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, french: link=no, Bâlois(e), it, Basilese , neighboring_municipalities=
Allschwil , neighboring_municipalities= Baselland (BL), Binningen, Switzerland, Binningen, Buschwiller (FR-68), Hégenheim (FR-68), Neuwiller (FR-68), Oberwil, Basel-Country, Oberwil, Saint-Louis, Haut-Rhin, Saint-Louis (FR-68), Schönenbuch , twintowns ...
(BL), Hégenheim (FR-68),
BinningenBinningen may refer to: * Binningen, Switzerland * Binningen, Rhineland-Palatinate * Bining (), Lorraine, France {{geodis ...
(BL),
Birsfelden Birsfelden (Swiss German: ''Birsfälde'') is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the district of Arlesheim (district), Arlesheim in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Basel-Country in Switzerland. History Birsfelden is first mentio ...
(BL),
Bottmingen Bottmingen (Swiss German Swiss German (Standard German Standard German, High German, or more precisely Standard High German (german: Standarddeutsch, , or, in Switzerland, ), is the standardized variety of the German language The Ge ...
(BL),
Huningue Huningue (; ; Alsatian: Hinige) is a Communes of France, commune in the Haut-Rhin Departments of France, department of Alsace in north-eastern France. Huningue is a northern suburb of the Swiss city of Basel. It also borders Germany (Weil am Rhein ...
(FR-68),
Münchenstein Münchenstein (Swiss German: ''Minggestai'') is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the district of Arlesheim (district), Arlesheim in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Basel-Landschaft in Switzerland. Historical records Münch ...

Münchenstein
(BL),
Muttenz Muttenz (Swiss German Swiss German (Standard German Standard German, High German, or more precisely Standard High German (german: Standarddeutsch, , or, in Switzerland, ), is the standardized variety of the German language The Germ ...

Muttenz
(BL), Reinach (BL),
Riehen Riehen (Swiss German: ''Rieche'') is a municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Basel-Stadt in Switzerland. Together with the city of Basel and Bettingen, Riehen is one of three municipalities in the cant ...
(BS), Saint-Louis (FR-68),
Weil am Rhein Weil am Rhein ( High Alemannic: ''Wiil am Rhii'') is a German town and commune. It is on the east bank of the River Rhine ), Surselva, Graubünden, Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Sv ...
(DE-BW) , twintowns =
Shanghai Shanghai (, , Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ) is one of the four Direct-administered municipalities of China, direct-administered municipalities of the China, People's Republic of China. The city is located on the sou ...

Shanghai
,
Miami Beach Miami Beach is a coastal in , , . It was incorporated on March 26, 1915. The is located on natural and s between the and , the latter of which separates the Beach from the mainland city of . The of , comprising the southernmost of Miami ...

Miami Beach
, website = www.bs.ch Basel ( , ) or Basle ( ; french: link=no, Bâle ; it, Basilea ; rm, Basilea ) is a city in northwestern
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
on the river
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many si ...
. Basel is Switzerland's third-most-populous city (after
Zürich Zürich () is the in and the capital of the . It is located in north-central Switzerland, at the northwestern tip of . As of January 2020, the municipality has 434,335 inhabitants, the urban area (agglomeration) 1.315 million (2009), and the 1. ...

Zürich
and
Geneva Geneva ( ; french: Genève ; frp, Genèva ; german: link=no, Genf ; it, Ginevra ; rm, Genevra) is the List of cities in Switzerland, second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of Romandy, the French-spea ...

Geneva
) with about 180,000 inhabitants. The official language of Basel is (the Swiss variety of Standard)
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...
, but the main spoken language is the local
Basel GermanBasel German or Baseldytsch (Standard German: ''Baseldeutsch'') is the dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two differen ...
dialect. Basel is commonly considered to be the cultural capital of Switzerland. Basel is famous for its many
museums A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is a building or institution that cares for and displays a collection Collection or Collections may refer to: * Cash collection, the function of an accounts receivable department * Collect ...
, ranging from the Kunstmuseum, the first collection of art accessible to the public in the world (1661) and the largest museum of art in Switzerland, to the
Fondation Beyeler The Beyeler Foundation or Fondation Beyeler with its museum A museum ( ; plural museums or, rarely, musea) is an institution that Preservation (library and archival science), cares for (conserves) a collection (artwork), collection of art ...

Fondation Beyeler
(located in
Riehen Riehen (Swiss German: ''Rieche'') is a municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Basel-Stadt in Switzerland. Together with the city of Basel and Bettingen, Riehen is one of three municipalities in the cant ...
) and the Museum of Contemporary Art (Basel), the first public museum of contemporary art in Europe. Forty museums are spread throughout the city-canton, making Basel one of the largest cultural centres in relation to its size and population in Europe. The
University of Basel The University of Basel (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...
, Switzerland's oldest university (founded in 1460), and the city's centuries-long commitment to
humanism Humanism is a philosophical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively. The meaning of the term ''humanism'' has fluctuated according to the successive intellectual movements which have ident ...

humanism
, have made Basel a safe haven at times of political unrest in other parts of Europe for such notable people as
Erasmus of Rotterdam Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (; English: Erasmus of Rotterdam;''Erasmus'' was his baptismal name A Christian name, sometimes referred to as a baptismal name, is a religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of design ...

Erasmus of Rotterdam
, the Holbein family,
Friedrich Nietzsche Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (; or ; 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, me ...

Friedrich Nietzsche
, and in the 20th century also
Hermann Hesse Hermann Karl Hesse (; 2 July 1877 – 9 August 1962) was a German-Swiss poet, novelist, and painter. His best-known works include ''Demian'', ''Steppenwolf (novel), Steppenwolf'', ''Siddhartha (novel), Siddhartha'', and ''The Glass Bead Game'', ...

Hermann Hesse
and
Karl Jaspers Karl Theodor Jaspers (, ; 23 February 1883 – 26 February 1969) was a German-Swiss psychiatrist and philosopher who had a strong influence on modern theology, psychiatry, and philosophy. After being trained in and practicing psychiatry, Jaspers ...

Karl Jaspers
. Basel has been the seat of a
Prince-Bishopric A prince-bishop is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some Secularity, secular principality and sovereignty. Thus the principality or Hochstift, prince-bishopric ruled politically by a prince-bishop could wholly or largely overlap with his ...
since the 11th century, and joined the
Swiss Confederacy The Old Swiss Confederacy or Swiss Confederacy, Swiss Confederation (Modern German New High German (NHG) is the term used for the most recent period in the history of the German language, starting in the 17th century. It is a translation of t ...
in 1501. The city has been a commercial hub and an important cultural centre since the
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...

Renaissance
, and has emerged as a centre for the
chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All everyday objects that can be touched are ultimately composed of atoms, which ...
and pharmaceutical industries in the 20th century. In 1897, Basel was chosen by
Theodor Herzl Theodor Herzl (; ; he, תֵּאוֹדוֹר הֶרְצְל ''Te'odor Hertsel''; hu, Herzl Tivadar; Hebrew name given at his brit milah Binyamin Ze'ev ( he, בִּנְיָמִין זְאֵב), also known in Hebrew as , ''Chozeh HaMedinah'', li ...

Theodor Herzl
as the location for the first
World Zionist Congress 200px, The Second Zionist Congress, held in Basel, Switzerland">Basel.html" ;"title="Second Zionist Congress, held in Basel">Second Zionist Congress, held in Basel, Switzerland (1898) The Zionist Congress was established in 1897 by Theodor Herzl a ...
, and altogether the congress has been held there ten times over a time span of 50 years, more than in any other location. The city is also home to the world headquarters of the
Bank for International Settlements The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject ...

Bank for International Settlements
. The name of the city is internationally known through institutions like the
Basel Accords The Basel Accords refer to the banking supervision Accords (recommendations on banking regulations)—Basel I Basel I is the round of deliberations by central bankers A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution tha ...
,
Art Basel Art Basel is a for-profit, privately owned and managed, international art fair staged annually in Basel , french: link=no, Bâlois(e), it, Basilese , neighboring_municipalities= Allschwil (BL), Hégenheim (FR-68), Binningen, Switzerland, Binn ...
and
FC Basel FC Basel 1893 (''Fussball Club Basel 1893''), widely known as FC Basel, FCB, or just Basel, is a Swiss football Football is a family of team sport A team is a
. In_2019_Basel_was_ranked_among_the_ten_most_liveable_cities_in_the_world_by_Mercer_(consulting_firm).html" "title="roup (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working t ...

FC Basel
. In 2019 Basel was ranked among the ten most liveable cities in the world by Mercer (consulting firm)">Mercer Mercer may refer to: Business * Mercer (car), a defunct American automobile manufacturer (1909–1925) * Mercer (consulting firm), a large human resources consulting firm headquartered in New York City * Mercer (occupation), a merchant or trader, ...
together with Zürich and Geneva.


History


Early history

There are traces of a settlement at the nearby Rhine knee from the early La Tène period (5th century BC). In the 2nd century BC, there was a village of the Raurici at the site of ''Basel-Gasfabrik''(to the northwest of the Old City, and likely identical with the town of ''Arialbinnum'' that was mentioned on the ''
Tabula Peutingeriana ' (Latin Language, Latin for "The Peutinger Map"), also referred to as Peutinger's Tabula or Peutinger Table, is an illustrated ' (ancient Roman road map) showing the layout of the ''cursus publicus'', the road network of the Roman Empire. The ma ...

Tabula Peutingeriana
''). The unfortified settlement was abandoned in the 1st century BC in favour of an ''
oppidum An ''oppidum'' (plural ''oppida'') is a large fortified Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of Homo sapiens, humanity. It was preceded by the Bronze Age and th ...
'' on the site of
Basel Minster
Basel Minster
, probably in reaction to the Roman invasion of Gaul. In
Roman Gaul Roman Gaul refers to Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (n ...

Roman Gaul
,
Augusta Raurica Augusta Raurica is a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shorten ...

