Grasshoppers are insects of the suborder
Caelifera within the order
Orthoptera, which includes crickets and their allies in the other
suborder Ensifera. They are likely the oldest living group of chewing
herbivorous insects, dating back to the early
Triassic around 250
million years ago. Grasshoppers are typically ground-dwelling insects
with powerful hind legs which enable them to escape from threats by
leaping vigorously. They are hemimetabolous insects (they do not
undergo complete metamorphosis) which hatch from an egg into a nymph
or "hopper" which undergoes five moults, becoming more similar to the
adult insect at each developmental stage. At high population densities
and under certain environmental conditions, some grasshopper species
can change colour and behaviour and form swarms. Under these
circumstances they are known as locusts.
Insects in the group are plant-eaters, with a few species at times
becoming serious pests of cereals, vegetables and pasture, especially
when they swarm in their millions as locusts and destroy crops over
wide areas. They protect themselves from predators by camouflage; when
detected, many species attempt to startle the predator with a
brilliantly-coloured wing-flash while jumping and (if adult) launching
themselves into the air, usually flying for only a short distance.
Other species such as the rainbow grasshopper have warning coloration
which deters predators. Grasshoppers are affected by parasites and
various diseases, and many predatory creatures feed on both nymphs and
adults. The eggs are the subject of attack by parasitoids and
Grasshoppers have had a long relationship with humans. Swarms of
locusts can have devastating effects and cause famine, and even in
smaller numbers, the insects can be serious pests. They are used as
food in countries such as
Mexico and Indonesia. They feature in art,
symbolism and literature.
3.1 Diet and digestion
3.2 Sensory organs
3.3 Circulation and respiration
3.6 Life cycle
4 Predators, parasites and pathogens
4.1 Anti-predator defences
5 Relationship with humans
5.1 In art and media
5.3 As food
5.4 As pests
5.5 In literature
5.6 In mechanical engineering
Grasshoppers have the typical insect body plan of head, thorax and
abdomen. The head is held vertically at an angle to the body, with the
mouth at the bottom. The head bears a large pair of compound eyes
which give all-round vision, three simple eyes which can detect light
and dark, and a pair of thread-like antennae that are sensitive to
touch and smell. The downward-directed mouthparts are modified for
chewing and there are two sensory palps in front of the jaws.
The thorax and abdomen are segmented and have a rigid cuticle made up
of overlapping plates composed of chitin. The three fused thoracic
segments bear three pairs of legs and two pairs of wings. The
forewings, known as tegmina, are narrow and leathery while the
hindwings are large and membranous, the veins providing strength. The
legs are terminated by claws for gripping. The hind leg is
particularly powerful; the femur is robust and has several ridges
where different surfaces join and the inner ridges bear stridulatory
pegs in some species. The posterior edge of the tibia bears a double
row of spines and there are a pair of articulated spurs near its lower
end. The interior of the thorax houses the muscles that control the
wings and legs.
Ensifera, like this great green bush-cricket Tettigonia viridissima,
somewhat resemble grasshoppers but have over 20 segments in their
antennae and different ovipositors.
The abdomen has eleven segments, the first of which is fused to the
thorax and contains the tympanal organ and hearing system. Segments
two to eight are ring-shaped and joined by flexible membranes.
Segments nine to eleven are reduced in size; segment nine bears a pair
of cerci and segments ten and eleven house the reproductive organs.
Female grasshoppers are normally larger than males, with short
ovipositors. The name of the suborder "Caelifera" comes from the
Latin and means chisel-bearing, referring to the shape of the
Those species that make easily heard noises usually do so by rubbing a
row of pegs on the hind legs against the edges of the forewings
(stridulation). These sounds are produced mainly by males to attract
females, though in some species the females also stridulate.
Grasshoppers may be confused with
Ensifera (crickets, etc.), but they
differ in many aspects; these include the number of segments in their
antennae and the structure of the ovipositor, as well as the location
of the tympanal organ and the methods by which sound is produced.
