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The Andes
Andes
or Andean Mountains (Spanish: Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world. They form a continuous highland along the western edge of South America. This range is about 7,000 km (4,300 mi) long, about 200 to 700 km (120 to 430 mi) wide (widest between 18° south and 20° south latitude), and of an average height of about 4,000 m (13,000 ft). The Andes
Andes
extend from north to south through seven South American countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina
Argentina
and Chile. Along their length, the Andes
Andes
are split into several ranges, which are separated by intermediate depressions. The Andes
Andes
are the location of several high plateaus – some of which host major cities such as Quito, Bogotá, Arequipa, Medellín, Sucre, Mérida and La Paz. The Altiplano
Altiplano
plateau is the world's second-highest after the Tibetan plateau. These ranges are in turn grouped into three major divisions based on climate: the Tropical Andes, the Dry Andes, and the Wet Andes. The Andes
Andes
are the world's highest mountain range outside Asia. The highest mountain outside Asia, Mount Aconcagua, in Argentina, rises to an elevation of about 6,961 m (22,838 ft) above sea level. The peak of Chimborazo in the Ecuadorian Andes
Andes
is farther from the Earth's center than any other location on the Earth's surface, due to the equatorial bulge resulting from the Earth's rotation. The world's highest volcanoes are in the Andes, including Ojos del Salado
Ojos del Salado
on the Chile- Argentina
Argentina
border, which rises to 6,893 m (22,615 ft). The Andes
Andes
are also part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges (cordillera) that consists of an almost continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America
South America
and Antarctica.

"Cono de Arita" in the Puna de Atacama, Salta
Salta
(Argentina)

Aerial view of Aconcagua

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography 3 Geology

3.1 Orogeny 3.2 Volcanism 3.3 Ore
Ore
deposits and evaporates

4 Climate and hydrology 5 Flora 6 Fauna 7 Human activity

7.1 Cities 7.2 Transportation 7.3 Agriculture 7.4 Irrigation 7.5 Mining

8 Peaks

8.1 Argentina 8.2 Border between Argentina
Argentina
and Chile 8.3 Bolivia 8.4 Border between Bolivia
Bolivia
and Chile 8.5 Chile 8.6 Colombia 8.7 Ecuador 8.8 Peru 8.9 Venezuela

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 External links

Etymology[edit] The etymology of the word Andes
Andes
has been debated. The majority consensus is that it derives from the Quechua word anti, which means "east"[1] as in Antisuyu
Antisuyu
(Quechua for "east region"),[1] one of the four regions of the Inca
Inca
Empire. Geography[edit]

Aerial view of Valle Carbajal in the Fuegian Andes

The Andes
Andes
can be divided into three sections:

The Southern Andes
Andes
(south of Llullaillaco) in Argentina
Argentina
and Chile; The Central Andes
Andes
in Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia The Northern Andes
Andes
(north of the Nudo de Pasto) in Venezuela
Venezuela
and Colombia, which consist of three parallel ranges, the western, central, and eastern (the cordillera occidental, central, and oriental).

In the northern part of the Andes, the isolated Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta range is often considered to be part of the Andes. The term cordillera comes from the Spanish word "cordel",[2] meaning "rope". The Andes
Andes
range is about 200 km (124 mi) wide throughout its length, except in the Bolivian flexure where it is about 640 kilometres (398 mi) wide. The Leeward Antilles
Leeward Antilles
islands Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao, which lie in the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
off the coast of Venezuela, were thought to represent the submerged peaks of the extreme northern edge of the Andes
Andes
range, but ongoing geological studies indicate that such a simplification does not do justice to the complex tectonic boundary between the South American and Caribbean plates.[3] Geology[edit]

Geology of the Andes

Orogenies

Pampean orogeny

Famatinian orogeny

Gondwanide orogeny

Andean orogeny

Fold-thrust belts

Central Andean Patagonian

Batholiths

Peruvian Coastal North Patagonian South Patagonian

Subducted structures

Antarctic Plate
Antarctic Plate
Carnegie Ridge
Carnegie Ridge
Chile
Chile
Rise Farallon Plate (formerly) Juan Fernández Ridge
Juan Fernández Ridge
Nazca Plate
Nazca Plate
Nazca Ridge

Faults

Gastre Liquiñe-Ofqui Magallanes-Fagnano

Andean Volcanic Belt

Northern Zone Peruvian flat-slab Central Zone Pampean flat-slab Southern Zone Patagonian Gap Austral Zone

Paleogeographic terminology

Arequipa-Antofalla
Arequipa-Antofalla
Chilenia
Chilenia
Chiloé Block
Chiloé Block
Cuyania
Cuyania
Iapetus Ocean
Ocean
Madre de Dios Terrane Mejillonia
Mejillonia
Pampia

