and reached its final form centuries before the compilation of either Talmud, this refers to talmud as an activity rather than to any written compilation. ^ "HebrewBooks.org Sefer Detail: ספר הנר - ברכות -- אגמתי, זכריה בן יהודה".  ^ For a list see Ephraim Urbach, s.v. "Tosafot," in Encyclopedia of Religion. ^ See Pilpul, Mordechai Breuer, in Encyclopaedia Judaica, Vol. 16, 2nd Ed (2007), Macmillan Reference, USA and H.H. Ben Sasson, A History of the Jewish People, pp. 627, 717. ^ Kol Melechet Higgayon, the Hebrew translation of Averroes' epitome of Aristotle's logical works, was widely studied in northern Italy, particularly Padua. ^ Boyarin, Sephardi Speculation (Hebrew) ( Jerusalem
Jerusalem
1989). ^ For a comprehensive treatment, see Ravitzky, below. ^ Faur is here describing the tradition of Damascus, though the approach in other places may have been similar. ^ Examples of lessons using this approach may be found here[permanent dead link]. ^ Cf. the distinction in the Ashkenazi yeshivah curriculum between beki'ut (basic familiarization) and 'iyyun (in-depth study). ^ David
David
ben Judah Messer Leon, Kevod Ḥakhamim, cited by Zimmels, Ashkenazim and Sephardim, pp. 151 and 154. ^ Chaim Joseph David
David
Azulai, Shem Gedolim, cited Hirschberg, A History of the Jews
Jews
in North Africa, pp 125-6. ^ Joseph Ringel, "A Third Way: Iyyun Tunisai as a Traditional Critical Method of Talmud
Talmud
Study", Tradition 2013 46:3. ^ Rav Avraham Yitzchok Ha-Cohen Kook, zt"l, Late Chief Rabbi
Rabbi
of Israel (February 17, 2008). "A labor of great magnitude stands before us, to repair the break between the Talmudic deliberations and the halachic decisions... to accustom students of the Gemara
Gemara
to correlate knowledge of all the halacha with its source and reason..." Halacha Brura and Birur Halacha Institute. Retrieved 20 September 2010. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) It should not be confused with the halachic compendium of the same name by Rabbi
Rabbi
David
David
Yosef. ^ For a humorous description of the different methods, see Gavriel Bechhofer's An Analysis of Darchei HaLimud (Methodologies of Talmud Study) Centering on a Cup of Tea. ^ As Yonah Fraenkel shows in his book Darko Shel Rashi
Rashi
be-Ferusho la- Talmud
Talmud
ha-Bavli, one of Rashi's major accomplishments was textual emendation. Rabbenu Tam, Rashi's grandson and one of the central figures in the Tosafist academies, polemicizes against textual emendation in his less studied work Sefer ha-Yashar. However, the Tosafists, too, emended the Talmudic text (See e.g. Baba Kamma 83b s.v. af haka'ah ha'amurah or Gittin 32a s.v. mevutelet) as did many other medieval commentators (see e.g. R. Shlomo ben Aderet, Hiddushei ha-Rashb"a al ha-Sha"s to Baba Kamma 83b, or Rabbenu Nissim's commentary to Alfasi on Gittin 32a). ^ Etkes, Immanuel (2002). The Gaon of Vilna. University of California Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-520-22394-2.  ^ Solomon
Solomon
Schechter, Studies in Judaism
Judaism
p.92. ^ Introduction to Sokoloff, Dictionary of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic. ^ "אוצר כתבי יד תלמודיים". Archived from the original on 2006-12-12.  ^ See under #Manuscripts and textual variants, below. ^ See particularly his controversial dissertation, Mar Samuel, available at archive.org (German). ^ [www.entry.co.il], entry interactive. "Igud HaTalmud".  ^ Yaacov Elman (November 2012). Steven Fine; Shai Secunda, eds. Shoshannat Yaakov: Jewish and Iranian Studies in Honor of Yaakov Elman. Brill Academic Pub Publishers. ISBN 978-9004235441. Retrieved 11 November 2013.  ^ Shai Secunda (October 2013). The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0812245707. Retrieved 18 November 2013.  ^ "Secular Talmud
