The Info List - APG II System

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The APG II system
APG II system
( Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II system) of plant classification is the second, now obsolete, version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy that was published in April 2003 by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group.[1] It was a revision of the first APG system, published in 1998, and was superseded in 2009 by a further revision, the APG III system. History[edit] APG II was published as:

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141(4): 399-436. (Available online: Abstract Full text (HTML) Full text (PDF) doi: 10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x)

Each of the APG systems represents the broad consensus of a number of systematic botanists, united in the APG, working at several institutions worldwide. The APG II system
APG II system
recognized 45 orders, five more than the APG system. The new orders were Austrobaileyales, Canellales, Gunnerales, Celastrales, and Crossosomatales, all of which were families unplaced as to order, although contained in supra-ordinal clades, in the APG system. APG II recognized 457 families, five fewer than the APG system. Thirty-nine of the APG II families were not placed in any order, but 36 of the 39 were placed in a supra-ordinal clade within the angiosperms. Fifty-five of the families came to be known as "bracketed families". They were optional segregates of families that could be circumscribed in a larger sense. The APG II system
APG II system
was influential and was adopted in whole or in part (sometimes with modifications) in a number of references. It was superseded 6½ years later by the APG III system, published in October 2009. Groups[edit]

showing the relationships, but excluding taxa not placed within an order

Main groups in the system (all unranked clades between the ranks of class and order):

angiosperms :

magnoliids monocots



core eudicots


eurosids I eurosids II


euasterids I euasterids II

Shown below is the classification in full detail, except for the fifteen genera and three families that were unplaced in APG II. The unplaced taxa were listed at the end of the appendix in a section entitled "Taxa of Uncertain Position". Under some of the clades are listed the families that were placed incertae sedis in that clade. Thirty-six families were so placed. This means that their relationship to other members of the clade is not known.

paraphyletic grade basal angiosperms

family Amborellaceae family Chloranthaceae family Nymphaeaceae
[+ family Cabombaceae]

order Austrobaileyales order Ceratophyllales

clade magnoliids

order Canellales order Laurales order Magnoliales order Piperales

clade monocots

family Petrosaviaceae

order Acorales order Alismatales order Asparagales order Dioscoreales order Liliales order Pandanales

clade commelinids

family Dasypogonaceae

order Arecales order Commelinales order Poales order Zingiberales

clade eudicots

family Buxaceae
[+ family Didymelaceae] family Sabiaceae family Trochodendraceae
[+ family Tetracentraceae]

order Proteales order Ranunculales

clade core eudicots

family Aextoxicaceae family Berberidopsidaceae family Dilleniaceae

order Gunnerales order Caryophyllales order Santalales order Saxifragales

clade rosids

family Aphloiaceae family Geissolomataceae family Ixerbaceae family Picramniaceae family Strasburgeriaceae family Vitaceae

order Crossosomatales order Geraniales order Myrtales

clade eurosids I

family Zygophyllaceae
[+ family Krameriaceae] family Huaceae

order Celastrales order Cucurbitales order Fabales order Fagales order Malpighiales order Oxalidales order Rosales

clade eurosids II

family Tapisciaceae

order Brassicales order Malvales order Sapindales

clade asterids

order Cornales order Ericales

clade euasterids I

family Boraginaceae family Icacinaceae family Oncothecaceae family Vahliaceae

order Garryales order Gentianales order Lamiales order Solanales

clade euasterids II

family Bruniaceae family Columelliaceae
[+ family Desfontainiaceae] family Eremosynaceae family Escalloniaceae family Paracryphiaceae family Polyosmaceae family Sphenostemonaceae family Tribelaceae

order Apiales order Aquifoliales order Asterales order Dipsacales

Note: "+ ..." = optionally separate family, that may be split off from the preceding family. References[edit]

^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141(4): 399-436. doi: 10.1046/j.1095-8339.2003.t01-1-00158.x

v t e

List of systems of plant taxonomy


John Ray
John Ray
system (1686–1704)

A discourse on the seeds of plants Methodus plantarum nova De Variis Plantarum Methodis Dissertatio Brevis Methodus plantarum emendata et aucta


Linnaean system (1735–51)

Systema Naturae Species Plantarum Genera Plantarum Philosophia Botanica

Adanson system (1763)

Familles naturelles des plantes

De Jussieu system (1789)

Genera Plantarum, secundum ordines naturales disposita juxta methodum in Horto Regio Parisiensi exaratam

De Candolle system (1819–24)

Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, ou exposition des principes de la classification naturelle et de l'art de décrire et d'etudier les végétaux Prodromus systemati naturalis regni vegetabilis sive enumeratio contracta ordinum, generum specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarum, juxta methodi naturalis normas digesta

Berchtold and Presl system (1820–1823)

O Prirozenosti Rostlin

Agardh system (1825)

Classes Plantarum

Gray system (1821)

The Natural Arrangement of British Plants

system (1829)

Analyse des familles des plantes

Lindley system (1830–45)

An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany The Vegetable Kingdom

Don system (1834)

General History of Dichlamydious Plants.

Bentham & Hooker system (1862–83)

Genera plantarum ad exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita.

Baillon system (1867–94)

Histoire des plantes

Post- Darwinian

Nineteenth century

Eichler system (1875–1886)

Blüthendiagramme: construirt und erläutert Syllabus der Vorlesungen über Phanerogamenkunde

Engler system
Engler system

Führer durch den Königlich botanischen Garten der Universität zu Breslau Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien Das Pflanzenreich

van Tieghem system (1891)

Traité de botanique

Twentieth century

Dalla Torre & Harms system (1900–07)

Genera Siphonogamarum, ad systema Englerianum conscripta

Warming system (1912)

Haandbog i den systematiske botanik

Hallier system (1912)

L'origine et le système phylétique des angiospermes

Bessey system (1915)

The phylogenetic taxonomy of flowering plants

Wettstein system (1901–35)

Handbuch der systematischen Botanik

Lotsy system (1907–11)

Vorträge über botanische Stammesgeschichte, gehalten an der Reichsuniversität zu Leiden. Ein Lehrbuch der Pflanzensystematik.

Hutchinson system (1926–73)

The families of flowering plants, arranged according to a new system based on their probable phylogeny

Calestani system (1933)

Le origini e la classificazione delle Angiosperme

Kimura system (1956)

Système et phylogénie des monocotyledones

Emberger system (1960)

Traité de Botanique systématique

Melchior system (1964)

Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien

Takhtajan system (1966–97)

A system and phylogeny of the flowering plants Flowering plants: origin and dispersal Diversity and classification of flowering plants

Cronquist system
Cronquist system

The evolution and classification of flowering plants An integrated system of classification of flowering plants

Goldberg system (1986–89

Classification, Evolution and Phylogeny of the Families of Dicotyledons

Dahlgren system (1975–85)

The families of the monocotyledons: structure, evolution, and taxonomy

Thorne system (1968–2000)

An updated phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants

Kubitzki system (1990–)

The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants

Reveal system (1999)

Reveal System of Angiosperm Classification

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group System (1998–2009)

An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants (APG I) An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV Angiosperm Phylogeny Website

See also

Plantae at Wikispecies

Note: This is a selected list of the more influential systems. There are many other systems, for instance a review of earlier systems, published by Lindley in his 1853 edition, and Dahlgren (1982). Examples include the works of Scopoli, Batsch