Early historyThere are traces of a settlement at the nearby Rhine knee from the early La Tène period (5th century BC). In the 2nd century BC, there was a village of the Raurici at the site of ''Basel-Gasfabrik''(to the northwest of the Old City, and likely identical with the town of ''Arialbinnum'' that was mentioned on the '' ''). The unfortified settlement was abandoned in the 1st century BC in favour of an '' '' on the site of , probably in reaction to the Roman invasion of Gaul. In , was established some from Basel as the regional administrative centre, while a '' '' (fortified camp) was built on the site of the Celtic ''oppidum''. In AD 83, the area was incorporated into the of . Roman control over the area deteriorated in the 3rd century, and Basel became an outpost of the '' Provincia Maxima Sequanorum'' formed by . '' Basilia'' is first named as part of the Roman military fortifications along the Rhine in the late 4th century. The Germanic confederation of the attempted to cross the Rhine several times in the 4th century, but were repelled; one such event was the (368). However, in the great invasion of AD 406, the Alemanni appear to have crossed the Rhine river a final time, conquering and then settling what is today and a large part of the . The Duchy of Alemannia fell under rule in the 6th century. The Alemannic and settlement of Basel gradually grew around the old Roman castle in the 6th and 7th century. It appears that Basel surpassed the ancient regional capital of by the 7th century, Based on the evidence of a gold '' '' (a small gold coin with the value of a third of a '' '') with the inscription ''Basilia fit'', Basel seems to have minted its own coins in the 7th century. Basel at this time was part of the Archdiocese of Besançon. A separate bishopric of Basel, replacing the ancient bishopric of , was established in the 8th century. Under bishop (r. 806–823), the first cathedral was built on the site of the Roman castle (replaced by a Romanesque structure consecrated in 1019). At the partition of the , Basel was first given to , but it passed to with the of 870. Basel was destroyed by the in 917. The rebuilt town became part of , and as such was incorporated into the in 1032.
Prince-Bishopric of BaselFrom the donation by of the and all its possessions to Bishop in 999 until the , Basel was ruled by s. In 1019, the construction of the (known locally as the ''Münster'') began under . In the 11th to 12th century, Basel gradually acquired the characteristics of a medieval . The main market place is first mentioned in 1091. The first city walls were constructed around 1100 (with improvements made in the mid-13th and in the late 14th century). A city council of nobles and burghers is recorded for 1185, and the first , Heinrich Steinlin of Murbach, for 1253. The first bridge across the Rhine was built in 1225 under bishop Heinrich von Thun (at the location of the modern Middle Bridge), and from this time the settlement of ''Kleinbasel'' gradually formed around the bridgehead on the far river bank. The bridge was largely funded by Basel's Jewish community who had settled there a century earlier.Habicht, Peter, ''Basel – A Center at the Fringe '' (Basel: Christoph Merian Verlag, 2006) pp. 43, 55, 70, 79. For many centuries to come Basel possessed the only permanent bridge over the river "between and the sea". The first city were the furriers, established in 1226. A total of about fifteen guilds were established in the course of the 13th century, reflecting the increasing economic prosperity of the city. The Crusade of 1267 set out from Basel. Political conflicts between the bishops and the burghers begin in the mid-13th century and continue throughout the 14th century. By the late 14th century, the city was for all practical purposes independent although it continued to nominally pledge fealty to the bishops. The attempted to gain control over the city. This was not successful, but it caused a political split among the burghers of Basel into a pro-Habsburg faction, known as ''Sterner'', and an anti-Habsburg faction, the ''Psitticher''. The reached Basel in 1348. The Jews were blamed, and an estimated 50 to 70 Jews were executed by burning on 16 January 1349 in what has become known as the . The Basel earthquake of 1356 destroyed much of the city along with a number of castles in the vicinity. A riot on 26 February 1376, known as ''Böse Fasnacht'', led to the killing of a number of men of . This was seen as a serious , and the city council blamed "foreign ruffians" for this and executed twelve alleged perpetrators. Leopold nevertheless had the city placed under imperial ban, and in a treaty of 9 July, Basel was given a heavy fine and was placed under Habsburg control. To free itself from Habsburg hegemony, Basel joined the in 1385, and many knights of the pro-Habsburg faction, along with duke Leopold himself, were killed in the the following year. A formal treaty with Habsburg was made in 1393. Basel had gained its de facto independence from both the bishop and from the Habsburgs and was free to pursue its own policy of territorial expansion, beginning around 1400. The unique representation of a bishops' crozier as the heraldic charge in the coat of arms of Basel first appears in the form of a gilded wooden staff in the 12th century. It is of unknown origin or significance (beyond its obvious status of bishop's crozier), but it is assumed to have represented a relic, possibly attributed to Germanus of Granfelden, Saint Germanus of Granfelden. This staff (known as ''Baselstab'') became a symbol representing the Basel diocese, depicted in bishops' seals of the late medieval period. It is represented in a heraldic context in the early 14th century, not yet as a heraldic charge but as a kind of heraldic achievement flanked by the heraldic shields of the bishop. The staff is also represented in the bishops's seals of the period. The use of the ''Baselstab'' in black as the coat of arms of the city was introduced in 1385. From this time, the ''Baselstab'' in red represented the bishop, and the same charge in black represented the city. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is ''In Silber ein schwarzer Baselstab'' (Argent, a staff of Basel sable). In 1412 (or earlier), the well-known Gasthof zum Goldenen Sternen was established. Basel became the focal point of western Christendom during the 15th century Council of Basel (1431–1449), including the 1439 election of antipope Felix V. In 1459, Pope Pius II endowed the , where such notables as and Paracelsus later taught. At the same time the new craft of printing press, printing was Global spread of the printing press##Switzerland, introduced to Basel by apprentices of Johann Gutenberg. The Schwabe publishing house was founded in 1488 by Johannes Petri and is the oldest publishing house still in business. Johann Froben also operated his printing house in Basel and was notable for publishing works by Erasmus. In 1495, Basel was incorporated into the Upper Rhenish Circle, Upper Rhenish Imperial Circle; the Bishop of Basel was added to the Bench of the Ecclesiastical Princes of the Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), Imperial Diet. In 1500 the construction of the Basel Münster was finished. In 1521 so was the bishop. The council, under the supremacy of the guilds, explained that henceforth they would only give allegiance to the Swiss Confederation, to whom the bishop appealed but in vain.