Talmud
Study - The City Congregation for Humanistic Judaism".  ^ Lakein, Dvora (December 28, 2007). "Chabad Unveils Talmudic Study Program In 15 Cities". New York. Merkos L'inyonei Chinuch.  ^ See Schleicher's paintings at MutualArt. ^ "Why Christians Should Study Torah
Torah
and Talmud". Bridges for Peace. Retrieved July 3, 2006.  ^ Hirschfield, Tzofia (2011-05-12). "Why Koreans study Talmud". Jewish World. Retrieved 27 June 2014.  ^ Alper, Tim (2011-05-12). "Why South Koreans are in love with Judaism". The Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 27 June 2014.  ^ a b Ross Arbes (June 23, 2015). "How the Talmud
Talmud
Became a Best-Seller in South Korea". The New Yorker.  ^ a b Rodkinson ^ Lewis, Bernard, Semites and anti-Semites: an inquiry into conflict and prejudice, W. W. Norton & Company, 1999, p. 134 ^ Johnson, Paul, A history of the Jews, HarperCollins, 1988, p. 577 ^ Arab attitudes to Israel, Yehoshafat Harkabi, p. 248, 272 ^ Such as Uriel da Costa, Israel
Israel
Shahak and Baruch Kimmerling ^ Such as Christopher Hitchens
Christopher Hitchens
and Denis Diderot ^ Hyam Maccoby, Judaism
Judaism
on Trial ^ ADL report The Talmud
The Talmud
in Anti-Semitic Polemics Archived 2010-08-05 at the Wayback Machine., Anti-Defamation League ^ Student, Gil - Rebuttals to criticisms of Talmud ^ Bacher, Wilhelm, "Talmud", article in Jewish Encyclopedia, Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1901 ^ "TALMUD - JewishEncyclopedia.com".  ^ "TALMUD - JewishEncyclopedia.com".  ^ Fraade, pp. 144-146 ^ Kimmerling, Baruch, "Images of Gentiles" (book review), Journal of Palestine Studies, April 1997, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 96–98 ^ Siedman, p. 137 ^ Cohn-Sherbok, p. 48 ^ Steinsaltz, pp. 268-270 ^ See, for example, Uriel DaCosta, quoted by Nadler, p. 68 ^ Cohn-Sherbok, p. 47 ^ Wilhelm Bacher, "Talmud", article in Jewish Encyclopedia ^ ADL report, p. 1-2 ^ For examples of some selective quoting and omissions, see:Responses to criticisms by Gil Student:Responses to criticisms by Michael Gruda ^ Nov. 146.1.2. ^ Naomi Seidman, Faithful Renderings: Jewish- Christian
Christian
Difference and the Politics of Translation, pp. 136-138 ^ Rodkinson, pp 66–69 ^ Levy, p 701 ^ For a Hebrew account of the Paris Disputation, see Jehiel of Paris, "The Disputation of Jehiel of Paris" (Hebrew), in Collected Polemics and Disputations, ed. J. D. Eisenstein, Hebrew Publishing Company, 1922; Translated and reprinted by Hyam Maccoby in Judaism
Judaism
on Trial: Jewish- Christian
Christian
Disputations in the Middle Ages, 1982 ^ James Carroll Constantine's sword: the church and the Jews : a history ^ Cohn-Sherbok, pp 50-54 ^ a b c Maccoby ^ Hyam Maccoby, op. cit. ^ Roth, Norman, Medieval Jewish civilization: an encyclopedia, Taylor & Francis, 2003, p. 83 ^ Rodkinson, p 98 ^ Hastings, James. Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 23, p 186 ^ Rodkinson, pp 100-103 ^ Rodkinson, p. 105 ^ Levy, p. 210 ^ Boettcher, Susan R., "Entdecktes Judenthum", article in Levy, p. 210 ^ Berlin, George L., Defending the faith: nineteenth-century American Jewish writings on Christianity
Christianity