Augusta Raurica
was established some from Basel as the regional administrative centre, while a ''
castrum In the Roman Republic The Roman Republic ( la, Rēs pūblica Rōmāna ) was a state of the ancient Rome, classical Roman civilization, run through res publica, public Representation (politics), representation of the Roman people. Beginning w ...

castrum
'' (fortified camp) was built on the site of the Celtic ''oppidum''. In AD 83, the area was incorporated into the
Roman province The Roman provinces (Latin: ''provincia'', pl. ''provinciae'') were the administrative regions of Ancient Rome outside Roman Italy that were controlled by the Romans under the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire. Each province was ruled ...
of
Germania Superior 250px, Northern part of the province with the Limes Germanicus. Germania Superior ("Upper Germania Germania ( , ), also called Magna Germania (English: ''Great Germania''), Germania Libera (English: ''Free Germania'') or Germanic Barbaricum ...
. Roman control over the area deteriorated in the 3rd century, and Basel became an outpost of the '' Provincia Maxima Sequanorum'' formed by
Diocletian Diocletian (; la, Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus; born Diocles; 22 December c. 244 – 3 December 311) was from 284 to 305. Born to a family of low status in , Diocletian rose through the ranks of the military to become a commander of ...
. '' Basilia'' is first named as part of the Roman military fortifications along the Rhine in the late 4th century. The Germanic confederation of the
Alemanni The Alemanni (also ''Alamanni''; ''Suebi'' "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes * * * on the Upper Rhine River. First mentioned by Cassius Dio in the context of the campaign of Caracalla Caracalla ( ; 4 April 188 – ...
attempted to cross the Rhine several times in the 4th century, but were repelled; one such event was the
Battle of Solicinium The Battle of Solicinium was fought in 368 between a Roman army and the Alemanni. The Roman force was led by Emperor Valentinian I, and they managed to repel the Alemanni but suffered heavy losses during the battle. Background After the dea ...
(368). However, in the great invasion of AD 406, the Alemanni appear to have crossed the Rhine river a final time, conquering and then settling what is today
Alsace Alsace (, also ; Low Alemannic German Low Alemannic German (german: Niederalemannisch) is a branch of Alemannic German Alemannic, or rarely Alemannish (''Alemannisch'', ), is a group of High German dialects. The name derives from the ancien ...

Alsace
and a large part of the
Swiss Plateau The Swiss Plateau or Central Plateau (german: Schweizer Mittelland; french: plateau suisse; it, altopiano svizzero) is one of the three major landscapes in Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm ...

Swiss Plateau
. The Duchy of Alemannia fell under
Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by Graeco-Roman author ...

Frankish
rule in the 6th century. The Alemannic and
Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mentioned by Graeco-Roman author ...

Frankish
settlement of Basel gradually grew around the old Roman castle in the 6th and 7th century. It appears that Basel surpassed the ancient regional capital of
Augusta Raurica Augusta Raurica is a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shorten ...

Augusta Raurica
by the 7th century, Based on the evidence of a gold ''
tremissis The tremissis or tremis (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately ...
'' (a small gold coin with the value of a third of a ''
solidus Solidus (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republi ...
'') with the inscription ''Basilia fit'', Basel seems to have minted its own coins in the 7th century. Basel at this time was part of the Archdiocese of Besançon. A separate bishopric of Basel, replacing the ancient bishopric of
Augusta Raurica Augusta Raurica is a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shorten ...

Augusta Raurica
, was established in the 8th century. Under bishop
Haito Haito (or Hatto or Heito) was a Christian monk and Bishop of Basel The Diocese of Basel (german: Bistum Basel; la, Diœcesis Basileensis) is a Catholic diocese in Switzerland. Historically, the bishops of Basel were also secular rulers of the ...

Haito
(r. 806–823), the first cathedral was built on the site of the Roman castle (replaced by a Romanesque structure consecrated in 1019). At the partition of the
Carolingian Empire The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient nort ...
, Basel was first given to
West Francia In medieval history, West Francia (Medieval Latin: ) or the Kingdom of the West Franks () refers to the western part of the Francia, Frankish Empire established by Charlemagne. It represents the earliest stage of the Kingdom of France, lasting fro ...
, but it passed to
East Francia East Francia (Medieval Latin Medieval Latin was the form of Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Ro ...
with the
treaty of Meerssen The Treaty of Mersen or Meerssen Meerssen () ( li, Meersje) is a place and a Municipalities of the Netherlands, municipality in southeastern Netherlands. History The Treaty of Meerssen was signed in Meerssen in 870. The Treaty of Meerssen was ...
of 870. Basel was destroyed by the
Magyars Hungarians, also known as Magyars ( ; hu, magyarok ), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország) and Kingdom of Hungary, historical Hungarian lands who share a common Hungarian culture, culture, Hungarian histor ...
in 917. The rebuilt town became part of
Upper Burgundy The Kingdom of Upper Burgundy was a Frankish dominion established in 888 by the Welf king Rudolph I of Burgundy on the territory of former Middle Francia. It grew out of the Carolingian The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carl ...
, and as such was incorporated into the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
in 1032.


Prince-Bishopric of Basel

From the donation by
Rudolph III of Burgundy Rudolph III (called "the Idle" (french: Rodolphe le Fainéant, german: Rudolf der Faule) or "the Pious" (''le Pieux''); – 6 September 1032) was List of kings of Burgundy, King of Burgundy from 993 until his death. He was the last ruler of an ind ...

Rudolph III of Burgundy
of the
Moutier-Grandval Abbey Moutier-Grandval Abbey was a Benedictine abbey near the villages of Moutier and Grandval, Switzerland, Grandval in today's Jura bernois (administrative district), Jura bernois administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. It was fou ...
and all its possessions to Bishop
Adalbero II of Metz Adalbero II of Metz ( la, Adalberonis or la, label=none, Adalberus; c. 958 - 14 December 1005) was a Catholic bishop of the 10th and 11th centuries. From 984 until his death he was the bishop of Verdun and bishop of Metz. He was the son of Frederi ...
in 999 until the
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in ...
, Basel was ruled by
Prince-Bishop A prince-bishop is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some Secularity, secular principality and sovereignty. Thus the principality or Hochstift, prince-bishopric ruled politically by a prince-bishop could wholly or largely overlap with his ...
s. In 1019, the construction of the
cathedral of Basel
cathedral of Basel
(known locally as the ''Münster'') began under
Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor Henry II (german: Heinrich II; it, Enrico II) (6 May 973 – 13 July 1024), also known as Saint Henry the Exuberant, Obl. S. B., was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imper ...

Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor
. In the 11th to 12th century, Basel gradually acquired the characteristics of a medieval
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...

city
. The main market place is first mentioned in 1091. The first city walls were constructed around 1100 (with improvements made in the mid-13th and in the late 14th century). A city council of nobles and burghers is recorded for 1185, and the first
mayor In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organization or government A governme ...

mayor
, Heinrich Steinlin of Murbach, for 1253. The first bridge across the Rhine was built in 1225 under bishop Heinrich von Thun (at the location of the modern Middle Bridge), and from this time the settlement of ''Kleinbasel'' gradually formed around the bridgehead on the far river bank. The bridge was largely funded by Basel's Jewish community who had settled there a century earlier.Habicht, Peter, ''Basel – A Center at the Fringe '' (Basel: Christoph Merian Verlag, 2006) pp. 43, 55, 70, 79. For many centuries to come Basel possessed the only permanent bridge over the river "between
Lake Constance Lake Constance (german: Bodensee, ) refers to three Body of water, bodies of water on the Rhine at the northern foot of the Alps: Upper Lake Constance (''Obersee''), Lower Lake Constance (''Untersee''), and a connecting stretch of the Rhine, ca ...

Lake Constance
and the sea". The first city
guild A guild is an association of artisan Wood carver in Bali An artisan (from french: artisan, it, artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates material objects partly or entirely by hand. These objects may be functiona ...
were the furriers, established in 1226. A total of about fifteen guilds were established in the course of the 13th century, reflecting the increasing economic prosperity of the city. The Crusade of 1267 set out from Basel. Political conflicts between the bishops and the burghers begin in the mid-13th century and continue throughout the 14th century. By the late 14th century, the city was for all practical purposes independent although it continued to nominally pledge fealty to the bishops. The
House of Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...
attempted to gain control over the city. This was not successful, but it caused a political split among the burghers of Basel into a pro-Habsburg faction, known as ''Sterner'', and an anti-Habsburg faction, the ''Psitticher''. The
Black Death The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a bubonic plague pandemic occurring in Afro-Eurasia from 1346 to 1353. It is the List of epidemics, most fatal pandemic recorded in human history, causing th ...

