1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers
> 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river
2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes
(e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.
Part of the series on
Rot un Wiss, traditional flag of Alsace
Germania Superior (Pagus Alsatiae) (83–475)
Alemanni (circa 213–496)
Alsace (circa 630–699)
Prince-Bishopric of Strasbourg
Prince-Bishopric of Strasbourg (982–1803)
County of Ferrette (11th-century–14th-century)
Further Austria (13th-century–1648)
Upper Rhenish Circle
Upper Rhenish Circle (1500-1679)
Imperial Territory of
Gau Baden-Elsaß (1940–1945)
Grand Est (2016–)
Coat of arms
Musée alsacien (Hagenau Strasbourg)
Concordat in Alsace-Moselle
Concordat in Alsace-Moselle (1801):
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Strasbourg
(Immediately subject to the Holy See)
(Prince-Bishopric of Strasbourg)
(Lorraine: Roman Catholic Diocese of Metz)
Protestantism: Union of Protestant Churches of
Alsace and Lorraine:
Protestant Church of
Augsburg Confession of
Alsace and Lorraine
Protestant Reformed Church of
Alsace and Lorraine
Local law in Alsace-Moselle
Concordat in Alsace-Moselle
Arrondissement of Haguenau-Wissembourg
Arrondissement of Molsheim
Arrondissement of Saverne
Arrondissement of Sélestat-Erstein
Arrondissement of Strasbourg
Arrondissement of Altkirch
Arrondissement of Colmar-Ribeauvillé
Arrondissement of Mulhouse
Arrondissement of Thann-Guebwiller
Alsace Regional Council (1982-2015)
Alsace independence movement
Alsace in the European Union
European Parliament elections
Politics of France
Politics of Germany
Politics of the European Union
Strasbourg (/ˈstræzbɜːrɡ/, French: [stʁazbuʁ, stʁas-];
Alsatian: Strossburi [ˈʃd̥ʁɔːsb̥uʁi]; German: Straßburg
[ˈʃtʁaːsbʊɐ̯k]) is the capital and largest city of the Grand
Est region of
France and is the official seat of the European
Parliament. Located close to the border with
Germany in the historic
region of Alsace, it is the capital of the
Bas-Rhin département. In
2014, the city proper had 276,170 inhabitants and both the
Strasbourg (Greater Strasbourg) and the
Arrondissement of Strasbourg
Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 484,157 inhabitants. Strasbourg's
metropolitan area had a population of 773,347 in 2013 (not counting
the section across the border in Germany), making it the ninth largest
metro area in
France and home to 13% of the
Grand Est region's
inhabitants. The transnational
Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a
population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014.
Strasbourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union
Brussels and Luxembourg), as it is the seat of several
European institutions, such as the
Council of Europe
Council of Europe (with its
European Court of Human Rights, its European Directorate for the
Quality of Medicines and its European Audiovisual Observatory) and the
Eurocorps, as well as the
European Parliament and the European
Ombudsman of the European Union. The city is also the seat of the
Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine
Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the International
Institute of Human Rights.
Strasbourg's historic city centre, the Grande Île (Grand Island), was
classified a World Heritage site by
UNESCO in 1988, the first time
such an honour was placed on an entire city centre.
immersed in Franco-German culture and although violently disputed
throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between
Germany for centuries, especially through the University of
Strasbourg, currently the second largest in France, and the
coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture. It is also home to the
largest Islamic place of worship in France, the
Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and
engineering, as well as a hub of road, rail, and river transportation.
The port of
Strasbourg is the second largest on the
1 Etymology and names
5 Main sights
5.3.1 Fine art museums
5.3.2 Other museums
5.3.3 University museums
5.3.4 Museums in the suburbs
6.1 Population growth
6.2 Population composition
8.1 Universities and tertiary education
8.2 Primary and secondary education
Strasbourg Public Transportation Statistics
11 European role
14 Notable people
15 Twin towns and sister cities
16 In popular culture
16.1 In film
16.2 In literature
16.3 In music
19 External links
Etymology and names
Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati (in the
nominative, Argantorate in the locative), a Celtic Gaulish name
Latinized first as Argentorate (with Gaulish locative ending, as
appearing on the first Roman milestones in the 1st century CE), and
Argentoratum (with regular
Latin nominative ending, in later
Latin texts). That Gaulish name is a compound of -rati, the Gaulish
word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the
Old Irish ráth (see
ringfort), and arganto(n)- (cognate to
Latin argentum, which gave
modern French argent), the Gaulish word for silver, but also any
precious metal, particularly gold, suggesting either a fortified
enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined
in the nearby rivers.
After the 5th century, the city became known by a completely different
name Gallicized as
Strasbourg (Lower Alsatian: Strossburi,
[ˈʃd̥rɔːsb̥uri]; German: Straßburg, [ˈʃtʁaːsbʊɐ̯k]).
That name is of Germanic origin and means "Town (at the crossing) of
roads". The modern Stras- is cognate to the German Straße and English
street, all of which are derived from
Latin strata ("paved road"),
while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough, all of
which are derived from Proto-Germanic *burgz ("hill fort, fortress").
Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change: in the
tenth book of his History of the Franks written shortly after 590 he
said that Egidius, Bishop of Reims, accused of plotting against King
Childebert II of
Austrasia in favor of his uncle King
Chilperic I of
Neustria, was tried by a synod of Austrasian bishops in
November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood, then taken
"ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant" ("to the
city of Argentoratum, which they now call Strateburgus"), where he was
Strasbourg seen from Spot Satellite
Strasbourg is situated on the eastern border of
France with Germany.