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The Andes
Andes
are a Mesozoic– Tertiary orogenic belt of mountains along the Pacific Ring of Fire, a zone of volcanic activity that encompasses the Pacific rim of the Americas as well as the Asia-Pacific
Asia-Pacific
region. The Andes
Andes
are the result of plate tectonics processes, caused by the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the South American Plate. The main cause of the rise of the Andes
Andes
is the compression of the western rim of the South American Plate
South American Plate
due to the subduction of the Nazca Plate and the Antarctic
Antarctic
Plate. To the east, the Andes
Andes
range is bounded by several sedimentary basins, such as Orinoco, Amazon Basin, Madre de Dios and Gran Chaco, that separate the Andes
Andes
from the ancient cratons in eastern South America. In the south, the Andes
Andes
share a long boundary with the former Patagonia
Patagonia
Terrane. To the west, the Andes
Andes
end at the Pacific Ocean, although the Peru- Chile
Chile
trench can be considered their ultimate western limit. From a geographical approach, the Andes are considered to have their western boundaries marked by the appearance of coastal lowlands and a less rugged topography. The Andes Mountains also contain large quantities of iron ore located in many mountains within the range. The Andean orogen has a series of bends or oroclines. The Bolivian Orocline
Orocline
is a seaward concave bending in the coast of South America and the Andes
Andes
Mountains at about 18° S.[4][5] At this point the orientation of the Andes
Andes
turns from Northwest in Peru
Peru
to South in Chile
Chile
and Argentina.[5] The Andean segment north and south of the orocline have been rotated 15° to 20° counter clockwise and clockwise respectively.[5][6] The Bolivian Orocline
Orocline
area overlaps with the area of maximum width of the Altiplano
Altiplano
Plateau
Plateau
and according to Isacks (1988) the orocline is related to crustal shortening.[4] The specific point at 18° S where the coastline bends is known as the "Arica Elbow".[7] Further south lies the Maipo Orocline
Orocline
or Maipo Transition Zone located between 30° S and 38°S with a break in trend at 33° S.[clarification needed][8] Near the southern tip of the Andes lies the Patagonian orocline.[9] Orogeny[edit] Main article: Andean orogeny The western rim of the South American Plate
South American Plate
has been the place of several pre-Andean orogenies since at least the late Proterozoic
Proterozoic
and early Paleozoic, when several terranes and microcontinents collided and amalgamated with the ancient cratons of eastern South America, by then the South American part of Gondwana. The formation of the modern Andes
Andes
began with the events of the Triassic
Triassic
when Pangaea
Pangaea
began to break up that resulted in developing several rifts. The development continued through the Jurassic
Jurassic
Period. It was during the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period that the Andes
Andes
began to take their present form, by the uplifting, faulting and folding of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of the ancient cratons to the east. The rise of the Andes
Andes
has not been constant, where different regions have had different degrees of tectonic stress, uplift, and erosion. Tectonic forces above the subduction zone along the entire west coast of South America
South America
where the Nazca Plate
Nazca Plate
and a part of the Antarctic Plate are sliding beneath the South American Plate
South American Plate
continue to produce an ongoing orogenic event resulting in minor to major earthquakes and volcanic eruptions to this day. In the extreme south a major transform fault separates Tierra del Fuego
Tierra del Fuego
from the small Scotia Plate. Across the 1,000 km (620 mi) wide Drake Passage
Drake Passage
lie the mountains of the Antarctic Peninsula
Antarctic Peninsula
south of the Scotia Plate
Scotia Plate
which appear to be a continuation of the Andes
Andes
chain.[citation needed] The regions immediately east of the Andes
Andes
experience a series of changes resulting from the Andean orogeny. Parts of the Sunsás Orogen in Amazonian craton
Amazonian craton
disappeared from the surface of earth being overridden by the Andes.[10] The Sierras de Córdoba, where the effects of the ancient Pampean orogeny
Pampean orogeny
can be observed, owe their modern uplift and relief to the Andean orogeny
Andean orogeny
in the Tertiary.[11] Further south in southern Patagonia
Patagonia
the onset of the Andean orogeny caused the Magallanes Basin
Magallanes Basin
to evolve from being an extensional back-arc basin in the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
to being a compressional foreland basin in the Cenozoic.[12] Volcanism[edit] Main article: Andean Volcanic Belt

Rift
Rift
valley near Quilotoa, Ecuador

Aerial photograph showing the high plains of the Andes
Andes
Mountains in the foreground, with a line of young volcanoes facing the much lower Atacama Desert

The Andes
Andes
range has many active volcanoes, which are distributed in four volcanic zones separated by areas of inactivity. The Andean volcanism is a result of subduction of the Nazca Plate
Nazca Plate
and Antarctic Plate underneath the South American Plate. The belt is subdivided into four main volcanic zones that are separated from each other by volcanic gaps. The volcanoes of the belt are diverse in terms of activity style, products and morphology. While some differences can be explained by which volcanic zone a volcano belongs to, there are significant differences inside volcanic zones and even between neighbouring volcanoes. Despite being a type location for calc-alkalic and subduction volcanism, the Andean Volcanic Belt
Andean Volcanic Belt
has a large range of volcano-tectonic settings, such as rift systems and extensional zones, transpressional faults, subduction of mid-ocean ridges and seamount chains apart from a large range of crustal thicknesses and magma ascent paths, and different amount of crustal assimilations. Ore
Ore
deposits and evaporates[edit] The Andes
Andes
Mountains host large ore and salt deposits and some of their eastern fold and thrust belt acts as traps for commercially exploitable amounts of hydrocarbons. In the forelands of the Atacama desert some of the largest porphyry copper mineralizations occurs making Chile
Chile
and Peru
Peru
the first and second largest exporters of copper in the world. Porphyry copper
Porphyry copper
in the western slopes of the Andes
Andes
has been generated by hydrothermal fluids (mostly water) during the cooling of plutons or volcanic systems. The porphyry mineralization further benefited from the dry climate that let them largely out of the disturbing actions of meteoric water. The dry climate in the central western Andes
Andes
has also led to the creation of extensive saltpeter deposits which were extensively mined until the invention of synthetic nitrates. Yet another result of the dry climate are the salars of Atacama and Uyuni, the first one being the largest source of lithium today and the second the world's largest reserve of the element. Early Mesozoic
Mesozoic
and Neogene
Neogene
plutonism in Bolivia's Cordillera Central created the Bolivian tin belt as well as the famous, now depleted, deposits of Cerro Rico
Cerro Rico
de Potosí. Climate and hydrology[edit] See also: Tropical Andes, Dry Andes, and Wet Andes