Black Death
reached Basel in 1348. The Jews were blamed, and an estimated 50 to 70 Jews were executed by burning on 16 January 1349 in what has become known as the
Basel massacreBetween the 12th century and modern times, Basel , french: link=no, Bâlois(e), it, Basilese , neighboring_municipalities= Allschwil (BL), Hégenheim (FR-68), Binningen, Switzerland, Binningen (BL), Birsfelden (BL), Bottmingen (BL), Huningue (F ...
. The Basel earthquake of 1356 destroyed much of the city along with a number of castles in the vicinity. A riot on 26 February 1376, known as ''Böse Fasnacht'', led to the killing of a number of men of
Leopold III, Duke of Austria Leopold III (1 November 1351 – 9 July 1386), known as the Just, a member of the House of Habsburg, was List of rulers of Austria, Duke of Austria from 1365. As head and progenitor of the Leopoldian line, he ruled over the Inner Austrian duchi ...
. This was seen as a serious
breach of the peace Breach of the peace, or disturbing the peace, is a legal term used in constitutional law in English-speaking countries and in a public order sense in the several jurisdictions of the United Kingdom. It is a form of disorderly conduct. Public order ...
, and the city council blamed "foreign ruffians" for this and executed twelve alleged perpetrators. Leopold nevertheless had the city placed under imperial ban, and in a treaty of 9 July, Basel was given a heavy fine and was placed under Habsburg control. To free itself from Habsburg hegemony, Basel joined the
Swabian League of Cities The Swabian League of Cities (German language, German: ''Schwäbischer Städtebund'') was a primarily military alliance between a number of Free imperial city, free imperial cities in and around the area now defined as south-western Germany. Its ...
in 1385, and many knights of the pro-Habsburg faction, along with duke Leopold himself, were killed in the
Battle of Sempach The Battle of Sempach was fought on 9 July 1386, between Leopold III, Duke of Austria and the Old Swiss Confederacy The Old Swiss Confederacy or Swiss Confederacy, Swiss Confederation (Modern German New High German (NHG) is the term used fo ...
the following year. A formal treaty with Habsburg was made in 1393. Basel had gained its de facto independence from both the bishop and from the Habsburgs and was free to pursue its own policy of territorial expansion, beginning around 1400. The unique representation of a bishops' crozier as the heraldic charge in the coat of arms of Basel first appears in the form of a gilded wooden staff in the 12th century. It is of unknown origin or significance (beyond its obvious status of bishop's crozier), but it is assumed to have represented a relic, possibly attributed to Germanus of Granfelden, Saint Germanus of Granfelden. This staff (known as ''Baselstab'') became a symbol representing the Basel diocese, depicted in bishops' seals of the late medieval period. It is represented in a heraldic context in the early 14th century, not yet as a heraldic charge but as a kind of heraldic achievement flanked by the heraldic shields of the bishop. The staff is also represented in the bishops's seals of the period. The use of the ''Baselstab'' in black as the coat of arms of the city was introduced in 1385. From this time, the ''Baselstab'' in red represented the bishop, and the same charge in black represented the city. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is ''In Silber ein schwarzer Baselstab'' (Argent, a staff of Basel sable). In 1412 (or earlier), the well-known Gasthof zum Goldenen Sternen was established. Basel became the focal point of western Christendom during the 15th century Council of Basel (1431–1449), including the 1439 election of antipope Felix V. In 1459, Pope Pius II endowed the
University of Basel The University of Basel (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...
, where such notables as
Erasmus of Rotterdam Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (; English: Erasmus of Rotterdam;''Erasmus'' was his baptismal name A Christian name, sometimes referred to as a baptismal name, is a religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of design ...

Erasmus of Rotterdam
and Paracelsus later taught. At the same time the new craft of printing press, printing was Global spread of the printing press##Switzerland, introduced to Basel by apprentices of Johann Gutenberg. The Schwabe publishing house was founded in 1488 by Johannes Petri and is the oldest publishing house still in business. Johann Froben also operated his printing house in Basel and was notable for publishing works by Erasmus. In 1495, Basel was incorporated into the Upper Rhenish Circle, Upper Rhenish Imperial Circle; the Bishop of Basel was added to the Bench of the Ecclesiastical Princes of the Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), Imperial Diet. In 1500 the construction of the Basel Münster was finished. In 1521 so was the bishop. The council, under the supremacy of the guilds, explained that henceforth they would only give allegiance to the Swiss Confederation, to whom the bishop appealed but in vain.


As a member state in the Swiss Confederacy

The city had remained neutral through the Swabian War of 1499 despite being plundered by soldiers on both sides. The Treaty of Basel (1499), Treaty of Basel ended the war and granted the Swiss confederates exemptions from the emperor Maximillian's taxes and jurisdictions, separating Switzerland ''de facto'' from the Holy Roman Empire.Rappard, William, '' Collective Security in Swiss Experience 1291–1948'' (London, 1948) p. 85 ff On 9 June 1501, Basel joined the Swiss Confederation as its Canton of Basel, eleventh canton. It was the only canton that was asked to join, not the other way round. Basel had a strategic location, good relations with Strasbourg and Mulhouse, and control of the corn imports from Alsace, whereas the Swiss lands were becoming overpopulated and had few resources. A provision of the Charter accepting Basel required that in conflicts among the other cantons it was to stay neutral and offer its services for mediation.Habicht, Peter, ''Basel – A Center at the Fringe'' (Basel 2006) p. 65 ffBonjour, Edgar ''et al.'' ''A short History of Switzerland'' (Oxford, 1952) p. 139 ff In 1503, the new bishop Christoph von Utenheim refused to give Basel a new constitution; whereupon, to show its power, the city began to build a new city hall. In 1529, the city became Protestant under Johannes Oecolampadius, Oecolampadius and the bishop's seat was moved to Porrentruy. The bishop's crook was however retained as the city's coat of arms. For centuries to come, a handful of wealthy families collectively referred to as the Daig (Switzerland), "Daig" played a pivotal role in city affairs as they gradually established themselves as a ''de facto'' Aristocracy, city aristocracy. The first edition of ''Christianae religionis institutio'' (''Institutes of the Christian Religion'' – John Calvin's great exposition of Calvinism, Calvinist doctrine) was published at Basel in March 1536. In 1544, Johann von Brugge, a rich Dutch Protestant refugee, was given citizenship and lived respectably until his death in 1556, then buried with honors. His body was exhumed and burnt at the stake in 1559 after it was discovered that he was the Anabaptist David Joris. In 1543, ''De humani corporis fabrica'', the first book on human anatomy, was published and printed in Basel by Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564). There are indications Joachim Meyer, author of the influential 16th-century martial arts text ''Kunst des Fechten'' ("The Art of Fencing"), came from Basel. In 1662 the ''Amerbaschsches Kabinett'' was established in Basel as the first public museum of art. Its collection became the core of the later Basel Museum of Art. The Bernoulli family, which included important 17th- and 18th-century mathematicians such as Jakob Bernoulli, Johann Bernoulli and Daniel Bernoulli, were from Basel. The 18th-century mathematician Leonhard Euler was born in Basel and studied under Johann Bernoulli.


Modern history

In 1792, the Rauracian Republic, Republic of Rauracia, a revolutionary French client republic, was created. It lasted until 1793. After three years of political agitation and a short civil war in 1833 the disadvantaged countryside seceded from the Canton of Basel, forming the half canton of Basel-Landschaft. On 3 July 1874, Switzerland's first zoo, the Zoo Basel, opened its doors in the south of the city towards
BinningenBinningen may refer to: * Binningen, Switzerland * Binningen, Rhineland-Palatinate * Bining (), Lorraine, France {{geodis ...
. In 1897 the first
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was held in Basel. Altogether the World Zionist Congress was held in Basel ten times, more than in any other city in the world. On 16 November 1938, the psychedelic drug LSD was first synthesized by Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann at Sandoz Laboratories in Basel. In 1967, the population of Basel voted in favor of buying three works of art by painter Pablo Picasso which were at risk of being be sold and taken out of the local museum of art, due to a financial crisis on the part of the owner's family. Therefore, Basel became the first city in the world where the population of a political community democratically decided to acquire works of art for a public institution. Pablo Picasso was so moved by the gesture that he subsequently gifted the city with an additional three paintings.


Basel as a historical, international meeting place

Basel has often been the site of peace negotiations and other international meetings. The Treaty of Basel (1499) ended the Swabian War. Two years later Basel joined the Switzerland, Swiss Confederation. The Peace of Basel in 1795 between the French First Republic, French Republic and Prussia and Spain ended the First Coalition against France during the French Revolutionary Wars. In more recent times, the World Zionist Organization held its first congress in Basel from 29 August through 31 August 1897. Because of the Balkan Wars, the (Socialist) Second International held an extraordinary congress at Basel in 1912. In 1989, the Basel Convention was opened for signature with the aim of preventing the export of hazardous waste from wealthy to developing country, developing nations for disposal.


Name

The name of Basel is first recorded as ''Basilia'' in the 3rd century (237/8), at the time referring to the Basel oppidum, Roman castle. This name is mostly interpreted as deriving from the personal name ''Basilius'', from a toponym ''villa Basilia'' ("Roman villa, estate of Basilius") or similar. Another suggestion derives it from a name ''Basilia'' attested in northern France as a development of ''basilica'', the term for a public or church building (as in Bazeilles), but all of these names reference early church buildings of the 4th or 5th century and cannot be adduced for the 3rd-century attestation of ''Basilia''.''Basileam applicuerunt'' (AD 237 or 238). Andres Kristol: ''Basel BS (Basel Stadt)'' in: ''Dictionnaire toponymique des communes suisses – Lexikon der schweizerischen Gemeindenamen – Dizionario toponomastico dei comuni svizzeri (DTS, LSG).'' Centre de dialectologie, Université de Neuchâtel, Verlag Huber, Frauenfeld/Stuttgart/Wien 2005, und Éditions Payot, Lausanne 2005, , S. 125. By popular etymology, or simple assonance, the basilisk becomes closely associated with the city, used as heraldic supporter from 1448, represented on coins minted by the city, and frequently found in ornaments. The Middle French form ''Basle'' was adopted into English. French ''Basle'' was still in use in the 18th century, but was gradually replaced by the modern French spelling ''Bâle''. In English usage, the French spelling ''Basle'' continues to be used alongside the German spelling ''Basel''. In Icelandic, the city is recorded as ''Buslaraborg'' in the 12th-century itinerary ''Leiðarvísir og borgarskipan''.


Geography and climate


Location

Located where the Swiss, French and German borders meet, Basel also has suburbs in France and Germany. , the Swiss Basel agglomeration was the third-largest in Switzerland, with a population of 541,000 in 74 municipalities in Switzerland (municipal count as of 2018). The initiative ''Trinational Eurodistrict Basel (TEB)'' of 62 suburban communes including municipalities in neighboring countries, counted 829,000 inhabitants in 2007. Basel is the most densely populated city in Switzerland.


