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COLOGNE (English: /kəˈloʊn/ ; German : Köln, pronounced ( listen ), Ripuarian : Kölle ( listen )) is the largest city in the German federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
and the fourth most populated city in Germany
Germany
(after Berlin
Berlin
, Hamburg
Hamburg
, and Munich
Munich
). It is located within the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region which is Germany\'s largest and one of Europe\'s major metropolitan areas . Cologne
Cologne
is about 45 kilometres (28 mi) southwest of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital of Dusseldorf and 25 kilometres (16 mi) northwest of Bonn
Bonn
.

Cologne
Cologne
is located on both sides of the Rhine
Rhine
, near Germany's borders with Belgium
Belgium
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
. The city's famous Cologne Cathedral (Kölner Dom) is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop
Archbishop
of Cologne
Cologne
. The University of Cologne (Universität zu Köln) is one of Europe's oldest and largest universities.

Cologne
Cologne
was founded and established in Ubii territory in the 1st century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium , the first word of which is the origin of its name. An alternative Latin name of the settlement is Augusta Ubiorum, after the Ubii. "Cologne", the French version of the city's name, has become standard in English as well. The city functioned as the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior and as the headquarters of the Roman military in the region until occupied by the Franks in 462. During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
it flourished on one of the most important major trade routes between east and west in Europe. Cologne
Cologne
was one of the leading members of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
and one of the largest cities north of the Alps
Alps
in medieval and Renaissance times. Prior to World War II
World War II
the city had undergone several occupations by the French and also by the British (1918–1926). Cologne
Cologne
was one of the most heavily bombed cities in Germany
Germany
during World War II, with the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF) dropping 34,711 long tons (35,268 tonnes) of bombs on the city . The bombing reduced the population by 95%, mainly due to evacuation, and destroyed almost the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many historic buildings as possible, the successful postwar rebuilding has resulted in a very mixed and unique cityscape.

Cologne
Cologne
is a major cultural centre for the Rhineland
Rhineland
; it hosts more than 30 museums and hundreds of galleries. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics and sculpture. The Cologne Trade Fair
Cologne Trade Fair
hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne , imm Cologne
Cologne
, Gamescom
Gamescom
, and the Photokina .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Roman Cologne
Cologne
* 1.2 Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* 1.3 Early modern history * 1.4 From the 19th century until World War II
World War II
* 1.5 World War II
World War II
* 1.6 Post-war Cologne
Cologne
until today * 1.7 Post-reunification

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Districts * 2.2 Climate * 2.3 Flood protection

* 3 Demographics

* 3.1 Residents in Cologne
Cologne
with foreign cititzenship * 3.2 Language * 3.3 Religion

* 4 Government

* 4.1 Political traditions and developments * 4.2 Mayor * 4.3 Elections * 4.4 Make-up of city council

* 5 Cityscape * 6 Wildlife

* 7 Tourism

* 7.1 Landmarks

* 7.1.1 Churches * 7.1.2 Medieval houses * 7.1.3 Medieval city gates

* 7.2 Streets * 7.3 Bridges * 7.4 High-rise structures

* 8 Culture

* 8.1 Carnival * 8.2 Rivalry with Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
* 8.3 Museums * 8.4 Music fairs and festivals

* 9 Economy

* 10 Transport

* 10.1 Road transport * 10.2 Cycling * 10.3 Rail transport * 10.4 Water transport * 10.5 Air transport

* 11 Education * 12 Media * 13 Sports * 14 Notable residents

* 15 International relations

* 15.1 Twin towns and sister cities
Twin towns and sister cities

* 16 See also * 17 References * 18 External links

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Cologne and Timeline of Cologne

ROMAN COLOGNE

Fresco with Dionysian scenes from a Roman villa of Cologne, Germany
Germany
(site of the ancient city Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium ), 3rd century AD, Romano-Germanic Museum

The first urban settlement on the grounds of modern-day Cologne
Cologne
was Oppidum Ubiorum, founded in 38 BC by the Ubii , a Cisrhenian Germanic tribe . In 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia on the Rhine
Rhine
and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior in 85 AD. The city was named Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium in 50 AD. Considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne, especially near the wharf area, where a notable discovery of a 1900-year-old Roman boat was made in late 2007. From 260 to 271 Cologne
Cologne
was the capital of the Gallic Empire
Gallic Empire
under Postumus
Postumus
, Marius , and Victorinus . In 310 under Constantine a bridge was built over the Rhine
Rhine
at Cologne. Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it became one of the most important trade and production centres in the Roman Empire north of the Alps. Cologne
Cologne
is shown on the 4th century Peutinger Map
Peutinger Map
.

Maternus, who was elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne. The city was the capital of a Roman province until occupied by the Ripuarian Franks in 462. Parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system having opened in 1890.

MIDDLE AGES

Early medieval Cologne
Cologne
was part of Austrasia within the Frankish Empire . Cologne
Cologne
had been the seat of a bishop since the Roman period; under Charlemagne
Charlemagne
, in 795, bishop Hildebold was promoted to archbishop . In 843, Cologne
Cologne
became a city within the Treaty of Verdun
Verdun
-created East Francia .

In 953, the archbishops of Cologne
Cologne
first gained noteworthy secular power, when bishop Bruno was appointed as duke by his brother Otto I , King of Germany
Germany
. In order to weaken the secular nobility, who threatened his power, Otto endowed Bruno and his successors on the bishop's see with the prerogatives of secular princes, thus establishing the Electorate of Cologne , formed by the temporal possessions of the archbishopric and included in the end a strip of territory along the left Bank of the Rhine
Rhine
east of Jülich , as well as the Duchy of Westphalia on the other side of the Rhine, beyond Berg and Mark . By the end of the 12th century, the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Cologne was one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor. Besides being prince elector, he was Arch-chancellor of Italy
Italy
as well, technically from 1238 and permanently from 1263 until 1803.

Following the Battle of Worringen in 1288, Cologne
Cologne
gained its independence from the archbishops and became a Free City . Archbishop Sigfried II von Westerburg was forced into exile in Bonn
Bonn
. The archbishop nevertheless preserved the right of capital punishment. Thus the municipal council (though in strict political opposition towards the archbishop) depended upon him in all matters concerning criminal justice. This included torture, which sentence was only allowed to be handed down by the episcopal judge, the so-called "Greve". This legal situation lasted until the French conquest of Cologne.

Besides its economic and political significance Cologne
Cologne
also became an important centre of medieval pilgrimage, when Cologne's Archbishop Rainald of Dassel gave the relics of the Three Wise Men
Three Wise Men
to Cologne's cathedral in 1164 (after they in fact had been captured from Milan
Milan
). Besides the three magi Cologne
Cologne
preserves the relics of Saint Ursula and Albertus Magnus .

Cologne's location on the river Rhine
Rhine
placed it at the intersection of the major trade routes between east and west as well as the main Western Europe
Europe
trade route, South – North Northern Italy-Flanders. These two trade routes were the basis of Cologne's growth. By 1300 the city population was 50,000-55,000. Cologne
Cologne
was a member of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
in 1475, when Frederick III confirmed the city's imperial immediacy. Cologne
Cologne
around 1411

EARLY MODERN HISTORY

The economic structures of medieval and early modern Cologne
Cologne
were characterised by the city's status as a major harbour and transport hub on the Rhine. Craftsmanship was organised by self-administering guilds, some of which were exclusive to women.

