Cologne (English: /kəˈloʊn/; German: Köln, pronounced
[kœln] ( listen), Ripuarian: Kölle
[ˈkœɫə] ( listen)) is the largest city in the German
federal State of
North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most populated
Germany (after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich). It is located
Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region which is Germany's largest
and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas.
Cologne is about 45
kilometres (28 mi) southwest of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital
Dusseldorf and 25 kilometres (16 mi) northwest of Bonn.
Cologne is located on both sides of the Rhine, near Germany's borders
Belgium and the Netherlands. The city's famous
(Kölner Dom) is the seat of the Catholic
Archbishop of Cologne. The
University of Cologne
University of Cologne (Universität zu Köln) is one of Europe's
oldest and largest universities.
Cologne was founded and established in
Ubii territory in the 1st
century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, the first
word of which is the origin of its name. An alternative Latin name
of the settlement is Augusta Ubiorum, after the Ubii. "Cologne",
the French version of the city's name, has become standard in English
as well. The city functioned as the capital of the Roman province of
Germania Inferior and as the headquarters of the Roman military in the
region until occupied by the Franks in 462. During the
Middle Ages it
flourished on one of the most important major trade routes between
east and west in Europe.
Cologne was one of the leading members of the
Hanseatic League and one of the largest cities north of the
medieval and Renaissance times. Prior to
World War II
World War II the city had
undergone several occupations by the French and also by the British
Cologne was one of the most heavily bombed cities in
Germany during World War II, with the
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force (RAF) dropping
34,711 long tons (35,268 tonnes) of bombs on the city. The bombing
reduced the population by 95%, mainly due to evacuation, and destroyed
almost the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many
historic buildings as possible, the successful postwar rebuilding has
resulted in a very mixed and unique cityscape.
Cologne is a major cultural centre for the Rhineland; it hosts more
than 30 museums and hundreds of galleries. Exhibitions range from
local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics and
Cologne Trade Fair
Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows such
as Art Cologne, imm Cologne, Gamescom, and the Photokina.
1.1 Roman Cologne
1.2 Middle Ages
1.3 Early modern history
1.4 From the 19th century until World War II
1.5 World War II
Cologne until today
2.3 Flood protection
3.1 Residents of
Cologne with foreign citizenship
4.1 Political traditions and developments
4.4 Make-up of city council
7.1.2 Medieval houses
7.1.3 Medieval city gates
7.4 High-rise structures
8.2 Rivalry with Düsseldorf
8.4 Music fairs and festivals
10.1 Road transport
10.3 Rail transport
10.4 Water transport
10.5 Air transport
14 Notable residents
15 International relations
15.1 Twin towns and sister cities
16 See also
18 External links
History of Cologne
History of Cologne and Timeline of Cologne
Fresco with Dionysian scenes from a Roman villa of Cologne, Germany
(site of the ancient city Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium), 3rd
century AD, Romano-Germanic Museum
The first urban settlement on the grounds of modern-day
Oppidum Ubiorum, founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, a Cisrhenian
Germanic tribe. In 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia on the
Rhine and the city became the provincial capital of Germania
Inferior in 85 AD. The city was named Colonia Claudia Ara
Agrippinensium in 50 AD. Considerable Roman remains can be
found in present-day Cologne, especially near the wharf area, where a
notable discovery of a 1900-year-old Roman boat was made in late
2007. From 260 to 271
Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire
under Postumus, Marius, and Victorinus. In 310 under Constantine a
bridge was built over the
Rhine at Cologne. Roman imperial governors
resided in the city and it became one of the most important trade and
production centres in the Roman Empire north of the Alps. Cologne
is shown on the
4th century Peutinger Map.
Maternus, who was elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop
of Cologne. The city was the capital of a Roman province until
occupied by the
Ripuarian Franks in 462. Parts of the original Roman
sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system
having opened in 1890.
Cologne was part of
Austrasia within the Frankish
Cologne had been the seat of a bishop since the Roman period;
under Charlemagne, in 795, bishop
Hildebold was promoted to
archbishop. In 843,
Cologne became a city within the Treaty of
Verdun-created East Francia.
In 953, the archbishops of
Cologne first gained noteworthy secular
power, when bishop Bruno was appointed as duke by his brother Otto I,
King of Germany. In order to weaken the secular nobility, who
threatened his power, Otto endowed Bruno and his successors on the
bishop's see with the prerogatives of secular princes, thus
establishing the Electorate of Cologne, formed by the temporal
possessions of the archbishopric and included in the end a strip of
territory along the left Bank of the
Rhine east of Jülich, as well as
Duchy of Westphalia
Duchy of Westphalia on the other side of the Rhine, beyond Berg
and Mark. By the end of the 12th century, the
Archbishop of Cologne
was one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor. Besides being
prince elector, he was Arch-chancellor of
Italy as well, technically
from 1238 and permanently from 1263 until 1803.
Battle of Worringen
Battle of Worringen in 1288,
Cologne gained its
independence from the archbishops and became a Free City. Archbishop
Sigfried II von Westerburg was forced into exile in Bonn. The
archbishop nevertheless preserved the right of capital punishment.
Thus the municipal council (though in strict political opposition
towards the archbishop) depended upon him in all matters concerning
criminal justice. This included torture, which sentence was only
allowed to be handed down by the episcopal judge, the so-called
"Greve". This legal situation lasted until the French conquest of
Besides its economic and political significance
Cologne also became an
important centre of medieval pilgrimage, when Cologne's Archbishop
Rainald of Dassel
Rainald of Dassel gave the relics of the
Three Wise Men
Three Wise Men to Cologne's
cathedral in 1164 (after they, in fact, had been captured from Milan).
Besides the three magi
Cologne preserves the relics of Saint Ursula
and Albertus Magnus.
Cologne's location on the river
Rhine placed it at the intersection of
the major trade routes between east and west as well as the main
Europe trade route, South – North Northern Italy-Flanders.
These two trade routes were the basis of Cologne's growth. By 1300 the
city population was 50,000-55,000.
Cologne was a member of the
Hanseatic League in 1475, when Frederick III confirmed the city's
Cologne around 1411
Early modern history
The economic structures of medieval and early modern
characterised by the city's status as a major harbour and transport
hub on the Rhine. Craftsmanship was organised by self-administering
guilds, some of which were exclusive to women.