Ensiferans have antennae that can be much longer than the body and
have at least 20–24 segments, while caeliferans have fewer segments
in their shorter, stouter antennae.
Grasshoppers belong to the suborder Caelifera. Although, "grasshopper"
is sometimes used as a common name for the suborder in
general, some sources restrict it to the more "advanced"
groups. They may be placed in the infraorder Acrididea and have
been referred-to as "short-horned grasshoppers" in older texts to
distinguish them from the also-obsolete term "long-horned
grasshoppers" (now bush-crickets or katydids) with their much longer
antennae. The phylogeny of the Caelifera, based on mitochondrial
ribosomal RNA of thirty-two taxa in six out of seven superfamilies, is
shown as a cladogram. The Ensifera,
Caelifera and all the
superfamilies of grasshoppers except Pamphagoidea appear to be
Fossil grasshoppers at the Royal Ontario Museum
In evolutionary terms, the split between the
Caelifera and the
Ensifera is no more recent than the Permo-
Triassic boundary; the
earliest insects that are certainly Caeliferans are in the extinct
families Locustopseidae and Locustavidae from the early Triassic,
roughly 250 million years ago. The group diversified during the
Triassic and have remained important plant-eaters from that time to
now. The first modern families such as the Eumastacidae, Tetrigidae
Tridactylidae appeared in the Cretaceous, though some insects that
might belong to the last two of these groups are found in the early
Jurassic. Morphological classification is difficult because
many taxa have converged towards a common habitat type; recent
taxonomists have concentrated on the internal genitalia, especially
those of the male. This information is not available from fossil
specimens, and the palaentological taxonomy is founded principally on
the venation of the hindwings.
Caelifera includes some 2,400 valid genera and about 11,000 known
species. Many undescribed species probably exist, especially in
tropical wet forests. The
Caelifera have a predominantly tropical
distribution with fewer species known from temperate zones, but most
of the superfamilies have representatives worldwide. They are almost
exclusively herbivorous and are probably the oldest living group of
chewing herbivorous insects.
The most diverse superfamily is the Acridoidea, with around 8,000
species. The two main families in this are the
and locusts) with a worldwide distribution, and the
grasshoppers), found chiefly in the New World. The
Tristiridae are South American, and the Lentulidae,
Pamphagidae are mainly African. The Pauliniids are nocturnal and can
swim or skate on water, and the Lentulids are wingless.
Pneumoridae are native to Africa, particularly southern Africa, and
are distinguished by the inflated abdomens of the males.
Diet and digestion
Further information: Digestive system of insects
Most grasshoppers are polyphagous, eating vegetation from multiple
plant sources, but some are omnivorous and also eat animal tissue
and animal faeces. In general their preference is for grasses,
including many cereals grown as crops. The digestive system is
typical of insects, with Malpighian tubules discharging into the
midgut. Carbohydrates are digested mainly in the crop, while proteins
are digested in the ceca of the midgut. Saliva is abundant but largely
free of enzymes, helping to move food and Malpighian secretions along
the gut. Some grasshoppers possess cellulase, which by softening plant
cell walls makes plant cell contents accessible to other digestive
Frontal view of Egyptian locust (Anacridium aegyptium) showing the
compound eyes, tiny ocelli and numerous setae
Grasshoppers have a typical insect nervous system, and have an
extensive set of external sense organs. On the side of the head are a
pair of large compound eyes which give a broad field of vision and can
detect movement, shape, colour and distance. There are also three
simple eyes (ocelli) on the forehead which can detect light intensity,
a pair of antennae containing olfactory (smell) and touch receptors,
and mouthparts containing gustatory (taste) receptors. At the
front end of the abdomen there is a pair of tympanal organs for sound
reception. There are numerous fine hairs (setae) covering the whole
body that act as mechanoreceptors (touch and wind sensors), and these
are most dense on the antennae, the palps (part of the mouth), and on
the cerci at the tip of the abdomen. There are special receptors
(campaniform sensillae) embedded in the cuticle of the legs that sense
pressure and cuticle distortion. There are internal "chordotonal"
sense organs specialized to detect position and movement about the
joints of the exoskeleton. The receptors convey information to the
central nervous system through sensory neurons, and most of these have