Topography

Basel has an area, , of . Of this area, or 4.0% is used for agricultural purposes, while or 3.7% is forested. Of the rest of the land, or 86.4% is settled (buildings or roads), or 6.1% is either rivers or lakes.Swiss Federal Statistical Office-Land Use Statistics
2009 data accessed 25 March 2010
Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 10.2% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 40.7% and transportation infrastructure made up 24.0%. Power and water infrastructure as well as other special developed areas made up 2.7% of the area while parks, green belts and sports fields made up 8.9%. Out of the forested land, all of the forested land area is covered with heavy forests. Of the agricultural land, 2.5% is used for growing crops and 1.3% is pastures. All the water in the municipality is flowing water.


Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, Köppen system, Basel features a continental-influenced oceanic climate (Köppen: ''Cfb''), due to its relatively far inland position. The city averages 120.4 days of rain or snow annually and on average receives of Precipitation (meteorology), precipitation. The wettest month is May during which time Basel receives an average of of rain. The month with the most days of precipitation is also May, with an average of 12.4 days. The driest month of the year is February with an average of of precipitation over 8.4 days.


Politics

The city of Basel functions as the capital of the Cantons of Switzerland, Swiss half-canton of Basel-Stadt.


Canton

The canton Basel-Stadt consists of three municipalities:
Riehen Riehen (Swiss German: ''Rieche'') is a municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Basel-Stadt in Switzerland. Together with the city of Basel and Bettingen, Riehen is one of three municipalities in the cant ...
, Bettingen, and the city Basel itself. The political structure and agencies of the city and the canton are identical.


City


Quarters

The city itself has 19 quarters: * ''Grossbasel'' (Greater Basel): :1 Altstadt Grossbasel :2 Vorstädte :3 Am Ring :4 Breite :5 St. Alban :6 Gundeldingen :7 Bruderholz :8 Bachletten :9 Gotthelf :10 Iselin :11 St. Johann * ''Kleinbasel'' (Lesser Basel): :12 Altstadt Kleinbasel :13 Clara :14 Wettstein :15 Hirzbrunnen :16 Rosental :17 Matthäus :18 Klybeck :19 Kleinhüningen


Government

The canton's executive, the Executive Council (''Regierungsrat''), consists of seven members for a mandate period of 4 years. They are elected by any inhabitant valid to vote on the same day as the parliament, but by means of a system of Majorz, and operates as a collegiate authority. The president (german: link=no, Regierungspräsident(in)) is elected as such by a public election, while the heads of the other departments are appointed by the collegiate. The current president is Dr Guy Morin. The executive body holds its meetings in the red Basel Town Hall, Town Hall (german: link=no, Rathaus) on the central ''Marktplatz''. The building was built in 1504–14. , Basel's Executive Council is made up of three representatives of the SP (Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Social Democratic Party), and one member each of Green Party of Switzerland, Green Alliance of Basel (GB) (who is the president), FDP (Free Democratic Party of Switzerland, Free Democratic Party), LDP (Liberal-Demokratische Partei of Basel), and CVP (Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland, Christian Democratic Party), giving the left parties a combined four out of seven seats. The last election was held on 23 October and 27 November 2016. Barbara Schüpbach-Guggenbühlis is State Chronicler (''Staatsschreiberin'') since 2009, and Marco Greiner is Head of Communication (''Regierungssprecher'') and Vice State Chronicler (''Vizestaatsschreiber'') since 2007 for the Executive Council.


Parliament

The parliament, the Grand Council of Basel-Stadt (Grosser Rat), consists of 100 seats, with members (called in German: ''Grossrat/Grossrätin'') elected every 4 years. The sessions of the Grand Council are public. Unlike the members of the Executive Council, the members of the Grand Council are not politicians by profession, but they are paid a fee based on their attendance. Any resident of Basel allowed to vote can be elected as a member of the parliament. The delegates are elected by means of a system of Proportional representation, Proporz, and political parties must have surpassed an ''election quorum'' of 4% per election district to enter the council, but this will end with the next election in 2020. The legislative body holds its meetings in the red Town Hall (''Rathaus''). The last election was held on 23 October 2016 for the mandate period (''Legislatur'') of 2017–2021. , the Grand Council consist of 35 members of the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Social Democratic Party (SP), 15 members of the Swiss People's Party (SVP), 13 ''Grünes Bündnis (GB)'' (a collaboration of the Green Party of Switzerland, Green Party (GPS), its junior party, and Basels starke Alternative (BastA!)), 15 Liberal-Demokratische Partei of Basel, Liberal-Demokratische Partei (LDP) and its junior party, 10 FDP.The Liberals, The Liberals (FDP) and its junior party, the representative of the ''Aktive Bettingen (AB)'' is associated to the parliamentary group (''Fraktion'') of the FDP, 8 (7/1) Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland, Christian Democratic People's Party (CVP)/Evangelical People's Party of Switzerland, Evangelical People's Party (EVP), and 3 Green Liberal Party of Switzerland, Green Liberal Party (GLP). The left parties missed an absolute majority by two seats.


Federal elections


National Council

In the 2019 Swiss federal election, 2019 federal election the most popular party was the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Social Democratic Party (SP) which received two seats with 34% (−1) of the votes. The next five most popular parties were the Green Party of Switzerland, Green Party (GPS) (19.4%, +7.3), the Liberal Party of Switzerland, LPS (14.5%, +3.6) and the FDP.The Liberals, FDP (5.8, −3.5), which are chained together at 20.3%, (+0.1), the Swiss People's Party, SVP (11.3%, ), and the Green Liberal Party of Switzerland, Green Liberal Party (GLP) (5%, +0.6), Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland, CVP (4.1%, -1.9). In the federal election, a total of 44,628 votes were cast, and the voter turnout was 49.4%. On 18 October 2015, in the 2015 Swiss federal election, federal election the most popular party was the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Social Democratic Party (SP) which received two seats with 35% of the votes. The next three most popular parties were the FDP.The Liberals, FDP (20.2%), the Swiss People's Party, SVP (16.8%), and the Green Party of Switzerland, Green Party (GPS) (12.2%), each with one seat. In the federal election, a total of 57,304 votes were cast, and the voter turnout was 50.4%.


Council of States

On 20 October 2019, in the 2019 Swiss federal election, federal election Eva Herzog, member of the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Social Democratic Party (SP), was elected for the first time as a State Councillor () in the first round as single representative of the canton of Basel-Town and successor of Anita Fetz in the national Council of States (Switzerland), Council of States () with an absolute majority of 37'210 votes. On 18 October 2015, in the 2015 Swiss federal election, federal election State Councillor (german: link=no, Ständerätin) Anita Fetz, member of the Social Democratic Party of Switzerland, Social Democratic Party (SP), was re-elected in the first round as single representative of the canton of Basel-Town in the national Council of States (Switzerland), Council of States () with an absolute majority of 35'842 votes. She has been a member of it since 2003.


International relations


Twin towns and sister cities

Basel has two Twin towns and sister cities, sister cities and a twinning among two states: * Shanghai, China, since 2007 * US State Massachusetts, since 2002 *
Miami Beach Miami Beach is a coastal in , , . It was incorporated on March 26, 1915. The is located on natural and s between the and , the latter of which separates the Beach from the mainland city of . The of , comprising the southernmost of Miami ...

Miami Beach
, US, since 2011


Partner cities

* Rotterdam, Netherlands, since 1945


Demographics


Population

Basel has a population () of . , 35.5% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years (1999–2009 ) the population has changed at a rate of −0.3%. It has changed at a rate of 3.2% due to migration and at a rate of −3% due to births and deaths.Swiss Federal Statistical Office
accessed 18-April-2011
Of the population in the municipality 58,560 or about 35.2% were born in Basel and lived there in 2000. There were 1,396 or 0.8% who were born in the same canton, while 44,874 or 26.9% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, and 53,774 or 32.3% were born outside of Switzerland. In there were 898 live births to Swiss citizens and 621 births to non-Swiss citizens, and in same time span there were 1,732 deaths of Swiss citizens and 175 non-Swiss citizen deaths. Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by 834 while the foreign population increased by 446. There were 207 Swiss men and 271 Swiss women who emigrated from Switzerland. At the same time, there were 1756 non-Swiss men and 1655 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland. The total Swiss population change in 2008 (from all sources, including moves across municipal borders) was an increase of 278 and the non-Swiss population increased by 1138 people. This represents a population growth rate of 0.9%.Swiss Federal Statistical Office – Superweb database – Gemeinde Statistics 1981–2008
accessed 19 June 2010
, there were 70,502 people who were single and never married in the municipality. There were 70,517 married individuals, 12,435 widows or widowers and 13,104 individuals who are divorced.STAT-TAB Datenwürfel für Thema 40.3 – 2000
accessed 2 February 2011
the average number of residents per living room was 0.59 which is about equal to the cantonal average of 0.58 per room. In this case, a room is defined as space of a housing unit of at least as normal bedrooms, dining rooms, living rooms, kitchens and habitable cellars and attics. About 10.5% of the total households were owner occupied, or in other words did not pay rent (though they may have a Mortgage loan, mortgage or a rent-to-own agreement). , there were 86,371 private households in the municipality, and an average of 1.8 persons per household. There were 44,469 households that consist of only one person and 2,842 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 88,646 households that answered this question, 50.2% were households made up of just one person and there were 451 adults who lived with their parents. Of the rest of the households, there are 20,472 married couples without children, 14,554 married couples with children There were 4,318 single parents with a child or children. There were 2,107 households that were made up of unrelated people and 2,275 households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing. there were 5,747 single family homes (or 30.8% of the total) out of a total of 18,631 inhabited buildings. There were 7,642 multi-family buildings (41.0%), along with 4,093 multi-purpose buildings that were mostly used for housing (22.0%) and 1,149 other use buildings (commercial or industrial) that also had some housing (6.2%). Of the single family homes 1090 were built before 1919, while 65 were built between 1990 and 2000. The greatest number of single family homes (3,474) were built between 1919 and 1945.Federal Statistical Office STAT-TAB – Datenwürfel für Thema 09.2 – Gebäude und Wohnungen
accessed 28 January 2011
there were 96,640 apartments in the municipality. The most common apartment size was 3 rooms of which there were 35,958. There were 11,957 single room apartments and 9,702 apartments with five or more rooms. Of these apartments, a total of 84,675 apartments (87.6% of the total) were permanently occupied, while 7,916 apartments (8.2%) were seasonally occupied and 4,049 apartments (4.2%) were empty. , the construction rate of new housing units was 2.6 new units per 1000 residents. the average price to rent an average apartment in Basel was 1118.60 Swiss francs (CHF) per month (US$890, £500, €720 approx. exchange rate from 2003). The average rate for a one-room apartment was 602.27 CHF (US$480, £270, €390), a two-room apartment was about 846.52 CHF (US$680, £380, €540), a three-room apartment was about 1054.14 CHF (US$840, £470, €670) and a six or more room apartment cost an average of 2185.24 CHF (US$1750, £980, €1400). The average apartment price in Basel was 100.2% of the national average of 1116 CHF.Swiss Federal Statistical Office-Rental prices
2003 data accessed 26 May 2010
The vacancy rate for the municipality, , was 0.74%.