As a free city,
Cologne was a sovereign state within the Holy Roman
Empire and as such had the right (and obligation) to maintain its own
military force. As they wore a red uniform, these troops were known as
the Rote Funken (red sparks). These soldiers were part of the Army of
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire ("Reichskontingent") and fought in the wars of
the 17th and 18th century, including the wars against revolutionary
France, when the small force was almost completely wiped out in
combat. The tradition of these troops is preserved as a military
persiflage by Cologne's most outstanding carnival society, the Rote
The free city of
Cologne must not be confused with the Archbishopric
Cologne which was a state of its own within the Holy Roman Empire.
Since the second half of the 16th century the archbishops were drawn
Wittelsbach dynasty. Due to the free status of
Cologne, the archbishops were usually not allowed to enter the city.
Thus they took up residence in
Bonn and later in Brühl on the Rhine.
As members of an influential and powerful family, and supported by
their outstanding status as electors, the archbishops of Cologne
repeatedly challenged and threatened the free status of
the 17th and 18th centuries, resulting in complicated affairs, which
were handled by diplomatic means and propaganda as well as by the
supreme courts of the Holy Roman Empire.
From the 19th century until World War II
Cologne lost its status as a free city during the French period.
According to the Peace
Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville (1801) all the territories
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire on the left bank of the
Rhine were officially
incorporated into the French Republic (which had already occupied
Cologne in 1794). Thus this region later became part of Napoleon's
Cologne was part of the French Département Roer (named after
the river Roer, German: Rur) with
Aachen (French: Aix-la-Chapelle) as
its capital. The French modernised public life, for example by
Napoleonic code and removing the old elites from
Napoleonic code remained in use on the left bank of the
Rhine until 1900, when a unified civil code (the Bürgerliches
Gesetzbuch) was introduced in the German Empire. In 1815 at the
Congress of Vienna,
Cologne was made part of the Kingdom of Prussia,
first in the Jülich-Cleves-Berg province and then the
The permanent tensions between the Roman Catholic
Rhineland and the
overwhelmingly Protestant Prussian state repeatedly escalated with
Cologne being in the focus of the conflict. In 1837 the archbishop of
Cologne, Clemens August von Droste-Vischering, was arrested and
imprisoned for two years after a dispute over the legal status of
marriages between Protestants and Roman Catholics (Mischehenstreit).
In 1874, during the Kulturkampf,
Paul Melchers was
imprisoned before taking refuge in the Netherlands. These conflicts
alienated the Catholic population from
Berlin and contributed to a
deeply felt anti-Prussian resentment, which was still significant
after World War II, when the former mayor of Cologne, Konrad Adenauer,
became the first West German chancellor.
During the 19th and 20th centuries,
Cologne absorbed numerous
surrounding towns, and by World War I had already grown to
700,000 inhabitants. Industrialisation changed the city and spurred
its growth. Vehicle and engine manufacturing was especially
successful, though the heavy industry was less ubiquitous than in the
Ruhr area. The cathedral, started in 1248 but abandoned around 1560,
was eventually finished in 1880 not just as a place of worship but
also as a German national monument celebrating the newly founded
German empire and the continuity of the German nation since the Middle
Ages. Some of this urban growth occurred at the expense of the city's
historic heritage with much being demolished (for example, the city
walls or the area around the cathedral) and sometimes replaced by
Cologne was designated as one of the Fortresses of the German
Confederation. It was turned into a heavily armed fortress
(opposing the French and Belgian fortresses of
Verdun and Liège) with
two fortified belts surrounding the city, the remains of which can be
seen to this day. The military demands on what became Germany's
largest fortress presented a significant obstacle to urban
development, with forts, bunkers, and wide defensive dugouts
completely encircling the city and preventing expansion; this resulted
in a very densely built-up area within the city itself.
During World War I
Cologne was the target of several minor air
raids but suffered no significant damage.
Cologne was occupied by the
British Army of the
Rhine until 1926, under the terms of the Armistice
and the subsequent Versailles Peace Treaty. In contrast with the
harsh behaviour of the French occupation troops in Germany, the
British forces were more lenient to the local population. Konrad
Adenauer, the mayor of
Cologne from 1917 until 1933 and later a West
German chancellor, acknowledged the political impact of this approach,
especially since Britain had opposed French demands for a permanent
Allied occupation of the entire Rhineland.
As part of the demilitarisation of the Rhineland, the city's
fortifications had to be dismantled. This was an opportunity to create
two green belts (Grüngürtel) around the city by converting the
fortifications and their fields of fire into large public parks. This
was not completed until 1933. In 1919 the University of Cologne,
closed by the French in 1798, was reopened. This was considered to be
a replacement for the loss of the
University of Strasbourg
University of Strasbourg on the west
bank of the Rhine, which reverted to
France with the rest of Alsace.
Cologne prospered during the
Weimar Republic (1919–33), and progress
was made especially in public governance, city planning, housing and
social affairs. Social housing projects were considered exemplary and
were copied by other German cities.
Cologne competed to host the
Olympics, and a modern sports stadium was erected at Müngersdorf.
When the British occupation ended, the prohibition of civil aviation
was lifted and
Cologne Butzweilerhof Airport
Cologne Butzweilerhof Airport soon became a hub for
national and international air traffic, second in
Germany only to
Berlin Tempelhof Airport.
The democratic parties lost the local elections in
Cologne in March
1933 to the
Nazi Party and other right wing parties. The Nazis then
arrested the Communist and Social Democrats members of the city
assembly, and Mayor Adenauer was dismissed. Compared to some other
major cities, however, the Nazis never gained decisive support in
Cologne. (Significantly, the number of votes cast for the
in Reichstag elections had always been the national average.)
By 1939 the population had risen to 772,221 inhabitants.
World War II
The devastation of Cologne, 1945
During World War II,
Cologne was a Military Area Command Headquarters
(Militärbereichshauptkommandoquartier) for the Military District
(Wehrkreis) VI of Münster.
Cologne was under the command of
Lieutenant-General Freiherr Roeder von Diersburg, who was responsible
for military operations in Bonn, Siegburg, Aachen, Jülich, Düren,
Cologne was home to the 211th Infantry Regiment and the
26th Artillery Regiment.