This border is formed by the Rhine, which also forms the eastern
border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town
Kehl. The historic core of
Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île
in the river Ill, which here flows parallel to, and roughly 4
kilometres (2.5 mi) from, the Rhine. The natural courses of the
two rivers eventually join some distance downstream of Strasbourg,
although several artificial waterways now connect them within the
The city lies in the Upper
Rhine Plain, at between 132 metres
(433 ft) and 151 metres (495 ft) above sea level, with the
upland areas of the
Vosges Mountains some 20 km (12 mi) to
the west and the
Black Forest 25 km (16 mi) to the east.
This section of the
Rhine valley is a major axis of north–south
travel, with river traffic on the
Rhine itself, and major roads and
railways paralleling it on both banks.
The city is some 400 kilometres (250 mi) east of Paris. The mouth
Rhine lies approximately 450 kilometres (280 mi) to the
north, or 650 kilometres (400 mi) as the river flows, whilst the
head of navigation in
Basel is some 100 kilometres (62 mi) to the
south, or 150 kilometres (93 mi) by river.
Climate diagram of Strasbourg
In spite of its position far inland, Strasbourg's climate is
classified as oceanic (
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification Cfb),
with warm, relatively sunny summers and cool, overcast winters.
Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but
remains largely constant throughout the year, totaling 631.4 mm
(24.9 in) annually. On average, snow falls 30 days per year.
The highest temperature ever recorded was 38.5 °C
(101.3 °F) in August 2003, during the 2003 European heat wave.
The lowest temperature ever recorded was −23.4 °C
(−10.1 °F) in December 1938.
Strasbourg's location in the
Rhine valley, sheltered from the dominant
winds by the
Black Forest mountains, results in poor
natural ventilation, making
Strasbourg one of the most atmospherically
polluted cities of France. Nonetheless, the progressive
disappearance of heavy industry on both banks of the Rhine, as well as
effective measures of traffic regulation in and around the city have
reduced air pollution.
Climate data for Strasbourg, Bas-Rhin,
France (1981–2010 averages)
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days
Average snowy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Meteo France
Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity, snowy days 1961–1990)
Main article: History of Strasbourg
See also: Timeline of Strasbourg
Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor visiting
Strasbourg in 1414, detail of a
painting by Léo Schnug
The Roman camp of
Argentoratum was first mentioned in 12 BC; the city
Strasbourg which grew from it celebrated its 2,000th anniversary in
1988. The fertile area between the rivers Ill and
Rhine (Grand Ried
and Petit Ried) had already been populated since the middle
Between 362 and 1262,
Strasbourg was governed by the bishops of
Strasbourg; their rule was reinforced in 873 and then more in 982.
In 1262, the citizens violently rebelled against the bishop's rule
(Battle of Hausbergen) and
Strasbourg became a free imperial city. It
became a French city in 1681, after the conquest of
Alsace by the
armies of Louis XIV. In 1871, after the Franco-Prussian War, the city
became German again, until 1918 (end of World War I), when it reverted
to France. After the defeat of
France in 1940 (World War II),
Strasbourg came under German control again; since the end of 1944, it
is again a French town. In 2016,
Strasbourg was promoted from capital
Alsace to capital of Grand Est.
Strasbourg played an important part in Protestant Reformation, with
personalities such as John Calvin, Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Capito,
Katharina Zell, but also in other aspects of Christianity such as
German mysticism, with Johannes Tauler, Pietism, with Philipp Spener,
and Reverence for Life, with Albert Schweitzer. Delegates from the
city took part in the Protestation at Speyer. It was also one of the
first centres of the printing industry with pioneers such as Johannes
Gutenberg, Johannes Mentelin, and Heinrich Eggestein. Among the
darkest periods in the city's long history were the years 1349
Strasbourg massacre), 1793 (Reign of Terror), 1870 (Siege of
Strasbourg) and the years 1940–1944 with the Nazi occupation
(atrocities such as the
Jewish skeleton collection) and the British
and American bombing raids. Some other notable dates were the years
357 (Battle of Argentoratum), 842 (Oaths of Strasbourg), 1538
(establishment of the university), 1605 (world's first newspaper
printed by Johann Carolus), 1792 (La Marseillaise), and 1889
(pancreatic origin of diabetes discovered by Minkowski and Von
Strasbourg is the seat of European Institutions since 1949: first of
International Commission on Civil Status and of the Council of
Europe, later of the European Parliament, of the European Science
Foundation, of Eurocorps, and others as well.
Strasbourg is divided into the following districts:
Bourse, Esplanade, Krutenau
Conseil des XV, Rotterdam
Cronenbourg, Hautepierre, Poteries, Hohberg
Koenigshoffen, Montagne-Verte, Elsau
Neudorf, Schluthfeld, Port du Rhin, Musau
Neuhof, Stockfeld, Ganzau
Panorama from the
Barrage Vauban with the medieval bridge Ponts
Couverts in the foreground (the fourth tower being hidden by trees at
the left) and the cathedral in the distance on the right.
Strasbourg, Cathedral of Our Lady
The city is chiefly known for its sandstone Gothic Cathedral with its
famous astronomical clock, and for its medieval cityscape of Rhineland
black and white timber-framed buildings, particularly in the Petite
France district or Gerberviertel ("tanners' district") alongside the
Ill and in the streets and squares surrounding the cathedral, where
the renowned Maison Kammerzell stands out.
Notable medieval streets include Rue Mercière, Rue des Dentelles, Rue
du Bain aux Plantes, Rue des Juifs, Rue des Frères, Rue des
Tonneliers, Rue du Maroquin, Rue des Charpentiers, Rue des Serruriers,
Grand' Rue, Quai des Bateliers, Quai Saint-Nicolas and Quai
Saint-Thomas. Notable medieval squares include Place de la
Cathédrale, Place du Marché Gayot, Place Saint-Étienne, Place du
Marché aux Cochons de Lait and Place Benjamin Zix.
Place du Marché aux Cochons de Lait.
Place Gutenberg with statue of Gutenberg and Carousel.