As a member state in the Swiss ConfederacyThe city had remained neutral through the Swabian War of 1499 despite being plundered by soldiers on both sides. The Treaty of Basel (1499), Treaty of Basel ended the war and granted the Swiss confederates exemptions from the emperor Maximillian's taxes and jurisdictions, separating Switzerland ''de facto'' from the Holy Roman Empire.Rappard, William, '' Collective Security in Swiss Experience 1291–1948'' (London, 1948) p. 85 ff On 9 June 1501, Basel joined the Swiss Confederation as its Canton of Basel, eleventh canton. It was the only canton that was asked to join, not the other way round. Basel had a strategic location, good relations with Strasbourg and Mulhouse, and control of the corn imports from Alsace, whereas the Swiss lands were becoming overpopulated and had few resources. A provision of the Charter accepting Basel required that in conflicts among the other cantons it was to stay neutral and offer its services for mediation.Habicht, Peter, ''Basel – A Center at the Fringe'' (Basel 2006) p. 65 ffBonjour, Edgar ''et al.'' ''A short History of Switzerland'' (Oxford, 1952) p. 139 ff In 1503, the new bishop Christoph von Utenheim refused to give Basel a new constitution; whereupon, to show its power, the city began to build a new city hall. In 1529, the city became Protestant under Johannes Oecolampadius, Oecolampadius and the bishop's seat was moved to Porrentruy. The bishop's crook was however retained as the city's coat of arms. For centuries to come, a handful of wealthy families collectively referred to as the Daig (Switzerland), "Daig" played a pivotal role in city affairs as they gradually established themselves as a ''de facto'' Aristocracy, city aristocracy. The first edition of ''Christianae religionis institutio'' (''Institutes of the Christian Religion'' – John Calvin's great exposition of Calvinism, Calvinist doctrine) was published at Basel in March 1536. In 1544, Johann von Brugge, a rich Dutch Protestant refugee, was given citizenship and lived respectably until his death in 1556, then buried with honors. His body was exhumed and burnt at the stake in 1559 after it was discovered that he was the Anabaptist David Joris. In 1543, ''De humani corporis fabrica'', the first book on human anatomy, was published and printed in Basel by Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564). There are indications Joachim Meyer, author of the influential 16th-century martial arts text ''Kunst des Fechten'' ("The Art of Fencing"), came from Basel. In 1662 the ''Amerbaschsches Kabinett'' was established in Basel as the first public museum of art. Its collection became the core of the later Basel Museum of Art. The Bernoulli family, which included important 17th- and 18th-century mathematicians such as Jakob Bernoulli, Johann Bernoulli and Daniel Bernoulli, were from Basel. The 18th-century mathematician Leonhard Euler was born in Basel and studied under Johann Bernoulli.
Modern historyIn 1792, the Rauracian Republic, Republic of Rauracia, a revolutionary French client republic, was created. It lasted until 1793. After three years of political agitation and a short civil war in 1833 the disadvantaged countryside seceded from the Canton of Basel, forming the half canton of Basel-Landschaft. On 3 July 1874, Switzerland's first zoo, the Zoo Basel, opened its doors in the south of the city towards . In 1897 the first was held in Basel. Altogether the World Zionist Congress was held in Basel ten times, more than in any other city in the world. On 16 November 1938, the psychedelic drug LSD was first synthesized by Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann at Sandoz Laboratories in Basel. In 1967, the population of Basel voted in favor of buying three works of art by painter Pablo Picasso which were at risk of being be sold and taken out of the local museum of art, due to a financial crisis on the part of the owner's family. Therefore, Basel became the first city in the world where the population of a political community democratically decided to acquire works of art for a public institution. Pablo Picasso was so moved by the gesture that he subsequently gifted the city with an additional three paintings.
Basel as a historical, international meeting placeBasel has often been the site of peace negotiations and other international meetings. The Treaty of Basel (1499) ended the Swabian War. Two years later Basel joined the Switzerland, Swiss Confederation. The Peace of Basel in 1795 between the French First Republic, French Republic and Prussia and Spain ended the First Coalition against France during the French Revolutionary Wars. In more recent times, the World Zionist Organization held its first congress in Basel from 29 August through 31 August 1897. Because of the Balkan Wars, the (Socialist) Second International held an extraordinary congress at Basel in 1912. In 1989, the Basel Convention was opened for signature with the aim of preventing the export of hazardous waste from wealthy to developing country, developing nations for disposal.
NameThe name of Basel is first recorded as ''Basilia'' in the 3rd century (237/8), at the time referring to the Basel oppidum, Roman castle. This name is mostly interpreted as deriving from the personal name ''Basilius'', from a toponym ''villa Basilia'' ("Roman villa, estate of Basilius") or similar. Another suggestion derives it from a name ''Basilia'' attested in northern France as a development of ''basilica'', the term for a public or church building (as in Bazeilles), but all of these names reference early church buildings of the 4th or 5th century and cannot be adduced for the 3rd-century attestation of ''Basilia''.''Basileam applicuerunt'' (AD 237 or 238). Andres Kristol: ''Basel BS (Basel Stadt)'' in: ''Dictionnaire toponymique des communes suisses – Lexikon der schweizerischen Gemeindenamen – Dizionario toponomastico dei comuni svizzeri (DTS, LSG).'' Centre de dialectologie, Université de Neuchâtel, Verlag Huber, Frauenfeld/Stuttgart/Wien 2005, und Éditions Payot, Lausanne 2005, , S. 125. By popular etymology, or simple assonance, the basilisk becomes closely associated with the city, used as heraldic supporter from 1448, represented on coins minted by the city, and frequently found in ornaments. The Middle French form ''Basle'' was adopted into English. French ''Basle'' was still in use in the 18th century, but was gradually replaced by the modern French spelling ''Bâle''. In English usage, the French spelling ''Basle'' continues to be used alongside the German spelling ''Basel''. In Icelandic, the city is recorded as ''Buslaraborg'' in the 12th-century itinerary ''Leiðarvísir og borgarskipan''.