The Allies dropped 44,923.2 tons of bombs on the city during World War
II, destroying 61% of its built up area. During the Bombing of Cologne
in World War II,
Cologne endured 262 air raids by the Western
Allies, which caused approximately 20,000 civilian casualties and
almost completely wiped out the central part of the city. During the
night of 31 May 1942,
Cologne was the target of "Operation
Millennium", the first 1,000 bomber raid by the
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force in
World War II. 1,046 heavy bombers attacked their target with
1,455 tons of explosives, approximately two-thirds of which were
incendiary. This raid lasted about 75 minutes, destroyed 600 acres
(243 ha) of built-up area (61%), killed 486 civilians and
made 59,000 people homeless.
Cologne was taken by the American First Army in early March, 1945.
By the end of the war, the population of
Cologne had been reduced by
95 percent. This loss was mainly caused by a massive evacuation of the
people to more rural areas. The same happened in many other German
cities in the last two years of war. By the end of 1945, however, the
population had already recovered to approximately 500,000.
By the end of the war, essentially all of Cologne's pre-war Jewish
population of 11,000 had been deported or killed by the Nazis. The
six synagogues of the city were destroyed. The synagogue on
Roonstraße was rebuilt in 1959.
Cologne until today
Cologne, seen from the International Space Station
Despite Cologne's status as the largest city in the region, nearby
Düsseldorf was chosen as the political capital of the federated state
of North Rhine-Westphalia. With
Bonn being chosen as the provisional
federal capital (provisorische Bundeshauptstadt) and seat of the
government of the Federal Republic of
Germany (then informally West
Cologne benefited by being sandwiched between two important
political centres. The city became–and still is–home to a number
of federal agencies and organizations. After reunification in 1990,
Berlin was made the capital of Germany.
In 1945 architect and urban planner Rudolf Schwarz called
"world's greatest heap of rubble". Schwarz designed the master plan
for reconstruction in 1947, which included the construction of several
new thoroughfares through the city centre, especially the
Nord-Süd-Fahrt ("North-South-Drive"). The master plan took into
consideration the fact that even shortly after the war a large
increase in automobile traffic could be anticipated. Plans for new
roads had already, to a certain degree, evolved under the Nazi
administration, but the actual construction became easier when most of
the city centre was in ruins.
The destruction of 95% of the city centre, including the famous Twelve
Romanesque churches such as St. Gereon, Great St. Martin,
St. Maria im Kapitol and several other monuments in World
War II, meant a tremendous loss of cultural treasures. The
rebuilding of those churches and other landmarks such as the
Gürzenich event hall was not undisputed among leading architects and
art historians at that time, but in most cases, civil intention
prevailed. The reconstruction lasted until the 1990s, when the
Romanesque church of St. Kunibert was finished.
In 1959, the city's population reached pre-war numbers again. It then
grew steadily, exceeding 1 million for about one year from 1975.
It remained just below that until mid-2010, when it exceeded
1 million again.
Cologne in 2013
Soviet letter's envelope in honor of the Internationale Philatelic
Exhibition LUPOSTA in
Cologne in 1983.
In the 1980s and 1990s Cologne's economy prospered for two main
reasons. The first was the growth in the number of media companies,
both in the private and public sectors; they are especially catered
for in the newly developed Media Park, which creates a strongly visual
focal point in
Cologne city centre and includes the KölnTurm, one of
Cologne's most prominent high-rise buildings. The second was the
permanent improvement of the diverse traffic infrastructure, which
Cologne one of the most easily accessible metropolitan areas in
Due to the economic success of the
Cologne Trade Fair, the city
arranged a large extension to the fair site in 2005. At the same time
the original buildings, which date back to the 1920s, were rented out
to RTL, Germany's largest private broadcaster, as their new corporate
Cologne was the focus of the 2015 New Year's Eve sexual assaults, with
over 500 women reporting that they were sexually assaulted by persons
of African and Arab appearance.
The metropolitan area encompasses over 405 square kilometres (156
square miles), extending around a central point that lies at 50° 56'
33 latitude and 6° 57' 32 longitude. The city's highest point is
118 m (387.1 ft) above sea level (the Monte Troodelöh) and
its lowest point is 37.5 m (123.0 ft) above sea level (the
Worringer Bruch). The city of
Cologne lies within the larger area
Cologne Lowland, a cone-shaped area of southeastern Westphalia
that lies between Bonn,
Aachen and Düsseldorf.
Main article: Districts of Cologne
Cologne is divided into 9 boroughs (Stadtbezirke) and 85 districts
Innenstadt (Stadtbezirk 1)
Altstadt-Nord, Altstadt-Süd, Neustadt-Nord, Neustadt-Süd, Deutz
Rodenkirchen (Stadtbezirk 2)
Bayenthal, Godorf, Hahnwald, Immendorf, Marienburg, Meschenich,
Raderberg, Raderthal, Rodenkirchen, Rondorf, Sürth, Weiß, Zollstock
Lindenthal (Stadtbezirk 3)
Braunsfeld, Junkersdorf, Klettenberg, Lindenthal, Lövenich,
Müngersdorf, Sülz, Weiden, Widdersdorf
Ehrenfeld (Stadtbezirk 4)
Bickendorf, Bocklemünd/Mengenich, Ehrenfeld, Neuehrenfeld, Ossendorf,
Nippes (Stadtbezirk 5)
Bilderstöckchen, Longerich, Mauenheim, Niehl, Nippes, Riehl,
Chorweiler (Stadtbezirk 6)
Blumenberg, Chorweiler, Esch/Auweiler, Fühlingen, Heimersdorf,
Lindweiler, Merkenich, Pesch, Roggendorf/Thenhoven, Seeberg,
Porz (Stadtbezirk 7)
Eil, Elsdorf, Ensen, Finkenberg, Gremberghoven, Grengel, Langel,
Libur, Lind, Poll, Porz, Urbach, Wahn, Wahnheide, Westhoven, Zündorf
Kalk (Stadtbezirk 8)
Brück, Höhenberg, Humboldt/Gremberg, Kalk, Merheim, Neubrück,
Ostheim, Rath/Heumar, Vingst
Mülheim (Stadtbezirk 9)
Buchforst, Buchheim, Dellbrück, Dünnwald, Flittard, Höhenhaus,
Holweide, Mülheim, Stammheim
Located in the
Cologne is one of the warmest cities
in Germany. It has a temperate–oceanic climate with cool winters and
warm summers. It is also one of the cloudiest cities in Germany, with
just 1568 hours of sun a year. Its average annual temperature is
10.3 °C (51 °F): 14.8 °C (59 °F) during the
day and 5.8 °C (42 °F) at night. In January, the mean
temperature is 2.6 °C (37 °F), while the mean temperature
in July is 18.8 °C (66 °F). Temperatures can vary
significantly over the course of a month with warmer and colder
Precipitation is spread evenly throughout the year with a
light peak in summer due to showers and thunderstorms.