Central Andes

Bolivian Andes

The climate in the Andes
Andes
varies greatly depending on latitude, altitude, and proximity to the sea. Temperature, atmospheric pressure and humidity decrease in higher elevations. The southern section is rainy and cool, the central section is dry. The northern Andes
Andes
are typically rainy and warm, with an average temperature of 18 °C (64 °F) in Colombia. The climate is known to change drastically in rather short distances. Rainforests exist just miles away from the snow-covered peak Cotopaxi. The mountains have a large effect on the temperatures of nearby areas. The snow line depends on the location. It is at between 4,500 and 4,800 m (14,800 and 15,700 ft) in the tropical Ecuadorian, Colombian, Venezuelan, and northern Peruvian Andes, rising to 4,800–5,200 m (15,700–17,100 ft) in the drier mountains of southern Peru
Peru
south to northern Chile
Chile
south to about 30°S, then descending to 4,500 m (14,760 ft) on Aconcagua
Aconcagua
at 32°S, 2,000 m (6,600 ft) at 40°S, 500 m (1,640 ft) at 50°S, and only 300 m (980 ft) in Tierra del Fuego at 55°S; from 50°S, several of the larger glaciers descend to sea level.[13] The Andes
Andes
of Chile
Chile
and Argentina
Argentina
can be divided in two climatic and glaciological zones: the Dry Andes
Dry Andes
and the Wet Andes. Since the Dry Andes
Andes
extend from the latitudes of Atacama Desert
Atacama Desert
to the area of Maule River, precipitation is more sporadic and there are strong temperature oscillations. The line of equilibrium may shift drastically over short periods of time, leaving a whole glacier in the ablation area or in the accumulation area. In the high Andes
Andes
of central Chile
Chile
and Mendoza Province, rock glaciers are larger and more common than glaciers; this is due to the high exposure to solar radiation.[14] Though precipitation increases with the height, there are semiarid conditions in the nearly 7000 m towering highest mountains of the Andes. This dry steppe climate is considered to be typical of the subtropical position at 32–34° S. The valley bottoms have no woods, just dwarf scrub. The largest glaciers, as e.g. the Plomo glacier and the Horcones glaciers do not even reach 10 km in length and have an only insignificant ice thickness. At glacial times, however, c. 20 000 years ago, the glaciers were over ten times longer. On the east side of this section of the Mendozina Andes
Andes
they flowed down to 2060 m and on the west side to c. 1220 m asl.[15][16] The massifs of Cerro Aconcagua
Aconcagua
(6,961 m), Cerro Tupungato (6,550 m) and Nevado Juncal (6,110 m) are tens of kilometres away from each other and were connected by a joint ice stream network. The Andes' dendritic glacier arms, i.e. components of valley glaciers, were up to 112.5 km long, over 1020, i.e. 1250 m thick and overspanned a vertical distance of 5150 altitude metres. The climatic glacier snowline (ELA) was lowered from currently 4600 m to 3200 m at glacial times.[15][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24] Flora[edit]

Laguna de Sonso tropical dry forest in Northern Andes

The Andean region cuts across several natural and floristic regions due to its extension from Caribbean
Caribbean
Venezuela
Venezuela
to cold, windy and wet Cape Horn
Cape Horn
passing through the hyperarid Atacama Desert. Rainforests and tropical dry forests[25] used to encircle much of the northern Andes
Andes
but are now greatly diminished, especially in the Chocó and inter-Andean valleys of Colombia. As a direct opposite of the humid Andean slopes are the relatively dry Andean slopes in most of western Peru, Chile
Chile
and Argentina. Along with several Interandean Valles, they are typically dominated by deciduous woodland, shrub and xeric vegetation, reaching the extreme in the slopes near the virtually lifeless Atacama Desert. About 30,000 species of vascular plants live in the Andes, with roughly half being endemic to the region, surpassing the diversity of any other hotspot.[26] The small tree Cinchona pubescens, a source of quinine which is used to treat malaria, is found widely in the Andes as far south as Bolivia. Other important crops that originated from the Andes
Andes
are tobacco and potatoes. The high-altitude Polylepis forests and woodlands are found in the Andean areas of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia
Bolivia
and Chile. These trees, by locals referred to as Queñua, Yagual and other names, can be found at altitudes of 4,500 m (14,760 ft) above sea level. It remains unclear if the patchy distribution of these forests and woodlands is natural, or the result of clearing which began during the Incan period. Regardless, in modern times the clearance has accelerated, and the trees are now considered to be highly endangered, with some believing that as little as 10% of the original woodland remains.[27] Fauna[edit]

A male Andean cock-of-the-rock, a species found in humid Andean forests and the national bird of Peru