Historical population


Language

Most of the population () speaks German (129,592 or 77.8%), with Italian being second most common (9,049 or 5.4%) and French being third (4,280 or 2.6%). There are 202 persons who speak Romansh language, Romansh.


Religion

From the , 41,916 or 25.2% were Roman Catholic, while 39,180 or 23.5% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. Of the rest of the population, there were 4,567 members of an Orthodoxy#Christianity, Orthodox church (or about 2.74% of the population), there were 459 individuals (or about 0.28% of the population) who belonged to the Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland, Christian Catholic Church, and there were 3,464 individuals (or about 2.08% of the population) who belonged to another Christian church. There were 12,368 individuals (or about 7.43% of the population) who were Muslim. There were 1,325 individuals (or about 0.80% of the population) who were Jewish, however only members of religious institutions are counted as such by the municipality, which makes the actual number of people of Jewish descent living in Basel considerably higher. There were 746 individuals who were Buddhism, Buddhist, 947 individuals who were Hinduism, Hindu and 485 individuals who belonged to another church. 52,321 (or about 31.41% of the population) belonged to no church, are agnostic or Atheism, atheist, and 8,780 individuals (or about 5.27% of the population) did not answer the question.


Infrastructure


Quarters

Basel is subdivided into 19 quarters (''Quartiere''). The municipalities of
Riehen Riehen (Swiss German: ''Rieche'') is a municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Basel-Stadt in Switzerland. Together with the city of Basel and Bettingen, Riehen is one of three municipalities in the cant ...
and Bettingen, outside the city limits of Basel, are included in the canton of Basel-Stadt as rural quarters (''Landquartiere'').


Transport

Basel's airport is set up for airfreight; heavy goods reach the city and the heart of continental Europe from North Sea, the North Sea by ship along the Rhine. The main European routes for the highway and railway transport of freight cross in Basel. The outstanding location benefits logistics corporations, which operate globally from Basel. Trading firms are traditionally well represented in the Basel Region.


Port

Basel has Switzerland's only cargo port, through which goods pass along the navigable stretches of the Rhine and connect to ocean-going ships at the port of Rotterdam.


Air transport

EuroAirport Basel Mulhouse Freiburg is operated jointly by two countries, France and Switzerland, although the airport is located completely on French soil. The airport itself is split into two architecturally independent sectors, one half serving the French side and the other half serving the Swiss side; prior to Schengen Agreement, Schengen there was an immigration inspection point at the middle of the airport so that people could "emigrate" to the other side of the airport.


Railways

Basel has long held an important place as a rail hub. Three railway stations—those of the German, French and Swiss networks—lie within the city (although the Swiss (Basel SBB railway station, Basel SBB) and French (Basel SBB railway station, Bâle SNCF) stations are actually in the same complex, separated by Customs and Immigration facilities). Basel Badischer Bahnhof is on the opposite side of the city. Basel's local rail services are supplied by the Basel Regional S-Bahn. The largest goods railway complex of the country is located just outside the city, spanning the municipalities of Muttenz and Pratteln. The new highspeed ICE railway line from Karlsruhe to Basel was completed in 2008 while phase I of the LGV Rhin-Rhône, TGV Rhin-Rhône line, opened in December 2011, has reduced travel time from Basel to Paris to about 3 hours.


Roads

Basel is located on the A3 motorway (Switzerland), A3 motorway. Within the city limits, five bridges connect Greater and Lesser Basel (downstream): * Schwarzwaldbrücke (built 1972) * Wettsteinbrücke (current structure built 1998, original bridge built 1879) * Mittlere Rheinbrücke (current structure built 1905, original bridge built 1225 as the first bridge to cross the Rhine River) * Johanniterbrücke (built 1967) * Dreirosenbrücke (built 2004, original bridge built 1935)


Ferries

A somewhat anachronistic yet still widely used system of reaction ferry boats links the two shores. There are four ferries, each situated approximately midway between two bridges. Each is attached by a cable to a block that rides along another cable spanning the river at a height of . To cross the river, the ferryman orients the boat around 45° from the current so that the current pushes the boat across the river. This form of transportation is therefore completely hydraulically driven, requiring no outside energy source


Public transport

Basel has an extensive public transportation network serving the city and connecting to surrounding suburbs, including a large Basel Trams, tram network. The green-colored local light rail, trams and buses are operated by the Basler Verkehrs-Betriebe (BVB). The yellow-colored buses and trams are operated by the Baselland Transport (BLT), and connect areas in the nearby half-canton of Baselland to central Basel. The BVB also shares commuter bus lines in cooperation with transit authorities in the neighboring Alsace region in France and Baden region in Germany. The Basel Regional S-Bahn, the commuter rail network connecting to suburbs surrounding the city, is jointly operated by Schweizerische Bundesbahnen, SBB, SNCF and Deutsche Bahn, DB.


Border crossings

Basel is located at the meeting point of France, Germany and Switzerland; because it is so near other countries and is beyond the Jura Mountains, many within the Swiss military reportedly believe that the city is indefensible during wartime. It has numerous road and rail crossings between Switzerland and the other two countries. With Switzerland joining the Schengen Area on 12 December 2008, immigration checks were no longer carried out at the crossings. However, Switzerland did not join the European Union Customs Union (though it did join the EU Single Market) and customs checks are still conducted at or near the crossings. France-Switzerland (from east to west) * Road crossings (with French road name continuation) ** Kohlenstrasse (Avenue de Bâle, Huningue). This crossing replaces the former crossing Hüningerstrasse further east. ** Elsässerstrasse (Avenue de Bâle, Saint-Louis) ** Autobahn A3 (A35 autoroute, Saint-Louis) ** EuroAirport Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg – pedestrian walkway between the French and Swiss sections on Level 3 (departures) of airport. ** Burgfelderstrasse (Rue du 1er Mars, Saint Louis) * Railway crossing ** Basel SBB railway station Germany-Switzerland (clockwise, from north to south) * Road crossings (with German road name continuation) ** Hiltalingerstrasse (Zollstraße,
Weil am Rhein Weil am Rhein ( High Alemannic: ''Wiil am Rhii'') is a German town and commune. It is on the east bank of the River Rhine ), Surselva, Graubünden, Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Sv ...
). Tram 8 goes along this road to Weil am Rhein. The extension opened in 2014; it used to end before the border. ** Autobahn A2 (Bundesautobahn 5, Autobahn A5,
Weil am Rhein Weil am Rhein ( High Alemannic: ''Wiil am Rhii'') is a German town and commune. It is on the east bank of the River Rhine ), Surselva, Graubünden, Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Sv ...
) ** Freiburgerstrasse (Baslerstraße,
Weil am Rhein Weil am Rhein ( High Alemannic: ''Wiil am Rhii'') is a German town and commune. It is on the east bank of the River Rhine ), Surselva, Graubünden, Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Sv ...
) ** Weilstrasse,
Riehen Riehen (Swiss German: ''Rieche'') is a municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Basel-Stadt in Switzerland. Together with the city of Basel and Bettingen, Riehen is one of three municipalities in the cant ...
(Haupstraße,
Weil am Rhein Weil am Rhein ( High Alemannic: ''Wiil am Rhii'') is a German town and commune. It is on the east bank of the River Rhine ), Surselva, Graubünden, Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Sv ...
) ** Lörracherstrasse,
Riehen Riehen (Swiss German: ''Rieche'') is a municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Basel-Stadt in Switzerland. Together with the city of Basel and Bettingen, Riehen is one of three municipalities in the cant ...
(Baslerstraße, Stetten, Lörrach) ** Inzlingerstrasse,
Riehen Riehen (Swiss German: ''Rieche'') is a municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Basel-Stadt in Switzerland. Together with the city of Basel and Bettingen, Riehen is one of three municipalities in the cant ...
(Riehenstraße, Inzlingen) ** Grenzacherstrasse (Hörnle, Grenzach-Wyhlen) * Railway crossing ** Between Basel SBB and Basel Badischer Bahnhof – Basel Badischer Bahnhof, and all other railway property and stations on the right bank of the Rhine belong to Deutsche Bundesbahn, DB and are classed as German customs territory. Immigration and customs checks are conducted at the platform exit tunnel for passengers leaving trains here. Additionally there are many footpaths and cycle tracks crossing the border between Basel and Germany.


Health

As the biggest town in the Northwest of Switzerland numerous public and private health centres are located in Basel. Among others the University Hospital of Basel, Universitätsspital Basel and the Universitätskinderspital Basel. The Anthroposophy, anthroposophical health institute Klinik-Arlesheim (formerly known as Lukas-Klinik and Ita-Wegman-Klinik) are both located in the Basel area as well. Private health centres include the Bethesda Spital and the Merian Iselin Klinik. Additionally the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute is located in Basel too.