Geography and climate
LocationLocated where the Swiss, French and German borders meet, Basel also has suburbs in France and Germany. , the Swiss Basel agglomeration was the third-largest in Switzerland, with a population of 541,000 in 74 municipalities in Switzerland (municipal count as of 2018). The initiative ''Trinational Eurodistrict Basel (TEB)'' of 62 suburban communes including municipalities in neighboring countries, counted 829,000 inhabitants in 2007. Basel is the most densely populated city in Switzerland.
TopographyBasel has an area, , of . Of this area, or 4.0% is used for agricultural purposes, while or 3.7% is forested. Of the rest of the land, or 86.4% is settled (buildings or roads), or 6.1% is either rivers or lakes.Swiss Federal Statistical Office-Land Use Statistics
ClimateUnder the Köppen climate classification, Köppen system, Basel features a continental-influenced oceanic climate (Köppen: ''Cfb''), due to its relatively far inland position. The city averages 120.4 days of rain or snow annually and on average receives of Precipitation (meteorology), precipitation. The wettest month is May during which time Basel receives an average of of rain. The month with the most days of precipitation is also May, with an average of 12.4 days. The driest month of the year is February with an average of of precipitation over 8.4 days.
PoliticsThe city of Basel functions as the capital of the Cantons of Switzerland, Swiss half-canton of Basel-Stadt.
CantonThe canton Basel-Stadt consists of three municipalities: , Bettingen, and the city Basel itself. The political structure and agencies of the city and the canton are identical.
QuartersThe city itself has 19 quarters: * ''Grossbasel'' (Greater Basel): :1 Altstadt Grossbasel :2 Vorstädte :3 Am Ring :4 Breite :5 St. Alban :6 Gundeldingen :7 Bruderholz :8 Bachletten :9 Gotthelf :10 Iselin :11 St. Johann * ''Kleinbasel'' (Lesser Basel): :12 Altstadt Kleinbasel :13 Clara :14 Wettstein :15 Hirzbrunnen :16 Rosental :17 Matthäus :18 Klybeck :19 Kleinhüningen
GovernmentThe canton's executive, the Executive Council (''Regierungsrat''), consists of seven members for a mandate period of 4 years. They are elected by any inhabitant valid to vote on the same day as the parliament, but by means of a system of Majorz, and operates as a collegiate authority. The president (german: link=no, Regierungspräsident(in)) is elected as such by a public election, while the heads of the other departments are appointed by the collegiate. The current president is Dr Guy Morin. The executive body holds its meetings in the red Basel Town Hall, Town Hall (german: link=no, Rathaus) on the central ''Marktplatz''. The building was built in 1504–14. , Basel's Executive Council is made up of three representatives of the SP (Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Social Democratic Party), and one member each of Green Party of Switzerland, Green Alliance of Basel (GB) (who is the president), FDP (Free Democratic Party of Switzerland, Free Democratic Party), LDP (Liberal-Demokratische Partei of Basel), and CVP (Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland, Christian Democratic Party), giving the left parties a combined four out of seven seats. The last election was held on 23 October and 27 November 2016. Barbara Schüpbach-Guggenbühlis is State Chronicler (''Staatsschreiberin'') since 2009, and Marco Greiner is Head of Communication (''Regierungssprecher'') and Vice State Chronicler (''Vizestaatsschreiber'') since 2007 for the Executive Council.
ParliamentThe parliament, the Grand Council of Basel-Stadt (Grosser Rat), consists of 100 seats, with members (called in German: ''Grossrat/Grossrätin'') elected every 4 years. The sessions of the Grand Council are public. Unlike the members of the Executive Council, the members of the Grand Council are not politicians by profession, but they are paid a fee based on their attendance. Any resident of Basel allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the parliament. The delegates are elected by means of a system of Proportional representation, Proporz, and political parties must have surpassed an ''election quorum'' of 4% per election district to enter the council, but this will end with the next election in 2020. The legislative body holds its meetings in the red Town Hall (''Rathaus''). The last election was held on 23 October 2016 for the mandate period (''Legislatur'') of 2017–2021. , the Grand Council consist of 35 members of the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Social Democratic Party (SP), 15 members of the Swiss People's Party (SVP), 13 ''Grünes Bündnis (GB)'' (a collaboration of the Green Party of Switzerland, Green Party (GPS), its junior party, and Basels starke Alternative (BastA!)), 15 Liberal-Demokratische Partei of Basel, Liberal-Demokratische Partei (LDP) and its junior party, 10 FDP.The Liberals, The Liberals (FDP) and its junior party, the representative of the ''Aktive Bettingen (AB)'' is associated to the parliamentary group (''Fraktion'') of the FDP, 8 (7/1) Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland, Christian Democratic People's Party (CVP)/Evangelical People's Party of Switzerland, Evangelical People's Party (EVP), and 3 Green Liberal Party of Switzerland, Green Liberal Party (GLP). The left parties missed an absolute majority by two seats.
National CouncilIn the 2019 Swiss federal election, 2019 federal election the most popular party was the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Social Democratic Party (SP) which received two seats with 34% (−1) of the votes. The next five most popular parties were the Green Party of Switzerland, Green Party (GPS) (19.4%, +7.3), the Liberal Party of Switzerland, LPS (14.5%, +3.6) and the FDP.The Liberals, FDP (5.8, −3.5), which are chained together at 20.3%, (+0.1), the Swiss People's Party, SVP (11.3%, ), and the Green Liberal Party of Switzerland, Green Liberal Party (GLP) (5%, +0.6), Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland, CVP (4.1%, -1.9). In the federal election, a total of 44,628 votes were cast, and the voter turnout was 49.4%. On 18 October 2015, in the 2015 Swiss federal election, federal election the most popular party was the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Social Democratic Party (SP) which received two seats with 35% of the votes. The next three most popular parties were the FDP.The Liberals, FDP (20.2%), the Swiss People's Party, SVP (16.8%), and the Green Party of Switzerland, Green Party (GPS) (12.2%), each with one seat. In the federal election, a total of 57,304 votes were cast, and the voter turnout was 50.4%.