Herds of alpacas near Ausangate
Ausangate
mountain

Main article: Fauna of the Andes The Andes
Andes
are rich in fauna: With almost 3,500 species, of which roughly 2/3 are endemic to the region, the Andes
Andes
are the most important region in the world for amphibians.[26] The diversity of animals in the Andes
Andes
is high, with almost 600 species of mammals (13% endemic), more than 1,700 species of birds (about 1/3 endemic), more than 600 species of reptile (about 45% endemic), and almost 400 species of fish (about 1/3 endemic).[26] The vicuña and guanaco can be found living in the Altiplano, while the closely related domesticated llama and alpaca are widely kept by locals as pack animals and for their meat and wool. The crepuscular (active during dawn and dusk) chinchillas, two threatened members of the rodent order, inhabit the Andes' alpine regions.[28][29] The Andean condor, the largest bird of its kind in the Western Hemisphere, occurs throughout much of the Andes
Andes
but generally in very low densities.[30] Other animals found in the relatively open habitats of the high Andes
Andes
include the huemul, cougar, foxes in the genus Pseudalopex,[28][29] and, for birds, certain species of tinamous (notably members of the genus Nothoprocta), Andean goose, giant coot, flamingos (mainly associated with hypersaline lakes), lesser rhea, Andean flicker, diademed sandpiper-plover, miners, sierra-finches and diuca-finches.[30] Lake Titicaca
Lake Titicaca
hosts several endemics, among them the highly endangered Titicaca
Titicaca
flightless grebe[30] and Titicaca
Titicaca
water frog.[31] A few species of hummingbirds, notably some hillstars, can be seen at altitudes above 4,000 m (13,100 ft), but far higher diversities can be found at lower altitudes, especially in the humid Andean forests ("cloud forests") growing on slopes in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia
Bolivia
and far northwestern Argentina.[30] These forest-types, which includes the Yungas
Yungas
and parts of the Chocó, are very rich in flora and fauna, although few large mammals exist, exceptions being the threatened mountain tapir, spectacled bear and yellow-tailed woolly monkey.[28] Birds of humid Andean forests include mountain-toucans, quetzals and the Andean cock-of-the-rock, while mixed species flocks dominated by tanagers and furnariids commonly are seen – in contrast to several vocal but typically cryptic species of wrens, tapaculos and antpittas.[30] A number of species such as the royal cinclodes and white-browed tit-spinetail are associated with Polylepis, and consequently also threatened.[30] Human activity[edit] See also: Cultural periods of Peru, Inca
Inca
Empire, Viceroyalty of Peru, and Andean states

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The Andes
Andes
Mountains form a north-south axis of cultural influences. A long series of cultural development culminated in the expansion of the Inca
Inca
civilization and Inca Empire
Inca Empire
in the central Andes
Andes
during the 15th century. The Incas formed this civilization through imperialistic militarism as well as careful and meticulous governmental management.[32] The government sponsored the construction of aqueducts and roads in addition to preexisting installations. Some of these constructions are still in existence today. Devastated by European diseases to which they had no immunity and civil wars, in 1532 the Incas were defeated by an alliance composed of tens of thousands of allies from nations they had subjugated (e.g. Huancas, Chachapoyas, Cañaris) and a small army of 180 Spaniards led by Francisco Pizarro. One of the few Inca
Inca
sites the Spanish never found in their conquest was Machu Picchu, which lay hidden on a peak on the eastern edge of the Andes
Andes
where they descend to the Amazon. The main surviving languages of the Andean peoples are those of the Quechua and Aymara language
Aymara language
families. Woodbine Parish and Joseph Barclay Pentland surveyed a large part of the Bolivian Andes
Andes
from 1826 to 1827. Cities[edit]

La Paz, Bolivia
Bolivia
is the highest capital city in the world

In modern times, the largest cities in the Andes
Andes
are Bogotá, Colombia, with a population of about eight million, Santiago, Chile, and Medellin, Colombia. Lima
Lima
is a coastal city adjacent to the Andes, and is the largest city of all Andean countries. It is the seat of the Andean Community of Nations. La Paz, Bolivia's seat of government, is the highest capital city in the world, at an elevation of approximately 3,650 m (11,975 ft). Parts of the La Paz
La Paz
conurbation, including the city of El Alto, extend up to 4,200 m (13,780 ft). Other cities in or near the Andes
Andes
include Arequipa, Cusco, and Huancayo
Huancayo
in Peru; Quito
Quito
and Cuenca in Ecuador; Cochabamba, Oruro, and Sucre
Sucre
in Bolivia; Mendoza, Tucumán, Salta, and San Juan in Argentina; Rancagua
Rancagua
in Chile; Cali, Cúcuta, Bucaramanga, Pereira, Pasto, Villavicencio, and Manizales
Manizales
in Colombia; and Barquisimeto, San Cristóbal, Mérida, and Valera
Valera
in Venezuela. The cities of Caracas, Valencia, and Maracay
Maracay
are in the Venezuelan Coastal Range, which is a debatable extension of the Andes
Andes
at the northern extreme of South America. Transportation[edit] Cities and large towns are connected with asphalt-paved roads, while smaller towns are often connected by dirt roads, which may require a four-wheel-drive vehicle.[33]