Maison des tanneurs.
View of the Ill with Église Saint-Thomas.
In addition to the cathedral,
Strasbourg houses several other medieval
churches that have survived the many wars and destructions that have
plagued the city: the Romanesque Église Saint-Étienne, partly
destroyed in 1944 by Allied bombing raids, the part Romanesque, part
Gothic, very large Église Saint-Thomas with its Silbermann organ on
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and
Albert Schweitzer played, the
Gothic Église protestante Saint-Pierre-le-Jeune with its crypt dating
back to the seventh century and its cloister partly from the eleventh
century, the Gothic Église Saint-Guillaume with its fine
early-Renaissance stained glass and furniture, the Gothic Église
Saint-Jean, the part Gothic, part
Art Nouveau Église
Sainte-Madeleine, etc. The Neo-Gothic church Saint-Pierre-le-Vieux
Catholique (there is also an adjacent church Saint-Pierre-le-Vieux
Protestant) serves as a shrine for several 15th-century wood worked
and painted altars coming from other, now destroyed churches and
installed there for public display. Among the numerous secular
medieval buildings, the monumental Ancienne Douane (old custom-house)
German Renaissance has bequeathed the city some noteworthy
buildings (especially the current Chambre de commerce et d'industrie,
former town hall, on Place Gutenberg), as did the French
Classicism with several hôtels particuliers (i.e. palaces), among
which the Palais Rohan (1742, now housing three museums) is the most
spectacular. Other buildings of its kind are the "Hôtel de Hanau"
(1736, now the city hall), the
Hôtel de Klinglin
Hôtel de Klinglin (1736, now residence
of the préfet), the
Hôtel des Deux-Ponts
Hôtel des Deux-Ponts (1755, now residence of the
military governor), the Hôtel d'Andlau-Klinglin (1725, now seat of
the administration of the Port autonome de Strasbourg) etc. The
largest baroque building of
Strasbourg though is the 150-metre-long
(490 ft) 1720s main building of the Hôpital civil. As for French
Neo-classicism, it is the Opera House on
Place Broglie that most
prestigiously represents this style.
Strasbourg also offers high-class eclecticist buildings in its very
extended German district, the Neustadt, being the main memory of
Wilhelmian architecture since most of the major cities in Germany
proper suffered intensive damage during World War II. Streets,
boulevards and avenues are homogeneous, surprisingly high (up to seven
stories) and broad examples of German urban lay-out and of this
architectural style that summons and mixes up five centuries of
European architecture as well as Neo-Egyptian, Neo-Greek and
Neo-Babylonian styles. The former imperial palace Palais du Rhin, the
most political and thus heavily criticized of all German Strasbourg
buildings epitomizes the grand scale and stylistic sturdiness of this
period. But the two most handsome and ornate buildings of these times
are the École internationale des Pontonniers (the former Höhere
Mädchenschule, girls college) with its towers, turrets and multiple
round and square angles and the
Haute école des arts du Rhin
Haute école des arts du Rhin with
its lavishly ornate façade of painted bricks, woodwork and
The baroque organ of the Église Saint-Thomas
Notable streets of the German district include: Avenue de la Forêt
Noire, Avenue des Vosges, Avenue d'Alsace, Avenue de la Marseillaise,
Avenue de la Liberté, Boulevard de la Victoire, Rue Sellénick, Rue
du Général de Castelnau, Rue du Maréchal Foch, and Rue du Maréchal
Joffre. Notable squares of the German district include: Place de la
République, Place de l'Université, Place Brant, and Place Arnold.
Impressive examples of Prussian military architecture of the 1880s can
be found along the newly reopened Rue du Rempart, displaying
large-scale fortifications among which the aptly named Kriegstor (war
As for modern and contemporary architecture,
Strasbourg possesses some
Art Nouveau buildings (such as the huge
Palais des Fêtes
Palais des Fêtes and
houses and villas like
Villa Schutzenberger and Hôtel Brion), good
examples of post-
World War II
World War II functional architecture (the Cité
Rotterdam, for which
Le Corbusier did not succeed in the architectural
contest) and, in the very extended Quartier Européen, some
spectacular administrative buildings of sometimes utterly large size,
among which the
European Court of Human Rights
European Court of Human Rights building by Richard
Rogers is arguably the finest. Other noticeable contemporary buildings
are the new Music school Cité de la Musique et de la Danse, the
Musée d'Art moderne et contemporain and the Hôtel du Département
facing it, as well as, in the outskirts, the tramway-station
Hoenheim-Nord designed by Zaha Hadid.
The city has many bridges, including the medieval and four-towered
Ponts Couverts that, despite their name, are no longer covered. Next
to the Ponts Couverts is the Barrage Vauban, a part of Vauban's
17th-century fortifications, that does include a covered bridge. Other
bridges are the ornate 19th-century Pont de la Fonderie (1893, stone)
and Pont d'Auvergne (1892, iron), as well as architect Marc Mimram's
futuristic Passerelle over the Rhine, opened in 2004.
The largest square at the centre of the city of
Strasbourg is the
Place Kléber. Located in the heart of the city's commercial area, it
was named after general Jean-Baptiste Kléber, born in
1753 and assassinated in 1800 in Cairo. In the square is a statue of
Kléber, under which is a vault containing his remains. On the north
side of the square is the Aubette (Orderly Room), built by Jacques
François Blondel, architect of the king, in 1765–1772.