Council of StatesOn 20 October 2019, in the 2019 Swiss federal election, federal election Eva Herzog, member of the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Social Democratic Party (SP), was elected for the first time as a State Councillor () in the first round as single representative of the canton of Basel-Town and successor of Anita Fetz in the national Council of States (Switzerland), Council of States () with an absolute majority of 37'210 votes. On 18 October 2015, in the 2015 Swiss federal election, federal election State Councillor (german: link=no, Ständerätin) Anita Fetz, member of the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Social Democratic Party (SP), was re-elected in the first round as single representative of the canton of Basel-Town in the national Council of States (Switzerland), Council of States () with an absolute majority of 35'842 votes. She has been a member of it since 2003.
Twin towns and sister citiesBasel has two Twin towns and sister cities, sister cities and a twinning among two states: * Shanghai, China, since 2007 * US State Massachusetts, since 2002 *
Partner cities* Rotterdam, Netherlands, since 1945
PopulationBasel has a population () of . , 35.5% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years (1999–2009 ) the population has changed at a rate of −0.3%. It has changed at a rate of 3.2% due to migration and at a rate of −3% due to births and deaths.Swiss Federal Statistical Office
LanguageMost of the population () speaks German (129,592 or 77.8%), with Italian being second most common (9,049 or 5.4%) and French being third (4,280 or 2.6%). There are 202 persons who speak Romansh language, Romansh.
ReligionFrom the , 41,916 or 25.2% were Roman Catholic, while 39,180 or 23.5% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there were 4,567 members of an Orthodoxy#Christianity, Orthodox church (or about 2.74% of the population), there were 459 individuals (or about 0.28% of the population) who belonged to the Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland, Christian Catholic Church, and there were 3,464 individuals (or about 2.08% of the population) who belonged to another Christian church. There were 12,368 individuals (or about 7.43% of the population) who were Muslim. There were 1,325 individuals (or about 0.80% of the population) who were Jewish, however only members of religious institutions are counted as such by the municipality, which makes the actual number of people of Jewish descent living in Basel considerably higher. There were 746 individuals who were Buddhism, Buddhist, 947 individuals who were Hinduism, Hindu and 485 individuals who belonged to another church. 52,321 (or about 31.41% of the population) belonged to no church, are agnostic or Atheism, atheist, and 8,780 individuals (or about 5.27% of the population) did not answer the question.
QuartersBasel is subdivided into 19 quarters (''Quartiere''). The municipalities of and Bettingen, outside the city limits of Basel, are included in the canton of Basel-Stadt as rural quarters (''Landquartiere'').
TransportBasel's airport is set up for airfreight; heavy goods reach the city and the heart of continental Europe from North Sea, the North Sea by ship along the Rhine. The main European routes for the highway and railway transport of freight cross in Basel. The outstanding location benefits logistics corporations, which operate globally from Basel. Trading firms are traditionally well represented in the Basel Region.
PortBasel has Switzerland's only cargo port, through which goods pass along the navigable stretches of the Rhine and connect to ocean-going ships at the port of Rotterdam.
Air transportEuroAirport Basel Mulhouse Freiburg is operated jointly by two countries, France and Switzerland, although the airport is located completely on French soil. The airport itself is split into two architecturally independent sectors, one half serving the French side and the other half serving the Swiss side; prior to Schengen Agreement, Schengen there was an immigration inspection point at the middle of the airport so that people could "emigrate" to the other side of the airport.
RailwaysBasel has long held an important place as a rail hub. Three railway stations—those of the German, French and Swiss networks—lie within the city (although the Swiss (Basel SBB railway station, Basel SBB) and French (Basel SBB railway station, Bâle SNCF) stations are actually in the same complex, separated by Customs and Immigration facilities). Basel Badischer Bahnhof is on the opposite side of the city. Basel's local rail services are supplied by the Basel Regional S-Bahn. The largest goods railway complex of the country is located just outside the city, spanning the municipalities of Muttenz and Pratteln. The new highspeed ICE railway line from Karlsruhe to Basel was completed in 2008 while phase I of the LGV Rhin-Rhône, TGV Rhin-Rhône line, opened in December 2011, has reduced travel time from Basel to Paris to about 3 hours.
RoadsBasel is located on the A3 motorway (Switzerland), A3 motorway. Within the city limits, five bridges connect Greater and Lesser Basel (downstream): * Schwarzwaldbrücke (built 1972) * Wettsteinbrücke (current structure built 1998, original bridge built 1879) * Mittlere Rheinbrücke (current structure built 1905, original bridge built 1225 as the first bridge to cross the Rhine River) * Johanniterbrücke (built 1967) * Dreirosenbrücke (built 2004, original bridge built 1935)
FerriesA somewhat anachronistic yet still widely used system of reaction ferry boats links the two shores. There are four ferries, each situated approximately midway between two bridges. Each is attached by a cable to a block that rides along another cable spanning the river at a height of . To cross the river, the ferryman orients the boat around 45° from the current so that the current pushes the boat across the river. This form of transportation is therefore completely hydraulically driven, requiring no outside energy source
Public transportBasel has an extensive public transportation network serving the city and connecting to surrounding suburbs, including a large Basel Trams, tram network. The green-colored local light rail, trams and buses are operated by the Basler Verkehrs-Betriebe (BVB). The yellow-colored buses and trams are operated by the Baselland Transport (BLT), and connect areas in the nearby half-canton of Baselland to central Basel. The BVB also shares commuter bus lines in cooperation with transit authorities in the neighboring Alsace region in France and Baden region in Germany. The Basel Regional S-Bahn, the commuter rail network connecting to suburbs surrounding the city, is jointly operated by Schweizerische Bundesbahnen, SBB, SNCF and Deutsche Bahn, DB.