Venezuelan Andes
Andes
in Mérida

The rough terrain has historically put the costs of building highways and railroads that cross the Andes
Andes
out of reach of most neighboring countries, even with modern civil engineering practices. For example, the main crossover of the Andes
Andes
between Argentina
Argentina
and Chile
Chile
is still accomplished through the Paso Internacional Los Libertadores. Only recently the ends of some highways that came rather close to one another from the east and the west have been connected.[34] Much of the transportation of passengers is done via aircraft. However, there is one railroad that connects Chile
Chile
with Argentina
Argentina
via the Andes, and there are others that make the same connection via southern Bolivia. See railroad maps of that region. There is one or more highways in Bolivia
Bolivia
that cross the Andes. Some of these were built during a period of war between Bolivia
Bolivia
and Paraguay, in order to transport Bolivian troops and their supplies to the war front in the lowlands of southeastern Bolivia
Bolivia
and western Paraguay. For decades, Chile
Chile
claimed ownership of land on the eastern side of the Andes. However, these claims were given up in about 1870 during the War of the Pacific
War of the Pacific
between Chile, the allied Bolivia
Bolivia
and Peru, in a diplomatic deal to keep Argentina
Argentina
out of the war. The Chilean Army and Chilean Navy
Chilean Navy
defeated the combined forces of Bolivia
Bolivia
and Peru, and Chile
Chile
took over Bolivia's only province on the Pacific Coast, some land from Peru
Peru
that was returned to Peru
Peru
decades later. Bolivia
Bolivia
has been a completely landlocked country ever since. It mostly uses seaports in eastern Argentina
Argentina
and Uruguay
Uruguay
for international trade because its diplomatic relations with Chile
Chile
have been suspended since 1978. Because of the tortuous terrain in places, villages and towns in the mountains—to which travel via motorized vehicles are of little use—are still located in the high Andes
Andes
of Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador. Locally, the relatives of the camel, the llama, and the alpaca continue to carry out important uses as pack animals, but this use has generally diminished in modern times. Donkeys, mules, and horses are also useful. Agriculture[edit]

Peruvian farmers sowing maize and beans

See also: Vertical archipelago The ancient peoples of the Andes
Andes
such as the Incas have practiced irrigation techniques for over 6,000 years. Because of the mountain slopes, terracing has been a common practice. Terracing, however, was only extensively employed after Incan imperial expansions to fuel their expanding realm. The potato holds a very important role as an internally consumed staple crop. Maize
Maize
was also an important crop for these people, and was used for the production of chicha, important to Andean native people. Currently, tobacco, cotton and coffee are the main export crops. Coca, despite eradication programmes in some countries, remains an important crop for legal local use in a mildly stimulating herbal tea, and, both controversially and illegally, for the production of cocaine. Irrigation[edit]

Irrigating land in the Peruvian Andes

In unirrigated land, pasture is the most common type of land use. In the rainy season (summer), part of the rangeland is used for cropping (mainly potatoes, barley, broad beans and wheat). Irrigation
Irrigation
is helpful in advancing the sowing data of the summer crops which guarantees an early yield in the period of food shortage. Also, by early sowing, maize can be cultivated higher up in the mountains (till 3800 m). In addition it makes cropping in the dry season (winter) possible and allows the cultivation of frost resistant vegetable crops like onion and carrot.[35] Mining[edit] The Andes
Andes
rose to fame for their mineral wealth during the Spanish conquest of South America. Although Andean Amerindian peoples crafted ceremonial jewelry of gold and other metals the mineralizations of the Andes
Andes
were first mined in large scale after the Spanish arrival. Potosí
Potosí
in present-day Bolivia
Bolivia
and Cerro de Pasco
Cerro de Pasco
in Peru
Peru
were one of the principal mines of the Spanish Empire in the New World. Río de la Plata and Argentina[36] derive their names from the silver of Potosí. Currently, mining in the Andes
Andes
of Chile
Chile
and Peru
Peru
places these countries as the first and third major producers of copper in the world. Peru
Peru
also contains the 4th largest goldmine in the world: the Yanacocha. The Bolivian Andes
Andes
produce principally tin although historically silver mining had a huge impact on the economy of 17th century Europe. There is a long history of mining in the Andes, from the Spanish silver mines in Potosí
Potosí
in the 16th century to the vast current porphyry copper deposits of Chuquicamata
Chuquicamata
and Escondida
Escondida
in Chile
Chile
and Toquepala in Peru. Other metals including iron, gold and tin in addition to non-metallic resources are important.

Chilean huasos, 19th century

The mountain Huayna Picchu
Huayna Picchu
overlooks the Inca
Inca
estate (land) of Machu Picchu.

Peaks[edit] Main article: List of mountains in the Andes This list contains some of the major peaks in the Andes
Andes
mountain range. The highest peak is Aconcagua
Aconcagua
of Argentina
Argentina
(see below). Argentina[edit] See also: List of mountains in Argentina

Aconcagua, 6,961 m (22,838 ft) Cerro Bonete, 6,759 m (22,175 ft) Galán, 5,912 m (19,396 ft) Mercedario, 6,720 m (22,047 ft) Pissis, 6,795 m (22,293 ft)

Llao Llao Hotel
Llao Llao Hotel
with the Andes
Andes
in the background, in the city of Bariloche, Argentina

The Aconcagua, Argentina, the highest mountain in the Americas and in the entire world outside the Himalayas

El Chaltén, Argentina

Mount Fitz Roy

Border between Argentina
Argentina
and Chile[edit]

Cerro Bayo, 5,401 m (17,720 ft) Cerro Fitz Roy, 3,375 m (11,073 ft) or 3,405 m, Patagonia, also known as Cerro Chaltén Cerro Escorial, 5,447 m (17,871 ft) Cordón del Azufre, 5,463 m (17,923 ft) Falso Azufre, 5,890 m (19,324 ft) Incahuasi, 6,620 m (21,719 ft) Lastarria, 5,697 m (18,691 ft) Llullaillaco, 6,739 m (22,110 ft) Maipo, 5,264 m (17,270 ft) Marmolejo, 6,110 m (20,046 ft) Ojos del Salado, 6,893 m (22,615 ft) Olca, 5,407 m (17,740 ft) Sierra Nevada de Lagunas Bravas, 6,127 m (20,102 ft) Socompa, 6,051 m (19,852 ft) Nevado Tres Cruces, 6,749 m (22,142 ft) (south summit) (III Region) Tronador, 3,491 m (11,453 ft) Tupungato, 6,570 m (21,555 ft) Nacimiento, 6,492 m (21,299 ft)