Energy

Basel is at the forefront of a national vision to more than halve energy use in Switzerland by 2050. To research, develop and commercialise the technologies and techniques required for the country to become a 2000-watt society, 2000 Watt society, a number of projects have been set up since 2001 in the Basel metropolitan area. These include demonstration buildings constructed to Minergie or ''Passive house, Passivhaus'' standards, electricity generation from renewable energy sources, and vehicles using natural gas, hydrogen economy, hydrogen and biogas. A building construction law was passed in 2002 also which stated that all new flat roofs must be greened leading to Basel becoming the world's leading green roof city. This was driven by an energy saving programme. A Enhanced geothermal systems, hot dry rock geothermal energy project was cancelled in 2009 since it caused induced seismicity in Basel.


Economy

The city of Basel, located in the north west of Switzerland, is one of the most dynamic economic regions of Switzerland. , Basel had an unemployment rate of 3.7%. , 19.3% of the working population was employed in the Secondary sector of the economy, secondary sector and 80.6% was employed in the Tertiary sector of the economy, tertiary sector. There were 82,449 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which women made up 46.2% of the workforce. the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was 130,988. The number of jobs in the primary sector was 13, of which 10 were in agriculture and 4 were in forestry or lumber production. The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 33,171 of which 24,848 or (74.9%) were in manufacturing, 10 were in mining and 7,313 (22.0%) were in construction. The number of jobs in the tertiary sector was 97,804. In the tertiary sector; 12,880 or 13.2% were in wholesale or retail sales or the repair of motor vehicles, 11,959 or 12.2% were in the movement and storage of goods, 6,120 or 6.3% were in a hotel or restaurant, 4,186 or 4.3% were in the information industry, 10,752 or 11.0% were the insurance or financial industry, 13,695 or 14.0% were technical professionals or scientists, 6,983 or 7.1% were in education and 16,060 or 16.4% were in health care. , there were 121,842 workers who commuted into the municipality and 19,263 workers who commuted away. The municipality is a net importer of workers, with about 6.3 workers entering the municipality for every one leaving. About 23.9% of the workforce coming into Basel are coming from outside Switzerland, while 1.0% of the locals commute out of Switzerland for work.Swiss Federal Statistical Office – Statweb
accessed 24 June 2010
Of the working population, 49.2% used public transportation to get to work, and 18.7% used a private car. The Roche Tower, designed by Herzog & de Meuron, is 41 floors and high, upon its opening in 2015 it has become the tallest building in Switzerland. Basel has also Switzerland's third tallest building (Basler Messeturm, ) and Switzerland's tallest tower (Swisscom-Sendeturm St. Chrischona, St. Chrischona TV tower, ).


Chemical industry

The Swiss chemical industry operates largely from Basel, and Basel also has a large Pharmaceutical industry in Switzerland, pharmaceutical industry. Novartis,Chen, Aric.
Going to Basel
" ''The New York Times''. 11 June 2006. Retrieved on 12 January 2010.
Syngenta, Ciba Specialty Chemicals, Clariant, Hoffmann–La Roche, Hoffmann-La Roche, Basilea Pharmaceutica and Actelion are headquartered there. Pharmaceuticals and specialty chemicals have become the modern focus of the city's industrial production.


Banking

Banking is important to Basel: * UBS AG maintains central offices in Basel. * The
Bank for International Settlements The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject ...

Bank for International Settlements
is located within the city and is the central banker's bank. The bank is controlled by a board of directors, which is composed of the elite central bankers of 11 different countries (US, UK, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Switzerland, the Netherlands and Sweden). :According to the BIS, "The choice of Switzerland for the seat of the BIS was a compromise by those countries that established the BIS: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. When consensus could not be reached on locating the Bank in London, Brussels or Amsterdam, the choice fell on Switzerland. An independent, neutral country, Switzerland offered the BIS less exposure to undue influence from any of the major powers. Within Switzerland, Basel was chosen largely because of its location, with excellent railway connections in all directions, especially important at a time when most international travel was by train." :Created in May 1930, the BIS is owned by its member central banks, which are private entities. No agent of the Swiss public authorities may enter the premises without the express consent of the bank. The bank exercises supervision and police power over its premises. The bank enjoys immunity from criminal and administrative jurisdiction, as well as setting recommendations which become standard for the world's commercial banking system. * Basel is also the location of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, which is distinct from the BIS. It usually meets at the BIS premises in Basel. Responsible for the Basel Accords (Basel I, Basel II Accord, Basel II and Basel III), this organization fundamentally changed Risk management within its industry. * Basel also hosts the headquarters of the Global Infrastructure Basel Foundation, which is active in the field of sustainable infrastructure (financing).


Air

Swiss International Air Lines, the national airline of Switzerland, is headquartered on the grounds of EuroAirport Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg in Saint-Louis, Haut-Rhin, France, near Basel. Prior to the formation of Swiss International Air Lines, the regional airline Crossair was headquartered near Basel.


Media

''Basler Zeitung'' ("BaZ") and ''bz Basel'' are the local newspapers. The local TV station is called ''Telebasel''. The German-speaking Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen, Swiss Radio and Television SRF company, part of the Swiss Broadcasting Corporation SRG SSR, holds offices in Basel as well. The academic publishers Birkhäuser, Karger Publishers, Karger and MDPI are based in Basel.


Trade fairs

Important trade shows include
Art Basel Art Basel is a for-profit, privately owned and managed, international art fair staged annually in Basel , french: link=no, Bâlois(e), it, Basilese , neighboring_municipalities= Allschwil (BL), Hégenheim (FR-68), Binningen, Switzerland, Binn ...
, the world's most important fair for modern and contemporary art, Baselworld (watches and jewelry), Swissbau (construction and real estate) and Igeho (hotels, catering, take-away, care). The Mustermesse Basel, Swiss Sample Fair ("Schweizer Mustermesse") was the largest and oldest consumer fair in Switzerland. It was held from 2007 to 2019 and took place in Kleinbasel on the right bank of the Rhine.


Education

Besides Humanism the city of Basel has also been well known for its achievements in the field of mathematics. Among others, the mathematician Leonhard Euler and the Bernoulli family have done research and been teaching at the local institutions for centuries. In 1910 the Swiss Mathematical Society was founded in the city and in the mid-twentieth century the Russian mathematician Alexander Ostrowski taught at the local university. In 2000 about 57,864 or (34.7%) of the population have completed non-mandatory Education in Switzerland#Secondary, upper secondary education, and 27,603 or (16.6%) have completed additional higher education (either List of universities in Switzerland, university or a ''Fachhochschule''). Of the 27,603 who completed tertiary schooling, 44.4% were Swiss men, 31.1% were Swiss women, 13.9% were non-Swiss men and 10.6% were non-Swiss women. In 2010 11,912 students attended the
University of Basel The University of Basel (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...
(55% female). 25% were foreign nationals, 16% were from canton of Basel-Stadt. In 2006, 6162 students studied at one of the nine academies of the FHNW (51% female). , there were 5,820 students in Basel who came from another municipality, while 1,116 residents attended schools outside the municipality.


Universities

Basel hosts Switzerland's oldest university, the
University of Basel The University of Basel (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...
, dating from 1460. Desiderius Erasmus, Erasmus, Paracelsus, Daniel Bernoulli, Leonhard Euler, Jacob Burckhardt,
Friedrich Nietzsche Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (; or ; 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, me ...

Friedrich Nietzsche
, Tadeusz Reichstein,
Karl Jaspers Karl Theodor Jaspers (, ; 23 February 1883 – 26 February 1969) was a German-Swiss psychiatrist and philosopher who had a strong influence on modern theology, psychiatry, and philosophy. After being trained in and practicing psychiatry, Jaspers ...

Karl Jaspers
, Carl Jung, Carl Gustav Jung and Karl Barth worked there. The University of Basel is currently counted among the 90 best educational institutions worldwide. In 2007, the ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich) established the Department of Biosystems Science and Engineering (D-BSSE) in Basel. The creation of the D-BSSE was driven by a Swiss-wide research initiative SystemsX, and was jointly supported by funding from the ETH Zürich, the Swiss Government, the Swiss University Conference (SUC) and private industry. Basel also hosts several academies of the ''Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz, Fachhochschule NW (FHNW)'': the FHNW Academy of Art and Design, FHNW Academy of Music, and the FHNW School of Business. Basel is renowned for various scientific societies, such as the Entomological Society of Basel (Entomologische Gesellschaft Basel, EGB), which celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2005.


Volksschule

In 2005 16,939 pupils and students visited the ''Volksschule'' (the obligatory school time, including ''Kindergarten'' (127), primary schools (''Primarschule'', 25), and lower secondary schools (''Sekundarschule'', 10), of which 94% visited public schools and 39.5% were foreign nationals. In 2010 already 51.1% of all pupils spoke another language than German as their first language. In 2009 3.1% of the pupils visited special classes for pupils with particular needs. The average amount of study in primary school in Basel is 816 teaching hours per year.


Upper secondary school

In 2010 65% of the youth finished their upper secondary education with a vocational training and education, 18% finished their upper secondary education with a Matura, Federal Matura at one of the five gymnasiums, 5% completed a ''Fachmaturität'' at the ''FMS'', 5% completed a ''Berufsmaturität'' synchronously to their vocational training, and 7% other kind of upper secondary maturity. 14.1% of all students at public gymnasiums were foreign nationals. The Maturity quota in 2010 was on a record high at 28.8% (32.8 female, 24.9% male). Basel has five public Mittelschule, gymnasiums (', ', ', ', '), each with its own profiles (different focus on major subjects, such as visual design, biology and chemistry, Italian, Spanish, or Latin languages, music, physics and applied mathematics, philosophy/education/psychology, and economics and law) that entitles students with a successful Matura graduation to attend universities. And one ''Fachmaturitätsschule'', the ''FMS'', with six different major subjects (health/natural sciences, education, social work, design/art, music/theatre/dance, and communication/media) that entitles students with a successful Fachmatura graduation to attend ''Fachhochschulen''. Four different ''höhere Fachschulen'' (higher vocational schools such as ''Bildungszentrum Gesundheit Basel-Stadt'' (health), ''Allgemeine Gewerbeschule Basel'' (trade), ''Berufsfachschule Basel'', ''Schule für Gestaltung Basel'' (design)) allows vocational students to improve their knowledge and know-how.