As a free city, Cologne
Cologne
was a sovereign state within the Holy Roman Empire and as such had the right (and obligation) to maintain its own military force. As they wore a red uniform, these troops were known as the Rote Funken (red sparks). These soldiers were part of the Army of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
("Reichskontingent") and fought in the wars of the 17th and 18th century, including the wars against revolutionary France, when the small force was almost completely wiped out in combat. The tradition of these troops is preserved as a military persiflage by Cologne's most outstanding carnival society, the Rote Funken.

The free city of Cologne
Cologne
must not be confused with the Archbishopric of Cologne
Cologne
which was a state of its own within the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
. Since the second half of the 16th century the archbishops were drawn from the Bavaria
Bavaria
Wittelsbach
Wittelsbach
dynasty. Due to the free status of Cologne, the archbishops were usually not allowed to enter the city. Thus they took up residence in Bonn
Bonn
and later in Brühl on the Rhine. As members of an influential and powerful family, and supported by their outstanding status as electors , the archbishops of Cologne repeatedly challenged and threatened the free status of Cologne
Cologne
during the 17th and 18th centuries, resulting in complicated affairs, which were handled by diplomatic means and propaganda as well as by the supreme courts of the Holy Roman Empire.

FROM THE 19TH CENTURY UNTIL WORLD WAR II

Hohestraße, 1912 Hängebrücke

Cologne
Cologne
lost its status as a free city during the French period. According to the Peace Treaty of Lunéville (1801) all the territories of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
on the left bank of the Rhine
Rhine
were officially incorporated into the French Republic (which had already occupied Cologne
Cologne
in 1794). Thus this region later became part of Napoleon\'s Empire. Cologne
Cologne
was part of the French Département Roer (named after the river Roer, German: Rur
Rur
) with Aachen
Aachen
(French: Aix-la-Chapelle) as its capital. The French modernised public life, for example by introducing the Napoleonic code and removing the old elites from power. The Napoleonic code remained in use on the left bank of the Rhine
Rhine
until 1900, when a unified civil code (the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch ) was introduced in the German Empire
German Empire
. In 1815 at the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
, Cologne
Cologne
was made part of the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
, first in the Jülich-Cleves-Berg province and then the Rhine
Rhine
province .

The permanent tensions between the Roman Catholic Rhineland
Rhineland
and the overwhelmingly Protestant Prussian state repeatedly escalated with Cologne
Cologne
being in the focus of the conflict. In 1837 the archbishop of Cologne, Clemens August von Droste-Vischering
Clemens August von Droste-Vischering
, was arrested and imprisoned for two years after a dispute over the legal status of marriages between Protestants and Roman Catholics (Mischehenstreit). In 1874, during the Kulturkampf , Archbishop
Archbishop
Paul Melchers was imprisoned before taking refuge in the Netherlands. These conflicts alienated the Catholic population from Berlin
Berlin
and contributed to a deeply felt anti-Prussian resentment, which was still significant after World War II, when the former mayor of Cologne, Konrad Adenauer , became the first West German chancellor.

During the 19th and 20th centuries, Cologne
Cologne
absorbed numerous surrounding towns, and by World War I
World War I
had already grown to 700,000 inhabitants. Industrialisation changed the city and spurred its growth. Vehicle and engine manufacturing were especially successful, though heavy industry was less ubiquitous than in the Ruhr area
Ruhr area
. The cathedral , started in 1248 but abandoned around 1560, was eventually finished in 1880 not just as a place of worship but also as a German national monument celebrating the newly founded German empire
German empire
and the continuity of the German nation since the Middle Ages. Some of this urban growth occurred at the expense of the city's historic heritage with much being demolished (for example, the city walls or the area around the cathedral) and sometimes replaced by contemporary buildings.

Cologne
Cologne
was designated as one of the Fortresses of the German Confederation . It was turned into a heavily armed fortress (opposing the French and Belgian fortresses of Verdun
Verdun
and Liège ) with two fortified belts surrounding the city, the remains of which can be seen to this day. The military demands on what became Germany's largest fortress presented a significant obstacle to urban development, with forts, bunkers, and wide defensive dugouts completely encircling the city and preventing expansion; this resulted in a very densely built-up area within the city itself.

During World War I
World War I
Cologne
Cologne
was the target of several minor air raids, but suffered no significant damage. Cologne
Cologne
was occupied by the British Army of the Rhine
Rhine
until 1926, under the terms of the Armistice and the subsequent Versailles Peace Treaty . In contrast with the harsh behaviour of the French occupation troops in Germany, the British forces were more lenient to the local population. Konrad Adenauer , the mayor of Cologne
Cologne
from 1917 until 1933 and later a West German chancellor, acknowledged the political impact of this approach, especially since Britain had opposed French demands for a permanent Allied occupation of the entire Rhineland.

As part of the demilitarisation of the Rhineland
Rhineland
, the city's fortifications had to be dismantled. This was an opportunity to create two green belts (Grüngürtel) around the city by converting the fortifications and their fields of fire into large public parks. This was not completed until 1933. In 1919 the University of Cologne , closed by the French in 1798, was reopened. This was considered to be a replacement for the loss of the University of Strasbourg on the west bank of the Rhine, which reverted to France
France
with the rest of Alsace
Alsace
. Cologne
Cologne
prospered during the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
(1919–33), and progress was made especially in public governance, city planning, housing and social affairs. Social housing projects were considered exemplary and were copied by other German cities. Cologne
Cologne
competed to host the Olympics, and a modern sports stadium was erected at Müngersdorf. When the British occupation ended, the prohibition of civil aviation was lifted and Cologne Butzweilerhof Airport soon became a hub for national and international air traffic, second in Germany
Germany
only to Berlin
Berlin
Tempelhof Airport .

The democratic parties lost the local elections in Cologne
Cologne
in March 1933 to the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
and other right wing parties. The Nazis then arrested the Communist and Social Democrats members of the city assembly, and Mayor Adenauer was dismissed. Compared to some other major cities, however, the Nazis never gained decisive support in Cologne. (Significantly, the number of votes cast for the Nazi
Nazi
Party in Reichstag elections had always been the national average.) By 1939 the population had risen to 772,221 inhabitants.

WORLD WAR II

The devastation of Cologne, 1945

During World War II, Cologne
Cologne
was a Military Area Command Headquarters (Militärbereichshauptkommandoquartier) for the Military District (Wehrkreis) VI of Münster . Cologne
Cologne
was under the command of Lieutenant-General Freiherr Roeder von Diersburg, who was responsible for military operations in Bonn
Bonn
, Siegburg , Aachen
Aachen
, Jülich , Düren , and Monschau
Monschau
. Cologne
Cologne
was home to the 211th Infantry Regiment and the 26th Artillery Regiment.

The Allies dropped 44,923.2 tons of bombs on the city during World War II, destroying 61% of its built up area. During the Bombing of Cologne
Cologne
in World War II
World War II
, Cologne
Cologne
endured 262 air raids by the Western Allies , which caused approximately 20,000 civilian casualties and almost completely wiped out the central part of the city. During the night of 31 May 1942, Cologne
Cologne
was the target of "Operation Millennium ", the first 1,000 bomber raid by the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
in World War II. 1,046 heavy bombers attacked their target with 1,455 tons of explosives, approximately two-thirds of which were incendiary. This raid lasted about 75 minutes, destroyed 600 acres (243 ha) of built-up area (61%), killed 486 civilians and made 59,000 people homeless.

Cologne
Cologne
was taken by the American First Army in early March, 1945. By the end of the war, the population of Cologne
Cologne
had been reduced by 95 percent. This loss was mainly caused by a massive evacuation of the people to more rural areas. The same happened in many other German cities in the last two years of war. By the end of 1945, however, the population had already recovered to approximately 500,000.