Bolivia[edit]

Janq'u Uma, 6,427 m (21,086 ft) Cabaraya, 5,860 m (19,226 ft) Chacaltaya, 5,421 m (17,785 ft) Wayna Potosí, 6,088 m (19,974 ft) Illampu, 6,368 m (20,892 ft) Illimani, 6,438 m (21,122 ft) Laram Q'awa, 5,520 m (18,110 ft) Macizo de Pacuni, 5,400 m (17,720 ft) Nevado Anallajsi, 5,750 m (18,865 ft) Nevado Sajama, 6,542 m (21,463 ft) Patilla Pata, 5,300 m (17,390 ft) Tata Sabaya, 5,430 m (17,815 ft)

Illampu, Bolivia

Illimani, Bolivia

Sajama, Bolivia

Wayna Potosí, Bolivia

Border between Bolivia
Bolivia
and Chile[edit]

Acotango, 6,052 m (19,856 ft) Michincha, 5,305 m (17,405 ft) Iru Phutunqu, 5,163 m (16,939 ft) Licancabur, 5,920 m (19,423 ft) Olca, 5,407 m (17,740 ft) Parinacota, 6,348 m (20,827 ft) Paruma, 5,420 m (17,782 ft) Pomerape, 6,282 m (20,610 ft)

Licancabur, Bolivia/Chile

Parinacota, Bolivia/Chile

Chile[edit] Main article: List of mountains in Chile

Monte San Valentin, 4,058 m (13,314 ft) Cerro Paine Grande, 2,884 m (9,462 ft) Cerro Macá, c.2,300 m (7,546 ft) Monte Darwin, c.2,500 m (8,202 ft) Volcan Hudson, c.1,900 m (6,234 ft) Cerro Castillo Dynevor, c.1,100 m (3,609 ft) Mount Tarn, c.825 m (2,707 ft) Polleras, c.5,993 m (19,662 ft) Acamarachi, c.6,046 m (19,836 ft)

Santiago de Chile
Chile
on the western slopes of a snowcapped Andes

View of Cuernos del Paine in Torres del Paine National Park

Colombia[edit]

Nevado del Huila, 5,365 m (17,602 ft) Nevado del Ruiz, 5,321 m (17,457 ft) Nevado del Tolima, 5,205 m (17,077 ft) Pico Pan de Azucar, 5,200 m (17,060 ft) Ritacuba Negra, 5,320 m (17,454 ft) Nevado del Cumbal, 4,764 m (15,630 ft) Cerro Negro de Mayasquer, 4,445 m (14,583 ft) Ritacuba Blanco, 5,410 m (17,749 ft) Nevado del Quindío, 5,215 m (17,110 ft) Purace, 4,655 m (15,272 ft) Santa Isabel, 4,955 m (16,257 ft) Doña Juana, 4,150 m (13,615 ft) Galeras, 4,276 m (14,029 ft) Azufral. 4,070 m (13,353 ft)

Ritacuba Blanco, the highest peak of Cordillera Oriental, Colombia.

Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia

Ecuador[edit]

Antisana, 5,752 m (18,871 ft) Cayambe, 5,790 m (18,996 ft) Chimborazo, 6,268 m (20,564 ft) Corazón, 4,790 m (15,715 ft) Cotopaxi, 5,897 m (19,347 ft) El Altar, 5,320 m (17,454 ft) Illiniza, 5,248 m (17,218 ft) Pichincha, 4,784 m (15,696 ft) Quilotoa, 3,914 m (12,841 ft) Reventador, 3,562 m (11,686 ft) Sangay, 5,230 m (17,159 ft) Tungurahua, 5,023 m (16,480 ft) Titicaca, 5,035 m (16,519 ft)

Chimborazo near Riobamba, Ecuador

Tungurahua, Ecuador

Cayambe, Ecuador

El Altar, Ecuador

Cotopaxi, Ecuador

Andes
Andes
near Otavalo, Ecuador

Pichincha Volcano, an active stratovolcano in the Ecuadorian Andes, photographed from the Historic Center of Quito

Imbabura Volcano, Ecuador, an inactive stratovolcano

Peru[edit]

Alpamayo, 5,947 m (19,511 ft) Artesonraju, 6,025 m (19,767 ft) Carnicero, 5,960 m (19,554 ft) Chumpe, 6,106 m (20,033 ft) Coropuna, 6,377 m (20,922 ft) El Misti, 5,822 m (19,101 ft) El Toro, 5,830 m (19,127 ft) Huandoy, 6,395 m (20,981 ft) Huascarán, 6,768 m (22,205 ft) Jirishanca, 6,094 m (19,993 ft) Pumasillo, 5,991 m (19,656 ft) Rasac, 6,040 m (19,816 ft) Rondoy, 5,870 m (19,259 ft) Sarapo, 6,127 m (20,102 ft) Salcantay, 6,271 m (20,574 ft) Seria Norte, 5,860 m (19,226 ft) Siula Grande, 6,344 m (20,814 ft) Huaytapallana, 5,557 m (18,232 ft) Yerupaja, 6,635 m (21,768 ft) Yerupaja
Yerupaja
Chico, 6,089 m (19,977 ft)

Alpamayo, Peru

Chachani
Chachani
and El Misti, Peru

Huandoy, Peru

Yerupaja, Peru

Venezuela[edit]