Border crossingsBasel is located at the meeting point of France, Germany and Switzerland; because it is so near other countries and is beyond the Jura Mountains, many within the Swiss military reportedly believe that the city is indefensible during wartime. It has numerous road and rail crossings between Switzerland and the other two countries. With Switzerland joining the Schengen Area on 12 December 2008, immigration checks were no longer carried out at the crossings. However, Switzerland did not join the European Union Customs Union (though it did join the EU Single Market) and customs checks are still conducted at or near the crossings. France-Switzerland (from east to west) * Road crossings (with French road name continuation) ** Kohlenstrasse (Avenue de Bâle, Huningue). This crossing replaces the former crossing Hüningerstrasse further east. ** Elsässerstrasse (Avenue de Bâle, Saint-Louis) ** Autobahn A3 (A35 autoroute, Saint-Louis) ** EuroAirport Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg – pedestrian walkway between the French and Swiss sections on Level 3 (departures) of airport. ** Burgfelderstrasse (Rue du 1er Mars, Saint Louis) * Railway crossing ** Basel SBB railway station Germany-Switzerland (clockwise, from north to south) * Road crossings (with German road name continuation) ** Hiltalingerstrasse (Zollstraße, ). Tram 8 goes along this road to Weil am Rhein. The extension opened in 2014; it used to end before the border. ** Autobahn A2 (Bundesautobahn 5, Autobahn A5, ) ** Freiburgerstrasse (Baslerstraße, ) ** Weilstrasse, (Haupstraße, ) ** Lörracherstrasse, (Baslerstraße, Stetten, Lörrach) ** Inzlingerstrasse, (Riehenstraße, Inzlingen) ** Grenzacherstrasse (Hörnle, Grenzach-Wyhlen) * Railway crossing ** Between Basel SBB and Basel Badischer Bahnhof – Basel Badischer Bahnhof, and all other railway property and stations on the right bank of the Rhine belong to Deutsche Bundesbahn, DB and are classed as German customs territory. Immigration and customs checks are conducted at the platform exit tunnel for passengers leaving trains here. Additionally there are many footpaths and cycle tracks crossing the border between Basel and Germany.
HealthAs the biggest town in the Northwest of Switzerland numerous public and private health centres are located in Basel. Among others the University Hospital of Basel, Universitätsspital Basel and the Universitätskinderspital Basel. The Anthroposophy, anthroposophical health institute Klinik-Arlesheim (formerly known as Lukas-Klinik and Ita-Wegman-Klinik) are both located in the Basel area as well. Private health centres include the Bethesda Spital and the Merian Iselin Klinik. Additionally the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute is located in Basel too.
EnergyBasel is at the forefront of a national vision to more than halve energy use in Switzerland by 2050. To research, develop and commercialise the technologies and techniques required for the country to become a 2000-watt society, 2000 Watt society, a number of projects have been set up since 2001 in the Basel metropolitan area. These include demonstration buildings constructed to Minergie or ''Passive house, Passivhaus'' standards, electricity generation from renewable energy sources, and vehicles using natural gas, hydrogen economy, hydrogen and biogas. A building construction law was passed in 2002 also which stated that all new flat roofs must be greened leading to Basel becoming the world's leading green roof city. This was driven by an energy saving programme. A Enhanced geothermal systems, hot dry rock geothermal energy project was cancelled in 2009 since it caused induced seismicity in Basel.
EconomyThe city of Basel, located in the north west of Switzerland, is one of the most dynamic economic regions of Switzerland. , Basel had an unemployment rate of 3.7%. , 19.3% of the working population was employed in the Secondary sector of the economy, secondary sector and 80.6% was employed in the Tertiary sector of the economy, tertiary sector. There were 82,449 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which women made up 46.2% of the workforce. the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 130,988. The number of jobs in the primary sector was 13, of which 10 were in agriculture and 4 were in forestry or lumber production. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 33,171 of which 24,848 or (74.9%) were in manufacturing, 10 were in mining and 7,313 (22.0%) were in construction. The number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 97,804. In the tertiary sector; 12,880 or 13.2% were in wholesale or retail sales or the repair of motor vehicles, 11,959 or 12.2% were in the movement and storage of goods, 6,120 or 6.3% were in a hotel or restaurant, 4,186 or 4.3% were in the information industry, 10,752 or 11.0% were the insurance or financial industry, 13,695 or 14.0% were technical professionals or scientists, 6,983 or 7.1% were in education and 16,060 or 16.4% were in health care. , there were 121,842 workers who commuted into the municipality and 19,263 workers who commuted away. The municipality is a net importer of workers, with about 6.3 workers entering the municipality for every one leaving. About 23.9% of the workforce coming into Basel are coming from outside Switzerland, while 1.0% of the locals commute out of Switzerland for work.Swiss Federal Statistical Office – Statweb
Chemical industryThe Swiss chemical industry operates largely from Basel, and Basel also has a large Pharmaceutical industry in Switzerland, pharmaceutical industry. Novartis,Chen, Aric.
BankingBanking is important to Basel: * UBS AG maintains central offices in Basel. * The is located within the city and is the central banker's bank. The bank is controlled by a board of directors, which is composed of the elite central bankers of 11 different countries (US, UK, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Switzerland, the Netherlands and Sweden). :According to the BIS, "The choice of Switzerland for the seat of the BIS was a compromise by those countries that established the BIS: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. When consensus could not be reached on locating the Bank in London, Brussels or Amsterdam, the choice fell on Switzerland. An independent, neutral country, Switzerland offered the BIS less exposure to undue influence from any of the major powers. Within Switzerland, Basel was chosen largely because of its location, with excellent railway connections in all directions, especially important at a time when most international travel was by train." :Created in May 1930, the BIS is owned by its member central banks, which are private entities. No agent of the Swiss public authorities may enter the premises without the express consent of the bank. The bank exercises supervision and police power over its premises. The bank enjoys immunity from criminal and administrative jurisdiction, as well as setting recommendations which become standard for the world's commercial banking system. * Basel is also the location of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, which is distinct from the BIS. It usually meets at the BIS premises in Basel. Responsible for the Basel Accords (Basel I, Basel II Accord, Basel II and Basel III), this organization fundamentally changed Risk management within its industry. * Basel also hosts the headquarters of the Global Infrastructure Basel Foundation, which is active in the field of sustainable infrastructure (financing).