By the end of the war, essentially all of Cologne's pre-war Jewish population of 11,000 had been deported or killed by the Nazis. The six synagogues of the city were destroyed. The synagogue on Roonstraße was rebuilt in 1959.

POST-WAR COLOGNE UNTIL TODAY

Cologne, seen from the International Space Station
International Space Station

Despite Cologne's status as the largest city in the region, nearby Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
was chosen as the political capital of the federated state of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
. With Bonn
Bonn
being chosen as the provisional federal capital (provisorische Bundeshauptstadt) and seat of the government of the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
(then informally West Germany
Germany
), Cologne
Cologne
benefited by being sandwiched between two important political centres. The city became–and still is–home to a number of federal agencies and organizations. After reunification in 1990, Berlin
Berlin
was made the capital of Germany.

In 1945 architect and urban planner Rudolf Schwarz called Cologne
Cologne
the "world's greatest heap of rubble". Schwarz designed the master plan for reconstruction in 1947, which included the construction of several new thoroughfares through the city centre, especially the Nord-Süd-Fahrt ("North-South-Drive"). The master plan took into consideration the fact that even shortly after the war a large increase in automobile traffic could be anticipated. Plans for new roads had already, to a certain degree, evolved under the Nazi administration, but the actual construction became easier when most of the city centre was in ruins.

The destruction of 95% of the city centre, including the famous Twelve Romanesque churches such as St. Gereon , Great St. Martin , St. Maria im Kapitol and several other monuments in World War II, meant a tremendous loss of cultural treasures. The rebuilding of those churches and other landmarks such as the Gürzenich event hall was not undisputed among leading architects and art historians at that time, but in most cases, civil intention prevailed. The reconstruction lasted until the 1990s, when the Romanesque church of St. Kunibert was finished.

In 1959, the city's population reached pre-war numbers again. It then grew steadily, exceeding 1 million for about one year from 1975. It remained just below that until mid-2010, when it exceeded 1 million again. Cologne
Cologne
in 2013

POST-REUNIFICATION

Soviet letter's envelope in honor of the Internationale Philatelic Exhibition LUPOSTA in Cologne
Cologne
in 1983.

In the 1980s and 1990s Cologne's economy prospered for two main reasons. The first was the growth in the number of media companies, both in the private and public sectors; they are especially catered for in the newly developed Media Park, which creates a strongly visual focal point in Cologne
Cologne
city centre and includes the KölnTurm, one of Cologne's most prominent high-rise buildings. The second was the permanent improvement of the diverse traffic infrastructure, which made Cologne
Cologne
one of the most easily accessible metropolitan areas in Central Europe.

Due to the economic success of the Cologne Trade Fair
Cologne Trade Fair
, the city arranged a large extension to the fair site in 2005. At the same time the original buildings, which date back to the 1920s, were rented out to RTL , Germany's largest private broadcaster, as their new corporate headquarters.

Cologne
Cologne
was the focus of the 2015 New Year\'s Eve sexual assaults , with over 500 women reporting that they were sexually assaulted by persons of African and Arab appearance.

GEOGRAPHY

The metropolitan area encompasses over 405 square kilometres (156 square miles), extending around a central point that lies at 50° 56' 33 latitude and 6° 57' 32 longitude. The city's highest point is 118 m (387.1 ft) above sea level (the Monte Troodelöh
Monte Troodelöh
) and its lowest point is 37.5 m (123.0 ft) above sea level (the Worringer Bruch ). The city of Cologne
Cologne
lies within the larger area of the Cologne
Cologne
Lowland , a cone-shaped area of southeastern Westphalia that lies between Bonn , Aachen
Aachen
and Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
.

DISTRICTS

Main article: Districts of Cologne

Cologne
Cologne
is divided into 9 boroughs (Stadtbezirke) and 85 districts (Stadtteile):

Innenstadt (Stadtbezirk 1) Altstadt-Nord, Altstadt-Süd, Neustadt-Nord, Neustadt-Süd, Deutz Rodenkirchen
Rodenkirchen
(Stadtbezirk 2) Bayenthal , Godorf, Hahnwald, Immendorf, Marienburg, Meschenich, Raderberg, Raderthal, Rodenkirchen, Rondorf, Sürth, Weiß, Zollstock Lindenthal (Stadtbezirk 3) Braunsfeld, Junkersdorf , Klettenberg, Lindenthal, Lövenich, Müngersdorf, Sülz , Weiden, Widdersdorf Ehrenfeld (Stadtbezirk 4) Bickendorf, Bocklemünd/Mengenich, Ehrenfeld, Neuehrenfeld, Ossendorf, Vogelsang Nippes (Stadtbezirk 5) Bilderstöckchen, Longerich, Mauenheim, Niehl , Nippes, Riehl, Weidenpesch

Chorweiler (Stadtbezirk 6) Blumenberg, Chorweiler, Esch/Auweiler, Fühlingen, Heimersdorf, Lindweiler, Merkenich, Pesch, Roggendorf/Thenhoven, Seeberg, Volkhoven/Weiler, Worringen Porz (Stadtbezirk 7) Eil , Elsdorf, Ensen, Finkenberg, Gremberghoven, Grengel, Langel, Libur, Lind, Poll , Porz, Urbach, Wahn, Wahnheide, Westhoven, Zündorf Kalk (Stadtbezirk 8) Brück, Höhenberg, Humboldt/Gremberg, Kalk, Merheim, Neubrück, Ostheim, Rath/Heumar , Vingst Mülheim (Stadtbezirk 9) Buchforst, Buchheim, Dellbrück, Dünnwald, Flittard, Höhenhaus, Holweide, Mülheim, Stammheim

CLIMATE

Located in the Rhine-Ruhr area, Cologne
Cologne
is one of the warmest cities in Germany. It has a temperate –oceanic climate with cool winters and warm summers. It is also one of the cloudiest cities in Germany, with just 1568 hours of sun a year. Its average annual temperature is 10.3 °C (51 °F): 14.8 °C (59 °F) during the day and 5.8 °C (42 °F) at night. In January, the mean temperature is 2.6 °C (37 °F), while the mean temperature in July is 18.8 °C (66 °F). Temperatures can vary significantly over the course of a month with warmer and colder weather. Precipitation
Precipitation
is spread evenly throughout the year with a light peak in summer due to showers and thunderstorms.

CLIMATE DATA FOR COLOGNE/BONN AIRPORT 1981-2010, EXTREMES 1981-PRESENT

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 16.2 (61.2) 20.7 (69.3) 25.0 (77) 29.0 (84.2) 34.4 (93.9) 36.8 (98.2) 37.3 (99.1) 38.8 (101.8) 32.8 (91) 27.6 (81.7) 20.2 (68.4) 16.6 (61.9) 38.8 (101.8)

MEAN MAXIMUM °C (°F) 12.5 (54.5) 14.0 (57.2) 19.0 (66.2) 23.7 (74.7) 27.7 (81.9) 30.8 (87.4) 32.3 (90.1) 32.0 (89.6) 26.4 (79.5) 21.9 (71.4) 16.4 (61.5) 12.8 (55) 34.1 (93.4)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 5.4 (41.7) 6.7 (44.1) 10.9 (51.6) 15.1 (59.2) 19.3 (66.7) 21.9 (71.4) 24.4 (75.9) 24.0 (75.2) 19.9 (67.8) 15.1 (59.2) 9.5 (49.1) 5.9 (42.6) 14.8 (58.6)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 2.6 (36.7) 2.9 (37.2) 6.3 (43.3) 9.7 (49.5) 14.0 (57.2) 16.6 (61.9) 18.8 (65.8) 18.1 (64.6) 14.5 (58.1) 10.6 (51.1) 6.3 (43.3) 3.3 (37.9) 10.3 (50.5)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −0.6 (30.9) −0.7 (30.7) 2.0 (35.6) 4.2 (39.6) 8.1 (46.6) 11.0 (51.8) 13.2 (55.8) 12.6 (54.7) 9.8 (49.6) 6.7 (44.1) 3.1 (37.6) 0.4 (32.7) 5.8 (42.4)