and Jesus, SUNY Press, 1989, p 156 ^ Chesronos Hashas Archived 2008-10-02 at the Wayback Machine. ^ The Talmud: The Steinsaltz Edition, pp. 103-104 Heller, Marvin J. (1999). Printing the Talmud: a history of the individual treatises printed from 1700 to 1750. Basel: Brill Publishers. pp. 17, 166.  ^ "Page:Archives israelites 1851 tome12.djvu/647 - Wikisource".  ^ "CHIARINI, LUIGI - JewishEncyclopedia.com".  ^ Rodkinson, pp 109-114 ^ Levy, p 564 ^ Jeansonne, Glen, Women of the Far Right: The Mothers' Movement and World War II, University of Chicago Press, 1997, pp 168-169 ^ Jones, Jeremy (June 1999). "Talmudic Terrors". Australia/Israel Review. Archived from the original on 2002-03-30. Retrieved 2008-06-12. If any reader doubts the maliciousness, virulence and prevalence of such material in cyber-space, it is well worth a visit to the Internet site known as Talmud
Talmud
Exposé (www.geocities.com/Athens/Cyprus/8815 [now at http://www.oocities.org/athens/cyprus/8815/]), in which Melbourne's David
David
Maddison has performed the Herculean task of responding, one by one, to the hundreds of "anti-Talmud" quotes, lies and themes he has encountered on the Internet. . ^ " The Talmud
The Talmud
in Anti-Semitic Polemics" (PDF) (Press release). Anti-Defamation League. February 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 5, 2010. Retrieved September 16, 2010. By selectively citing various passages from the Talmud
Talmud
and Midrash, polemicists have sought to demonstrate that Judaism
Judaism
espouses hatred for non- Jews
Jews
(and specifically for Christians), and promotes obscenity, sexual perversion, and other immoral behavior. To make these passages serve their purposes, these polemicists frequently mistranslate them or cite them out of context (wholesale fabrication of passages is not unknown).…In distorting the normative meanings of rabbinic texts, anti- Talmud
Talmud
writers frequently remove passages from their textual and historical contexts. Even when they present their citations accurately, they judge the passages based on contemporary moral standards, ignoring the fact that the majority of these passages were composed close to two thousand years ago by people living in cultures radically different from our own. They are thus able to ignore Judaism's long history of social progress and paint it instead as a primitive and parochial religion. Those who attack the Talmud frequently cite ancient rabbinic sources without noting subsequent developments in Jewish thought, and without making a good-faith effort to consult with contemporary Jewish authorities who can explain the role of these sources in normative Jewish thought and practice.  ^ Kominsky, Morris (1970). The hoaxers: plain liars, fancy liars, and damned liars. Boston: Branden Press. pp. 169–176. ISBN 08283-1288-5. LCCN 76109134. Libbre David
David
37. This is a complete fabrication. No such book exists in the Talmud
Talmud
or in the entire Jewish literature.  ^ Andrew J. Hurley (1991). Israel
Israel
and the New World Order. Foundation for a New World Order, Santa Barbara,: Fithian Press. ISBN 9780931832994.  ^ The Six Million Reconsidered: A Special
Special
Report by the Committee for Truth in History, p. 16 Historical Review Press, 1979 ^ Student, Gil (2000). "The Real Truth About The Talmud". Retrieved September 16, 2010. Anti- Talmud
Talmud
accusations have a long history dating back to the 13th century when the associates of the Inquisition attempted to defame Jews
Jews
and their religion [see Yitzchak Baer, A History of Jews
Jews
in Christian
Christian
Spain, vol. I pp. 150-185]. The early material compiled by hateful preachers like Raymond Martini and Nicholas Donin remain the basis of all subsequent accusations against the Talmud. Some are true, most are false and based on quotations taken out of context, and some are total fabrications [see Baer, ch. 4 f. 54, 82 that it has been proven that Raymond Martini forged quotations]. On the Internet today we can find many of these old accusations being rehashed… 

