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[myluz]; Alsatian: Milhüsa or Milhüse, [mɪlˈyːzə]; German: Mülhausen; meaning mill house) is a subprefecture of the Haut-Rhindepartment in the Grand Estregion of Eastern France, close to the Swiss and German borders. With a population of 109,443 in 2017 in the commune[2] and 285,121 inhabitants in 2016 in the urban area,[3] it is the largest city in Haut-Rhin and second largest in Alsace after Strasbourg. Mulhouse is the principal commune of the 39 communes which make up the communauté d'agglomération of Mulhouse Alsace Agglomération (m2A, population 272,712).[4][5]

Mulhouse is famous for its museums, especially the Cité de l'Automobile (also known as the Musée national de l’automobile, 'National Museum of the Automobile') and the Cité du Train (also known as Musée Français du Chemin de Fer, 'French Museum of the Railway'), respectively the largest automobile and railway museums in the world. An industrial town nicknamed "the French Manchester",[6] Mulhouse is also the main seat of the Upper Alsace University, where the secretariat of the European Physical Society is found.

Administration

Mulhouse is the chief city of an arrondissement of the Haut-Rhin département, of which it is a sub-prefecture.

Mulhouse joining Alsace 100th anniversary medal 1898 by Frédéric Vernon, obverse.
The reverse of this medal.

History

In 58 BC a battle took place west of Mulhouse and opposed the Roman army of Julius Caesar by a coalition of Germans led by Ariovistus. The first written records of the town date from the twelfth century. It was part of the southern Alsatian county of Sundgau in the Holy Roman Empire. From 1354 to 1515, Mulhouse was part of the Décapole, an association of ten Free Imperial Cities in Alsace. The city joined the Swiss Confederation as an associate in 1515 and was therefore not annexed by France in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 like the rest of the Sundgau. An enclave in Alsace, it was a free and independent Calvinist republic, known as Stadtrepublik Mülhausen, associated with the Swiss Confederation until, after a vote by its citizens on 4 January 1798, it became a part of France in the Treaty of Mulhouse signed on 28 January 1798, during the Directory period of the French Revolution.

Starting in the middle of the eighteenth century, the Koechlin family pioneered cotton cloth manufacturing; Mulhouse became one of France's leading textile centers in the nineteenth century. André Koechlin (1789–1875) built machinery and started making railroad equipment in 1842. The firm in 1839 already employed 1,800 people. It was one of the six large French locomotive constructors until the merger with Elsässische Maschinenbau-Gesellschaft Grafenstaden in 1872, when the company became Société Alsacienne de Constructions Mécaniques.[7]

After the Prussian victory in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871), Mulhouse was annexed to the German Empire as part of the territory of Alsace-Lorraine (1871–1918). The city was briefly occupied by French troops on 8 August 1914 at the start of World War I, but they were forced to withdraw two days later in the Battle of Mulhouse. Alsatians who unwisely celebrated the appearance of the French army were left to face German reprisals, with several citizens sentenced to death. After World War I ended in 1918, French troops entered Alsace, and Germany ceded the region to France under the Treaty of Versailles. After the Battle of France in 1940, it was occupied by German forces until its return to French control at the end of World War II in May 1945.

The town's development was stimulated first by the expansion of the textile industry and tanning, and subsequently by chemical and Engineering industries from the mid 18th century. Mulhouse was for a long time called the French Manchester. Consequently, the town has enduring links with Louisiana, from which it imported cotton, and also with the Levant. The town's history also explains why its centre is relatively small.

Geography

Two rivers run through Mulhouse, the Doller and the Ill, both tributaries of the Rhine. Mulhouse is approximately 100 kilometres (62 miles) away from Strasbourg and Zürich; it is 350 km (217 mi) away from Milan and about 340 km (211 mi) from Frankfurt. It lies close enough to Basel, Switzerland and Freiburg, Germany to share the EuroAirPort international airport with these two cities.[8]

Districts

Cité de l'Automobile (also known as the Musée national de l’automobile, 'National Museum of the Automobile') and the Cité du Train (also known as Musée Français du Chemin de Fer, 'French Museum of the Railway'), respectively the largest automobile and railway museums in the world. An industrial town nicknamed "the French Manchester",[6] Mulhouse is also the main seat of the Upper Alsace University, where the secretariat of the European Physical Society is found.