AirSwiss International Air Lines, the national airline of Switzerland, is headquartered on the grounds of EuroAirport Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg in Saint-Louis, Haut-Rhin, France, near Basel. Prior to the formation of Swiss International Air Lines, the regional airline Crossair was headquartered near Basel.
Media''Basler Zeitung'' ("BaZ") and ''bz Basel'' are the local newspapers. The local TV station is called ''Telebasel''. The German-speaking Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen, Swiss Radio and Television SRF company, part of the Swiss Broadcasting Corporation SRG SSR, holds offices in Basel as well. The academic publishers Birkhäuser, Karger Publishers, Karger and MDPI are based in Basel.
Trade fairsImportant trade shows include , the world's most important fair for modern and contemporary art, Baselworld (watches and jewelry), Swissbau (construction and real estate) and Igeho (hotels, catering, take-away, care). The Mustermesse Basel, Swiss Sample Fair ("Schweizer Mustermesse") was the largest and oldest consumer fair in Switzerland. It was held from 2007 to 2019 and took place in Kleinbasel on the right bank of the Rhine.
EducationBesides Humanism the city of Basel has also been well known for its achievements in the field of mathematics. Among others, the mathematician Leonhard Euler and the Bernoulli family have done research and been teaching at the local institutions for centuries. In 1910 the Swiss Mathematical Society was founded in the city and in the mid-twentieth century the Russian mathematician Alexander Ostrowski taught at the local university. In 2000 about 57,864 or (34.7%) of the population have completed non-mandatory Education in Switzerland#Secondary, upper secondary education, and 27,603 or (16.6%) have completed additional higher education (either List of universities in Switzerland, university or a ''Fachhochschule''). Of the 27,603 who completed tertiary schooling, 44.4% were Swiss men, 31.1% were Swiss women, 13.9% were non-Swiss men and 10.6% were non-Swiss women. In 2010 11,912 students attended the , there were 5,820 students in Basel who came from another municipality, while 1,116 residents attended schools outside the municipality.
UniversitiesBasel hosts Switzerland's oldest university, the , dating from 1460. Desiderius Erasmus, Erasmus, Paracelsus, Daniel Bernoulli, Leonhard Euler, Jacob Burckhardt, , Tadeusz Reichstein, , Carl Jung, Carl Gustav Jung and Karl Barth worked there. The University of Basel is currently counted among the 90 best educational institutions worldwide. In 2007, the ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich) established the Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering (D-BSSE) in Basel. The creation of the D-BSSE was driven by a Swiss-wide research initiative SystemsX, and was jointly supported by funding from the ETH Zürich, the Swiss Government, the Swiss University Conference (SUC) and private industry. Basel also hosts several academies of the ''Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz, Fachhochschule NW (FHNW)'': the FHNW Academy of Art and Design, FHNW Academy of Music, and the FHNW School of Business. Basel is renowned for various scientific societies, such as the Entomological Society of Basel (Entomologische Gesellschaft Basel, EGB), which celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2005.
VolksschuleIn 2005 16,939 pupils and students visited the ''Volksschule'' (the obligatory school time, including ''Kindergarten'' (127), primary schools (''Primarschule'', 25), and lower secondary schools (''Sekundarschule'', 10), of which 94% visited public schools and 39.5% were foreign nationals. In 2010 already 51.1% of all pupils spoke another language than German as their first language. In 2009 3.1% of the pupils visited special classes for pupils with particular needs. The average amount of study in primary school in Basel is 816 teaching hours per year.
Upper secondary schoolIn 2010 65% of the youth finished their upper secondary education with a vocational training and education, 18% finished their upper secondary education with a Matura, Federal Matura at one of the five gymnasiums, 5% completed a ''Fachmaturität'' at the ''FMS'', 5% completed a ''Berufsmaturität'' synchronously to their vocational training, and 7% other kind of upper secondary maturity. 14.1% of all students at public gymnasiums were foreign nationals. The Maturity quota in 2010 was on a record high at 28.8% (32.8 female, 24.9% male). Basel has five public Mittelschule, gymnasiums (', ', ', ', '), each with its own profiles (different focus on major subjects, such as visual design, biology and chemistry, Italian, Spanish, or Latin languages, music, physics and applied mathematics, philosophy/education/psychology, and economics and law) that entitles students with a successful Matura graduation to attend universities. And one ''Fachmaturitätsschule'', the ''FMS'', with six different major subjects (health/natural sciences, education, social work, design/art, music/theatre/dance, and communication/media) that entitles students with a successful Fachmatura graduation to attend ''Fachhochschulen''. Four different ''höhere Fachschulen'' (higher vocational schools such as ''Bildungszentrum Gesundheit Basel-Stadt'' (health), ''Allgemeine Gewerbeschule Basel'' (trade), ''Berufsfachschule Basel'', ''Schule für Gestaltung Basel'' (design)) allows vocational students to improve their knowledge and know-how.
International schoolsAs a city with a percentage of foreigners of more than thirty-five percent and as one of the most important centres in the chemical and pharmaceutical field in the world, Basel counts several international schools including: ''Academia International School'', ''École Française de Bâle'', ''Freies Gymnasium Basel'' (private), ''Gymnasium am Münsterplatz'' (public), ''Schweizerisch-italienische Primarschule Sandro Pertini'', International School Basel and SIS Swiss International School.