International schools

As a city with a percentage of foreigners of more than thirty-five percent and as one of the most important centres in the chemical and pharmaceutical field in the world, Basel counts several international schools including: ''Academia International School'', ''École Française de Bâle'', ''Freies Gymnasium Basel'' (private), ''Gymnasium am Münsterplatz'' (public), ''Schweizerisch-italienische Primarschule Sandro Pertini'', International School Basel and SIS Swiss International School.


Libraries

Basel is home to at least 65 libraries. Some of the largest include; the Universitätsbibliothek Basel (main university library), the special libraries of the University of Basel, the ''Allgemein Bibliotheken der Gesellschaft für Gutes und Gemeinnütziges (GGG) Basel'', the Library of the ''Pädagogische Hochschule'', the Library of the ''Hochschule für Soziale Arbeit'' and the Library of the ''Hochschule für Wirtschaft''. There was a combined total () of 8,443,643 books or other media in the libraries, and in the same year a total of 1,722,802 items were loaned out.


Culture


Main sights

The red sandstone Basel Minster, Münster, one of the foremost late-Romanesque/early Gothic buildings in the Upper Rhine, was badly damaged in the great earthquake of 1356, rebuilt in the 14th and 15th century, extensively reconstructed in the mid-19th century and further restored in the late 20th century.Basel Münster website – Architecture 20th century
accessed 4 May 2012
A memorial to Desiderius Erasmus, Erasmus lies inside the Münster. The City Hall from the 16th century is located on the Market Square and is decorated with fine murals on the outer walls and on the walls of the inner court. Basel is also host to an array of buildings by internationally renowned architects. These include the Beyeler Foundation by Renzo Piano, or the Vitra (furniture), Vitra complex in nearby Weil am Rhein, composed of buildings by architects such as Zaha Hadid (fire station), Frank Gehry (Vitra Design Museum, Design Museum), Álvaro Siza Vieira (factory building) and Tadao Ando (conference centre). Basel also features buildings by Mario Botta (Jean Tinguely Museum and Bank of International settlements) and Herzog & de Meuron (whose architectural practice is in Basel, and who are best known as the architects of Tate Modern in London and the Beijing National Stadium, Bird's Nest in Beijing, the Olympia stadium, which was designed for use throughout the 2008 Summer Olympics and Paralympics). The city received the Wakker Prize in 1996.


Heritage sites

Basel features a great number of Swiss Inventory of Cultural Property of National and Regional Significance, heritage sites of national significance. These include the entire Old Town of Basel as well as the following buildings and collections: ;Churches and monasteries :Old Catholic Church, Old Catholic ''Prediger Kirche'' (church), ''Bischofshof'' with Collegiate church at Rittergasse 1, ''Domhof'' at Münsterplatz 10–12, former Carthusian House of St Margarethental, Roman Catholic Church, Catholic Church of St Antonius, ''Lohnhof'' (former Augustinians Collegiate Church), Mission 21, Archive of the ''Evangelisches Missionswerk Basel'', Basel Münster, Münster of Basle (cathedral), Swiss Reformed Church, Reformed ''Elisabethenkirche, Basel, Elisabethenkirche'' (church), Reformed ''Johanneskirche'' (church), Reformed ''Leonhardskirche'' (church, former Augustinians Abbey), Reformed ''Martinskirche'' (church), Reformed ''Pauluskirche'' (church), Reformed ''Peterskirche'' (church), Reformed ''St. Albankirche'' (church) with cloister and cemetery, Reformed ''Theodorskirche'' (church), Synagoge at Eulerstrasse 2 ;Secular buildings: ''Badischer Bahnhof'' (German Baden's railway station) with fountain,
Bank for International Settlements The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject ...

Bank for International Settlements
, ''Blaues Haus (Reichensteinerhof)'' at Rheinsprung 16, ''Bruderholzschule'' (school house) at Fritz-Hauser-Strasse 20, ''Brunschwiler Haus'' at Hebelstrasse 15, Basel SBB railway station, ''Bahnhof Basel SBB'' (Swiss railway station), ''Bürgerspital'' (hospital), ''Café Spitz (Merianflügel)'', ''Coop Schweiz'' company's central archive, Depot of the ''Archäologischen Bodenforschung des Kanton Basel-Stadt'', former Gallizian Paper Mill and Basel Paper Mill, Swiss Museum of Paper, former ''Klingental-Kaserne'' (casern) with ''Klingentaler Kirche'' (church), ''Fasnachtsbrunnen'' (fountain), ''Feuerschützenhaus'' (guild house of the riflemen) at Schützenmattstrasse 56, ''Fischmarktbrunnen'' (fountain), ''Geltenzunft'' at Marktplatz 13, ''Gymnasium am Kohlenberg (St Leonhard)'' (school), ''Hauptpost'' (main post office), ''Haus zum Raben'' at Aeschenvorstadt 15, ''Hohenfirstenhof'' at Rittergasse 19, ''Holsteinerhof'' at Hebelstrasse 30, Markgräflerhof a former palace of the margraves of Margraviate of Baden, Baden-Durlach, ''Mittlere Rhein Brücke'' (Central Rhine Bridge), ''Stadtcasino'' (music hall) at Steinenberg 14, ''Ramsteinerhof'' at Rittergasse 7 and 9, Seat of local government, Rathaus (town hall), ''Rundhof'' building of the ''Schweizerischen Mustermesse'', ''Safranzunft'' at Gerbergasse 11, ''Sandgrube'' at Riehenstrasse 154, ''Schlösschen'' (Manor house) Gundeldingen, ''Schönes Haus'' and ''Schöner Hof'' at Nadelberg 6, ''Wasgenring'' school house, ''Seidenhof'' with painting of Rudolf von Habsburg, ''Spalenhof'' at Spalenberg 12, ''Spiesshof'' at Heuberg 7, city walls, Townhouse (former post office) at Stadthausgasse 13 / Totengässlein 6, ''Weisses Haus'' at Martinsgasse 3, ''Wildt'sches Haus'' at Petersplatz 13, ''Haus zum Neuen Singer'' at Speiserstrasse 98, ''Wolfgottesacker'' at Münchensteinerstrasse 99, ''Zerkindenhof'' at Nadelberg 10. ;Archaeological sites: The Celtic Settlement at ''Gasfabrik'', ''Münsterhügel'' and ''Altstadt'' (historical city, late La Tène culture, La Tène and medieval settlement). ;Museums, archives and collections: Basel calls itself the ''Cultural Capital of Switzerland''. Among others, there is the Anatomical Museum of the University Basel, Berri-Villen and Antikenmuseum Basel und Sammlung Ludwig, Museum of Ancient Art Basel and Ludwig Collection, Former Franciscan ''Barefoot'' Order Church and Basel Historical Museum, Company Archive of Novartis, ''Haus zum Kirschgarten'' which is part of the Basel Historical Museum, Historic Archive Roche and Industrial Complex Hoffmann-La Roche, Jewish Museum of Switzerland, Caricature & Cartoon Museum Basel, Karl Barth-Archive, ''Kleines Klingental'' (Lower Klingen Valley) with Museum Klingental, Kunstmuseum Basel, Art Museum of Basel, hosting the world's oldest art collection accessible to the public, Natural History Museum of Basel and the Museum of Cultures Basel, Museum of Modern Art Basel with the E. Hoffmann collection, Museum Jean Tinguely Basel, Music Museum, Pharmacy Historical Museum of the University of Basel, Poster Collection of the School for Design (''Schule für Gestaltung''), Swiss Business Archives, Sculpture Hall, Sports Museum of Switzerland, Archives of the Canton of Basel-Stadt, UBS AG Corporate Archives, University Library with manuscripts and music collection, Zoological Garden (''Zoologischer Garten'').


Theatre and music

Basel is the home of the Schola Cantorum Basiliensis, founded in 1933, a worldwide centre for research on and performance of music from the Medieval through the Baroque eras. Theater Basel, chosen in 1999 as the best stage for German-language performances and in 2009 and 2010 as "Opera house of the year" by German opera magazine ''Opernwelt'', presents a busy schedule of plays in addition to being home to the city's opera and ballet companies. Basel is home to the largest orchestra in Switzerland, the Sinfonieorchester Basel. It is also the home of the Basel Sinfonietta and the Kammerorchester Basel, which recorded the complete symphonies of Ludwig van Beethoven for the Sony label, led by its music director Giovanni Antonini. The Schola Cantorum and the Basler Kammerorchester were both founded by the conductor Paul Sacher, who went on to commission works by many leading composers. The Paul Sacher Foundation, opened in 1986, houses a major collection of manuscripts, including the entire Igor Stravinsky archive. The baroque orchestras La Cetra and Capriccio Basel are also based in Basel. In May 2004, the fifth European Festival of Youth Choirs (Europäisches Jugendchorfestival, or EJCF) opened; this Basel tradition started in 1992. Host of the festival is the local Basel Boys Choir. In 1997, Basel contended to become the "European Capital of Culture", though the honor went to Thessaloniki.


Museums

The Museums in Basel, Basel museums cover a broad and diverse spectrum of collection (museum), collections with a marked concentration in the fine arts. They house numerous holdings of international significance. The over three dozen institutions yield an extraordinarily high density of museums compared to other cities of similar size and draw over one million visitors annually. Constituting an essential component of Basel culture and cultural policy, the museums are the result of closely interwoven private and public collecting activities and promotion of arts and culture going back to the 16th century. The public museum collection was first created back in 1661 and represents the oldest public collection in continuous existence in Europa. Since the late 1980s, various private collections have been made accessible to the public in new purpose-built structures that have been recognized as acclaimed examples of avant-garde museum architecture. * Antikenmuseum Basel und Sammlung Ludwig Ancient cultures of the mediterranean museum *
Augusta Raurica Augusta Raurica is a Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shorten ...