MEAN MINIMUM °C (°F) −10.3 (13.5) −8.9 (16) −5.2 (22.6) −3.2 (26.2) 1.3 (34.3) 4.7 (40.5) 7.6 (45.7) 6.8 (44.2) 3.5 (38.3) −0.8 (30.6) −4.2 (24.4) −8.3 (17.1) −13.0 (8.6)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −23.4 (−10.1) −19.2 (−2.6) −12.0 (10.4) −8.8 (16.2) −2.2 (28) 1.4 (34.5) 2.9 (37.2) 1.9 (35.4) 0.2 (32.4) −6.0 (21.2) −10.4 (13.3) −16.0 (3.2) −23.4 (−10.1)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 62.1 (2.445) 54.2 (2.134) 64.6 (2.543) 53.9 (2.122) 72.2 (2.843) 90.7 (3.571) 85.8 (3.378) 75.0 (2.953) 74.9 (2.949) 67.1 (2.642) 67.0 (2.638) 71.1 (2.799) 838.6 (33.016)

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 54.0 78.8 120.3 167.2 193.0 193.6 209.7 194.2 141.5 109.2 60.7 45.3 1,567.5

Source: Data derived from Deutscher Wetterdienst

FLOOD PROTECTION

Flood protection in Cologne
Cologne
The 1930 flood in Cologne
Cologne

Cologne
Cologne
is regularly affected by flooding from the Rhine
Rhine
and is considered the most flood-prone European city. A city agency (Stadtentwässerungsbetriebe Köln, " Cologne
Cologne
Urban Drainage Operations") manages an extensive flood control system which includes both permanent and mobile flood walls , protection from rising waters for buildings close to the river banks, monitoring and forecasting systems, pumping stations and programmes to create or protect floodplains , and river embankments. The system was redesigned after a 1993 flood, which resulted in heavy damage.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: Demographics of Cologne

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

50 30,000 —

150 50,000 +66.7%

1430 40,000 −20.0%

1801 42,024 +5.1%

1840 75,858 +80.5%

1880 144,722 +90.8%

1900 372,229 +157.2%

1910 516,527 +38.8%

1920 657,175 +27.2%

1930 740,082 +12.6%

1940 733,500 −0.9%

1950 603,283 −17.8%

1960 803,616 +33.2%

1975 1,013,771 +26.2%

1980 976,694 −3.7%

1990 953,551 −2.4%

2000 962,884 +1.0%

2010 1,007,119 +4.6%

2013 1,034,175 +2.7%

2014 1,046,680 +1.2%

2015 1,060,582 +1.3%

2016 1,080,701 +1.9%

SIGNIFICANT FOREIGN BORN POPULATIONS

NATIONALITY POPULATION (2015)

Turkey
Turkey
81,236

Italy
Italy
25,228

Poland
Poland
18,112

Serbia
Serbia
17,739

Greece
Greece
9,874

Bulgaria
Bulgaria
9,385

Iraq
Iraq
8,716

Syria
Syria
8,552

Russia
Russia
8,101

Iran
Iran
5,100

Bosnia 4,885

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
4,378

Romania
Romania
4,277

Spain
Spain
3,999

Kosovo
Kosovo
3,912

Croatia
Croatia
3,746

USA 3,567

In the Roman Empire the city was large and rich with a population of 40,000 in 100–200 AD. The city was home to around 20,000 people in 1000 AD, growing to 50,000 in 1200 AD. The Rhineland
Rhineland
metropolis still had 50,000 residents in 1300 AD.

Cologne
Cologne
is the fourth-largest city in Germany
Germany
after Berlin
Berlin
, Hamburg and Munich
Munich
. As of 31 December 2016, there were 1,080,701 people registered as living in Cologne
Cologne
in an area of 401.15 km2 (154.88 sq mi). The population density was 2,641/km2 (6,840/sq mi). The metropolitan area of the Cologne
Cologne
Bonn
Bonn
Region is home to 3,573,500 living on 4,415/km2 (11,430/sq mi). It is part of the polycentric megacity region Rhine-Ruhr with a population of over 11,000,000 people.

There were 546,498 women and 522,694 men in Cologne. For every 1,000 males, there were 1,046 females. In 2015, there were 11,337 births in Cologne
Cologne
(of which 34.53% were to unmarried women); 7,704 marriages and 2,203 divorces, and 9,629 deaths. In the city, the population was spread out with 15.6% under the age of 18, and 17.6% were 65 years of age or older. 163 people in Cologne
Cologne
were over the age of 100.

According to the Statistical Office of the City of Cologne, the number of people with a migrant background is at 36.7% (393,7936). 2,537 people acquired German citizenship in 2015. In 2015, there were 557,090 households, of which 18.3% had children under the age of 18; 50.6% of all households were made up of singles. 8.7% of all households were single parent households. The average household size was 1.87.

RESIDENTS IN COLOGNE WITH FOREIGN CITITZENSHIP

Cologne
Cologne
residents with a foreign citizenship as of 31 December 2015 is as follows

CITITZENSHIP NUMBER %

Total 393,793 100%

Europe
Europe
276,486 70.2%

European Union
European Union
133,822 34%

Asian 58,869 14.9%

African 25,301 6.4%

American 11,805 3.0%

Australian
Australian
and Oceanian 680 0.2%

LANGUAGE

See also: Colognian dialect

COLOGNIAN or KöLSCH (Colognian (Kölsch) pronunciation: ) (natively Kölsch Platt) is a small set of very closely related dialects, or variants, of the Ripuarian Central German group of languages. These dialects are spoken in the area covered by the Archdiocese and former Electorate of Cologne reaching from Neuss in the north to just south of Bonn
Bonn
, west to Düren and east to Olpe in the North-West of Germany . Kölsch is one of the very few city dialects in Germany, besides for example, the dialect spoken in Berlin
Berlin
.

RELIGION

Slightly more than half of the residents of Cologne
Cologne
are members of a religion. As of 2015, 35.5% of the population belonged to the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
, the largest religious body, and 15.5% to the Evangelical Church. Cologne
Cologne
is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cologne
Cologne
. There are several mosques, including the Turkish-Islamic Union for Religious Affairs run Cologne
Cologne
Central Mosque . Cologne
Cologne
also has one of the oldest and largest Jewish
Jewish
communities in Germany.

GOVERNMENT

See also: Cologne City Hall
Cologne City Hall

The city's administration is headed by the mayor and the three deputy mayors.

POLITICAL TRADITIONS AND DEVELOPMENTS

The long tradition of a free imperial city, which long dominated an exclusively Catholic population and the age-old conflict between the church and the bourgeoisie (and within it between the patricians and craftsmen) has created its own political climate in Cologne. Various interest groups often form networks beyond party boundaries. The resulting web of relationships, with political, economic, and cultural links with each other in a system of mutual favours, obligations and dependencies, is called the ' Cologne
Cologne
coterie'. This has often led to an unusual proportional distribution in the city government and degenerated at times into corruption: in 1999, a "waste scandal" over kickbacks and illegal campaign contributions came to light, which led not only to the imprisonment of the entrepreneur Hellmut Trienekens, but also to the downfall of almost the entire leadership of the ruling Social Democrats.

