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The Caelifera[3] are a sub-order of Orthopteran insects. They include the grasshoppers and grasshopper-like insects, as well as other superfamilies classified with them: the ground-hoppers (Tetrigoidea) and pygmy mole crickets (Tridactyloidea). The latter should not be confused with the mole crickets (Gryllotalpidae), which belong to the other Orthopteran sub-order Ensifera.

Contents

1 Subdivisions and their distribution

1.1 Affiliations

2 Economic significance and terminology 3 References 4 External links

Subdivisions and their distribution[edit] The Caelifera
Caelifera
includes some 2,400 valid genera and about 11,000 known species. Many undescribed species probably exist, especially in tropical forests. The Caelifera
Caelifera
have a predominantly tropical distribution (as with most Orthoptera) with fewer species known from temperate climate zones. Caelifera
Caelifera
are divided into two infraorders: the more basal Tridactylidea and the Acrididea
Acrididea
or grasshopper-like species. This latter name is derived from older sources, such as Imms,[4] which placed the "short-horned grasshoppers" and locusts at the family level (Acrididae).

Infraorder Tridactylidea

Tridactyloidea
Tridactyloidea
Brullé, 1835: pygmy mole crickets[5] - all continents except Antarctica Dzhajloutshelloidea Gorochov, 1994 † Regiatoidea Gorochov, 1995 †

Infraorder Acrididea[6] (superfamily group Acridomorpha includes all except superfamily Tetrigoidea)[7]

Acridoidea
Acridoidea
MacLeay, 1821: most grasshoppers – World-wide - approx. 10,000 species in the Acrididae
Acrididae
alone Eumastacoidea
Eumastacoidea
Burr, 1899: "monkey grasshoppers" - Americas, Africa, Australasia Locustopsoidea Handlirsch, 1906 † Pneumoroidea
Pneumoroidea
Blanchard, 1845: "bladder grasshoppers" - Africa Pyrgomorphoidea
Pyrgomorphoidea
(monotypic) B. von Wattenwyl, 1882: "gaudy grasshoppers" - all tropical/subtropical continents Tanaoceroidea (monotypic) Rehn, 1948: "desert long-horned grasshoppers" - north America Tetrigoidea
Tetrigoidea
(monotypic) Serville, 1838: groundhoppers[5] or "grouse locusts"[4] - all continents except Antarctica Trigonopterygoidea
Trigonopterygoidea
Walker, 1870: "razor-backed bush-hoppers" - central America, south-east Asia

Affiliations[edit] The phylogeny of the Caelifera, is described in detail for grasshoppers, with 6 out of 8 extant superfamilies shown here as a cladogram. Like the Ensifera, Caelifera
Caelifera
and all of its superfamilies appear to be monophyletic.[3][8]

Orthoptera

Ensifera (crickets, etc.)

[6 superfamilies]

Caelifera

 Tridactylidea 

Tridactyloidea
Tridactyloidea

[2 extinct superfamilies]

 Acrididea 

Tetrigoidea
Tetrigoidea

 Acridomorpha 

Eumastacoidea
Eumastacoidea

Pneumoroidea
Pneumoroidea

Pyrgomorphoidea
Pyrgomorphoidea

Acridoidea
Acridoidea
etc.

Economic significance and terminology[edit] A number of species, especially in the Acridoidea, are significant agricultural pests, but not all of them are locusts: a non-taxonomic term referring to species whose populations which may change morphologically when crowded and show swarming behaviour.[9] Examples of agricultural grasshopper pests that are not called locusts include the Senegalese grasshopper
Senegalese grasshopper
and certain species in the Pyrgomorphidae, notably the variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus). References[edit]

^ Zeuner, F. E. (1939). Fossil Orthoptera
Orthoptera
Ensifera. British Museum Natural History. OCLC 1514958.  ^ ITIS: Caelifera
Caelifera
(retrieved 2 August 2017) ^ a b Rowell, Hugh; Flook, Paul (2001). "Caelifera: Shorthorned Grasshoppers, Locusts
Locusts
and Relatives". Tree of Life web project. Retrieved 20 July 2017.  ^ a b Imms AD, rev. Richards OW & Davies RG (1970) A General Textbook of Entomology 9th Ed. Methuen 886 pp. ^ a b Ragge DR (1965). Grasshoppers, Crickets & Cockroaches of the British Isles. F Warne & Co, London. p. 299.  ^ ITIS: Acrididea
Acrididea
(Retrieved 23/7/2017) ^ Orthoptera
Orthoptera
Species File: infraorder Acrididea
Acrididea
(Retrieved 20/7/2017) ^ Flook, P. K.; Rowell, C. H. F. (1997). "The Phylogeny
Phylogeny
of the Caelifera
Caelifera
(Insecta, Orthoptera) as Deduced from mtrRNA Gene Sequences". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 8 (1): 89–103. doi:10.1006/mpev.1997.0412. PMID 9242597.  ^ Uvarov BP (1966) Grasshoppers & Locusts. A Handbook of General Acridology Cambridge University Press, London 1:481 pp.

External links[edit]

Media related to Caelifera
Caelifera
at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Caelifera
Caelifera
at Wikispecies Tolweb: Caelifera Orthoptera
Orthoptera
Species File: Caelifera
Caelifera
(accessed 20 July 2017) Palaeobiology database: Caelifera
Caelifera
Ander 1936 (accessed 20 June 2017) ITIS: Caelifera
Caelifera
(accessed 20 June 2017) NCBI: Caelifera
Caelifera
(accessed 20 June 2017)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q83902 ADW: Caelifera BugGuide: 16133 EoL: 2634375 Fauna Europaea: 11898 Fossilworks: 119748 ITIS:

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