LibrariesBasel is home to at least 65 libraries. Some of the largest include; the Universitätsbibliothek Basel (main university library), the special libraries of the University of Basel, the ''Allgemein Bibliotheken der Gesellschaft für Gutes und Gemeinnütziges (GGG) Basel'', the Library of the ''Pädagogische Hochschule'', the Library of the ''Hochschule für Soziale Arbeit'' and the Library of the ''Hochschule für Wirtschaft''. There was a combined total () of 8,443,643 books or other media in the libraries, and in the same year a total of 1,722,802 items were loaned out.
Main sightsThe red sandstone Basel Minster, Münster, one of the foremost late-Romanesque/early Gothic buildings in the Upper Rhine, was badly damaged in the great earthquake of 1356, rebuilt in the 14th and 15th century, extensively reconstructed in the mid-19th century and further restored in the late 20th century.Basel Münster website – Architecture 20th century
Heritage sitesBasel features a great number of Swiss Inventory of Cultural Property of National and Regional Significance, heritage sites of national significance. These include the entire Old Town of Basel as well as the following buildings and collections: ;Churches and monasteries :Old Catholic Church, Old Catholic ''Prediger Kirche'' (church), ''Bischofshof'' with Collegiate church at Rittergasse 1, ''Domhof'' at Münsterplatz 10–12, former Carthusian House of St Margarethental, Roman Catholic Church, Catholic Church of St Antonius, ''Lohnhof'' (former Augustinians Collegiate Church), Mission 21, Archive of the ''Evangelisches Missionswerk Basel'', Basel Münster, Münster of Basle (cathedral), Swiss Reformed Church, Reformed ''Elisabethenkirche, Basel, Elisabethenkirche'' (church), Reformed ''Johanneskirche'' (church), Reformed ''Leonhardskirche'' (church, former Augustinians Abbey), Reformed ''Martinskirche'' (church), Reformed ''Pauluskirche'' (church), Reformed ''Peterskirche'' (church), Reformed ''St. Albankirche'' (church) with cloister and cemetery, Reformed ''Theodorskirche'' (church), Synagoge at Eulerstrasse 2 ;Secular buildings: ''Badischer Bahnhof'' (German Baden's railway station) with fountain, , ''Blaues Haus (Reichensteinerhof)'' at Rheinsprung 16, ''Bruderholzschule'' (school house) at Fritz-Hauser-Strasse 20, ''Brunschwiler Haus'' at Hebelstrasse 15, Basel SBB railway station, ''Bahnhof Basel SBB'' (Swiss railway station), ''Bürgerspital'' (hospital), ''Café Spitz (Merianflügel)'', ''Coop Schweiz'' company's central archive, Depot of the ''Archäologischen Bodenforschung des Kanton Basel-Stadt'', former Gallizian Paper Mill and Basel Paper Mill, Swiss Museum of Paper, former ''Klingental-Kaserne'' (casern) with ''Klingentaler Kirche'' (church), ''Fasnachtsbrunnen'' (fountain), ''Feuerschützenhaus'' (guild house of the riflemen) at Schützenmattstrasse 56, ''Fischmarktbrunnen'' (fountain), ''Geltenzunft'' at Marktplatz 13, ''Gymnasium am Kohlenberg (St Leonhard)'' (school), ''Hauptpost'' (main post office), ''Haus zum Raben'' at Aeschenvorstadt 15, ''Hohenfirstenhof'' at Rittergasse 19, ''Holsteinerhof'' at Hebelstrasse 30, Markgräflerhof a former palace of the margraves of Margraviate of Baden, Baden-Durlach, ''Mittlere Rhein Brücke'' (Central Rhine Bridge), ''Stadtcasino'' (music hall) at Steinenberg 14, ''Ramsteinerhof'' at Rittergasse 7 and 9, Seat of local government, Rathaus (town hall), ''Rundhof'' building of the ''Schweizerischen Mustermesse'', ''Safranzunft'' at Gerbergasse 11, ''Sandgrube'' at Riehenstrasse 154, ''Schlösschen'' (Manor house) Gundeldingen, ''Schönes Haus'' and ''Schöner Hof'' at Nadelberg 6, ''Wasgenring'' school house, ''Seidenhof'' with painting of Rudolf von Habsburg, ''Spalenhof'' at Spalenberg 12, ''Spiesshof'' at Heuberg 7, city walls, Townhouse (former post office) at Stadthausgasse 13 / Totengässlein 6, ''Weisses Haus'' at Martinsgasse 3, ''Wildt'sches Haus'' at Petersplatz 13, ''Haus zum Neuen Singer'' at Speiserstrasse 98, ''Wolfgottesacker'' at Münchensteinerstrasse 99, ''Zerkindenhof'' at Nadelberg 10. ;Archaeological sites: The Celtic Settlement at ''Gasfabrik'', ''Münsterhügel'' and ''Altstadt'' (historical city, late La Tène culture, La Tène and medieval settlement). ;Museums, archives and collections: Basel calls itself the ''Cultural Capital of Switzerland''. Among others, there is the Anatomical Museum of the University Basel, Berri-Villen and Antikenmuseum Basel und Sammlung Ludwig, Museum of Ancient Art Basel and Ludwig Collection, Former Franciscan ''Barefoot'' Order Church and Basel Historical Museum, Company Archive of Novartis, ''Haus zum Kirschgarten'' which is part of the Basel Historical Museum, Historic Archive Roche and Industrial Complex Hoffmann-La Roche, Jewish Museum of Switzerland, Caricature & Cartoon Museum Basel, Karl Barth-Archive, ''Kleines Klingental'' (Lower Klingen Valley) with Museum Klingental, Kunstmuseum Basel, Art Museum of Basel, hosting the world's oldest art collection accessible to the public, Natural History Museum of Basel and the Museum of Cultures Basel, Museum of Modern Art Basel with the E. Hoffmann collection, Museum Jean Tinguely Basel, Music Museum, Pharmacy Historical Museum of the University of Basel, Poster Collection of the School for Design (''Schule für Gestaltung''), Swiss Business Archives, Sculpture Hall, Sports Museum of Switzerland, Archives of the Canton of Basel-Stadt, UBS AG Corporate Archives, University Library with manuscripts and music collection, Zoological Garden (''Zoologischer Garten'').
