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Free Imperial City
In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (German: Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (Freie Reichsstadt, Latin: urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet. An imperial c
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Count
Count (male) or countess (female) is a title in European countries for a noble of varying status, but historically deemed to convey an approximate rank intermediate between the highest and lowest titles of nobility. The word count came into English from the French comte, itself from Latin comes—in its accusative comitem—meaning “companion”, and later “companion of the emperor, delegate of the emperor”. The adjective form of the word is "comital". The British and Irish equivalent is an earl (whose wife is a "countess", for lack of an English term)
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Imperial State
An Imperial State or Imperial Estate (Latin: Status Imperii; German: Reichsstand, plural: Reichsstände) was a part of the Holy Roman Empire with representation and the right to vote in the Imperial Diet (Reichstag). Rulers of these Estates were able to exercise significant rights and privileges and were "immediate", meaning that the only authority above them was the Holy Roman Emperor. They were thus able to rule their territories with a considerable degree of autonomy. The system of imperial states replaces the more regular division of Germany into stem duchies in the early medieval period. The old Carolingian stem duchies were retained as the major divisions of Germany under the Salian dynasty, but they became increasingly obsolete during the early high medieval period under the Hohenstaufen, and they were finally abolished in 1180 by Frederick Barbarossa in favour of more numerous territorial divisions
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Diet (assembly)
In politics, a diet /ˈdət/ is a formal deliberative assembly. The term is mainly used historically for the Imperial Diet, the general assembly of the Imperial Estates of the Holy Roman Empire, and for the legislative bodies of certain countries
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Goslar
Goslar is a historic town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is the administrative centre of the district of Goslar and located on the northwestern slopes of the Harz mountain range
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Hohenstaufen
The Staufer, also known as the House of Staufen, or of Hohenstaufen (German: [ˌhoːənˈʃtaʊfən]), were a dynasty of German kings (1138–1254) during the Middle Ages. Besides Germany, they also ruled the Kingdom of Sicily (1194–1268). In Italian historiography, they are known as the Svevi (Swabians), since they were (successive) dukes of Swabia from 1079
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Mulhouse
1---> French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2---> (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2---> Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
Mulhouse (pronounced [myluz]; Alsatian: Milhüsa or Milhüse, [mɪlˈyːzə]; German: Mülhausen; i.e. mill house) is a city and commune in eastern France, close to the Swiss and German borders. With a population of 112,063 in 2013 and 284,739 inhabitants in the metropolitan area in 2012, it is the largest city in the Haut-Rhin département, and the second largest in the Alsace region after Strasbourg
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Haguenau
1---> French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2---> (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2---> Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
Hops hall, Hagenau
Haguenau (French: Haguenau, pronounced [aɡəno]; Alsatian: Hàwenau [ˈhaːvənaʊ] or Hàjenöi; German: Hagenau and historically in English: Hagenaw) is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department of France, of which it is a sub-prefecture. It is second in size in the Bas-Rhin only to Strasbourg, some 30 km (19 mi) to the south
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Colmar
1---> French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2---> (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2---> Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Colmar (French: Colmar, pronounced [kɔlmaʁ]; Alsatian: Colmer [ˈkolməʁ]; German during 1871–1918 and 1940–1945: Kolmar) is the third-largest commune of the Alsace region in north-eastern France. It is the seat of the prefecture of the Haut-Rhin department and the arrondissement of Colmar-Ribeauvillé. The town is situated on the Alsatian Wine Route and considers itself to be the "capital of Alsatian wine" (capitale des vins d'Alsace)
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Vogt
A Vogt (German: [ foːkt], from the Old High German, also Voigt or Fauth; plural Vögte; Dutch (land-) voogd; Danish foged; Norwegian fogd; Swedish fogde; Polish: wójt; Finnish vouti; Romanian voit; ultimately from Latin [ad]vocatus) in the Holy Roman Empire was a title of a reeve or advocate, an overlord (mostly of nobility) exerting guardianship or military protection as well as secular justice (Blutgericht) over a certain territory (Landgericht). The territory or area of responsibility of a Vogt is called a Vogtei (from [ad]vocatia)
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Graf
Graf (male) or Gräfin (female) is a historical title of the German nobility, usually translated as "count"
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Alsace
Alsace (/ælˈsæs, -ˈss, ˈælsæs, -ss/, French: [alzas] (About this sound listen); Alsatian: ’s Elsass [ˈɛlsɑs]; German: Elsass [ˈɛlzas] (About this sound listen); Latin: Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France now located in the administrative region of Grand Est. Alsace is located on France's eastern border and on the west bank of the upper Rhine adjacent to Germany and Switzerland. From 1982 until January 2016, Alsace was also the smallest (but not the least populated) of 22 administrative régions in metropolitan France, consisting of the Bas-Rhin and Haut-Rhin departments
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Margrave
Margrave was originally the medieval title for the military commander assigned to maintain the defense of one of the border provinces of the Holy Roman Empire or of a kingdom. That position became hereditary in certain feudal families in the Empire, and the title came to be borne by rulers of some Imperial principalities until the abolition of the Empire in 1806 (e.g., Margrave of Brandenburg, Margrave of Baden)
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Duke
A duke (male) (British English: /djk/ or American English: /dk/) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of the nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch. The title comes from French duc, itself from the Latin dux, 'leader', a term used in republican Rome to refer to a military commander without an official rank (particularly one of Germanic or Celtic origin), and later coming to mean the leading military commander of a province. The title dux survived in the Eastern Roman Empire where it was used in several contexts signifying a rank equivalent to a captain or general. Later on, in the 11th century, the title Megas Doux was introduced for the post of commander-in-chief of the entire navy. During the Middle Ages the title (as Herzog) signified first among the Germanic monarchies
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