Augusta Raurica
Roman open-air museum * Basel Paper Mill (german: link=no, Basler Papiermühle) * Beyeler Foundation (Foundation Beyeler
Beyeler Museum (Fondation Beyeler)
* Botanical Garden Base

* Caricature & Cartoon Museum Basel (german: link=no, Karikatur & Cartoon Museum Basel) * Dollhouse Museum (german: link=no, Puppenhausmuseum) a museum housing the largest teddy bear collection in Europe. * Foundation Fernet Branca (french: link=no, Fondation Fernet Branca) in Saint-Louis, Haut-Rhin near Basel. Modern art collection. * Basel Historical Museum, Historical Museum Basel (german: link=no, Historisches Museum Basel) * Kunsthalle Basel Modern and contemporary art museum * Kunstmuseum Basel Upper Rhine, Upper Rhenish and Flemish paintings, drawings from 1400 to 1600 and 19th- to 21st-century art * Monteverdi Automuseum * Museum of Cultures Basel (german: link=no, Museum der Kulturen Basel) Large collections on European and non-European cultural life * Museum of Contemporary Art (Basel), Museum of Contemporary Art Art from the 1960s up to the present * Music Museum (Basel), Music Museum (german: link=no, Musikmuseum) of the Basel Historic Museum * Natural History Museum of Basel (german: link=no, Naturhistorisches Museum Basel) * Pharmazie-Historisches Museum der Universität Basel * Schaulager Modern and contemporary art museum * Swiss Architecture Museum (german: link=no, Schweizerisches Architekturmuseum) * Tinguely Museum Life and work of the major Swiss iron sculptor Jean Tinguely * Jewish Musem of Switzerland, Jewish Museum of Switzerland


Events

The city of Basel is a centre for numerous fairs and events all year round. One of the most important fairs for contemporary art worldwide is the
Art Basel Art Basel is a for-profit, privately owned and managed, international art fair staged annually in Basel , french: link=no, Bâlois(e), it, Basilese , neighboring_municipalities= Allschwil (BL), Hégenheim (FR-68), Binningen, Switzerland, Binn ...
which was founded in 1970 by Ernst Beyeler and takes place in June each year. Baselworld, the watch and jewellery show (''Uhren- und Schmuckmesse'') one of the biggest fairs of its kind in Europe is held every year as well, and attracts a great number of tourists and dealers to the city. Live marketing company and fair organizer MCH Group has its head office in Basel. The carnival of the city of Basel (''Carnival of Basel, Basler Fasnacht'') is a major cultural event in the year. The carnival is the biggest in Switzerland and attracts large crowds every year, despite the fact that it starts at exactly four o'clock in the morning (''Morgestraich'') on a winter Monday. The Fasnacht asserts Basel's Protestant history by commencing the revelry five days after Ash Wednesday and continuing exactly 72 hours. Almost all study and work in the old city cease. Dozens of fife and drum clubs parade in medieval guild tradition with fantastical masks and illuminated lanterns. Basel Tattoo, founded in 2006 by the local Top Secret Drum Corps, has grown to be the world's second largest military tattoo in terms of performers and budget after the Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo, Edinburgh Military Tattoo.Basel's tattoo spins to success
swissinfo.ch, written 2008-7-15, retrieved 13 July 2012
The Basel Tattoo annual parade, with an estimated 125,000 visitors, is considered the largest event in Basel. The event is now sponsored by the Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport, Swiss Federal Department of Defence, Civil Protection and Sport (DDPS), making it the official military tattoo of Switzerland.


Cuisine

There are a number of culinary specialties originating in Basel, including ''Basler Läckerli'' cookies and ''Mässmogge'' candies. Being located in the meeting place between Switzerland, France and Germany the culinary landscape as a whole is very varied and diverse, making it a city with a great number of restaurants of all sorts.


Zoo

''Zoo Basel'' is, with over 1.7 million visitors per year, Besucherrekord beim Zolli
Basler Zeitung, published 23 February 2012
the most visited tourist attraction in Basel and the second most visited tourist attraction in Switzerland. Zolli beliebt
. 20 Minuten, 20min.ch, published 23 February 2009
Established in 1874, Zoo Basel is the oldest zoo in Switzerland and, by number of animals, the largest. Through its history, Zoo Basel has had several breeding successes, such as the first worldwide Indian rhinoceros birth Eröffnung des Panzernashornhauses
. Zoo Basel, written 2006-09-26, retrieved 3 December 2009
and Greater flamingo hatch in a zoo. These and other achievements led Forbes Travel to rank Zoo Basel as one of the fifteen best zoos in the world in 2008.Forbes Travel
GetListy, retrieved 26 March 2010
Despite its international fame, Basel's population remains attached to Zoo Basel, which is entirely surrounded by the city of Basel. Evidence of this is the millions of donations money each year, as well as Zoo Basel's unofficial name: locals lovingly call "their" zoo "''Zolli''" by which is it known throughout Basel and most of Switzerland.


Sport

Basel has a reputation in Switzerland as a successful sporting city. The association football, football club
FC Basel FC Basel 1893 (''Fussball Club Basel 1893''), widely known as FC Basel, FCB, or just Basel, is a Swiss football Football is a family of team sport A team is a [group (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working t ...

FC Basel
continues to be successful and in recognition of this the city was one of the Swiss venues for the UEFA Euro 2008, 2008 European Championships, as well as
Geneva Geneva ( ; french: Genève ; frp, Genèva ; german: link=no, Genf ; it, Ginevra ; rm, Genevra) is the List of cities in Switzerland, second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of Romandy, the French-spea ...

Geneva
,
Zürich Zürich () is the in and the capital of the . It is located in north-central Switzerland, at the northwestern tip of . As of January 2020, the municipality has 434,335 inhabitants, the urban area (agglomeration) 1.315 million (2009), and the 1. ...

Zürich
and Bern. The championships were jointly hosted by
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
and Austria. BSC Old Boys and Concordia Basel are the other football teams in Basel. Among the most popular sports in Switzerland is ice hockey. Basel is home to the EHC Basel which plays in the 1. Liga (ice hockey), MySports League, the third tier of the Swiss ice hockey league system. They play their home games in the 6,700-seat St. Jakob Arena. The team previously played in the National League (ice hockey), National League and the Swiss League, but they had to fill a bankruptcy case after the 2013-14 National League B season, 2013–14 Swiss League season. Basel features a large St. Jakob-Park, football stadium that has been awarded four stars by UEFA, a modern ice hockey hall, and an admitted sports hall. A large indoor tennis event takes place in Basel every October. Some of the best Association of Tennis Professionals, ATP-professionals play every year at the Davidoff Swiss Indoors, Swiss Indoors, including Switzerland's biggest sporting hero and frequent participant Roger Federer, a Basel native who describes the city as "one of the most beautiful cities in the world". The annual Basel Rhine Swim draws several thousand visitors to the city to swim in or float on the Rhine river. While football and ice hockey are by far the most popular sports, basketball has a very small but faithful fan base. The top division, called Swiss Basketball League, SBL, is a semi-professional league and has one team from the Basel region, the "Birstal Starwings". Two players from Switzerland are currently active in the NBA, Thabo Sefolosha and Clint Capela. As in most European countries, and contrary to the U.S., Switzerland has a club-based rather than a school-based competition system. The Starwings Basel are the only first division basketball team in German-speaking Switzerland.Starwings – die Exoten aus Basel
, indoorsports.ch , accessed 5 September 2015.
International Handball Federation, IHF (International Handball Federation) is here. Basel Dragons AFC have been playing Australian rules football, Australian Football in the AFL Switzerland league since 2019.


Notable people

Notable people who were born or grew up in Basel: *1655 Jacob Bernoulli, mathematician *1667 Johann Bernoulli, mathematician *1707 Leonhard Euler, mathematician *1914 Rudy Burckhardt, photographer and filmmaker *1975 DJ Antoine (real name Antoine Konrad), DJ producer *1981 Roger Federer, professional tennis player


Picture gallery

File:St. Albantor.jpg, St. Alban Gate File:Rathaus (2122646923).jpg, Basel Town Hall, Rathaus, Basel's Town Hall File:RFHS-3033.jpg, Protestant Cathedral File:Basel 2006 840.JPG, Gemsberg File:Basel 2012-08 Mattes 1 (89).JPG,
University of Basel The University of Basel (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of ...
(est. in 1460) File:Basel, straatzicht Barfüssenplatz foto4 2013-07-27 10.01.jpg, Barfüsserplatz File:R0014737A.jpg, Münsterplatz File:Basel, Wettsteinbrücke met kathedraal op de achtergrond foto10 2013-07-21 09.08.jpg, Wettsteinbrücke File:BIZ Basel.jpg, Global seat of the Bank for International Settlements File:Haus zum Kirschgarten 2008-03-30.jpg, ''Haus zum Kirschgarten'' File:Basel - Spalentor.jpg, Spalentor


Notes and references


Notes


References


Bibliography

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External links

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Official tourism siteBasel CityguideEuroAirport Basel Mulhouse FreiburgOverview of museums in Basel or basel museums
(Newspaper)]
Website of the regional television of Basel – Enjoy daily news and stories about Baselcity, Baselland and the green Fricktal and Laufental, together with its citizens
{{Authority control Basel, Cultural property of national significance in Basel-Stadt Municipalities of Basel-Stadt Cantonal capitals of Switzerland Cities in Switzerland Populated places on the Rhine Port cities and towns in Switzerland Free imperial cities Germany–Switzerland border crossings France–Switzerland border crossings Border tripoints University towns in Switzerland