Mulhouse is the chief city of an arrondissement of the Haut-Rhin département, of which it is a sub-prefecture.

Mulhouse joining Alsace 100th anniversary medal 1898 by Frédéric Vernon, obverse.
The reverse of this medal.

History

In 58 BC a battle took place west of Mulhouse and opposed the Roman army of Julius Caesar by a coalition of Germans led by Ariovistus. The first written records of the town date from the twelfth century. It was part of the southern Alsatian county of Sundgau in the Holy Roman Empire. From 1354 to 1515, Mulhouse was part of the Julius Caesar by a coalition of Germans led by Ariovistus. The first written records of the town date from the twelfth century. It was part of the southern Alsatian county of Sundgau in the Holy Roman Empire. From 1354 to 1515, Mulhouse was part of the Décapole, an association of ten Free Imperial Cities in Alsace. The city joined the Swiss Confederation as an associate in 1515 and was therefore not annexed by France in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 like the rest of the Sundgau. An enclave in Alsace, it was a free and independent Calvinist republic, known as Stadtrepublik Mülhausen, associated with the Swiss Confederation until, after a vote by its citizens on 4 January 1798, it became a part of France in the Treaty of Mulhouse signed on 28 January 1798, during the Directory period of the French Revolution.

Starting in the middle of the eighteenth century, the Koechlin family pioneered cotton cloth manufacturing; Mulhouse became one of France's leading textile centers in the nineteenth century. André Koechlin (1789–1875) built machinery and started making railroad equipment in 1842. The firm in 1839 already employed 1,800 people. It was one of the six large French locomotive constructors until the merger with Elsässische Maschinenbau-Gesellschaft Grafenstaden in 1872, when the company became Société Alsacienne de Constructions Mécaniques.[7]

After the Prussian victory in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871), Mulhouse was annexed to the German Empire as part of the territory of Alsace-Lorraine (1871–1918). The city was briefly occupied by French troops on 8 August 1914 at the start of World War I, but they were forced to withdraw two days later in the Battle of Mulhouse. Alsatians who unwisely celebrated the appearance of the French army were left to face German reprisals, with several citizens sentenced to death. After World War I ended in 1918, French troops entered Alsace, and Germany ceded the region to France under the Treaty of Versailles. After the Battle of France in 1940, it was occupied by German forces until its return to French control at the end of World War II in May 1945.

The town's development was stimulated first by the expansion of the textile industry and tanning, and subsequently by chemical and Engineering industries from the mid 18th century. M

Starting in the middle of the eighteenth century, the Koechlin family pioneered cotton cloth manufacturing; Mulhouse became one of France's leading textile centers in the nineteenth century. André Koechlin (1789–1875) built machinery and started making railroad equipment in 1842. The firm in 1839 already employed 1,800 people. It was one of the six large French locomotive constructors until the merger with Elsässische Maschinenbau-Gesellschaft Grafenstaden in 1872, when the company became Société Alsacienne de Constructions Mécaniques.[7]

After the Prussian victory in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871), Mulhouse was annexed to the German Empire as part of the territory of Alsace-Lorraine (1871–1918). The city was briefly occupied by French troops on 8 August 1914 at the start of World War I, but they were forced to withdraw two days later in the Battle of Mulhouse. Alsatians who unwisely celebrated the appearance of the French army were left to face German reprisals, with several citizens sentenced to death. After World War I ended in 1918, French troops entered Alsace, and Germany ceded the region to France under the Treaty of Versailles. After the Battle of France in 1940, it was occupied by German forces until its return to French control at the end of World War II in May 1945.

The town's development was stimulated first by the expansion of the textile industry and tanning, and subsequently by chemical and Engineering industries from the mid 18th century. Mulhouse was for a long time called the French Manchester. Consequently, the town has enduring links with Louisiana, from which it imported cotton, and also with the Levant. The town's history also explains why its centre is relatively small.