MAYOR

The Lord Mayor
Lord Mayor
of Cologne
Cologne
is Henriette Reker . She received 52.66% of the vote at the municipal election on 17 October 2015 and was appointed on 15 December 2015.

ELECTIONS

City Councillors are elected for a five-year term and the Mayor has a six-year term.

MAKE-UP OF CITY COUNCIL

PARTY SEATS

Social Democratic Party 27

Christian Democratic Union 24

Green Party 18

The Left 6

Free Democratic Party 5

Alternative for Germany
Germany
3

Pirate Party Germany
Germany
2

pro Cologne
Cologne
2

The Good Ones 2

Free Voters 1

Source: City of Cologne
Cologne

CITYSCAPE

Panoramic view of Cologne
Cologne
over the city forest Panoramic view of the city at night as seen from Deutz ; from left to right: Deutz Bridge, Great St. Martin Church , Cologne Cathedral
Cologne Cathedral
, Hohenzollern Bridge

The inner city of Cologne
Cologne
was completely destroyed during World War II. The reconstruction of the city followed the style of the 1950s, while respecting the old layout and naming of the streets. Thus, the city today is characterized by simple and modest post-war buildings, with a few interspersed pre-war buildings which were reconstructed due to their historical importance. Some buildings of the "Wiederaufbauzeit" (era of reconstruction), for example the opera house by Wilhelm Riphahn , are nowadays regarded as classics of modern architecture. Nevertheless, the uncompromising style of the Cologne Opera house and other modern buildings has remained controversial.

Green areas account for over a quarter of Cologne, which is approximately 75 m2 (807.29 sq ft) of public green space for every inhabitant.

*

Aerial view Cologne
Cologne
*

Rheinenergiestadion Cologne
Cologne
*

Colonius *

DITIB Zentralmoschee Cologne
Cologne

WILDLIFE

The presence of animals in Cologne
Cologne
is generally limited to insects, small rodents, and several species of birds. Pigeons are the most often seen animals in Cologne, although the number of birds is augmented each year by a growing population of feral exotics, most visibly parrots such as the rose-ringed parakeet . The sheltered climate in southeast Northrhine-Westphalia allows these birds to survive through the winter, and in some cases they are displacing native species. The plumage of Cologne's green parrots is highly visible even from a distance, and contrasts starkly with the otherwise muted colours of the cityscape.

TOURISM

Cologne
Cologne
had 5.8 million overnight stays booked and 3.35 million arrivals in 2016. The city also has the most pubs per capita in Germany. The city has 70 clubs, "countless" bars, restaurants, and pubs.

LANDMARKS

Churches

* Cologne Cathedral
Cologne Cathedral
(German: Kölner Dom) is the city's most famous monument and the Cologne
Cologne
residents' most loved landmark. It is a Gothic church, started in 1248, and completed in 1880. In 1996, it was designated a World Heritage site
World Heritage site
; it houses the Shrine of the Three Kings , which supposedly contains the relics of the Three Magi (see also ). Residents of Cologne
Cologne
sometimes refer to the cathedral as "the eternal construction site" (die ewige Baustelle). * Twelve Romanesque churches : These buildings are outstanding examples of medieval church architecture. The origins of some of the churches go back as far as Roman times, for example St. Gereon, which was originally a chapel in a Roman graveyard. With the exception of St. Maria Lyskirchen all of these churches were very badly damaged during World War II. Reconstruction was only finished in the 1990s.

*

Cologne Cathedral
Cologne Cathedral
*

Great St. Martin Church *

Basilica of St. Severin *

Church of the Assumption *

Trinity Church

Medieval Houses

The Cologne City Hall
Cologne City Hall
(Kölner Rathaus), founded in the 12th century, is the oldest city hall in Germany
Germany
still in use. The Renaissance style loggia and tower were added in the 15th century. Other famous buildings include the Gürzenich, Haus Saaleck and the Overstolzenhaus.

*

Cologne City Hall
Cologne City Hall
*

Gürzenich *

Overstolzenhaus

Medieval City Gates

A plan published in 1800 shows the mediaeval city wall still intact, locating 16 gates (Nr. 36-51 in the legend), e.g. 47: Eigelsteintor, 43: Hahnentor, 39: Severinstor

Of the once 12 medieval city gates , only the Eigelsteintorburg at Ebertplatz, the Hahnentor at Rudolfplatz and the Severinstorburg at Chlodwigplatz still stand today.

*

Eigelsteintor *

Hahnentor *

Severinstor

STREETS

Main article: Streets in Cologne

* The Cologne Ring boulevards (such as Hohenzollernring, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Ring, Hansaring) with their medieval city gates (such as Hahnentorburg on Rudolfplatz) are also known for their night life. * Hohe Straße (literally: High Street) is one of the main shopping areas and extends past the cathedral in an approximately southerly direction. The street contains many gift shops, clothing stores, fast food restaurants and electronic goods dealers. * Schildergasse – connects Neumarkt square at its western end to the Hohe Strasse shopping street at its eastern end and has been named the busiest shopping street in Europe
Europe
with 13,000 people passing through every hour, according to a 2008 study by GfK . * Ehrenstraße – the shopping area around Apostelnstrasse, Ehrenstrasse, and Rudolfplatz is a little more on the quirky and stylish side.

BRIDGES

Several bridges cross the Rhine
Rhine
in Cologne. They are (from South to North): the Cologne
Cologne
Rodenkirchen
Rodenkirchen
Bridge , South Bridge (railway), Severin Bridge, Deutz Bridge, Hohenzollern Bridge (railway), Zoo Bridge (Zoobrücke) and Cologne Mülheim Bridge . In particular the iron tied arch Hohenzollern Bridge (Hohenzollernbrücke) is a dominant landmark along the river embankment. A Rhine
Rhine
crossing of a special kind is provided by the Cologne Cable Car (German: Kölner Seilbahn), a cableway that runs across the Rhine
Rhine
between the Cologne
Cologne
Zoological Garden in Riehl and the Rheinpark
Rheinpark
in Deutz.

HIGH-RISE STRUCTURES

Cologne's tallest structure is the Colonius telecommunication tower at 266 m or 873 ft. The observation deck has been closed since 1992. A selection of the tallest buildings in Cologne
Cologne
is listed below. Other tall structures include the Hansahochhaus (designed by architect Jacob Koerfer and completed in 1925—it was at one time Europe's tallest office building), the Kranhaus buildings at Rheinauhafen
Rheinauhafen
, and the Messeturm Köln ("trade fair tower").

SKYSCRAPER IMAGE HEIGHT IN METRES FLOORS YEAR ADDRESS NOTES

KölnTurm

148.5 43 2001 MediaPark 8, Neustadt-Nord (literally: Cologne
Cologne
Tower), Cologne's second tallest building at 165.48 metres (542.91 ft) in height, second only to the Colonius telecommunication tower. The 30th floor of the building has a restaurant and a terrace with 360° views of the city.

Colonia-Hochhaus

147 45 1973 An der Schanz 2, Riehl tallest building in Germany
Germany
from 1973 to 1976. Today, it is still the country's tallest residential building.

Rheintower

138 34 1980 Raderberggürtel, Marienburg former headquarters of Deutsche Welle
Deutsche Welle
, since 2007 under renovation with the new name Rheintower Köln-Marienburg.

Uni-Center

133 45 1973 Luxemburger Straße, Sülz

TÜV Rheinland

112 22 1974 Am Grauen Stein, Poll

Ringturm

109 26 1973 Ebertplatz , Neustadt-Nord

Justizzentrum Köln

105 25 1981 Luxemburger Straße, Sülz

KölnTriangle

103 29 2006 Ottoplatz 1, Deutz opposite to the cathedral with a 103 m (338 ft) high viewing platform and a view of the cathedral over the Rhine.