Pico Bolívar, 5,007 m (16,427 ft) Pico Humboldt, 4,940 m (16,207 ft) Pico Bonpland, 4,880 m (16,010 ft) Pico La Concha, 4,920 m (16,142 ft) Pico Piedras Blancas, 4,740 m (15,551 ft) Pico El Águila, 4,180 m (13,714 ft) Pico El Toro 4,729 m (15,515 ft) Pico El León
Pico El León
4,740 m (15,551 ft) Pico Mucuñuque
Pico Mucuñuque
4,609 m (15,121 ft)

Pico Bolívar, Venezuela

Pico Humboldt, Venezuela

Pico El León, Venezuela

Snow in the Pico Humboldt, Venezuela

Pico Pan de Azúcar, Venezuela

See also[edit]

Andean Geology – a scientific journal Andesite line Apu (god) Cordillera Mountains in the Philippines List of longest mountain chains on Earth Mountain Passes of the Andes Rocky Mountains

Notes[edit]

^ a b Teofilo Laime Ajacopa, Diccionario Bilingüe Iskay simipi yuyayk'ancha, La Paz, 2007 (Quechua-Spanish dictionary) ^ "CORDILLERA". etimologias.dechile.net. Retrieved 2015-12-27.  ^ Miller, Meghan S.; Levander, Alan; Niu, Fenglin; Li, Aibing (2008-06-23). "Upper mantle structure beneath the Caribbean-South American plate boundary from surface wave tomography" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research. 114: B01312. Bibcode:2009JGRB..114.1312M. doi:10.1029/2007JB005507. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-05. Retrieved 2010-11-21.  ^ a b Isacks, Bryan L. (1988), "Uplift of the Central Andean Plateau and Bending of the Bolivian Orocline" (PDF), Journal of Geophysical Research, 93 (B4): 3211–3231, Bibcode:1988JGR....93.3211I, doi:10.1029/jb093ib04p03211  ^ a b c Kley, J. (1999), "Geologic and geometric constraints on a kinematic model of the Bolivian orocline", Journal of South American Earth
Earth
Sciences, 12 (2): 221–235, Bibcode:1999JSAES..12..221K, doi:10.1016/s0895-9811(99)00015-2  ^ Beck, Myrl E. (1987), "Tectonic rotations on the leading edge of South America: The Bolivian orocline revisited", Geology, 15 (9): 806–808, Bibcode:1987Geo....15..806B, doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1987)15<806:trotle>2.0.co;2  ^ Prezzi, Claudia B.; Vilas, Juan F. (1998). "New evidence of clockwise vertical axis rotations south of the Arica elbow (Argentine Puna)". Tectonophysics. 292: 85–100. Bibcode:1998Tectp.292...85P. doi:10.1016/s0040-1951(98)00058-4.  ^ Arriagada, César; Ferrando, Rodolfo; Córdova, Loreto; Morata, Diego; Roperch, Pierrick (2013), "The Maipo Orocline: A first scale structural feature in the Miocene to Recent geodynamic evolution in the central Chilean Andes" (PDF), Andean Geology, 40 (3): 419–437  ^ Charrier, Reynaldo; Pinto, Luisa; Rodríguez, María Pía (2006). "3. Tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Andean Orogen in Chile". In Moreno, Teresa; Gibbons, Wes. Geology of Chile. Geological Society of London. pp. 5–19. ISBN 9781862392199.  ^ Santos, J.O.S.; Rizzotto, G.J.; Potter, P.E.; McNaughton, N.J.; Matos, R.S.; Hartmann, L.A.; Chemale Jr., F.; Quadros, M.E.S. (2008). "Age and autochthonous evolution of the Sunsás Orogen in West Amazon Craton
Craton
based on mapping and U–Pb geochronology". Precambrian Research. 165 (3–4): 120–152. Bibcode:2008PreR..165..120S. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2008.06.009. Retrieved 15 December 2015.  ^ Rapela, C.W.; Pankhurst, R.J; Casquet, C.; Baldo, E.; Saavedra, J.; Galindo, C.; Fanning, C.M. (1998). "The Pampean Orogeny
Orogeny
of the southern proto-Andes: Cambrian continental collision in the Sierras de Córdoba" (PDF). In Pankhurst, R.J; Rapela, C.W. The Proto-Andean Margin of Gondwana. 142. Geological Society, London, Special Publications. pp. 181–217. Retrieved 7 December 2015.  ^ Wilson, T.J. (1991). "Transition from back-arc to foreland basin development in the southernmost Andes: Stratigraphic record from the Ultima Esperanza District, Chile". Geological Society of America Bulletin. 103 (1): 98–111. Bibcode:1991GSAB..103...98W. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1991)103<0098:tfbatf>2.3.co;2.  ^ "Climate of the Andes". Archived from the original on 14 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-09.  ^ Jan-Christoph Otto, Joachim Götz, Markus Keuschnig, Ingo Hartmeyer, Dario Trombotto, and Lothar Schrott (2010). Geomorphological and geophysical investigation of a complex rock glacier system – Morenas Coloradas valley (Cordon del Plata, Mendoza, Argentina) ^ a b Kuhle, M. (2011): The High-Glacial (Last Glacial Maximum) Glacier Cover of the Aconcagua
Aconcagua
Group and Adjacent Massifs in the Mendoza Andes
Andes
(South America) with a Closer Look at Further Empirical Evidence. Development in Quaternary Science, Vol. 15 (Quaternary Glaciation – Extent and Chronology, A Closer Look, Eds: Ehlers, J.; Gibbard, P.L.; Hughes, P.D.), 735–738. (Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam). ^ Brüggen, J. (1929): Zur Glazialgeologie der chilenischen Anden. Geol. Rundsch. 20, 1–35, Berlin. ^ Kuhle, M. (1984): Spuren hocheiszeitlicher Gletscherbedeckung in der Aconcagua-Gruppe (32–33° S). In: Zentralblatt für Geologie und Paläontologie Teil 1 11/12, Verhandlungsblatt des Südamerika-Symposiums 1984 in Bamberg: 1635–1646. ^ Kuhle, M. (1986): Die Vergletscherung Tibets und die Entstehung von Eiszeiten. In: Spektrum der Wissenschaft 9/86: 42–54. ^ Kuhle, M. (1987): Subtropical Mountain- and Highland-Glaciation as Ice Age Triggers and the Waning of the Glacial Periods in the Pleistocene. In: GeoJournal 14 (4); Kluwer, Dordrecht/ Boston/ London: 393–421. ^ Kuhle, M. (1988): Subtropical Mountain- and Highland-Glaciation as Ice Age Triggers and the Waning of the Glacial Periods in the Pleistocene. In: Chinese Translation Bulletin of Glaciology and Geocryology 5 (4): 1–17 (in Chinese language). ^ Kuhle, M. (1989): Ice-Marginal Ramps: An Indicator of Semiarid Piedmont Glaciations. In: GeoJournal 18; Kluwer, Dordrecht/ Boston/ London: 223–238. ^ Kuhle, M. (1990): Ice Marginal Ramps and Alluvial Fans in Semi-Arid Mountains: Convergence and Difference. In: Rachocki, A.H., Church, M. (eds.): Alluvial fans – A field approach. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chester-New York-Brisbane-Toronto-Singapore: 55–68. ^ Kuhle, M. (1990): The Probability of Proof in Geomorphology – an Example of the Application of Information Theory to a New Kind of Glacigenic Morphological Type, the Ice-marginal Ramp (Bortensander). In: GeoJournal 21 (3); Kluwer, Dordrecht/ Boston/ London: 195–222. ^ Kuhle, M. (2004): The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) glacier cover of the Aconcagua
Aconcagua
group and adjacent massifs in the Mendoza Andes
Andes
(South America). In: Ehlers, J., Gibbard, P.L. (Eds.), Quaternary Glaciation— Extent and Chronology. Part III: South America, Asia, Africa, Australia, Antarctica. Development in Quaternary Science, vol. 2c. Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, pp. 75–81. ^ "Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forest Ecoregions". wwf.panda.org. Retrieved 2015-12-27.  ^ a b c Tropical Andes
Tropical Andes
Archived 2010-08-21 at the Wayback Machine. – biodiversityhotspots.org ^ "Pants of the Andies". Archived from the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-09.  ^ a b c Eisenberg, J.F.; & Redford, K.H. (2000). Mammals of the Neotropics, Volume 3: The Central Neotropics: Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil. ISBN 978-0226195421 ^ a b Eisenberg, J.F.; & Redford, K.H. (1992). Mammals of the Neotropics, Volume 2: The Southern Cone: Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay. ISBN 978-0226706825 ^ a b c d e f Fjeldsaa, J.; & Krabbe, N. (1990). Birds of the High Andes: A Manual to the Birds of the Temperate Zone of the Andes
Andes
and Patagonia, South America. ISBN 978-8788757163 ^ Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani and Young, editors (2008). Threatened
Threatened
Amphibians of the World. ISBN 978-84-96553-41-5 ^ D'Altroy, Terence N. The Incas. Blackwell Publishing, 2003 ^ Andes
Andes
travel map ^ "Jujuy apuesta a captar las cargas de Brasil en tránsito hacia Chile
Chile
by Emiliano Galli". La Nación newspaper. Retrieved 2011-07-22.  ^ W. van Immerzeel, 1989. Irrigation
Irrigation
and erosion/flood control at high altitudes in the Andes. Published in Annual Report 1989, p. 8 – 24, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement, Wageningen, The Netherlands. On line: [1] ^ "Information on Argentina". Argentine Embassy London. 