Two rivers run through Mulhouse, the Doller and the Ill, both tributaries of the Rhine. Mulhouse is approximately 100 kilometres (62 miles) away from Strasbourg and Zürich; it is 350 km (217 mi) away from Milan and about 340 km (211 mi) from Frankfurt. It lies close enough to Basel, Switzerland and Freiburg, Germany to share the EuroAirPort international airport with these two cities.[8]

Districts

Medieval Mulhouse consists essentially of a lower and an upper town.

Mulhouse

Milhüsa (Alsatian)
Mülhausen  (German)
Mulhouseviews.png
Flag of Mulhouse
Flag
Coat of arms of Mulhouse
Coat of arms
Location of Mulhouse
Mulhouse is located in France
Mulhouse
Mulhouse
Mulhouse is located in Grand Est
Mulhouse
Mulhouse
Climate data for Mulhouse (1981–2010 averages)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.8
(65.8)
21.7
(71.1)
25.7
(78.3)
30.0
(86.0)
32.8
(91.0)
37.0
(98.6)
38.8
(101.8)
39.1
(102.4)
33.7
(92.7)
31.0
(87.8)
23.4
(74.1)
19.9
(67.8)
39.1
(102.4)
Average high °C (°F) 4.9
(40.8)
6.8
(44.2)
11.5
(52.7)
15.5
(59.9)
19.9
(67.8)
23.3
(73.9)
25.9
(78.6)
25.5
(77.9)
21.0
(69.8)
15.8
(60.4)
9.2
(48.6)
5.6
(42.1)
15.4
(59.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.7
(35.1)
2.8
(37.0)
6.8
(44.2)
10.1
(50.2)
14.5
(58.1)
17.8
(64.0)
20.0
(68.0)
19.6
(67.3)
15.7
(60.3)
11.4
(52.5)
5.8
(42.4)
2.7
(36.9)
10.7
(51.3)
Average low °C (°F) −1.5
(29.3)
−1.2
(29.8)
2.0
(35.6)
4.6
(40.3)
9.1
(48.4)
12.2
(54.0)
twinned with:[14]

  • United Kingdom Walsall, England, since 1953
  • Belgiumtemperate oceanic (Köppen: Cfb), but its location further away from the ocean gives the city colder winters with some snow, and often hot and humid summers, in comparison with the rest of France.

    Climate data for Mulhouse (1981–2010 averages)
    Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
    Record high °C (°F) 18.8
    (65.8)
    21.7
    (71.1)
    25.7
    (78.3)
    30.0
    (86.0)
    32.8
    (91.0)
    37.0
    (98.6)
    38.8
    (101.8)
    39.1
    (102.4)
    33.7
    (92.7)
    31.0
    (87.8)
    23.4
    (74.1)
    19.9
    (67.8)
    39.1
    (102.4)
    Average high °C (°F) 4.9
    (40.8)
    6.8
    (44.2)
    11.5
    (52.7)
    15.5
    (59.9)
    19.9
    (67.8)
    23.3
    (73.9)
    25.9
    (78.6)
    25.5
    (77.9)
    21.0
    (69.8)
    15.8
    (60.4)
    9.2
    (48.6)
    5.6
    (42.1)
    15.4
    (59.7)
    Daily mean °C (°F) 1.7
    (35.1)
    2.8
    (37.0)
    6.8
    (44.2)
    10.1
    (50.2)
    14.5
    (58.1)
    17.8
    (64.0)
    20.0
    (68.0)
    19.6
    (67.3)
    15.7
    (60.3)
    11.4
    (52.5)
    5.8
    (42.4)
    2.7
    (36.9)
    10.7
    (51.3)
    Average low °C (°F) −1.5
    (29.3)
    −1.2
    (29.8)
    2.0
    (35.6)
    4.6
    (40.3)
    9.1
    (48.4)
    12.2
    (54.0)
    14.1
    (57.4)
    13.7
    (56.7)
    10.3
    (50.5)
    6.9
    (44.4)
    2.3
    (36.1)
    −0.3
    (31.5)
    6.0
    (42.8)
    Record low °C (°F) −23.2
    (−9.8)
    −22.8
    (−9.0)
    −16.4
    (2.5)
    −6.3
    (20.7)
    −3.1
    (26.4)
    1.8
    (35.2)
    5.1
    (41.2)
    3.4
    (38.1)
    −0.9
    (30.4)