Herkules-Hochhaus

102 31 1969 Graeffstraße 1, Ehrenfeld

Deutschlandfunk-Turm

102 19 1975 Raderberggürtel, Marienburg

CULTURE

Courtyard of the Kolumba
Kolumba
museum in 2007, designed by Peter Zumthor

Cologne
Cologne
has several museums . The famous Roman-Germanic Museum features art and architecture from the city's distant past; the Museum Ludwig houses one of the most important collections of modern art in Europe, including a Picasso
Picasso
collection matched only by the museums in Barcelona
Barcelona
and Paris . The Museum Schnütgen of religious art is partly housed in St. Cecilia, one of Cologne's Twelve Romanesque churches . Many art galleries in Cologne
Cologne
enjoy an worldwide reputation like e.g. Galerie Karsten Greve , one of the leading galleries for postwar and contemporary art.

Several orchestras are active in the city, among them the Gürzenich Orchestra and the WDR Symphony Orchestra Cologne , both based at the Cologne
Cologne
Philharmonic Orchestra Building. Other orchestras are the Musica Antiqua Köln and the WDR Rundfunkorchester Köln , as well as the Cologne Opera and several choirs, including the WDR Rundfunkchor Köln . Cologne
Cologne
was also an important hotbed for electronic music in the 1950s (Studio für elektronische Musik, Karlheinz Stockhausen ) and again from the 1990s onward. The public radio and TV station WDR was involved in promoting musical movements such as Krautrock
Krautrock
in the 1970s; the influential Can was formed there in 1968. There are several centres of nightlife, among them the Kwartier Latäng (the student quarter around the Zülpicher Straße) and the nightclub-studded areas around Hohenzollernring , Friesenplatz and Rudolfplatz.

The large annual literary festival Lit. Cologne
Cologne
features regional and international authors. The main literary figure connected with Cologne is writer Heinrich Böll , winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature
Nobel Prize for Literature
.

Cologne
Cologne
is well known for its beer, called Kölsch . Kölsch is also the name of the local dialect. This has led to the common joke of Kölsch being the only language one can drink. Cologne
Cologne
Street Food Festival, 2017

Cologne
Cologne
is also famous for Eau de Cologne (German: Kölnisch Wasser; lit: "Water of Cologne"), a perfume created by Italian expatriate Johann Maria Farina at the beginning of the 18th century. During the 18th century this perfume became increasingly popular, was exported all over Europe
Europe
by the Farina family and Farina became a household name for Eau de Cologne. In 1803 Wilhelm Mülhens entered into a contract with an unrelated person from Italy
Italy
named Carlo Francesco Farina who granted him the right to use his family name and Mühlens opened a small factory at Cologne's Glockengasse. In later years, and after various court battles, his grandson Ferdinand Mülhens was forced to abandon the name Farina for the company and their product. He decided to use the house number given to the factory at Glockengasse during the French occupation in the early 19th century, 4711 . Today, original Eau de Cologne is still produced in Cologne
Cologne
by both the Farina family , currently in the eighth generation, and by Mäurer "> The Museum Ludwig houses one of the most important collections of modern art . Roman excavation in Cologne: Dionysus
Dionysus
Mosaic on display at Römisch-Germanisches Museum Main article: List of museums in Cologne
List of museums in Cologne

* Farina Fragrance Museum
Fragrance Museum
– birthplace of Eau de Cologne * Römisch-Germanisches Museum (Roman-Germanic Museum) – ancient Roman and Germanic culture * Wallraf-Richartz Museum – European painting from the 13th to the early 20th century * Museum Ludwig – modern art * Museum Schnütgen – medieval art * Museum für Angewandte Kunst – applied art * Kolumba
Kolumba
Kunstmuseum des Erzbistums Köln (art museum of the Archbishopric of Cologne) – modern art museum built around medieval ruins, completed 2007 * Cathedral Treasury "Domschatzkammer" – historic underground vaults of the Cathedral * EL-DE Haus – former local headquarters of the Gestapo
Gestapo
houses a museum documenting Nazi
Nazi
rule in Cologne
Cologne
with a special focus on the persecution of political dissenters and minorities * German Sports and Olympic Museum – exhibitions about sports from antiquity until the present * Imhoff-Schokoladenmuseum – Chocolate Museum * Geomuseum of the University of Cologne – the exhibition includes fossils (such as dinosaur bones and the skeleton of an Eryops
Eryops
), stones and minerals * Forum for Internet Technology in Contemporary Art – collections of Internet-based art, corporate part of (NewMediaArtProjectNetwork):cologne, the experimental platform for art and New Media * Flora und Botanischer Garten Köln – the city's formal park and main botanical garden * Forstbotanischer Garten Köln – an arboretum and woodland botanical garden

MUSIC FAIRS AND FESTIVALS

The city was home to the internationally famous Ringfest , and now to the C/o pop festival.

In addition, Cologne
Cologne
enjoys a thriving Christmas Market Weihnachtsmarkt presence with several locations in the city.

ECONOMY

North entrance to Koelnmesse , 2008 Modern office building at Rheinauhafen
Rheinauhafen

As the largest city in the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region, Cologne benefits from a large market structure . In competition with Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
, the economy of Cologne
Cologne
is primarily based on insurance and media industries , while the city is also an important cultural and research centre and home to a number of corporate headquarters .

Among the largest media companies based in Cologne
Cologne
are Westdeutscher Rundfunk , RTL Television
RTL Television
(with subsidiaries), n-tv , Deutschlandradio , Brainpool TV and publishing houses like J. P. Bachem, Taschen
Taschen
, Tandem Verlag , and M. DuMont Schauberg . Several clusters of media, arts and communications agencies, TV production studios, and state agencies work partly with private and government-funded cultural institutions. Among the insurance companies based in Cologne
Cologne
are Central, DEVK, DKV, Generali Deutschland , Gen Re , Gothaer , HDI Gerling and national headquarters of AXA Insurance, Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance Group and Zurich Financial Services .

The German flag carrier Lufthansa
Lufthansa
and its subsidiary Lufthansa CityLine have their main corporate headquarters in Cologne. The largest employer in Cologne
Cologne
is Ford Europe
Europe
, which has its European headquarters and a factory in Niehl (Ford-Werke GmbH ). Toyota Motorsport GmbH (TMG), Toyota
Toyota
's official motorsports team, responsible for Toyota
Toyota
rally cars, and then Formula One
Formula One
cars, has its headquarters and workshops in Cologne. Other large companies based in Cologne
Cologne
include the REWE Group , TÜV Rheinland , Deutz AG and a number of Kölsch breweries. Cologne
Cologne
has the country's highest density of pubs per capita. The largest three Kölsch breweries are Reissdorf, Gaffel, and Früh.

BREWERY ESTABLISHED ANNUAL OUTPUT IN HECTOLITERS

Heinrich Reissdorf 1894 650,000

Gaffel Becker "> Major roads through and around Cologne
Cologne
.

Road building had been a major issue in the 1920s under the leadership of mayor Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
. The first German limited access road was constructed after 1929 between Cologne
Cologne
and Bonn
Bonn
. Today, this is the Bundesautobahn 555 . In 1965, Cologne
Cologne
became the first German city to be fully encircled by a motorway ringroad. Roughly at the same time a city centre bypass (Stadtautobahn) was planned, but only partially put into effect, due to opposition by environmental groups. The completed section became Bundesstraße ("Federal Road") B 55a, which begins at the Zoobrücke ("Zoo Bridge") and meets with A 4 and A 3 at the interchange Cologne
Cologne
East. Nevertheless, it is referred to as Stadtautobahn by most locals. In contrast to this the Nord-Süd-Fahrt ("North-South-Drive") was actually completed, a new four/six-lane city centre through-route, which had already been anticipated by planners such as Fritz Schumacher in the 1920s. The last section south of Ebertplatz was completed in 1972.

