The Caelifera are a sub-order of Orthopteran insects. They include
the grasshoppers and grasshopper-like insects, as well as other
superfamilies classified with them: the ground-hoppers (Tetrigoidea)
and pygmy mole crickets (Tridactyloidea). The latter should not be
confused with the mole crickets (Gryllotalpidae), which belong to the
other Orthopteran sub-order Ensifera.
1 Subdivisions and their distribution
2 Economic significance and terminology
4 External links
Subdivisions and their distribution
Caelifera includes some 2,400 valid genera and about 11,000 known
species. Many undescribed species probably exist, especially in
tropical forests. The
Caelifera have a predominantly tropical
distribution (as with most Orthoptera) with fewer species known from
temperate climate zones.
Caelifera are divided into two infraorders:
the more basal Tridactylidea and the
Acrididea or grasshopper-like
species. This latter name is derived from older sources, such as
Imms, which placed the "short-horned grasshoppers" and locusts at
the family level (Acrididae).
Tridactyloidea Brullé, 1835: pygmy mole crickets - all continents
Dzhajloutshelloidea Gorochov, 1994 †
Regiatoidea Gorochov, 1995 †
Infraorder Acrididea (superfamily group Acridomorpha includes all
except superfamily Tetrigoidea)
Acridoidea MacLeay, 1821: most grasshoppers – World-wide - approx.
10,000 species in the
Eumastacoidea Burr, 1899: "monkey grasshoppers" - Americas, Africa,
Locustopsoidea Handlirsch, 1906 †
Pneumoroidea Blanchard, 1845: "bladder grasshoppers" - Africa
Pyrgomorphoidea (monotypic) B. von Wattenwyl, 1882: "gaudy
grasshoppers" - all tropical/subtropical continents
Tanaoceroidea (monotypic) Rehn, 1948: "desert long-horned
grasshoppers" - north America
Tetrigoidea (monotypic) Serville, 1838: groundhoppers or "grouse
locusts" - all continents except Antarctica
Trigonopterygoidea Walker, 1870: "razor-backed bush-hoppers" - central
America, south-east Asia
The phylogeny of the Caelifera, is described in detail for
grasshoppers, with 6 out of 8 extant superfamilies shown here as a
cladogram. Like the Ensifera,
Caelifera and all of its superfamilies
appear to be monophyletic.
Ensifera (crickets, etc.)
[2 extinct superfamilies]
Economic significance and terminology
A number of species, especially in the Acridoidea, are significant
agricultural pests, but not all of them are locusts: a non-taxonomic
term referring to species whose populations which may change
morphologically when crowded and show swarming behaviour. Examples
of agricultural grasshopper pests that are not called locusts include
Senegalese grasshopper and certain species in the Pyrgomorphidae,
notably the variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus).
^ Zeuner, F. E. (1939). Fossil
Orthoptera Ensifera. British Museum
Natural History. OCLC 1514958.
Caelifera (retrieved 2 August 2017)
^ a b Rowell, Hugh; Flook, Paul (2001). "Caelifera: Shorthorned
Locusts and Relatives". Tree of Life web project.
Retrieved 20 July 2017.
^ a b Imms AD, rev. Richards OW & Davies RG (1970) A General
Textbook of Entomology 9th Ed. Methuen 886 pp.
^ a b Ragge DR (1965). Grasshoppers, Crickets & Cockroaches of the
British Isles. F Warne & Co, London. p. 299.
Acrididea (Retrieved 23/7/2017)
Orthoptera Species File: infraorder
Acrididea (Retrieved 20/7/2017)
^ Flook, P. K.; Rowell, C. H. F. (1997). "The
Phylogeny of the
Caelifera (Insecta, Orthoptera) as Deduced from mtrRNA Gene
Sequences". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 8 (1): 89–103.
doi:10.1006/mpev.1997.0412. PMID 9242597.
^ Uvarov BP (1966) Grasshoppers & Locusts. A Handbook of General
Acridology Cambridge University Press, London 1:481 pp.
Media related to
Caelifera at Wikimedia Commons
Data related to
Caelifera at Wikispecies
Orthoptera Species File:
Caelifera (accessed 20 July 2017)
Caelifera Ander 1936 (accessed 20 June 2017)
Caelifera (accessed 20 June 2017)
Caelifera (accessed 20 June 2017)
Fauna Europaea: 11898