The Pavillon Joséphine (rear side) in the Parc de l'Orangerie
The Château de Pourtalès (front side) in the park of the same name
Strasbourg features a number of prominent parks, of which several are
of cultural and historical interest: the Parc de l'Orangerie, laid out
as a French garden by André le Nôtre and remodeled as an English
garden on behalf of Joséphine de Beauharnais, now displaying
noteworthy French gardens, a neo-classical castle and a small zoo; the
Parc de la Citadelle, built around impressive remains of the
17th-century fortress erected close to the
Rhine by Vauban; the
Parc de Pourtalès, laid out in English style around a baroque castle
(heavily restored in the 19th century) that now houses a small
three-star hotel, and featuring an open-air museum of
international contemporary sculpture. The Jardin botanique de
Université de Strasbourg
Université de Strasbourg (botanical garden) was created under the
German administration next to the Observatory of Strasbourg, built in
1881, and still owns some greenhouses of those times. The Parc des
Contades, although the oldest park of the city, was completely
remodeled after World War II. The futuristic Parc des Poteries is an
example of European park-conception in the late 1990s. The Jardin des
deux Rives, spread over
Kehl on both sides of the Rhine
opened in 2004 and is the most extended (60-hectare) park of the
agglomeration. The most recent park is Parc du Heyritz (8,7 ha),
opened in 2014 along a canal facing the hôpital civil.
For a city of comparatively small size,
Strasbourg displays a large
quantity and variety of museums:
Fine art museums
A room in the Musée des Arts décoratifs
Unlike most other cities, Strasbourg's collections of European art are
divided into several museums according not only to type and area, but
also to epoch. Old master paintings from the Germanic Rhenish
territories and until 1681 are displayed in the Musée de l'Œuvre
Notre-Dame, old master paintings from all the rest of Europe
(including the Dutch Rhenish territories) and until 1871 as well as
old master paintings from the Germanic Rhenish territories between
1681 and 1871 are displayed in the Musée des Beaux-Arts. Old master
graphic arts until 1871 is displayed in the Cabinet des estampes et
Decorative arts until 1681 ("German period") are displayed in
the Musée de l'Œuvre Notre-Dame, decorative arts from 1681 to 1871
("French period") are displayed in the Musée des Arts décoratifs.
International art (painting, sculpture, graphic arts) and decorative
art since 1871 is displayed in the Musée d'art moderne et
contemporain. The latter museum also displays the city's photographic
The Musée des Beaux-Arts owns paintings by Hans Memling, Francisco de
Goya, Tintoretto, Paolo Veronese, Giotto di Bondone, Sandro
Botticelli, Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van Dyck, El Greco, Correggio,
Cima da Conegliano
Cima da Conegliano and Piero di Cosimo, among others.
Musée de l'Œuvre Notre-Dame
Musée de l'Œuvre Notre-Dame (located in a part-Gothic,
part-Renaissance building next to the Cathedral) houses a large and
renowned collection of medieval and Renaissance upper-Rhenish art,
among which original sculptures, plans and stained glass from the
Cathedral and paintings by
Hans Baldung and Sebastian Stoskopff.
The Musée d'Art moderne et contemporain is among the largest museums
of its kind in France.
The Musée des Arts décoratifs, located in the sumptuous former
residence of the cardinals of Rohan, the Palais Rohan displays a
reputable collection of 18th century furniture and china.
The Cabinet des estampes et des dessins displays five centuries of
engravings and drawings, but also woodcuts and lithographies.
The Musée Tomi Ungerer/Centre international de l'illustration,
located in a large former villa next to the Theatre, displays original
works by Ungerer and other artists (Saul Steinberg, Ronald Searle...)
as well as Ungerer's large collection of ancient toys.
The Musée archéologique presents a large display of regional
findings from the first ages of man to the sixth century, focussing
especially on the Roman and Celtic period.
The Musée alsacien is dedicated to traditional Alsatian daily life.
Le Vaisseau ("The vessel") is a science and technology centre,
especially designed for children.
The Musée historique (historical museum) is dedicated to the
tumultuous history of the city and displays many artifacts of the
times, among which the 'Grüselhorn, the horn that was blown every
evening at 10:00, during medieval times, to order the Jews out of the
The Musée de la Navigation sur le Rhin, also going by the name of
Naviscope, located in an old ship, is dedicated to the history of
commercial navigation on the Rhine.
The Musée vodou (Vodou museum) opened its doors on 28 November 2013.
Displaying a private collection of artefacts from Haiti, it is located
in a former water tower (château d'eau) built in 1883 and classified
as a Monument historique.
The Musée du barreau de
Strasbourg bar association
museum) is a museum dedicated to the work and the history of lawyers
in the city.
Université de Strasbourg
Université de Strasbourg is in charge of a number of permanent
public displays of its collections of scientific artefacts and
products of all kinds of exploration and research.
The Musée zoologique is one of the oldest in
France and is especially
famous for its collection of birds. The museum is co-administrated by
The Gypsothèque (also known as Musée des moulages or Musée Adolf
Michaelis) is France's second largest cast collection and the largest
university cast collection in France.
The Musée de Sismologie et Magnétisme terrestre displays antique
instruments of measure
The Musée Pasteur is a collection of medical curiosities
Musée de minéralogie
Musée de minéralogie is dedicated to minerals
The Musée d'Égyptologie houses a collections of archaeological
findings made in and brought from Egypt and Sudan
The Crypte aux étoiles ("star crypt") is situated in the vaulted
basement below the
Observatory of Strasbourg
Observatory of Strasbourg and displays old
telescopes and other antique astronomical devices such as clocks and
Museums in the suburbs
Musée Les Secrets du Chocolat (
Chocolate museum) in Geispolsheim
Fort Frère in Oberhausbergen
Fort Rapp in Reichstett
Pixel Museum, a video game museum, in Schiltigheim
MM Park France, a military museum, in La Wantzenau
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June
The metropolitan area of
Strasbourg had a population of 768,868
inhabitants in 2012 (French side of the border only), while the
Eurodistrict had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in
The Ill, seen from the terrace of the Palais Rohan
Strasbourg is the seat of internationally renowned institutions of
music and drama:
The Orchestre philharmonique de Strasbourg, founded in 1855, one of
the oldest symphonic orchestras in western Europe. Based since 1975 in
the Palais de la musique et des congrès.