Climate data for Cologne/
Bonn Airport 1981-2010, extremes 1981-present
Record high °C (°F)
Mean maximum °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Mean minimum °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source: Data derived from Deutscher Wetterdienst
The 1930 flood in Cologne
Cologne is regularly affected by flooding from the
Rhine and is
considered the most flood-prone European city. A city agency
(Stadtentwässerungsbetriebe Köln, "
Cologne Urban Drainage
Operations") manages an extensive flood control system which includes
both permanent and mobile flood walls, protection from rising waters
for buildings close to the river banks, monitoring and forecasting
systems, pumping stations and programmes to create or protect
floodplains, and river embankments. The system was redesigned
after a 1993 flood, which resulted in heavy damage.
Main article: Demographics of Cologne
Significant minority populations
In the Roman Empire the city was large and rich with a population of
40,000 in 100–200 AD. The city was home to around 20,000
people in 1000 AD, growing to 50,000 in 1200 AD. The
Rhineland metropolis still had 50,000 residents in
Cologne is the fourth-largest city in
Germany after Berlin, Hamburg
and Munich. As of 31 December 2016, there were 1,080,701 people
registered as living in
Cologne in an area of 401.15 km2
(154.88 sq mi). The population density was 2,641/km2
(6,840/sq mi). The metropolitan area of the
Region is home to 3,573,500 living on 4,415/km2
(11,430/sq mi). It is part of the polycentric megacity region
Rhine-Ruhr with a population of over 11,000,000 people.
There were 546,498 women and 522,694 men in Cologne. For every 1,000
males, there were 1,046 females. In 2015, there were 11,337 births in
Cologne (of which 34.53% were to unmarried women); 7,704 marriages and
2,203 divorces, and 9,629 deaths. In the city, the population was
spread out with 15.6% under the age of 18, and 17.6% were 65 years of
age or older. 163 people in
Cologne were over the age of 100.
According to the Statistical Office of the City of Cologne, the number
of people with a migrant background is at 36.7% (393,7936). 2,537
people acquired German citizenship in 2015. In 2015, there were
557,090 households, of which 18.3% had children under the age of 18;
50.6% of all households were made up of singles. 8.7% of all
households were single-parent households. The average household size
Cologne with foreign citizenship
Cologne residents with a foreign citizenship as of 31 December 2015 is
Australian and Oceanian
See also: Colognian dialect
Colognian or Kölsch (Colognian (Kölsch) pronunciation: [kœɫːʃ])
(natively Kölsch Platt) is a small set of very closely related
dialects, or variants, of the Ripuarian
Central German group of
languages. These dialects are spoken in the area covered by the
Archdiocese and former
Electorate of Cologne
Electorate of Cologne reaching from
the north to just south of Bonn, west to
Düren and east to Olpe in
the North-West of Germany. Kölsch is one of the very few city
dialects in Germany, besides for example, the dialect spoken in
Slightly more than half of the residents of
Cologne are members of a
religion. As of 2015, 35.5% of the population belonged to the Roman
Catholic Church, the largest religious body, and 15.5% to the
Cologne is the seat of the Roman Catholic
Archdiocese of Cologne. There are several mosques, including the
Turkish-Islamic Union for Religious Affairs
Turkish-Islamic Union for Religious Affairs run
Cologne also has one of the oldest and largest Jewish
communities in Germany.
Cologne City Hall
The city's administration is headed by the mayor and the three deputy
Political traditions and developments
The long tradition of a free imperial city, which long dominated an
exclusively Catholic population and the age-old conflict between the
church and the bourgeoisie (and within it between the patricians and
craftsmen) have created its own political climate in Cologne. Various
interest groups often form networks beyond party boundaries. The
resulting web of relationships, with political, economic, and cultural
links with each other in a system of mutual favours, obligations and
dependencies, is called the '
Cologne coterie'. This has often led to
an unusual proportional distribution in the city government and
degenerated at times into corruption: in 1999, a "waste scandal" over
kickbacks and illegal campaign contributions came to light, which led
not only to the imprisonment of the entrepreneur Hellmut Trienekens,
but also to the downfall of almost the entire leadership of the ruling
Lord Mayor of
Cologne is Henriette Reker. She received 52.66% of
the vote at the municipal election on 17 October 2015 and was
appointed on 15 December 2015.
City Councillors are elected for a five-year term and the Mayor has a
Make-up of city council
Social Democratic Party
Christian Democratic Union
Free Democratic Party
Alternative for Germany
Pirate Party Germany
The Good Ones
Source: City of Cologne
Panoramic view of the city at night as seen from Deutz; from left to
right: Deutz Bridge, Great St. Martin Church,
The inner city of
Cologne was completely destroyed during World
War II. The reconstruction of the city followed the style of the
1950s, while respecting the old layout and naming of the streets.
Thus, the city today is characterized by simple and modest post-war
buildings, with a few interspersed pre-war buildings which were
reconstructed due to their historical importance. Some buildings of
the "Wiederaufbauzeit" (era of reconstruction), for example, the opera
house by Wilhelm Riphahn, are nowadays regarded as classics of modern
architecture. Nevertheless, the uncompromising style
Cologne Opera house and other modern buildings has remained
Green areas account for over a quarter of Cologne, which is
approximately 75 m2 (807.29 sq ft) of public green
space for every inhabitant.