their cell bodies located in the periphery near the receptor site
Circulation and respiration
Insect morphology § Circulatory system, and
Respiratory system of insects
Like other insects, grasshoppers have an open circulatory system and
their body cavities are filled with haemolymph. A heart-like structure
in the upper part of the abdomen pumps the fluid to the head from
where it percolates past the tissues and organs on its way back to the
abdomen. This system circulates nutrients throughout the body and
carries metabolic wastes to be excreted into the gut. Other functions
of the haemolymph include wound healing, heat transfer and the
provision of hydrostatic pressure, but the circulatory system is not
involved in gaseous exchange. Respiration is performed using
tracheae, air-filled tubes, which open at the surfaces of the thorax
and abdomen through pairs of valved spiracles. Larger insects may need
to actively ventilate their bodies by opening some spiracles while
others remain closed, using abdominal muscles to expand and contract
the body and pump air through the system.
A large grasshopper, such as a locust, can jump about a metre (twenty
body lengths) without using its wings; the acceleration peaks at about
20 g. Grasshoppers jump by extending their large back legs
and pushing against the substrate (the ground, a twig, a blade of
grass or whatever else they are standing on); the reaction force
propels them into the air. They jump for several reasons; to
escape from a predator, to launch themselves into flight, or simply to
move from place to place. For the escape jump in particular there is
strong selective pressure to maximize take-off velocity, since this
determines the range. This means that the legs must thrust against the
ground with both high force and a high velocity of movement. However,
a fundamental property of muscle is that it cannot contract with both
high force and high velocity at the same time. Grasshoppers overcome
this apparent contradiction by using a catapult mechanism to amplify
the mechanical power produced by their muscles.
The jump is a three-stage process. First, the grasshopper fully
flexes the lower part of the leg (tibia) against the upper part
(femur) by activating the flexor tibiae muscle (the back legs of the
grasshopper in the top photograph are in this preparatory position).
Second, there is a period of co-contraction in which force builds up
in the large, pennate extensor tibiae muscle, but the tibia is kept
flexed by the simultaneous contraction of the flexor tibiae muscle.
The extensor muscle is much stronger than the flexor muscle, but the
latter is aided by specializations in the joint that give it a large
effective mechanical advantage over the former when the tibia is fully
flexed. Co-contraction can last for up to half a second, and
during this period the extensor muscle shortens and stores elastic
strain energy by distorting stiff cuticular structures in the leg.
The extensor muscle contraction is quite slow (almost isometric),
which allows it to develop high force (up to 14 N in the desert
locust), but because it is slow only low power is needed. The third
stage of the jump is the trigger relaxation of the flexor muscle,
which releases the tibia from the flexed position. The subsequent
rapid tibial extension is driven mainly by the relaxation of the
elastic structures, rather than by further shortening of the extensor
muscle. In this way the stiff cuticle acts like the elastic of a
catapult, or the bow of a bow-and-arrow. Energy is put into the store
at low power by slow but strong muscle contraction, and retrieved from
the store at high power by rapid relaxation of the mechanical elastic
Several unidentified grasshoppers stridulating
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Male grasshoppers spend much of the day stridulating, singing more
actively under optimal conditions and being more subdued when
conditions are adverse; females also stridulate, but their efforts are
insignificant when compared to the males. Late-stage male nymphs can
sometimes be seen making stridulatory movements, although they lack
the equipment to make sounds, demonstrating the importance of this
behavioural trait. The songs are a means of communication; the male
stridulation seems to express reproductive maturity, the desire for
social cohesion and individual well-being. Social cohesion becomes
necessary among grasshoppers because of their ability to jump or fly
large distances, and the song can serve to limit dispersal and guide
others to favourable habitat. The generalised song can vary in
phraseology and intensity, and is modified in the presence of a rival
male, and changes again to a courtship song when a female is
nearby. In male grasshoppers of the family Pneumoridae, the
enlarged abdomen amplifies stridulation.
