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The APG II SYSTEM (ANGIOSPERM PHYLOGENY GROUP II SYSTEM) of plant classification is the second, now obsolete, version of a modern, mostly molecular -based, system of plant taxonomy that was published in April 2003 by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group . It was a revision of the first APG system , published in 1998, and was superseded in 2009 by a further revision, the APG III system .

HISTORY

APG II was published as:

* Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141(4): 399-436. (Available online: Abstract Full text (HTML) Full text (PDF) doi: 10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x )

Each of the APG systems represents the broad consensus of a number of systematic botanists , united in the APG, working at several institutions worldwide.

The APG II system
APG II system
recognized 45 orders , five more than the APG system. The new orders were Austrobaileyales
Austrobaileyales
, Canellales , Gunnerales , Celastrales , and Crossosomatales , all of which were families unplaced as to order, although contained in supra-ordinal clades, in the APG system. APG II recognized 457 families , five fewer than the APG system. Thirty-nine of the APG II families were not placed in any order, but 36 of the 39 were placed in a supra-ordinal clade within the angiosperms. Fifty-five of the families came to be known as "bracketed families". They were optional segregates of families that could be circumscribed in a larger sense .

The APG II system
APG II system
was influential and was adopted in whole or in part (sometimes with modifications) in a number of references. It was superseded 6½ years later by the APG III system , published in October 2009.

GROUPS

Cladogram showing the relationships, but excluding taxa not placed within an order

Main groups in the system (all unranked clades between the ranks of class and order ):

* ANGIOSPERMS : MAGNOLIIDS MONOCOTS COMMELINIDS EUDICOTS CORE EUDICOTS ROSIDS EUROSIDS I EUROSIDS II ASTERIDS EUASTERIDS I EUASTERIDS II

Shown below is the classification in full detail, except for the fifteen genera and three families that were unplaced in APG II . The unplaced taxa were listed at the end of the appendix in a section entitled "Taxa of Uncertain Position". Under some of the clades are listed the families that were placed incertae sedis in that clade. Thirty-six families were so placed. This means that their relationship to other members of the clade is not known.

* paraphyletic grade BASAL ANGIOSPERMS family Amborellaceae family Chloranthaceae
Chloranthaceae
family Nymphaeaceae order Austrobaileyales
Austrobaileyales
order Ceratophyllales
Ceratophyllales
clade MAGNOLIIDS order Canellales order Laurales order Magnoliales order Piperales clade MONOCOTS family Petrosaviaceae order Acorales
Acorales
order Alismatales
Alismatales
order Asparagales
Asparagales
order Dioscoreales order Liliales order Pandanales clade COMMELINIDS family Dasypogonaceae order Arecales
Arecales
order Commelinales order Poales order Zingiberales clade EUDICOTS family Buxaceae
Buxaceae
family Sabiaceae family Trochodendraceae order Proteales order Ranunculales clade CORE EUDICOTS family Aextoxicaceae family Berberidopsidaceae family Dilleniaceae order Gunnerales order Caryophyllales
Caryophyllales
order Santalales order Saxifragales clade ROSIDS family Aphloiaceae family Geissolomataceae family Ixerbaceae family Picramniaceae family Strasburgeriaceae family Vitaceae order Crossosomatales order Geraniales order Myrtales
Myrtales
clade EUROSIDS I family Zygophyllaceae family Huaceae order Celastrales order Cucurbitales
Cucurbitales
order Fabales
Fabales
order Fagales
Fagales
order Malpighiales order Oxalidales order Rosales clade EUROSIDS II family Tapisciaceae order Brassicales order Malvales
Malvales
order Sapindales clade ASTERIDS order Cornales
Cornales
order Ericales
Ericales
clade EUASTERIDS I family Boraginaceae
Boraginaceae
family Icacinaceae
Icacinaceae
family Oncothecaceae family Vahliaceae order Garryales order Gentianales
Gentianales
order Lamiales order Solanales clade EUASTERIDS II family Bruniaceae family Columelliaceae family Eremosynaceae family Escalloniaceae family Paracryphiaceae family Polyosmaceae family Sphenostemonaceae family Tribelaceae order Apiales
Apiales
order Aquifoliales order Asterales
Asterales
order Dipsacales
Dipsacales

Note: "+ ..." = optionally separate family, that may be split off from the preceding family.

REFERENCES

* ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141(4): 399-436. doi: 10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x

* v * t * e

List of systems of plant taxonomy
List of systems of plant taxonomy

PRE-LINNAEAN

JOHN RAY SYSTEM (1686–1704)

* A discourse on the seeds of plants * Methodus plantarum nova * De Variis Plantarum Methodis Dissertatio Brevis * Methodus plantarum emendata et aucta

PRE-DARWINIAN

LINNAEAN SYSTEM (1735–51)

* Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
* Species Plantarum
Species Plantarum
* Genera Plantarum * Philosophia Botanica

ADANSON SYSTEM (1763) Familles naturelles des plantes

DE JUSSIEU SYSTEM (1789) Genera Plantarum, secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam

DE CANDOLLE SYSTEM (1819–24)

* Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, ou exposition des principes de la classification naturelle et de l'art de décrire et d'etudier les végétaux * Prodromus systemati naturalis regni vegetabilis sive enumeratio contracta ordinum, generum specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarum, juxta methodi naturalis normas digesta

Berchtold and Presl system (1820–1823) O Prirozenosti Rostlin

AGARDH SYSTEM (1825) Classes Plantarum

GRAY SYSTEM (1821) The Natural Arrangement of British Plants

DUMORTIER SYSTEM (1829) Analyse des familles des plantes

LINDLEY SYSTEM (1830–45)

* An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany * The Vegetable Kingdom

DON SYSTEM (1834) General History of Dichlamydious Plants.

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NINETEENTH CENTURY

EICHLER SYSTEM (1875–1886)

* Blüthendiagramme: construirt und erläutert * Syllabus der Vorlesungen über Phanerogamenkunde

ENGLER SYSTEM (1886–1924)

* Führer durch den Königlich botanischen Garten der Universität zu Breslau * Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien * Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien * Das Pflanzenreich

VAN TIEGHEM SYSTEM (1891) Traité de botanique

TWENTIETH CENTURY

Dalla Torre border-left-width:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">

* A system and phylogeny of the flowering plants * Flowering plants: origin and dispersal * Diversity and classification of flowering plants

CRONQUIST SYSTEM (1968–81)

* The evolution and classification of flowering plants * An integrated system of classification of flowering plants

GOLDBERG SYSTEM (1986–89 Classification, Evolution and Phylogeny of the Families of Dicotyledons

DAHLGREN SYSTEM (1975–85) The families of the monocotyledons: structure, evolution, and taxonomy

THORNE SYSTEM (1968–2000) An updated phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants

KUBITZKI SYSTEM (1990–) The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants

REVEAL SYSTEM (1999) Reveal System of Angiosperm Classification

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group System (1998–2009)

* An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants (APG I) * An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II * An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III * An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV * Angiosperm Phylogeny Website

SEE ALSO Plantae at Wikispecies

Note: This is a selected list of the more influential systems. There are many other systems, for instance a review of earlier systems, published by Lindley in his 1853 edition, and Dahlgren (1982). Examples include the works of Scopoli , Bats

.