The presence of animals in
Cologne is generally limited to insects,
small rodents, and several species of birds. Pigeons are the most
often seen animals in Cologne, although the number of birds is
augmented each year by a growing population of feral exotics, most
visibly parrots such as the rose-ringed parakeet. The sheltered
climate in southeast
Northrhine-Westphalia allows these birds to
survive through the winter, and in some cases, they are displacing
native species. The plumage of Cologne's green parrots is highly
visible even from a distance, and contrasts starkly with the otherwise
muted colours of the cityscape.
Cologne had 5.8 million overnight stays booked and
3.35 million arrivals in 2016. The city also has the most
pubs per capita in Germany. The city has 70 clubs, "countless"
bars, restaurants, and pubs.
Cologne Cathedral (German: Kölner Dom) is the city's most famous
monument and the
Cologne residents' most loved landmark. It is a
Gothic church, started in 1248, and completed in 1880. In 1996, it was
designated a World Heritage site; it houses the Shrine of the Three
Kings, which supposedly contains the relics of the Three Magi (see
also). Residents of
Cologne sometimes refer to the cathedral as
"the eternal construction site" (die ewige Baustelle).
Twelve Romanesque churches: These buildings are outstanding examples
of medieval church architecture. The origins of some of the churches
go back as far as Roman times, for example St. Gereon, which was
originally a chapel in a Roman graveyard. With the exception of St.
Maria Lyskirchen all of these churches were very badly damaged during
World War II. Reconstruction was only finished in the 1990s.
Great St. Martin Church
Basilica of St. Severin
Church of the Assumption
Cologne City Hall
Cologne City Hall (Kölner Rathaus), founded in the 12th century,
is the oldest city hall in
Germany still in use. The
Renaissance-style loggia and tower were added in the 15th century.
Other famous buildings include the Gürzenich, Haus Saaleck and the
Cologne City Hall
Medieval city gates
A plan published in 1800 shows the mediaeval city wall still intact,
locating 16 gates (Nr. 36-51 in the legend), e.g.
47: Eigelsteintor, 43: Hahnentor, 39: Severinstor
Of the twelve medieval city gates that once existed, only the
Eigelsteintorburg at Ebertplatz, the Hahnentor at Rudolfplatz and the
Severinstorburg at Chlodwigplatz still stand today.
Main article: Streets in Cologne
Cologne Ring boulevards (such as Hohenzollernring,
Kaiser-Wilhelm-Ring, Hansaring) with their medieval city gates (such
as Hahnentorburg on Rudolfplatz) are also known for their night life.
Hohe Straße (literally: High Street) is one of the main shopping
areas and extends past the cathedral in an approximately southerly
direction. The street contains many gift shops, clothing stores, fast
food restaurants and electronic goods dealers.
Schildergasse – connects Neumarkt square at its western end to the
Hohe Strasse shopping street at its eastern end and has been named the
busiest shopping street in
Europe with 13,000 people passing through
every hour, according to a 2008 study by GfK.
Ehrenstraße – the shopping area around Apostelnstrasse,
Ehrenstrasse, and Rudolfplatz is a little more on the quirky and
Several bridges cross the
Rhine in Cologne. They are (from south to
Rodenkirchen Bridge, South Bridge (railway),
Severin Bridge, Deutz Bridge,
Hohenzollern Bridge (railway), Zoo
Bridge (Zoobrücke) and
Mülheim Bridge. In particular the
iron tied arch
Hohenzollern Bridge (Hohenzollernbrücke) is a dominant
landmark along the river embankment. A
Rhine crossing of a special
kind is provided by the
Cologne Cable Car
Cologne Cable Car (German: Kölner Seilbahn),
a cableway that runs across the
Rhine between the
Garden in Riehl and the
Rheinpark in Deutz.
Cologne's tallest structure is the
Colonius telecommunication tower at
266 m or 873 ft. The observation deck has been closed since
1992. A selection of the tallest buildings in
Cologne is listed below.
Other tall structures include the Hansahochhaus (designed by architect
Jacob Koerfer and completed in 1925—it was at one time Europe's
tallest office building), the
Kranhaus buildings at Rheinauhafen, and
Messeturm Köln ("trade fair tower").
Height in metres
MediaPark 8, Neustadt-Nord
Cologne Tower), Cologne's second tallest building at
165.48 metres (542.91 ft) in height, second only to the Colonius
telecommunication tower. The 30th floor of the building has a
restaurant and a terrace with 360° views of the city.
An der Schanz 2, Riehl
tallest building in
Germany from 1973 to 1976. Today, it is still the
country's tallest residential building.
former headquarters of Deutsche Welle, since 2007 under renovation
with the new name Rheintower Köln-Marienburg.
Luxemburger Straße, Sülz
Am Grauen Stein, Poll
Luxemburger Straße, Sülz
Ottoplatz 1, Deutz
opposite to the cathedral with a 103 m (338 ft) high viewing
platform and a view of the cathedral over the Rhine.
Graeffstraße 1, Ehrenfeld
Courtyard of the
Kolumba museum in 2007, designed by Peter Zumthor
Cologne has several museums. The famous
Roman-Germanic Museum features
art and architecture from the city's distant past; the Museum Ludwig
houses one of the most important collections of modern art in Europe,
Picasso collection matched only by the museums in
Barcelona and Paris. The
Museum Schnütgen of religious art is partly
housed in St. Cecilia, one of Cologne's Twelve Romanesque
churches. Many art galleries in
Cologne enjoy a worldwide reputation
like e.g. Galerie Karsten Greve, one of the leading galleries for
postwar and contemporary art.
Several orchestras are active in the city, among them the Gürzenich
Orchestra and the WDR Symphony Orchestra Cologne, both based at the
Cologne Philharmonic Orchestra Building. Other orchestras are the
Musica Antiqua Köln and the WDR Rundfunkorchester Köln, as well as
Cologne Opera and several choirs, including the WDR Rundfunkchor
Cologne was also an important hotbed for electronic music in
the 1950s (Studio für elektronische Musik, Karlheinz Stockhausen) and
again from the 1990s onward. The public radio and TV station WDR was
involved in promoting musical movements such as
Krautrock in the
1970s; the influential Can was formed there in 1968. There are several
centres of nightlife, among them the Kwartier Latäng (the student
quarter around the Zülpicher Straße) and the nightclub-studded areas
around Hohenzollernring, Friesenplatz and Rudolfplatz.