In 2005, the first stretch of an eight-lane motorway in North Rhine-Westphalia was opened to traffic on Bundesautobahn 3
Bundesautobahn 3
, part of the eastern section of the Cologne Beltway between the interchanges Cologne
Cologne
East and Heumar.

CYCLING

Cologne Stadtbahn at Bensberg station Train at Köln Hauptbahnhof

Compared to other German cities, Cologne
Cologne
has a traffic layout that is not very bicycle-friendly . It has repeatedly ranked among the worst in an independent evaluation conducted by the Allgemeiner Deutscher Fahrrad-Club . In 2014 it ranked 36th out of 39 German cities with a population greater than 200,000.

RAIL TRANSPORT

Cologne
Cologne
has a railway service with Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn
InterCity
InterCity
and ICE -trains stopping at Köln Hauptbahnhof ( Cologne
Cologne
Main Station), Köln Messe/Deutz and Cologne/ Bonn
Bonn
Airport . ICE and TGV Thalys
Thalys
high-speed trains link Cologne
Cologne
with Amsterdam
Amsterdam
, Brussels
Brussels
(in 1h47, 9 departures/day) and Paris (in 3h14, 6 departures/day). There are frequent ICE trains to other German cities, including Frankfurt
Frankfurt
am Main and Berlin. ICE Trains to London
London
via the Channel Tunnel were planned for 2013.

The Cologne Stadtbahn operated by Kölner Verkehrsbetriebe (KVB) is an extensive light rail system that is partially underground and serves Cologne
Cologne
and a number of neighbouring cities. It evolved from the tram system. Nearby Bonn
Bonn
is linked by both the Stadtbahn and main line railway trains, and occasional recreational boats on the Rhine
Rhine
. Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
is also linked by S-Bahn trains, which are operated by Deutsche Bahn.

The Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn has 5 lines which cross Cologne.The S13/S19 runs 24/7 between Cologne
Cologne
Hbf and Cologne/ Bonn
Bonn
airport.

There are also frequent buses covering most of the city and surrounding suburbs, and Eurolines coaches to London
London
via Brussels
Brussels
.

WATER TRANSPORT

Häfen und Güterverkehr Köln
Häfen und Güterverkehr Köln
(Ports and Goods traffic Cologne, HGK) is one of the largest operators of inland ports in Germany. Ports include Köln-Deutz, Köln-Godorf, and Köln-Niehl I and II.

AIR TRANSPORT

Cologne's international airport is Cologne/ Bonn
Bonn
Airport (CGN). It is also called Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
Airport after Germany's first post-war Chancellor Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
, who was born in the city and was mayor of Cologne
Cologne
from 1917 until 1933. The airport is shared with the neighbouring city of Bonn
Bonn
. Cologne
Cologne
is headquarters to the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). The airport is also the main hub of the airline Germanwings
Germanwings
.

EDUCATION

Cologne
Cologne
is home to numerous universities and colleges, and host to some 72,000 students. Its oldest university, the University of Cologne
Cologne
(founded in 1388 ) is the largest university in Germany, as the Cologne University of Applied Sciences is the largest university of Applied Sciences in the country. The Cologne
Cologne
University of Music and Dance is the largest conservatory in Europe. Foreigners can have German lessons in the VHS (Adult Education Centre).

* Public and state universities:

* University of Cologne (Universität zu Köln); * German Sport University Cologne
German Sport University Cologne
(Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln).

* Public and state colleges:

* Cologne University of Applied Sciences ("Technology, Arts, Sciences TH KöLN" Technische Hochschule Köln); * Köln International School of Design ; * Cologne
Cologne
University of Music and Dance (Hochschule für Musik und Tanz Köln); * Academy of Media Arts Cologne (Kunsthochschule für Medien Köln);

* Private colleges:

* Catholic University of Applied Sciences (Katholische Hochschule Nordrhein-Westfalen); * Cologne Business School ; * international filmschool cologne (internationale filmschule köln); * Rhenish University of Applied Sciences (Rheinische Fachhochschule Köln)

* Research institutes:

* German Aerospace Centre
German Aerospace Centre
(Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt); * European Astronaut Centre (EAC) of the European Space Agency ; * European College of Sport Science
European College of Sport Science
(ECSS); * Max Planck Institute for the Biology of Ageing (Max-Planck-Institut für die Biologie des Alterns); * Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies (Max-Planck-Institut für Gesellschaftsforschung); * Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research (Max-Planck-Institut für neurologische Forschung); * Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research (Max-Planck-Institut für Züchtungsforschung). * CologneAMS – Centre for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne

Former colleges include:

* The Cologne Art and Crafts Schools (Kölner Werkschulen); * The Cologne
Cologne
Institute for Religious Art (Kölner Institut für religiöse Kunst)

MEDIA

Within Germany, Cologne
Cologne
is known as an important media centre. Several radio and television stations, including Westdeutscher Rundfunk (WDR), RTL and VOX , have their headquarters in the city. Film and TV production is also important. The city is "Germany's capital of TV crime stories". A third of all German TV productions are made in the Cologne
Cologne
region . Furthermore, the city hosts the Cologne Comedy Festival , which is considered to be the largest comedy festival in mainland Europe.

SPORTS

RheinEnergieStadion
RheinEnergieStadion
is the stadium of Bundesliga
Bundesliga
club 1. FC Köln

Cologne
Cologne
hosts 1. FC Köln
1. FC Köln
, who play in the Bundesliga
Bundesliga
. They play their home matches in RheinEnergieStadion
RheinEnergieStadion
which also hosted 5 matches of the 2006 FIFA World Cup
2006 FIFA World Cup
. The International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
and Internationale Vereinigung Sport- und Freizeiteinrichtungen e.V. gave RheinEnergieStadion
RheinEnergieStadion
a bronze medal for "being one of the best sporting venues in the world". Cologne
Cologne
also hosts FC Viktoria Köln 1904 and SC Fortuna Köln , who play in the Regionalliga West (fourth division) respectively the 3. Liga (third division).

The city is also home of the ice hockey team Kölner Haie , in the highest ice hockey league in Germany, the Deutsche Eishockey Liga . They are based at Lanxess Arena
Lanxess Arena
.

Several horse races per year are held at Cologne-Weidenpesch Racecourse since 1897, the annual Cologne Marathon was started in 1997. From 2002 to 2009, the Panasonic Toyota
Toyota
Racing Formula One
Formula One
team was based in the Marsdorf suburb, at the Toyota
Toyota
Motorsport GmbH facility.

Cologne
Cologne
is considered "the secret golf capital of Germany". The first golf club in North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
was founded in Cologne
Cologne
in 1906. The city offers the most options and top events in Germany.

The city has hosted several athletic events which includes the 2005 FIFA Confederations Cup , 2006 FIFA World Cup, 2007 World Men\'s Handball Championship , 2010 and 2017 Ice Hockey World Championships and 2010 Gay Games .