Six stages (instars) of development, from newly hatched nymph to fully
Romalea guttata grasshoppers: female (larger) is laying eggs, with
male in attendance.
In most grasshopper species, conflicts between males over females
rarely escalate beyond ritualistic displays. Some exceptions include
the chameleon grasshopper (
Kosciuscola tristis), where males may fight
on top of ovipositing females; engaging in leg grappling, biting,
kicking and mounting.
The newly emerged female grasshopper has a preoviposition period of a
week or two while she increases in weight and her eggs mature. After
mating, the female of most species digs a hole with her ovipositor and
lays a batch of eggs in a pod in the ground near food plants,
generally in the summer. After laying the eggs, she covers the hole
with soil and litter. Some, like the semi-aquatic Cornops
aquaticum, deposit the pod directly into plant tissue. The eggs in
the pod are glued together with a froth in some species. After a few
weeks of development, the eggs of most species in temperate climates
go into diapause, and pass the winter in this state.
broken by a sufficiently low ground temperature, with development
resuming as soon as the ground warms above a certain threshold
temperature. The embryos in a pod generally all hatch out within a few
minutes of each other. They soon shed their membranes and their
exoskeletons harden. These first instar nymphs can then jump away from
Grasshoppers undergo incomplete metamorphosis: they repeatedly moult
(undergo ecdysis), each instar becoming larger and more like an adult,
with the wing-buds increasing in size at each stage. The number of
instars varies between species but is often six. After the final
moult, the wings are inflated and become fully functional. The
migratory grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes, spends about 25 to 30
days as a nymph, depending on sex and temperature, and lives for about
51 days as an adult.
Main article: Locust
Millions of plague locusts on the move in Australia
Locusts are the swarming phase of certain species of short-horned
grasshoppers in the family Acrididae. Swarming behaviour is a response
to overcrowding. Increased tactile stimulation of the hind legs causes
an increase in levels of serotonin. This causes the grasshopper to
change colour, feed more and breed faster. The transformation of a
solitary individual into a swarming one is induced by several contacts
per minute over a short period.
Following this transformation, under suitable conditions dense nomadic
bands of flightless nymphs known as "hoppers" can occur, producing
pheromones which attract the insects to each other. With several
generations in a year, the locust population can build up from
localised groups into vast accumulations of flying insects known as
plagues, devouring all the vegetation they encounter. The largest
recorded locust swarm was one formed by the now-extinct Rocky Mountain
locust in 1875; the swarm was 1,800 miles (2,900 km) long and 110
miles (180 km) wide, and one estimate puts the number of
locusts involved at 3.5 trillion. An adult desert locust can eat
about 2 g (0.1 oz) of plant material each day, so the
billions of insects in a large swarm can be very destructive,
stripping all the foliage from plants in an affected area and
consuming stems, flowers, fruits, seeds and bark.
Predators, parasites and pathogens
Cottontop tamarin monkey eating a grasshopper
Grasshoppers have a wide range of predators at different stages of
their lives; eggs are eaten by bee-flies, ground beetles and blister
beetles; hoppers and adults are taken by other insects such as ants,
robber flies and sphecid wasps, by spiders, and by many birds and
The eggs and nymphs are under attack by parasitoids including blow
flies, flesh flies, and tachinid flies. External parasites of adults
and nymphs include mites. Female grasshoppers parasitised by mites
produce fewer eggs and thus have fewer offspring than unaffected
Grasshopper with parasitic mites
The grasshopper nematode (Mermis nigrescens) is a long slender worm
that infects grasshoppers, living in the insect's hemocoel. Adult
worms lay eggs on plants and the host becomes infected when the
foliage is eaten.