References[edit]

Oncken, O. et al. (2006). The Andes. Active Subduction
Subduction
Orogeny. Springer: Berlin. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-48684-8 Biggar, J. (2005). The Andes: A Guide For Climbers. 3rd. edition. Andes: Kirkcudbrightshire. ISBN 0-9536087-2-7 de Roy, T. (2005). The Andes: As the Condor Flies. Firefly books: Richmond Hill. ISBN 1-55407-070-8 Fjeldså, J. & N. Krabbe (1990). The Birds of the High Andes. Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen: Copenhagen. ISBN 87-88757-16-1 Fjeldså, J. & M. Kessler (1996). Conserving the biological diversity of Polylepis
Polylepis
woodlands of the highlands on Peru
Peru
and Bolivia, a contribution to sustainable natural resource management in the Andes. NORDECO: Copenhagen. ISBN 978-87-986168-0-1

Bibliography[edit]

Biggar, John (2005). The Andes: A Guide for Climbers (3 ed.). Scotland: Andes
Andes
Publishing. ISBN 0-9536087-2-7.  Darack, Ed (2001). Wild Winds: Adventures in the Highest Andes. Cordee / DPP. ISBN 978-1884980817. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Andes.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Andes.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Andes

University of Arizona: Andes
Andes
geology Blueplanetbiomes.org: Climate and animal life of the Andes Discover-peru.org: Regions and Microclimates in the Andes Peaklist.org: Complete list of mountains in South America
South America
with an elevation at/above 1,500 m (4,920 ft)

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Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean
Caribbean
South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco
Orinoco
Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean
Caribbean
Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked
Landlocked
seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 254473096 GND: 40019

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