The large annual literary festival Lit.
Cologne features regional and
international authors. The main literary figure connected with Cologne
is the writer Heinrich Böll, winner of the Nobel Prize for
Cologne is well known for its beer, called Kölsch. Kölsch is also
the name of the local dialect. This has led to the common joke of
Kölsch being the only language one can drink.
Cologne is also famous for
Eau de Cologne
Eau de Cologne (German: Kölnisch Wasser;
lit: "Water of Cologne"), a perfume created by Italian expatriate
Johann Maria Farina
Johann Maria Farina at the beginning of the 18th century. During the
18th century, this perfume became increasingly popular, was exported
Europe by the Farina family and Farina became a household
name for Eau de Cologne. In 1803 Wilhelm Mülhens entered into a
contract with an unrelated person from
Italy named Carlo Francesco
Farina who granted him the right to use his family name and Mühlens
opened a small factory at Cologne's Glockengasse. In later years, and
after various court battles, his grandson
Ferdinand Mülhens was
forced to abandon the name Farina for the company and their product.
He decided to use the house number given to the factory at
Glockengasse during the French occupation in the early 19th century,
4711. Today, original
Eau de Cologne
Eau de Cologne is still produced in
both the Farina family, currently in the eighth generation, and by
Mäurer & Wirtz who bought the 4711 brand in 2006.
Cologne carnival is one of the largest street festivals in Europe.
In Cologne, the carnival season officially starts on 11 November at 11
minutes past 11 a.m. with the proclamation of the new Carnival
Season, and continues until Ash Wednesday. However, the so-called
"Tolle Tage" (crazy days) do not start until Weiberfastnacht (Women's
Carnival) or, in dialect, Wieverfastelovend, the Thursday before Ash
Wednesday, which is the beginning of the street carnival. Zülpicher
Strasse and its surroundings, Neumarkt square, Heumarkt and all bars
and pubs in the city are crowded with people in costumes dancing and
drinking in the streets. Hundreds of thousands of visitors flock to
Cologne during this time. Generally, around a million people celebrate
in the streets on the Thursday before Ash Wednesday.
Rivalry with Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf have a "fierce regional rivalry", which
includes carnival parades, football, and beer. People in Cologne
prefer Kölsch while people in
Waiters and patrons will "scorn" and make a "mockery" of people who
order Alt beer in
Cologne or Kölsch in Düsseldorf. The rivalry
has been described as a "love–hate relationship".
Museum Ludwig houses one of the most important collections of
Roman excavation in Cologne:
Dionysus Mosaic on display at
Main article: List of museums in Cologne
Fragrance Museum – birthplace of Eau de Cologne
Römisch-Germanisches Museum (Roman-Germanic Museum) – ancient Roman
and Germanic culture
Wallraf-Richartz Museum – European painting from the 13th to the
early 20th century
Museum Ludwig – modern art
Museum Schnütgen – medieval art
Museum für Angewandte Kunst – applied art
Kolumba Kunstmuseum des Erzbistums Köln (art museum of the
Archbishopric of Cologne) – modern art museum built around medieval
ruins, completed 2007
Cathedral Treasury "Domschatzkammer" – historic underground vaults
of the Cathedral
EL-DE Haus – former local headquarters of the
Gestapo houses a
Nazi rule in
Cologne with a special focus on the
persecution of political dissenters and minorities
German Sports and Olympic Museum – exhibitions about sports from
antiquity until the present
Imhoff-Schokoladenmuseum – Chocolate Museum
Geomuseum of the
University of Cologne
University of Cologne – the exhibition includes
fossils (such as dinosaur bones and the skeleton of an Eryops), stones
Forum for Internet Technology in Contemporary Art – collections of
Internet-based art, corporate part of
(NewMediaArtProjectNetwork):cologne, the experimental platform for art
and New Media
Flora und Botanischer Garten Köln
Flora und Botanischer Garten Köln – the city's formal park and main
Forstbotanischer Garten Köln
Forstbotanischer Garten Köln – an arboretum and woodland botanical
Music fairs and festivals
The city was home to the internationally famous Ringfest, and now to
the C/o pop festival.
Cologne enjoys a thriving Christmas Market
Weihnachtsmarkt presence with several locations in the city.
North entrance to Koelnmesse, 2008
Modern office building at Rheinauhafen
As the largest city in the
Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region, Cologne
benefits from a large market structure. In competition with
Düsseldorf, the economy of
Cologne is primarily based on insurance
and media industries, while the city is also an important cultural
and research centre and home to a number of corporate headquarters.
Among the largest media companies based in
Cologne are Westdeutscher
RTL Television (with subsidiaries), n-tv, Deutschlandradio,
Brainpool TV and publishing houses like J. P. Bachem, Taschen,
Tandem Verlag, and M. DuMont Schauberg. Several clusters of
media, arts and communications agencies, TV production studios, and
state agencies work partly with private and government-funded cultural
institutions. Among the insurance companies based in
Central, DEVK, DKV, Generali Deutschland, Gen Re, Gothaer, HDI Gerling
and national headquarters of
AXA Insurance, Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance
Group and Zurich Financial Services.
The German flag carrier
Lufthansa and its subsidiary Lufthansa
CityLine have their main corporate headquarters in Cologne. The
largest employer in
Cologne is Ford Europe, which has its European
headquarters and a factory in Niehl (Ford-Werke GmbH). Toyota
Motorsport GmbH (TMG), Toyota's official motorsports team, responsible
Toyota rally cars, and then
Formula One cars, has its headquarters
and workshops in Cologne. Other large companies based in Cologne
include the REWE Group, TÜV Rheinland,
Deutz AG and a number of
Cologne has the country's highest density of pubs
per capita. The largest three Kölsch breweries are Reissdorf,
Gaffel, and Früh.
Annual output in hectoliters
Gaffel Becker & Co
Cölner Hofbräu Früh
Cologne has always been an important trade city, with
land, air, and sea connections. The city has five
the second largest inland port in
Germany and one of the largest in
Bonn Airport is the second largest freight terminal in
Germany. Today, the
Cologne trade fair
Cologne trade fair (Koelnmesse) ranks as a
major European trade fair location with over 50 trade fairs and
other large cultural and sports events. In 2008
4.31 million overnight stays booked and 2.38 million
arrivals. Cologne's largest daily newspaper is the Kölner
Cologne shows a significant increase in startup companies, especially
when considering digital business.