The Opéra national du Rhin
The Théâtre national de Strasbourg
The Percussions de Strasbourg
The Théâtre du Maillon
Joshy's house - a venue for performance poetry and freestyle urban
Other theatres are the Théâtre jeune public, the TAPS Scala, the
Musica, international festival of contemporary classical music
Festival international de
Strasbourg (founded in 1932), festival of
classical music and jazz (summer)
Festival des Artefacts, festival of contemporary non-classical music
Les Nuits électroniques de l'Ososphère
Spectre Film Festival is an annual film festival that is devoted
to science fiction, horror and fantasy.
Strasbourg International Film Festival is an annual film festival
focusing on new and emerging independent filmmakers from around the
Universities and tertiary education
Strasbourg, well known as centre of humanism, has a long history of
excellence in higher-education, at the crossroads of French and German
intellectual traditions. Although
Strasbourg had been annexed by the
France in 1683, it still remained connected to the
German-speaking intellectual world throughout the 18th century and the
university attracted numerous students from the Holy Roman Empire,
including Goethe, Metternich and Montgelas, who studied law in
Strasbourg, among the most prominent. Nowadays,
Strasbourg is known to
offer among the best university courses in France, after Paris.
Up until January 2009 there were three universities in Strasbourg,
with an approximate total of 48,500 students as of 2007[update]
(another 4,500 students are being taught at one of the diverse
Strasbourg I –
Louis Pasteur University
Strasbourg II –
Marc Bloch University
Strasbourg III – Robert Schuman University
Since 1 January 2009, those three universities have merged and
constitute now the Université de Strasbourg. Schools part of the
Université de Strasbourg
Université de Strasbourg include:
The IEP (Institut d'études politiques de Strasbourg), the University
of Strasbourg's political science & international studies center.
The EMS (École de management Strasbourg), the University of
Strasbourg's Business School.
The INSA (Institut national des sciences appliquées), the University
of Strasbourg's Engineering School.
The ENA (École nationale d'administration). ENA trains most of the
nation's high-ranking civil servants. The relocation to
meant to give a European vocation to the school and to implement the
French government's "décentralisation" plan.
The ESAD (École supérieure des arts décoratifs) is an art school of
The ISEG Group (Institut supérieur européen de gestion group).
The ISU (International Space University) is located in the south of
The ECPM (École européenne de chimie, polymères et matériaux).
The ENSIIE (École nationale supérieure d'informatique pour
l'industrie et l'entreprise).
The EPITA (École pour l'informatique et les techniques avancées).
The EPITECH (École pour l'informatique et les nouvelles
The INET (Institut national des études territoriales).
The IIEF (Institut international d'études françaises).
The ENGEES (École nationale du génie de l'eau et de l'environnement
The CUEJ (Centre universitaire d'enseignement du journalisme).
TÉLÉCOM Physique Strasbourg,(École nationale supérieure de
physique de Strasbourg), Institute of Technology, located in the South
Primary and secondary education
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March
International schools include:
European School of Strasbourg
European School of Strasbourg (priority given to children who's
parents are employed at the European institutions)
For elementary education:
École Internationale Robert Schuman
Strasbourg International School
International School at Lucie Berger
Russian Mission School in Strasbourg
For middle school/junior high school education:
Collège Internationale de l'Esplenade
For senior high school/sixth form college:
Lycée international des Pontonniers (FR)
Lateral view of the National Library.
Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire
Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire (BNU) is, with its
collection of more than 3,000,000 titles, the second largest
France after the Bibliothèque nationale de France. It was
founded by the German administration after the complete destruction of
the previous municipal library in 1871 and holds the unique status of
being simultaneously a students' and a national library. The
Strasbourg municipal library had been marked erroneously as "City
Hall" in a French commercial map, which had been captured and used by
the German artillery to lay their guns. A librarian from Munich later
pointed out "...that the destruction of the precious collection was
not the fault of a German artillery officer, who used the French map,
but of the slovenly and inaccurate scholarship of a Frenchman."
The municipal library Bibliothèque municipale de
administrates a network of ten medium-sized librairies in different
areas of the town. A six stories high "Grande bibliothèque", the
Médiathèque André Malraux, was inaugurated on 19 September 2008 and
is considered the largest in Eastern France.
As one of the earliest centers of book-printing in Europe (see above:
Strasbourg for a long time held a large number of
incunabula—documents printed before 1500—in her library as one of
her most precious heritages. After the total destruction of this
institution in 1870, however, a new collection had to be reassembled
from scratch. Today, Strasbourg's different public and institutional
libraries again display a sizable total number of incunabula,
distributed as follows: Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire, ca.
2 098 Médiathèque de la ville et de la communauté urbaine
de Strasbourg, 394 Bibliothèque du Grand Séminaire, 238
Médiathèque protestante, 94 and Bibliothèque alsatique du
Crédit Mutuel, 5.
One of Strasbourg's trams passes over one of its canals, whilst a
tourist trip boat passes underneath
Train services operate from the Gare de Strasbourg, the city's main
station in the city centre, eastward to
Germany, westward to
Metz and Paris, and southward to Basel.
Strasbourg's links with the rest of
France have improved due to its
recent connection to the
TGV network, with the first phase of the TGV
Est (Paris–Strasbourg) in 2007, the
(Strasbourg-Lyon) in 2012, and the second phase of the
TGV Est in July
Strasbourg also has its own airport, serving major domestic
destinations as well as international destinations in Europe and
northern Africa. The airport is linked to the
Gare de Strasbourg
Gare de Strasbourg by a
frequent train service.