Theatre and musicBasel is the home of the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis, founded in 1933, a worldwide centre for research on and performance of music from the Medieval through the Baroque eras. Theater Basel, chosen in 1999 as the best stage for German-language performances and in 2009 and 2010 as "Opera house of the year" by German opera magazine ''Opernwelt'', presents a busy schedule of plays in addition to being home to the city's opera and ballet companies. Basel is home to the largest orchestra in Switzerland, the Sinfonieorchester Basel. It is also the home of the Basel Sinfonietta and the Kammerorchester Basel, which recorded the complete symphonies of Ludwig van Beethoven for the Sony label, led by its music director Giovanni Antonini. The Schola Cantorum and the Basler Kammerorchester were both founded by the conductor Paul Sacher, who went on to commission works by many leading composers. The Paul Sacher Foundation, opened in 1986, houses a major collection of manuscripts, including the entire Igor Stravinsky archive. The baroque orchestras La Cetra and Capriccio Basel are also based in Basel. In May 2004, the fifth European Festival of Youth Choirs (Europäisches Jugendchorfestival, or EJCF) opened; this Basel tradition started in 1992. Host of the festival is the local Basel Boys Choir. In 1997, Basel contended to become the "European Capital of Culture", though the honor went to Thessaloniki.
MuseumsThe Museums in Basel, Basel museums cover a broad and diverse spectrum of collection (museum), collections with a marked concentration in the fine arts. They house numerous holdings of international significance. The over three dozen institutions yield an extraordinarily high density of museums compared to other cities of similar size and draw over one million visitors annually. Constituting an essential component of Basel culture and cultural policy, the museums are the result of closely interwoven private and public collecting activities and promotion of arts and culture going back to the 16th century. The public museum collection was first created back in 1661 and represents the oldest public collection in continuous existence in Europa. Since the late 1980s, various private collections have been made accessible to the public in new purpose-built structures that have been recognized as acclaimed examples of avant-garde museum architecture. * Antikenmuseum Basel und Sammlung Ludwig Ancient cultures of the mediterranean museum * Roman open-air museum * Basel Paper Mill (german: link=no, Basler Papiermühle) * Beyeler Foundation (Foundation Beyeler
EventsThe city of Basel is a centre for numerous fairs and events all year round. One of the most important fairs for contemporary art worldwide is the which was founded in 1970 by Ernst Beyeler and takes place in June each year. Baselworld, the watch and jewellery show (''Uhren- und Schmuckmesse'') one of the biggest fairs of its kind in Europe is held every year as well, and attracts a great number of tourists and dealers to the city. Live marketing company and fair organizer MCH Group has its head office in Basel. The carnival of the city of Basel (''Carnival of Basel, Basler Fasnacht'') is a major cultural event in the year. The carnival is the biggest in Switzerland and attracts large crowds every year, despite the fact that it starts at exactly four o'clock in the morning (''Morgestraich'') on a winter Monday. The Fasnacht asserts Basel's Protestant history by commencing the revelry five days after Ash Wednesday and continuing exactly 72 hours. Almost all study and work in the old city cease. Dozens of fife and drum clubs parade in medieval guild tradition with fantastical masks and illuminated lanterns. Basel Tattoo, founded in 2006 by the local Top Secret Drum Corps, has grown to be the world's second largest military tattoo in terms of performers and budget after the Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo, Edinburgh Military Tattoo.Basel's tattoo spins to success
CuisineThere are a number of culinary specialties originating in Basel, including ''Basler Läckerli'' cookies and ''Mässmogge'' candies. Being located in the meeting place between Switzerland, France and Germany the culinary landscape as a whole is very varied and diverse, making it a city with a great number of restaurants of all sorts.
Zoo''Zoo Basel'' is, with over 1.7 million visitors per year, Besucherrekord beim Zolli
SportBasel has a reputation in Switzerland as a successful sporting city. The association football, football club continues to be successful and in recognition of this the city was one of the Swiss venues for the UEFA Euro 2008, 2008 European Championships, as well as , and Bern. The championships were jointly hosted by and Austria. BSC Old Boys and Concordia Basel are the other football teams in Basel. Among the most popular sports in Switzerland is ice hockey. Basel is home to the EHC Basel which plays in the 1. Liga (ice hockey), MySports League, the third tier of the Swiss ice hockey league system. They play their home games in the 6,700-seat St. Jakob Arena. The team previously played in the National League (ice hockey), National League and the Swiss League, but they had to fill a bankruptcy case after the 2013-14 National League B season, 2013–14 Swiss League season. Basel features a large St. Jakob-Park, football stadium that has been awarded four stars by UEFA, a modern ice hockey hall, and an admitted sports hall. A large indoor tennis event takes place in Basel every October. Some of the best Association of Tennis Professionals, ATP-professionals play every year at the Davidoff Swiss Indoors, Swiss Indoors, including Switzerland's biggest sporting hero and frequent participant Roger Federer, a Basel native who describes the city as "one of the most beautiful cities in the world". The annual Basel Rhine Swim draws several thousand visitors to the city to swim in or float on the Rhine river. While football and ice hockey are by far the most popular sports, basketball has a very small but faithful fan base. The top division, called Swiss Basketball League, SBL, is a semi-professional league and has one team from the Basel region, the "Birstal Starwings". Two players from Switzerland are currently active in the NBA, Thabo Sefolosha and Clint Capela. As in most European countries, and contrary to the U.S., Switzerland has a club-based rather than a school-based competition system. The Starwings Basel are the only first division basketball team in German-speaking Switzerland.
Notable peopleNotable people who were born or grew up in Basel: *1655 Jacob Bernoulli, mathematician *1667 Johann Bernoulli, mathematician *1707 Leonhard Euler, mathematician *1914 Rudy Burckhardt, photographer and filmmaker *1975 DJ Antoine (real name Antoine Konrad), DJ producer *1981 Roger Federer, professional tennis player
Notes and references
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