Main article: Transport in Cologne
Major roads through and around Cologne
Road building had been a major issue in the 1920s under the leadership
of mayor Konrad Adenauer. The first German limited-access road was
constructed after 1929 between
Cologne and Bonn. Today, this is the
Bundesautobahn 555. In 1965,
Cologne became the first German city to
be fully encircled by a motorway ring road. Roughly at the same time,
a city centre bypass (Stadtautobahn) was planned, but only partially
put into effect, due to opposition by environmental groups. The
completed section became Bundesstraße ("Federal Road") B 55a, which
begins at the Zoobrücke ("Zoo Bridge") and meets with A 4 and
A 3 at the interchange
Cologne East. Nevertheless, it is referred
to as Stadtautobahn by most locals. In contrast to this, the
Nord-Süd-Fahrt ("North-South-Drive") was actually completed, a new
four/six-lane city centre through-route, which had already been
anticipated by planners such as Fritz Schumacher in the 1920s. The
last section south of Ebertplatz was completed in 1972.
In 2005, the first stretch of an eight-lane motorway in North
Rhine-Westphalia was opened to traffic on Bundesautobahn 3, part
of the eastern section of the
Cologne Beltway between the interchanges
Cologne East and Heumar.
Cologne Stadtbahn at Bensberg station
Train at Köln Hauptbahnhof
Compared to other German cities,
Cologne has a traffic layout that is
not very bicycle-friendly. It has repeatedly ranked among the worst in
an independent evaluation conducted by the Allgemeiner Deutscher
Fahrrad-Club. In 2014 it ranked 36th out of 39 German cities with a
population greater than 200,000.
Cologne has a railway service with
ICE-trains stopping at
Köln Hauptbahnhof (
Cologne Main Station),
Köln Messe/Deutz and Cologne/
Bonn Airport. ICE and TGV Thalys
high-speed trains link
Cologne with Amsterdam,
Brussels (in 1h47, 9
departures/day) and Paris (in 3h14, 6 departures/day). There are
frequent ICE trains to other German cities, including
Main and Berlin. ICE Trains to
London via the
Channel Tunnel were
planned for 2013.
Cologne Stadtbahn operated by Kölner Verkehrsbetriebe (KVB)
is an extensive light rail system that is partially underground and
Cologne and a number of neighbouring cities. It evolved from
the tram system. Nearby
Bonn is linked by both the Stadtbahn and main
line railway trains, and occasional recreational boats on the Rhine.
Düsseldorf is also linked by
S-Bahn trains, which are operated by
S-Bahn has 5 lines which cross Cologne.The S13/S19 runs
Cologne Hbf and Cologne/
There are also frequent buses covering most of the city and
surrounding suburbs, and
Eurolines coaches to
London via Brussels.
Häfen und Güterverkehr Köln
Häfen und Güterverkehr Köln (Ports and Goods traffic Cologne, HGK)
is one of the largest operators of inland ports in Germany. Ports
include Köln-Deutz, Köln-Godorf, and Köln-Niehl I and II.
Cologne's international airport is Cologne/
Bonn Airport (CGN). It is
Konrad Adenauer Airport after Germany's first post-war
Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, who was born in the city and was mayor of
Cologne from 1917 until 1933. The airport is shared with the
neighbouring city of Bonn.
Cologne is headquarters to the European
Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). The airport is also the main hub of the
Cologne is home to numerous universities and colleges, and
host to some 72,000 students. Its oldest university, the University
Cologne (founded in 1388) is the largest university in Germany,
Cologne University of Applied Sciences
Cologne University of Applied Sciences is the largest
university of Applied Sciences in the country. The
of Music and Dance is the largest conservatory in Europe.
Foreigners can have German lessons in the VHS (Adult Education
Public and state universities:
University of Cologne
University of Cologne (Universität zu Köln);
German Sport University Cologne
German Sport University Cologne (Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln).
Public and state colleges:
Cologne University of Applied Sciences
Cologne University of Applied Sciences ("Technology, Arts, Sciences TH
KöLN" Technische Hochschule Köln);
Köln International School of Design;
Cologne University of Music and Dance (Hochschule für Musik und Tanz
Academy of Media Arts Cologne
Academy of Media Arts Cologne (Kunsthochschule für Medien Köln);
Catholic University of Applied Sciences (Katholische Hochschule
Cologne Business School;
international filmschool cologne (internationale filmschule köln);
Rhenish University of Applied Sciences (Rheinische Fachhochschule
German Aerospace Centre
German Aerospace Centre (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt);
European Astronaut Centre
European Astronaut Centre (EAC) of the European Space Agency;
European College of Sport Science
European College of Sport Science (ECSS);
Max Planck Institute for the Biology of Ageing (Max-Planck-Institut
für die Biologie des Alterns);
Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies
Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies (Max-Planck-Institut
Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research (Max-Planck-Institut
für neurologische Forschung);
Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research (Max-Planck-Institut
CologneAMS – Centre for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Institute for
Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne
Former colleges include:
Cologne Art and Crafts Schools (Kölner Werkschulen);
Cologne Institute for Religious Art (Kölner Institut für
Cologne is known as an important media centre. Several
radio and television stations, including
Westdeutscher Rundfunk (WDR),
RTL and VOX, have their headquarters in the city. Film and TV
production is also important. The city is "Germany's capital of TV
crime stories". A third of all German TV productions are made in
Cologne region. Furthermore, the city hosts the
Festival, which is considered to be the largest comedy festival in
RheinEnergieStadion is the stadium of
Bundesliga club 1. FC Köln.
Cologne hosts 1. FC Köln, who play in the Bundesliga. They play
their home matches in
RheinEnergieStadion which also hosted 5 matches
of the 2006 FIFA World Cup. The International Olympic Committee
and Internationale Vereinigung Sport- und Freizeiteinrichtungen e.V.
RheinEnergieStadion a bronze medal for "being one of the best
sporting venues in the world".