References[edit]

Amram, David
David
Werner (1909). The Makers of Hebrew Books in Italy. Philadelphia: J. H. Greenstone.  Nathan T. Lopes Cardozo The Infinite Chain: Torah, Masorah, and Man (Philipp Feldheim, 1989). ISBN 0-944070-15-9 Aryeh Carmell (December 1986). Aiding Talmud
Talmud
study. Feldheim Publishers. ISBN 978-0-87306-428-6. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  (includes Samuel ha-Nagid's Mevo ha-Talmud, see next section) Zvi Hirsch Chajes Mevo Hatalmud, transl. Jacob
Jacob
Shachter: The Students' Guide Through The Talmud
The Talmud
(Yashar Books, 2005). ISBN 1-933143-05-3 Dalin, D.G. (2012). The Myth of Hitler's Pope: Pope Pius XII And His Secret War Against Nazi Germany. Regnery Publishing. ISBN 978-1-59698-185-0. Retrieved 27 August 2017.  Dan Cohn-Sherbok (1994). Judaism
Judaism
and other faiths. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-10384-2. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  Fraade, Steven D, "Navigating the Anomalous: Non- Jews
Jews
at the Intersection of Early Rabbinic Law and Narrative", in Laurence Jay Silberstein; Robert L. Cohn (1 August 1994). The Other in Jewish thought and history: constructions of Jewish culture
Jewish culture
and identity. NYU Press. pp. 145–165. ISBN 978-0-8147-7990-3. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  Gottheil, Richard; Broydé, Isaac
Isaac
(1906). "Leo X. (Giovanni De Medici)". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 27 August 2017.  Heller, Marvin J (2005). "Earliest Printings of the Talmud: From Bomberg to Schottenstein" (PDF). Yeshiva
Yeshiva
University Museum: 73.  R. Travers Herford (15 February 2007). Christianity
Christianity
in Talmud
Talmud
and Midrash. KTAV Publishing House, Inc. ISBN 978-0-88125-930-8. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  D. Landesman A Practical Guide to Torah
Torah
Learning (Jason Aronson, 1995). ISBN 1-56821-320-4 Emmanuel Lévinas; Annette Aronowicz (February 1994). Nine Talmudic readings. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-20876-7. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  Levy, Richard S., Antisemitism: a historical encyclopedia of prejudice and persecution, Volume 2, ABC-CLIO, 2005. See articles: "Talmud Trials", "Entdecktes Judenthum", " The Talmud
The Talmud
Jew", " David
David
Duke", "August Rohling", and "Johannes Pfefferkorn". Hyam Maccoby; Jehiel ben Joseph (of Paris) (1993). Judaism
Judaism
on trial: Jewish- Christian
Christian
disputations in the Middle Ages. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. ISBN 978-1-874774-16-7. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  A compendium of primary source materials, with commentary. Maimonides
Maimonides
Introduction to the Mishneh Torah
Torah
(English translation) Maimonides
Maimonides
Introduction to the Commentary on the Mishnah
Mishnah
(Hebrew Fulltext), transl. Zvi Lampel (Judaica Press, 1998). ISBN 1-880582-28-7 Aaron
Aaron
Parry The Complete Idiot's Guide to The Talmud
The Talmud
(Alpha Books, 2004). ISBN 1-59257-202-2 Rodkinson, Michael Levi, The history of the Talmud
Talmud
from the time of its formation, about 200 B.C., up to the present time, The Talmud Society, 1918 Jonathan Rosen (25 October 2001). The Talmud
The Talmud
and the Internet: A Journey Between Worlds. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8264-5534-5. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  Adin Steinsaltz
Adin Steinsaltz
(11 September 2006). The essential Talmud. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-08273-5. Retrieved 29 August 2011.  Read more here. See also here. Adin Steinsaltz
Adin Steinsaltz
The Talmud: A Reference Guide (Random House, 1996). ISBN 0-679-77367-3