Spinochordodes tellinii and Paragordius
tricuspidatus are parasitic worms that infect grasshoppers and alter
the behaviour of their hosts. When the worms are sufficiently
developed, the grasshopper is persuaded to leap into a nearby body of
water where it drowns, thus enabling the parasite to continue with the
next stage of its life cycle, which takes place in water.
Locusts killed by the naturally occurring fungus Metarhizium, an
environmentally friendly means of biological control. CSIRO, 2005
Grasshoppers are affected by diseases caused by bacteria, viruses,
fungi and protozoa. The bacteria
Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas
aeruginosa have both been implicated in causing disease in
grasshoppers, as has the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.
This widespread fungus has been used to control various pest insects
around the world, but although it infects grasshoppers, the infection
is not usually lethal because basking in the sun has the result of
raising the insect's temperature above a threshold tolerated by the
fungus. The fungal pathogen
Entomophaga grylli is able to
influence the behaviour of its grasshopper host, causing it to climb
to the top of a plant and cling to the stem as it dies. This ensures
wide dispersal of the fungal spores liberated from the corpse.
The fungal pathogen
Metarhizium acridum is found in Africa, Australia
and Brazil where it has caused epizootics in grasshoppers. It is being
investigated for possible use as a microbial insecticide for locust
control. The microsporidian fungus Nosema locustae, once
considered to be a protozoan, can be lethal to grasshoppers. It has to
be consumed by mouth and is the basis for a bait-based commercial
microbial pesticide. Various other microsporidians and protozoans are
found in the gut.
Further information: Anti-predator adaptation
Grasshoppers exemplify a range of anti-predator adaptations, enabling
them to avoid detection, to escape if detected, and in some cases to
avoid being eaten if captured. Grasshoppers are often camouflaged to
avoid detection by predators that hunt by sight; some species can
change their coloration to suit their surroundings.
Several species such as the hooded leaf grasshopper Phyllochoreia
ramakrishnai (Eumastacoidea) are detailed mimics of leaves. Stick
grasshoppers (Proscopiidae) mimic wooden sticks in form and
colouration. Grasshoppers often have deimatic patterns on their
wings, giving a sudden flash of bright colours that may startle
predators long enough to give time to escape in a combination of jump
Some species are genuinely aposematic, having both bright warning
coloration and sufficient toxicity to dissuade predators. Dictyophorus
productus (Pyrgomorphidae) is a "heavy, bloated, sluggish insect" that
makes no attempt to hide; it has a bright red abdomen. A Cercopithecus
monkey that ate other grasshoppers refused to eat the species.
Another species, the rainbow or painted grasshopper of Arizona,
Dactylotum bicolor (Acridoidea), has been shown by experiment with a
natural predator, the little striped whiptail lizard, to be
Gaudy grasshopper, Atractomorpha lata, evades predators with
Lubber grasshopper, Titanacris albipes, has deimatically coloured
wings, used to startle predators.
Phyllochoreia ramakrishnai, mimics a green leaf.
Painted grasshopper, Dactylotum bicolor, deters predators with warning
Spotted grasshopper, Aularches miliaris, defends itself with toxic
foam and warning colours.
Relationship with humans
Detail of grasshopper on table in Rachel Ruysch's painting Flowers in
a Vase, c. 1685. National Gallery, London
In art and media
Grasshoppers are occasionally depicted in artworks, such as the Dutch
Golden Age painter Balthasar van der Ast's still life oil painting,
Flowers in a Vase with Shells and Insects, c. 1630, now in the
National Gallery, London, though the insect may be a bush-cricket.
Another orthopteran is found in Rachel Ruysch's still life Flowers in
a Vase, c. 1685. The seemingly static scene is animated by a
"grasshopper on the table that looks about ready to spring", according
to the gallery curator Betsy Wieseman, with other invertebrates
including a spider, an ant, and two caterpillars.