City transportation in
Strasbourg includes the futurist-looking
Strasbourg tramway that opened in 1994 and is operated by the regional
Compagnie des Transports Strasbourgeois
Compagnie des Transports Strasbourgeois (CTS),
consisting of 6 lines with a total length of 55.8 km
(34.7 mi). The CTS also operates a comprehensive bus network
throughout the city that is integrated with the trams. With more than
500 km (311 mi) of bicycle paths, biking in the city is
convenient and the CTS operates a cheap bike-sharing scheme named
Vélhop'. The CTS, and its predecessors, also operated a previous
generation of tram system between 1878 and 1960, complemented by
trolleybus routes between 1939 and 1962.
Being a city on the Ill and close to the Rhine,
Strasbourg has always
been an important centre of fluvial navigation, as is attested by
archeological findings. In 1682 the
Canal de la Bruche
Canal de la Bruche was added to
the river navigations, initially to provide transport for sandstone
from quarries in the
Vosges for use in the fortification of the city.
That canal has since closed, but the subsequent Canal du Rhone au
Canal de la Marne au Rhin
Canal de la Marne au Rhin and Grand Canal d'
Alsace are still in
use, as is the important activity of the Port autonome de Strasbourg.
Water tourism inside the city proper attracts hundreds of thousands of
The tram system that now criss-crosses the historic city centre
complements walking and biking in it. The centre has been transformed
into a pedestrian priority zone that enables and invites walking and
biking by making these active modes of transport comfortable, safe and
enjoyable. These attributes are accomplished by applying the principle
of "filtered permeability" to the existing irregular network of
streets. It means that the network adaptations favour active
transportation and, selectively, "filter out" the car by reducing the
number of streets that run through the centre. While certain streets
are discontinuous for cars, they connect to a network of pedestrian
and bike paths which permeate the entire centre. In addition, these
paths go through public squares and open spaces increasing the
enjoyment of the trip. This logic of filtering a mode of transport is
fully expressed in a comprehensive model for laying out neighbourhoods
and districts – the Fused Grid.
At present the A35 autoroute, which parallels the
Karlsruhe and Basel, and the A4 autoroute, which links
Strasbourg, penetrate close to the centre of the city. The Grand
contournement ouest (GCO) project, programmed since 1999, plans to
construct a 24-kilometre-long (15 mi) highway connection between
the junctions of the A4 and the A35 autoroutes in the north and of the
A35 and A352 autoroutes in the south. This routes well to the west of
the city and is meant to divest a significant portion of motorized
traffic from the unité urbaine.
Strasbourg Public Transportation Statistics
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit
in Strasbourg, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 52 min.
7% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The
average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public
transit is 9 min, while 11% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on
average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a
single trip with public transit is 3.9 km (2.4 mi), while 0%
travel for over 12 km (7.5 mi) in a single direction.
Palace of Europe of the Council of Europe
Main article: European Institutions in Strasbourg
Strasbourg is the seat of over twenty international institutions,
most famously of the
Council of Europe
Council of Europe and of the European Parliament,
of which it is the official seat.
Strasbourg is considered the
legislative and democratic capital of the European Union, while
Brussels is considered the executive and administrative capital and
Luxembourg the judiciary and financial capital.
Strasbourg is the seat of the following organisations, among others:
Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine
Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine (since 1920)
Council of Europe
Council of Europe with all the bodies and organisations affiliated to
this institution (since 1949)
European Parliament (since 1952)
Franco-German television channel Arte
European Science Foundation
International Institute of Human Rights
Human Frontier Science Program
International Commission on Civil Status
Assembly of European Regions
Centre for European Studies (French: Centre d'études européennes de
Main article: Strasbourg-Ortenau Eurodistrict
Germany have created a
Eurodistrict straddling the Rhine,
combining the Greater
Strasbourg and the Ortenau district of
Baden-Württemberg, with some common administration. It was
established in 2005 and is fully functional since 2010.
Stade de la Meinau, home of RC Strasbourg
Sporting teams from
Strasbourg are the Racing Club de Strasbourg
Strasbourg IG (basketball) and the Étoile Noire
(ice hockey). The women's tennis
Internationaux de Strasbourg
Internationaux de Strasbourg is
one of the most important French tournaments of its kind outside
Roland-Garros. In 1922,
Strasbourg was the venue for the XVI Grand
Prix de l’A.C.F. which saw Fiat battle Bugatti, Ballot, Rolland
Pilain, and Britain's Aston Martin and Sunbeam.
Honours associated with the city of Strasbourg.
The Medal of Honor Strasbourg
Sakharov Prize seated in Strasbourg
Strasbourg Silver (gilt) Medal, a former medal with City Coat
of Arms and Ten Arms of the Cities of the Dekapolis
Main article: Notable people of Strasbourg
University of Strasbourg
University of Strasbourg § Notable academics and
Observatory of Strasbourg
Observatory of Strasbourg § Notable astronomers, and
Archbishop of Strasbourg
In chronological order, notable people born in
Eric of Friuli, Johannes Tauler, Sebastian Brant, Jean Baptiste
Kléber, Louis Ramond de Carbonnières, François Christophe
Kellermann, Marie Tussaud, Ludwig I of Bavaria, Charles Frédéric
Gerhardt, Louis-Frédéric Schützenberger, Gustave Doré, Émile
Waldteufel, René Beeh, Jean/Hans Arp, Charles Münch, Hans Bethe,
Maurice Kriegel-Valrimont, Marcel Marceau, Tomi Ungerer, Arsène
Wenger, Petit and Matt Pokora.
In chronological order, notable residents of
Johannes Gutenberg, Hans Baldung, Martin Bucer, John Calvin, Joachim
Meyer, Johann Carolus, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Jakob Michael Reinhold
Lenz, Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, Georg Büchner, Louis Pasteur,
Ferdinand Braun, Albrecht Kossel, Georg Simmel, Albert Schweitzer,
Otto Klemperer, Marc Bloch, Alberto Fujimori, Marjane Satrapi, Paul
Ricoeur and Jean-Marie Lehn.