Logic and methodology[edit]

Samuel ha-Nagid, Mevo ha-Talmud Joseph ben Judah ibn Aknin, Mevo ha-Talmud Zerachiah Halevi, Sefer ha-Tzava Samson of Chinon, Sefer ha-Keritut Jacob
Jacob
Hagiz, Teḥillat Ḥochmah (included in most editions of Keritut) collective, ed. Abraham
Abraham
ibn Akra, Meharere Nemarim Joseph ibn Verga, She'erit Yosef Isaac
Isaac
Campanton, Darche ha-Talmud David
David
ben Solomon
Solomon
ibn Abi Zimra, Kelale ha-Gemara Bezalel Ashkenazi, Kelale ha-Gemara Yeshu’ah b. Yosef ha-Levi, Halichot Olam

Joseph Caro, Kelale ha- Gemara
Gemara
(commentary on Halichot Olam) Solomon
Solomon
Algazi, Yavin Shemu’ah (commentary on Halichot Olam)

Yisrael Ya'akov Algazi, Ar'a de-Rabbanan Serillo, Samuel, Kelale Shemuel Horowitz, Isaiah, Shene Luchot ha-Berit (section on Torah she-be-al-Pe) Moses
Moses
Chaim Luzzatto, Derech Tevunot, translated into English as The Ways of Reason, Feldheim 1988, ISBN 978-0-87306-495-8

same, Sefer ha-Higgayon, translated into English as The Book
Book
of Logic, Feldheim 1995, ISBN 978-0-87306-707-2

de Oliveira, Solomon, Darche Noam Malachi ha-Cohen, Yad Malachi Aryeh Leib HaCohen Heller, Shev Shema'tata Goitein, B., Kesef Nivhar Ezechia Bolaffi, Ben Zekunim vol. 1 Moshe Amiel, Ha-Middot le-Ḥeqer ha-Halachah, vol. 1, vol. 2, vol. 3

Modern scholarly works[edit]

Hanoch Albeck, Mavo la-talmudim Daniel Boyarin, Sephardi Speculation: A Study in Methods of Talmudic Interpretation (Hebrew), Machon Ben Zvi: Jerusalem, 1989 Yaakov Elman, "Order, Sequence, and Selection: The Mishnah’s Anthological Choices,” in David
David
Stern, ed. The Anthology in Jewish Literature (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004) 53-80 Y. N. Epstein, Mevo-ot le-Sifrut haTalmudim Uziel Fuchs, Talmudam shel Geonim: yaḥasam shel geone Bavel lenosaḥ ha- Talmud
Talmud
ha-Bavli (The Geonic Talmud: the Attitude of Babylonian Geonim to the Text of the Babylonian Talmud): Jerusalem 2017 David
David
Weiss Halivni, Mekorot u-Mesorot (Jerusalem: Jewish Theological Seminary, 1982 on) Louis Jacobs, "How Much of the Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
is Pseudepigraphic?" Journal of Jewish Studies 28, No. 1 (1977), pp. 46–59 Saul Lieberman, Hellenism in Jewish Palestine (New York: Jewish Theological Seminary, 1950) Moses
Moses
Mielziner, Introduction to the Talmud: repr. 1997, hardback ISBN 978-0-8197-0156-5, paperback ISBN 978-0-8197-0015-5 Jacob
Jacob
Neusner, Sources and Traditions: Types of Compositions in the Talmud
Talmud
of Babylonia
Babylonia
(Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1992). Aviram Ravitzky, Aristotelian Logic and Talmudic Methodology (Hebrew): Jerusalem
Jerusalem
2009, ISBN 978-965-493-459-6 Andrew Schumann, Talmudic Logic: (London: College Publications 2012), ISBN 978-1-84890-072-1 Strack, Herman L. and Stemberger, Gunter, Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash, tr. Markus Bockmuehl: repr. 1992, hardback ISBN 978-0-567-09509-1, paperback ISBN 978-0-8006-2524-5

On individual tractates[edit]

Moshe Benovitz, Berakhot chapter 1: Iggud le-Farshanut ha-Talmud (Hebrew, with English summary) Stephen Wald, Shabbat chapter 7: Iggud le-Farshanut ha- Talmud
Talmud
(Hebrew, with English summary) Aviad Stollman, Eruvin chapter 10: Iggud le-Farshanut ha-Talmud (Hebrew, with English summary) Aaron
Aaron
Amit, Pesachim chapter 4: Iggud le-Farshanut ha- Talmud
Talmud
(Hebrew, with English summary) Netanel Baadani, Sanhedrin chapter 5: Iggud le-Farshanut ha-Talmud (Hebrew, with English summary) Moshe Benovitz, Sukkah
Sukkah
chapters 4-5: Iggud le-Farshanut ha-Talmud (Hebrew, with English summary)