Grasshoppers are also featured in cinema. The 1957 film Beginning of
the End portrayed giant grasshoppers attacking Chicago. In the
Pixar film A Bug's Life, the heroes are the members of an ant
colony, and the lead villain and his henchmen are grasshoppers.
Sir Thomas Gresham's gilded grasshopper symbol, Lombard Street,
Grasshoppers are sometimes used as symbols. During the Greek
Archaic Era, the grasshopper was the symbol of the polis of
Athens, possibly because they were among the most common insects
on the dry plains of Attica. Native Athenians wore golden
grasshopper brooches to symbolize that they were of pure Athenian
lineage with no foreign ancestors. In later times, this custom
became a mark of archaism. Another symbolic use of the grasshopper
is Sir Thomas Gresham's gilded grasshopper in Lombard Street, London,
dating from 1563;[a] the building was for a while the headquarters of
the Guardian Royal Exchange, but the company declined to use the
symbol for fear of confusion with the locust.
When grasshoppers appear in dreams, these have been interpreted as
symbols of "Freedom, independence, spiritual enlightenment, inability
to settle down or commit to decision". Locusts are taken literally to
mean devastation of crops in the case of farmers; figuratively as
"wicked men and women" for non-farmers; and "Extravagance, misfortune,
& ephemeral happiness" by "gypsies".
Fried grasshoppers from Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
In some countries, grasshoppers are used as food. In southern
Mexico, grasshoppers, known as chapulines, are eaten in a variety of
dishes, such as in tortillas with chilli sauce. Grasshoppers are
served on skewers in some Chinese food markets, like the Donghuamen
Night Market. Fried grasshoppers (walang goreng) are eaten in the
Gunung Kidul Regency, Yogyakarta,
Java in Indonesia. In Native
Ohlone people burned grassland to herd grasshoppers into
pits where they could be collected as food.
It is recorded in the
John the Baptist
John the Baptist ate locusts and wild
honey (Greek: ἀκρίδες καὶ μέλι ἄγριον, akrídes
kaì méli ágrion) while living in the wilderness; attempts have
been made to explain the locusts as suitably ascetic vegetarian food
such as carob beans, but the plain meaning of ἀκρίδες is the
Crop pest: grasshopper eating a maize leaf
Grasshoppers eat large quantities of foliage both as adults and during
their development, and can be serious pests of arid land and prairies.
Pasture, grain, forage, vegetable and other crops can be affected.
Grasshoppers often bask in the sun, and thrive in warm sunny
conditions, so drought stimulates an increase in grasshopper
populations. A single season of drought is not normally sufficient to
stimulate a massive population increase, but several successive dry
seasons can do so, especially if the intervening winters are mild so
that large numbers of nymphs survive. Although sunny weather
stimulates growth, there needs to be an adequate food supply for the
increasing grasshopper population. This means that although
precipitation is needed to stimulate plant growth, prolonged periods
of cloudy weather will slow nymphal development.
Grasshoppers can best be prevented from becoming pests by manipulating
their environment. Shade provided by trees will discourage them and
they may be prevented from moving onto developing crops by removing
coarse vegetation from fallow land and field margins and discouraging
luxurious growth beside ditches and on roadside verges. With
increasing numbers of grasshoppers, predator numbers may increase, but
this seldom happens sufficiently rapidly to have much effect on
populations. Biological control is being investigated, and spores of
the protozoan parasite
Nosema locustae can be used mixed with bait to
control grasshoppers, being more effective with immature insects.
On a small scale, neem products can be effective as a feeding
deterrent and as a disruptor of nymphal development. Insecticides can
be used, but adult grasshoppers are difficult to kill, and as they
move into fields from surrounding rank growth, crops may soon become
Chinese rice grasshoppers (Oxya chinensis) are agricultural pests.
