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Grasshopper
Grasshoppers are insects of the suborder Caelifera
Caelifera
within the order Orthoptera, which includes crickets and their allies in the other suborder Ensifera. They are likely the oldest living group of chewing herbivorous insects, dating back to the early Triassic
Triassic
around 250 million years ago. Grasshoppers are typically ground-dwelling insects with powerful hind legs which enable them to escape from threats by leaping vigorously. They are hemimetabolous insects (they do not undergo complete metamorphosis) which hatch from an egg into a nymph or "hopper" which undergoes five moults, becoming more similar to the adult insect at each developmental stage. At high population densities and under certain environmental conditions, some grasshopper species can change colour and behaviour and form swarms
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Ribosomal RNA
Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA
RNA
component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms. It constitutes the predominant material within the ribosome, which is approximately 60% r RNA
RNA
and 40% protein by weight, or 3/5 of ribosome mass. Ribosomes contain two major rRNAs and 50 or more proteins. The ribosomal RNAs form two subunits, the large subunit (LSU) and small subunit (SSU). The LSU r RNA
RNA
acts as a ribozyme, catalyzing peptide bond formation
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Suborder
In biological classification, the order (Latin: ordo) isa taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, superorder, may be added directly above order, while suborder would be a lower rank. a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines).Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes.What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist, as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Cercus
Cerci (singular cercus) are paired appendages on the rear-most segments of many arthropods, including insects and symphylans. Many forms of cerci serve as sensory organs, but some serve as pinching weapons or as organs of copulation.[1] In many insects, they simply may be functionless vestigial structures. In basal arthropods, such as silverfish, the cerci originate from the eleventh abdominal segment. As segment eleven is reduced or absent in the majority of arthropods, in such cases, the cerci emerge from the tenth abdominal segment.[2] It is not clear that other structures so named are homologous. In the Symphyla
Symphyla
they are associated with spinnerets.[1]Contents1 Morphology and functions 2 Evolutionary origin 3 Gallery 4 References 5 External linksMorphology and functions[edit] Most cerci are segmented and jointed, or filiform (threadlike), but some take very different forms
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Tympanal Organ
A tympanal organ is a hearing organ in insects, consisting of a membrane (tympanum) stretched across a frame backed by an air sac and associated sensory neurons.[1] Sounds vibrate the membrane, and the vibrations are sensed by a chordotonal organ. Hymenoptera
Hymenoptera
(bees, wasps, ants, etc.) do not have a tympanal organ,[2] but they do have a Johnston's Organ. Tympanal organs occur in just about any part of the insect: the thorax, the base of the wing, the abdomen, the legs, etc., depending on the group of insects. The structures are thought to have evolved independently many times.[3] As a result, their position and structures are often used to help determine the taxonomy of the species
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Chitin
Chitin
Chitin
(C8H13O5N)n (/ˈkaɪtɪn/ KY-tin), a long-chain polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose. It is a primary component of cell walls in fungi, the exoskeletons of arthropods, such as crustaceans (e.g., crabs, lobsters and shrimps) and insects, the radulae of molluscs, cephalopod beaks, and the scales of fish and lissamphibians.[1] The structure of chitin is comparable to another polysaccharide - cellulose, forming crystalline nanofibrils or whiskers. In terms of function, it may be compared to the protein keratin
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Cuticle
A cuticle /ˈkjuːtɪkəl/, or cuticula, is any of a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or parts of an organism, that provide protection. Various types of "cuticle" are non-homologous, differing in their origin, structure, function, and chemical composition.Contents1 Human anatomy 2 Cuticle
Cuticle
of invertebrates 3 Botany 4 Mycology 5 ReferencesHuman anatomy[edit]Anatomy of the basic parts of a human nail.In human anatomy, cuticle (sometimes confused with eponychium) refers to several structures
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Antenna (biology)
Antennae (singular: antenna), sometimes referred to as "feelers," are paired appendages used for sensing in arthropods. Antennae are connected to the first one or two segments of the arthropod head. They vary widely in form, but are always made of one or more jointed segments. While they are typically sensory organs, the exact nature of what they sense and how they sense it is not the same in all groups. Functions may variously include sensing touch, air motion, heat, vibration (sound), and especially smell or taste.[1][2] Antennae are sometimes modified for other purposes, such as mating, brooding, swimming, and even anchoring the arthropod to a substrate.[2] Larval arthropods have antennae that differ from those of the adult. Many crustaceans, for example, have free-swimming larvae that use their antennae for swimming
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Compound Eye
A compound eye is a visual organ found in arthropods such as insects and crustaceans. It may consist of thousands[1] of ommatidia which are tiny independent photoreception units that consist of a cornea, lens, and photoreceptor cells which distinguish brightness and color. The image perceived by the arthropod is a combination of inputs from the numerous ommatidia, which are oriented to point in slightly different directions
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Deimatic Behaviour
Deimatic behaviour, threat display, or startle display[1] in animals means any pattern of behaviour, such as suddenly displaying conspicuous eyespots, to scare off or momentarily distract a predator, thus giving the prey animal an opportunity to escape.[2][3] The term deimatic or dymantic originates from the Greek δειματόω (deimatόo), meaning "to frighten".[4][5] Deimatic display occurs in widely separated groups of animals, including moths, butterflies, mantises and phasmids among the insects. In the cephalopods, different species of octopuses,[6] squids, cuttlefish and the paper nautilus are deimatic. Displays are classified as deimatic or aposematic by the responses of the animals that see them. Where predators are initially startled but learn to eat the displaying prey, the display is classed as deimatic, and the prey is bluffing; where they continue to avoid the prey after tasting it, the display is taken as aposematic, meaning the prey is genuinely distasteful
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Predation
In an ecosystem, predation is a biological interaction where a predator (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked).[1] Predators may or may not kill their prey prior to feeding on it, but the act of predation often results in the death of the prey and the eventual absorption of the prey's tissue through digestion
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Megaannum
A year is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earth's axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the planet, four seasons are generally recognized: spring, summer, autumn and winter. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics, the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. The current year is 2018. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian, or modern, calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars; see below
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Complete Metamorphosis
Holometabolism, also called complete metamorphism, is a form of insect development which includes four life stages – as an embryo or egg, a larva, a pupa and an imago or adult. Holometabolism
Holometabolism
is a synapomorphic trait of all insects in the superorder Endopterygota. In some species the holometabolous life cycle prevents larvae from competing with adults because they inhabit different ecological niches. Accordingly, their morphology can be adapted to just one phase of activity, such as larvae feeding for growth and development, as opposed to adults flying for dispersal and seeking new supplies of food for their offspring
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Triassic
The Triassic
Triassic
( /traɪˈæsɪk/) is a geologic period and system which spans 50.9 million years from the end of the Permian
Permian
Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic
Jurassic
Period 201.3 Mya.[8] The Triassic
Triassic
is the first period of the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
Era. Both the start and end of the period are marked by major extinction events.[9] The Triassic
Triassic
began in the wake of the Permian– Triassic
Triassic
extinction event, which left the earth's biosphere impoverished; it would take well into the middle of this period for life to recover its former diversity. Therapsids and archosaurs were the chief terrestrial vertebrates during this time
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Sexual Dimorphism
Sexual dimorphism
Sexual dimorphism
is the condition where the two sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics beyond the differences in their sexual organs. The condition occurs in many animals and some plants. Differences may include secondary sex characteristics, size, color, markings, and may also include behavioral differences. These differences may be subtle or exaggerated, and may be subjected to sexual selection
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