Historical study[edit]

Shalom Carmy (ed.) Modern Scholarship in the Study of Torah: Contributions and Limitations Jason Aronson, Inc. Richard Kalmin Sages, Stories, Authors and Editors in Rabbinic Babylonia
Babylonia
Brown Judaic Studies David
David
C. Kraemer, On the Reliability of Attributions in the Babylonian Talmud, Hebrew Union College Annual 60 (1989), pp. 175–90 Lee Levine, Ma'amad ha-Hakhamim be-Eretz Yisrael (Jerusalem: Yad Yizhak Ben-Zvi, 1985), (=The Rabbinic Class of Roman Palestine in Late Antiquity) Saul Lieberman, Hellenism in Jewish Palestine (New York: Jewish Theological Seminary, 1950) John W. McGinley, 'The Written' as the Vocation of Conceiving Jewishly. ISBN 0-595-40488-X David
David
Bigman, Finding A Home for Critical Talmud
Talmud
Study

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Talmud

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Talmud

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Babylonian Talmud.

General[edit]

Jewish Encyclopedia: Talmud Jewish History: Talmud, aish.com Talmud/Mishnah/Gemara, jewishvirtuallibrary.org Jewish Law Research Guide, University of Miami
University of Miami
Law Library A survey of rabbinic literature, Ohr Somayach Introduction To The Talmud
The Talmud
For The Novice, Rabbi
Rabbi
M. Taub

Refutation of allegations concerning the Talmud[edit]

Talmud: The Real Truth About The Talmud, by Gil Student, also available here The Talmud
The Talmud
in Anti-Semitic Polemics, Anti-Defamation League Falsifiers of the Talmud

Full text resources[edit]

Talmud
Talmud
and English translation, from the Steinsaltz edition

Talmud
Talmud
Bavli (Soncino translation) (English). The Soncino Press translation of the Talmud
Talmud
Bavli in downloadable PDF format. Everything is present except for the index volume and the minor-tractates volumes.About 63% of the translation is also available in the form of ordinary HTML webpages for those who prefer them. Mishnah
Mishnah
(Hebrew) Tosefta
Tosefta
(Hebrew) Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi (Hebrew) Talmud
Talmud
Bavli (Hebrew) Full searchable Talmud
Talmud
on Snunit (Hebrew) Rodkinson English translation See above, under # Talmud
Talmud
Bavli. E-Daf Images of each page of the Babylonian Talmud Tractate Megillah: .pdf download showing Yemenite vocalization Shas.org Daf Viewer (Hebrew)

Manuscripts and textual variants[edit]

Treasury of Talmudic Manuscripts, Jewish National and University Library

Treasury of Talmudic Manuscripts, search by tractate - search engine for readings in different manuscripts (shows facsimile of individual pages)

The Munich Talmud
Talmud
(Cod.hebr. 95) The Saul Lieberman
Saul Lieberman
Institute - another search engine (shows results in Hebrew/Aramaic text, not as facsimile) Yad Harav Herzog: manuscript request form - a third search engine Manuscripts and search engine hosted by the Friedberg Jewish Manuscript Society

Layout[edit]

"A Page from the Babylonian Talmud" image map from Prof. Eliezer Segal

"Daf Yomi" program[edit]

A general resource for Daf Yomi Point by point summary and discussion by daf Calendar for this Daf Yomi
Daf Yomi
cycle Daf-A-Week: A project to study a daf per week Daf Yomi
Daf Yomi
in MP3 - by Rabbi
Rabbi
Ephraim Schreibman

Audio[edit]

Shiurim on the Talmud, mp3shiur.com MP3 Talmud
Talmud
Shiurim by Rav Nissan Kaplan of Mir Yeshiva, Jerusalem Tractate Sukkah
Sukkah
by page, showing Yemenite vocalization and recordings of pronunciation Shas.org Works by Talmud
Talmud
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks)

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Judaism
portal Judaism
Judaism
– book

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