Twin towns and sister cities
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France
Strasbourg is twinned with:
Boston, United States, since 1960
Leicester, United Kingdom, since 1960
Stuttgart, Germany, since 1962
Dresden, Germany, since 1990
Ramat Gan, Israel, since 1991
Strasbourg has cooperative agreements with:
Jacmel, Haiti, since 1996 (Coopération décentralisée)
Veliky Novgorod, Russia, since 1997 (Coopération décentralisée)
Fes, Morocco (Coopération décentralisée)
Douala, Cameroon (Coopération décentralisée)
Bamako, Mali (Coopération décentralisée)
In popular culture
The opening scenes of the 1977
Ridley Scott film
The Duellists take
Strasbourg in 1800.
The 2007 film
In the City of Sylvia
In the City of Sylvia is set in Strasbourg.
Early February 2011, principal photography for Sherlock Holmes: A Game
of Shadows (2011) moved for two days to Strasbourg. Shooting took
place on, around, and inside the
Strasbourg Cathedral. The opening
scene of the movie covers an assassination-bombing in the city.
One of the longest chapters of Laurence Sterne's novel Tristram Shandy
(1759–1767), "Slawkenbergius' tale", takes place in Strasbourg.
An episode of Matthew Gregory Lewis' novel
The Monk (1796) takes place
in the forests then surrounding Strasbourg.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart called his Third violin concerto (1775)
Straßburger Konzert because of one of its most prominent motives,
based on a local, minuet-like dance that had already appeared as a
tune in a symphony by Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf. It is not
related to Mozart's ulterior stay in
Strasbourg (1778), where he gave
three concert performances on the piano.
Havergal Brian's Symphony No.7 was inspired by passages in Goethe's
memoirs recalling his time spent at
Strasbourg University. The work
ends with an orchestral bell sounding the note E, the strike-note of
the bell of
British art-punk band
The Rakes had a minor hit in 2005 with their
song "Strasbourg". This song features witty lyrics with themes of
espionage and vodka and includes a cleverly placed count of 'eins,
zwei, drei, vier!!', even though Strasbourg's spoken language is
On their 1974 album Hamburger Concerto, Dutch progressive band Focus
included a track called "La Cathédrale de Strasbourg", which included
chimes from a cathedral-like bell.
Strasbourg pie, a dish containing foie gras, is mentioned in the
finale of the
Andrew Lloyd Webber
Andrew Lloyd Webber musical Cats.
Several works have specifically been dedicated to Strasbourg
Cathedral, notably ad hoc compositions (masses, motets etc.) by
Franz Xaver Richter
Franz Xaver Richter and
Ignaz Pleyel and, more
recently, It is Finished by John Tavener.
^ a b c d Only the part of the urban area on French territory.
^ a b "Populations légales 2014 des communes du département" (PDF).
insee.fr. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
Unité urbaine de
Strasbourg (partie française) (67701)".
insee.fr. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
^ "Aire urbaine de
Strasbourg (partie française) (009)". insee.fr.
Retrieved 25 July 2016.
^ "Données relatives à l'Eurodistrict". eurodistrict.eu. Retrieved
31 December 2015.
^ "The international institute of Human Rights".
France Vows to Kick out Islamic Troublemakers.
^ "Figures on the port's website". Web.archive.org. Archived from the
original on 20 April 2008. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
^ Jean-Marie Pailler (2006). "Quand l'argent était d'or. Paroles de
Gaulois". CNRS. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours (1849). Historia Francorum. 10th book, chapter XIX.
p. 553. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
Averages". Retrieved 29 September 2017.
^ "Temperature, Climate graph, Climate table for Strasbourg".
Climate-Data. Retrieved 29 September 2017.
^ "Daily measurements for
Strasbourg and Alsace". Atmo-alsace.net.
Retrieved 15 April 2010.
^ Measurements made on 18 and 19 October 2005
^ "Outlines of the urban transportation policy led by the urban
community of Strasbourg". Epe.be. 29 March 2010. Archived from the
original on 11 December 2008. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
^ "Données climatiques de la station de Strasbourg" (in French).
Meteo France. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
^ "Climat Alsace" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 10 December
^ "Normes et records 1961-1990: Strasbourg-
Entzheim (67) - altitude
150m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved 16 December 2014.
^ "Musée Archéologique -
Strasbourg De la Préhistoire au Moyen-Âge
en Alsace". Hominidés.com. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
^ "Les temps de l'histoire de Strasbourg". Archives de la ville et de
l'Eurométropole de Strasbourg. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
^ "Les quartiers".
^ "History and description of the instrument". Perso.wanadoo.fr.
Retrieved 15 April 2010.
^ "Pictures". Archi-strasbourg.org. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
^ "Parc de la Citadelle with remains of the
Archi-strasbourg.org. 26 August 2007. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
^ "Overview". chateau-pourtales.eu. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
^ "Overview". Ceaac.org. Archived from the original on 4 December
2010. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
^ "Le Musée du Barreau de Strasbourg". Ordre des avocats de
Strasbourg. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
^ "Le Musée du Barreau de Strasbourg".
Alsace 20. Retrieved 1
^ "Overview of the collections". Collections.u-strasbg.fr. Retrieved 9
^ "The Museum "The Secrets of Chocolate"". musee-du-chocolat.com.
Retrieved 3 March 2017.
^ "Fort Großherzog von Baden - Fort Frère". Fort Frère. Retrieved
16 May 2017.
^ "Pixel Museum". pixel-museum.fr. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
^ "MM Park France". mmpark.fr. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
^ "Internet Archive Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. 12 October
2007. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 3 June
^ a b c "International schooling in Strasbourg" (Archive). City of
Strasbourg. Retrieved on 28 March 2016. p. 1.