Cologne also hosts FC Viktoria
Köln 1904 and SC Fortuna Köln, who play in the Regionalliga West
(fourth division) respectively the
3. Liga (third division).
The city is also home of the ice hockey team Kölner Haie, in the
highest ice hockey league in Germany, the Deutsche Eishockey Liga.
They are based at Lanxess Arena.
Several horse races per year are held at Cologne-Weidenpesch
Racecourse since 1897, the annual
Cologne Marathon was started in
1997. From 2002 to 2009, the Panasonic
Formula One team
was based in the Marsdorf suburb, at the
Toyota Motorsport GmbH
Cologne is considered "the secret golf capital of Germany". The
first golf club in
North Rhine-Westphalia was founded in
1906. The city offers the most options and top events in
The city has hosted several athletic events which includes the 2005
FIFA Confederations Cup, 2006 FIFA World Cup, 2007 World Men's
Handball Championship, 2010 and 2017 Ice Hockey World Championships
and 2010 Gay Games.
Notable people, whose roots can be found in Cologne:
Konrad Adenauer (1876–1967), politician, mayor of Cologne
(1917–33, 1945) and first West German Federal Chancellor
Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa
Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa (1486–1535), alchemist, occultist, and
author of Three Books of
Agrippina the Younger
Agrippina the Younger (15–59), Roman Empress (wife of Emperor
Claudius) and mother of Emperor Nero
Heinrich Birnbaum (1403–73), a Catholic monk
Heinrich Boigk (1912–2003), Knights Cross winner
Robert Blum (1807–48), German politician and martyr of the 19th
century democratic movement in Germany
Heinrich Böll (1917–85), German writer and winner of the Nobel
prize for literature in 1972
Georg Braun (1541-1622), topogeographer
Max Bruch (1838–1920), composer
Álex Calatrava (born 1973), Spanish professional tennis player
Heribert Calleen (born 1924), German sculptor
Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck
Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck (born 1973), Oscar-winning director
Max Ernst (1891–1976), German painter and artist
Kota Ezawa (born 1969), Japanese German animator and artist
Angela Gossow (born 1974), former German lead vocalist of Swedish
melodic death metal band Arch Enemy
Everhard von Groote (1798–1864), Germanist and writer
Britta Heidemann (born 1982), épée fencer and Olympic medalist
H. Robert Heller (born 1940), former professor, Governor of the
Federal Reserve System and President of VISA U.S.A.
Trude Herr (1927–91), actress and singer
Jakob Ignaz Hittorff, (1792–1867), French architect of German origin
Stefanie Höner (born 1969), actress
Ernst Ising, (1900–1998), mathematician and physicist
Lilli Jahn, (born 1900), doctor, died presumably on 19 June 1944 in
Udo Kier (born 1944), actor
Lukas Podolski (born 1985), German footballer
Johannes Kalitzke (born 1959), composer and conductor
Jutta Kleinschmidt (born 1962), off-road automotive racing competitor
Werner Klemperer (1920–2000), Emmy Award-winning comedy actor
Erich Klibansky (1900–1942),
Jewish headmaster and teacher
Adolf Kober (1870–1958),
Jewish rabbi and medievalist
Peter Kohlgraf (born 1967), Catholic Bishop of Mainz
Gaby Köster (born 1961), German actress and comedian
Wilhelm Kratz, (1902–1944), resistance fighter and nazi victim
Hildegard Krekel (1952–2013), German actress
Lotti Krekel (born 1941), actress and singer
Uwe Krupp (born 1965), professional (ice) hockey player
Heinz Kühn (1912–92),
Minister-President of North Rhine-Westphalia
Heiner Lauterbach (1953), German actor
Julia Leischik (born 1970), German editor-in-chief, television
presenter and television producer.
Ottmar Liebert (born 1961), musician
Mariele Millowitsch (born 1955), actress
Peter Millowitsch (born 1949), actor, playwright and theatre director
Willy Millowitsch (1909–1999), actor, playwright and theatre
Wolfgang Niedecken (born 1951), German singer, musician, artist and
bandleader of BAP
Theodore of Corsica
Theodore of Corsica (1694–1756), briefly King Theodore of Corsica
Jacques Offenbach (1819–80), German-born French composer
Willi Ostermann (1876–1936), composer
Nikolaus Otto (1832–1891), German inventor, 4 cycle internal
Kim Petras (born 1992), German singer
Frederik Prausnitz (1920–2004), American conductor and teacher
Christa Päffgen a.k.a.
Nico (1938–1988), model, actress, singer,
and songwriter in
Velvet Underground and Warhol Superstar
Hedwig Potthast (1912–1997), secretary and mistress of Heinrich
Stefan Raab (born 1966), German entertainer and host of Eurovision
Song Contest 2011
Joseph Nicolas Robert-Fleury
Joseph Nicolas Robert-Fleury (1797–1890), painter
Jürgen Rüttgers (born 1951), German politician (CDU),
North Rhine-Westphalia (2005–2010)
Jürgen Fritz (born 1953), musician and composer
Adam Schall von Bell
Adam Schall von Bell (1592–1666), since 1622 active missionary of
the Order of the Jesuits in China
Markus Stockhausen (born 1957), musician and composer
Wolfgang von Trips
Wolfgang von Trips (1928–61), German
Formula One racing driver
Joost van den Vondel
Joost van den Vondel (1587–1679), Dutch poet and playwright
Moshe Wallach (1866–1957), founder and director of Shaare Zedek
Christoph Watrin (born 1988), singer, US5
Robert Weimar (1932–2013), German legal scientist and psychologist
Thomas Wensing (born 1978), German writer
Carl Wyland (1886–1972), German blacksmith
Leon Draisaitl (born 1995), German ice hockey player for the Edmonton
Gökhan Töre (born 1992), Turkish footballer
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
Twin towns and sister cities
Cologne is twinned with:
Spain (since 1984)
Bethlehem, Palestine (1996)
Ireland (27. June 1988)
Poland (15 March 1991)
Japan (21 January 1963)
Liverpool, UK (1952)
China (14 September 1987)
Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (19 September 2011)
Israel (6 August 1979)
Greece (3 May 1988)
Tunisia (12 June 1964)
List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
Stadtwerke Köln, the municipal infrastructure company, operator of
the city's railways, ports, and other utilities.
New Year's Eve sexual assaults in Germany
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