Some grasshopper species, like the Chinese rice grasshopper, are a
pest in rice paddies. Ploughing exposes the eggs on the surface of the
field, to be destroyed by sunshine or eaten by natural enemies. Some
eggs may be buried too deeply in the soil for hatching to take
Locust plagues can have devastating effects on human populations,
causing famines and population upheavals. They are mentioned in both
the Koran and the
Bible and have also been held responsible for
cholera epidemics, resulting from the corpses of locusts drowned in
the Mediterranean Sea and decomposing on beaches. The FAO and
other organisations monitor locust activity around the world. Timely
application of pesticides can prevent nomadic bands of hoppers from
forming before dense swarms of adults can build up. Besides
conventional control using contact insecticides, biological pest
control using the entomopathogenic fungus
Metarhizium acridum, which
specifically infects grasshoppers, has been used with some
Egyptian hieroglyphs "snḥm"
The Egyptian word for locust or grasshopper was written snḥm in the
consonantal hieroglyphic writing system. The pharaoh Ramesses II
compared the armies of the
Hittites to locusts: "They covered the
mountains and valleys and were like locusts in their multitude."
One of Aesop's Fables, later retold by La Fontaine, is the tale of The
Ant and the Grasshopper. The ant works hard all summer, while the
grasshopper plays. In winter, the ant is ready but the grasshopper
starves. Somerset Maugham's short story "The
Ant and the Grasshopper"
explores the fable's symbolism via complex framing. Other human
weaknesses besides improvidence have become identified with the
grasshopper's behaviour. So an unfaithful woman (hopping from man
to man) is "a grasshopper" in "Poprygunya", an 1892 short story by
Anton Chekhov, and in Jerry Paris's 1969 film The
A grasshopper beam engine, 1847
In mechanical engineering
The name "Grasshopper" was given to the
Aeronca L-3 and Piper L-4
light aircraft, both used for reconnaissance and other support duties
in World War II. The name is said to have originated when Major
Innis P. Swift
Innis P. Swift saw a Piper making a rough landing and remarked
that it looked like a "damned grasshopper" for its bouncing
Grasshopper beam engines were beam engines pivoted at one end, the
long horizontal arm resembling the hind leg of a grasshopper. The type
was patented by William Freemantle in 1803.
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Caelifera.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Grasshoppers
Wikispecies has information related to Caelifera
Capinera, John L., ed. (2008). Encyclopedia of Entomology (2nd ed.).
Springer. ISBN 978-1-4020-6242-1.
Chapman, R. F.; Simpson, Stephen J.; Douglas, Angela E. (2013). The
Insects: Structure and Function. Cambridge University Press.
Cott, Hugh (1940). Adaptive Coloration in Animals. Oxford University
Pfadt, Robert E. (1994). Field Guide to Common Western Grasshoppers
(2nd ed.). Wyoming Agricultural Experiment Station.
Gryllotalpidae (mole crickets)
Myrmecophilidae (ant crickets)
Rhaphidophoridae (cave, camel and spider crickets; cave wetas)
Schizodactylidae (dune crickets or splay-footed crickets)
Anostostomatidae (wetas, king crickets)
Cooloolidae (Cooloola monster and relatives)
Gryllacrididae (leaf-rolling crickets)
Stenopelmatidae (Jerusalem crickets)
Tettigoniidae (katydids, bush-crickets or long-horned grasshoppers)
Acrididae (grasshoppers, locusts)
Pamphagidae (toad grasshoppers)
Pamphagodidae (synonym Charilaidae)
Romaleidae (lubber grasshoppers)
Eumastacidae (monkey grasshoppers or matchstick grasshoppers)
Pneumoridae (bladder grasshoppers)
Pyrgomorphidae (gaudy grasshoppers)
Tetrigidae (grouse locusts, pygmy locusts or groundhoppers)
Tridactylidae (pygmy mole crickets)
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