^ "Контакты." Russian Mission School in Strasbourg. Retrieved
on March 28, 2016. "6, alle'e de la Robertsau, 67000, Strasbourg"
^ "Figures". Bnu.fr. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
^ Butler, Pierce. 1945. Books and libraries in wartime. Chicago, Ill:
University of Chicago Press. Page 15.
Strasbourg ouvre une grande médiathèque sur le port in L'Express
^ "Les incunables" (in French). Bibliothèque nationale et
universitaire de Strasbourg. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
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France (CCFr). Archived from the original on 16 May 2016.
Retrieved 12 December 2014.
^ "La bibliothèque ancienne du Grand Séminaire" (in French).
Séminaire Sainte Marie Majeure - Diocèse de Strasbourg. Retrieved 12
^ "Catalogue de la Médiathèque protestante". Médiathèque
protestante. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
^ "Général". Bacm.creditmutuel.fr. Retrieved 16 June 2009.
^ "Destination map". Aéroport Strasbourg. Archived from the original
on 18 September 2015. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
^ "Shuttle train". Aéroport Strasbourg. Archived from the original on
18 September 2015. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
^ Grand Contournement Ouest de Strasbourg(in French) Archived 18 May
2016 at the Portuguese Web Archive
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Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, 2017. Material was copied
from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons
Attribution 4.0 International License.
^ "List of international institutions in Strasbourg".
Investir-strasbourg.com. 15 January 2003. Retrieved 15 April
Law Academy: the ECHR and the FCC". The Brief.
2011-05-24. Retrieved 2016-10-13.
^ "Etoile Noire de Strasbourg". Etoile-noire.fr. 31 May 2009.
Retrieved 16 June 2009.
^ a b c d e f "Strasbourg, Twin City". Strasbourg.eu & Communauté
Urbaine. Archived from the original on 28 July 2013. Retrieved 21
Boston Sister Cities". The City of Boston. Archived from the
original on 8 February 2009. Retrieved 5 April 2009.
^ "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media
Ltd. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
Leicester City council. Archived from the original on 2
October 2010. Retrieved 5 February 2010.
Stuttgart Städtepartnerschaften". Landeshauptstadt Stuttgart,
Abteilung Außenbeziehungen (in German). Retrieved 27 July 2013.
Dresden – Partner Cities". 2008 Landeshauptstadt Dresden.
Archived from the original on 16 October 2008. Retrieved 29 December
Ramat Gan Sister Cities". Archived from the original on 7 March
2008. Retrieved 6 April 2008.
^ "Full text". Tristramshandyweb.it. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
^ Lempfrid, Wolfgang. "Wolfgng Amadeus Mozart: Konzert für Violine
und Orchester in D-Dur, KV 218". koelnklavier.de. Retrieved 5 April
Strasbourg by Roland Recht, Georges Foessel and Jean-Pierre
Klein, 1988, ISBN 2-7032-0185-0
Strasbourg des origines à nos jours, four volumes (ca.
2000 pages) by a collective of historians under the guidance of
Georges Livet and Francis Rapp, 1982, ISBN 2-7165-0041-X
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Strasbourg.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Strasbourg.
Strasbourg municipality website
Tourist office of Strasbourg
CTS – Compagnie des transports strasbourgeois
The museums of Strasbourg
The city archives of
Strasbourg (in French)
World Heritage Sites in France
Palace and Park of Versailles
Palace and Park
Paris: Banks of the Seine
Belfries of Belgium and France1
Champagne hillsides, houses and cellars
Climats and terroirs of Burgundy
Reims: Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Abbey of Saint-Remi,
Palace of Tau
Abbey of Fontenay
Vézelay Church and hill
Belfries of Belgium and France1
Nord-Pas de Calais Mining Basin
Great Saltworks of
Salins-les-Bains and Royal Saltworks of
Nancy: Place Stanislas, Place de la Carrière and Place d'Alliance
Strasbourg: Grande Île, Neustadt
Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3
Abbey Church of Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe
Mont Saint-Michel and its bay
Episcopal city, Albi
Port of the Moon, Bordeaux
Prehistoric sites and decorated caves of the Vézère valley
Pyrénées – Mont Perdu2
Roman and Romanesque monuments, Arles
Gulf of Porto: Calanches de Piana, Gulf of Girolata, Scandola Reserve
Avignon: Papal Palace, Episcopal Ensemble,
Pont du Gard
Orange: Roman Theatre and environs, Triumphal Arch
The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier
Canal du Midi
Fortifications of Vauban
Loire Valley between
Sully-sur-Loire and Chalonnes-sur-Loire
Routes of Santiago de Compostela in France
Lagoons of New Caledonia
Pitons, cirques and remparts of Réunion
1Shared locally with other region/s and with Belgium
2Shared with Spain
3Shared with Austria, Germany, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland
Prefectures of the regions of France
Orléans (Centre-Val de Loire)
Strasbourg (Grand Est)
Nantes (Pays de la Loire)
Marseille (Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur)
Cayenne (French Guiana)
Prefectures of departments of France
La Rochelle (Charente-Maritime)
Le Puy-en-Velay (Haute-Loire)
Le Mans (Sarthe)
La Roche-sur-Yon (Vendée)
Belfort (Territoire de Belfort)
Cayenne (French Guiana)
Communes of the
Free imperial cities of the Holy Roman Empire
Weißenburg in Bayern
Free Imperial Cities as of 1648
Lost imperial immediacy or no longer part of the
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire by
Weißenburg in ElsaßD
D Member of the Décapole
H Member of the Hanseatic League
S Member or associate of the Swiss Confederacy
ISNI: 0000 0001 2337 3844
BNF: cb15271624j (data)