NOTABLE RESIDENTS

Notable people, whose roots can be found in Cologne:

* Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1876–1967), politician, mayor of Cologne (1917–33, 1945) and first West German Federal Chancellor * Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa
Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa
(1486–1535), alchemist, occultist , and author of Three Books of Occult Philosophy * Agrippina the Younger (15–59), Roman Empress (wife of Emperor Claudius
Claudius
) and mother of Emperor Nero
Nero
* Heinrich Birnbaum (1403–73), a Catholic monk * Heinrich Boigk (1912–2003), Knights Cross winner * Robert Blum (1807–48), German politician and martyr of the 19th century democratic movement in Germany * Heinrich Böll (1917–85), German writer and winner of the Nobel prize for literature in 1972 * Georg Braun (1541-1622), topogeographer * Max Bruch
Max Bruch
(1838–1920), composer * Álex Calatrava (born 1973), Spanish professional tennis player * Heribert Calleen
Heribert Calleen
(born 1924), German sculptor * Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck (born 1973), Academy Award -winning director and screenwriter * Max Ernst (1891–1976), German painter and artist * Kota Ezawa (born 1969), Japanese German animator and artist * Angela Gossow (born 1974), former German lead vocalist of Swedish melodic death metal band Arch Enemy
Arch Enemy
* Everhard von Groote (1798–1864), Germanist and writer * Britta Heidemann (born 1982), épée fencer and Olympic medalist
Olympic medalist
* H. Robert Heller (born 1940), former professor, Governor of the Federal Reserve System and President of VISA U.S.A. * Trude Herr (1927–91), actress and singer * Jakob Ignaz Hittorff , (1792–1867), French architect of German origin * Stefanie Höner (born 1969), actress * Ernst Ising , (1900–1998), mathematician and physicist * Lilli Jahn , (born 1900), doctor, died presumably on 19 June 1944 in Auschwitz * Udo Kier
Udo Kier
(born 1944), actor * Lukas Podolski
Lukas Podolski
(born 1985), German footballer * Johannes Kalitzke (born 1959), composer and conductor * Jutta Kleinschmidt (born 1962), off-road automotive racing competitor * Werner Klemperer (1920–2000), Emmy Award
Emmy Award
-winning comedy actor * Erich Klibansky (1900–1942), Jewish
Jewish
headmaster and teacher * Adolf Kober (1870–1958), Jewish
Jewish
rabbi and medievalist * Peter Kohlgraf (born 1967), Catholic Bishop of Mainz * Gaby Köster (born 1961), German actress and comedian * Wilhelm Kratz
Wilhelm Kratz
, (1902–1944), resistance fighter and nazi victim * Hildegard Krekel
Hildegard Krekel
(1952–2013), German actress * Lotti Krekel (born 1941), actress and singer * Uwe Krupp (born 1965), professional (ice) hockey player * Heinz Kühn
Heinz Kühn
(1912–92), Minister-President of North Rhine-Westphalia (1966–78) * Heiner Lauterbach (1953), German actor * Julia Leischik (born 1970), German editor-in-chief, television presenter and television producer. * Ottmar Liebert (born 1961), musician * Mariele Millowitsch (born 1955), actress * Peter Millowitsch (born 1949), actor, playwright and theatre director * Willy Millowitsch (1909–1999), actor, playwright and theatre director * Wolfgang Niedecken (born 1951), German singer, musician, artist and bandleader of BAP * Theodore of Corsica
Theodore of Corsica
(1694–1756), briefly King Theodore of Corsica * Jacques Offenbach
Jacques Offenbach
(1819–80), German-born French composer * Willi Ostermann (1876–1936), composer * Nikolaus Otto (1832–1891), German inventor, 4 cycle internal combustion engine * Kim Petras (born 1992), German singer * Frederik Prausnitz (1920–2004), American conductor and teacher * Christa Päffgen a.k.a. Nico
Nico
(1938–1988), model, actress, singer, and songwriter in Velvet Underground
Velvet Underground
and Warhol Superstar * Hedwig Potthast (1912–1997), secretary and mistress of Heinrich Himmler * Stefan Raab (born 1966), German entertainer and host of Eurovision Song Contest 2011 * Joseph Nicolas Robert-Fleury
Joseph Nicolas Robert-Fleury
(1797–1890), painter * Jürgen Rüttgers (born 1951), German politician (CDU), Minister-President of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
(2005–2010) * Jürgen Fritz (born 1953), musician and composer * Adam Schall von Bell (1592–1666), since 1622 active missionary of the Order of the Jesuits in China * Markus Stockhausen (born 1957), musician and composer * Wolfgang von Trips (1928–61), German Formula One
Formula One
racing driver * Joost van den Vondel (1587–1679), Dutch poet and playwright * Moshe Wallach (1866–1957), founder and director of Shaare Zedek Hospital , Jerusalem
Jerusalem
* Christoph Watrin (born 1988), singer, US5
US5
* Robert Weimar (1932–2013), German legal scientist and psychologist * Thomas Wensing (born 1978), German writer * Carl Wyland (1886–1972), German blacksmith * Leon Draisaitl (born 1995), German ice hockey player for the Edmonton Oilers * Gökhan Töre (born 1992), Turkish footballer

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
Germany

TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES

Cologne
Cologne
is twinned with:

* Barcelona
Barcelona
, Spain
Spain
(since 1984) * Berlin-Neukölln , Germany * Berlin-Treptow , Germany * Bethlehem
Bethlehem
, Palestine (1996) * Cluj Napoca /Klausenburg, Romania
Romania
(1976) * Corinto /El Realejo, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
(1988) * Cork , Ireland
Ireland
(27. June 1988) * Esch-sur-Alzette , Luxembourg
Luxembourg
(1958) * Indianapolis
Indianapolis
, USA * Istanbul
Istanbul
, Turkey
Turkey
(1997) * Katowice
Katowice
, Poland
Poland
(15 March 1991) * Kyoto
Kyoto
, Japan
Japan
(21 January 1963) * Lille
Lille
, France
France
(1958) * Liverpool
Liverpool
, UK (1952) * Lüttich , Belgium
Belgium
(1958) * Beijing
Beijing
, China
China
(14 September 1987) * Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
, Brasil (19 September 2011) * Rotterdam
Rotterdam
, Netherlands
Netherlands
(1958) * Tel Aviv-Yafo
Tel Aviv-Yafo
, Israel
Israel
(6 August 1979) * Thessaloniki
Thessaloniki
, Greece
Greece
(3 May 1988) * Tunis
Tunis
, Tunisia
Tunisia
(12 June 1964) * Turin
Turin
, Italy
Italy
(1958) * Turku
Turku
, Finland
Finland
(1967) * Volgograd
Volgograd
, Russia

SEE ALSO

* List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
Germany
* Stadtwerke Köln , the municipal infrastructure company, operator of the city's railways, ports, and other utilities. * New Year\'s Eve sexual assaults in Germany
Germany
* Hänneschen-Theater

REFERENCES

* ^ "Amtliche Bevölkerungszahlen". Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW (in German). 18 July 2016. * ^ A B C D E F "Economy". KölnTourismus. Retrieved 18 April 2011.

* ^ A B C D E F "From Ubii village to metropolis". City of Cologne. Retrieved 16 April 2011. * ^ Smith, Benjamin E. (1895). "Augusta Ubiorum". The Century Cyclopedia of Names. 1 (2nd ed.). New York: Century Co. p. 96. OCLC 237135281 . * ^ "bomber command – mines laid – flight august – 1945 – 1571 – Flight Archive". * ^ A B C "Facts and figures". City of Cologne. Retrieved 17 April 2011. * ^ "C.Michael Hogan, \'\' Cologne
Cologne
Wharf\'\', The Megalithic Portal, editor Andy Burnham, 2007". Megalithic.co.uk. Retrieved 24 July 2009. * ^ Harry de Quetteville. "History of Cologne". The Catholic Encyclopedia, 28 November 2009. * ^ Joseph P. Huffman, Family, Commerce, and Religion in London
London
and Cologne
Cologne
(1998) covers from 1000 to 1300. * ^ The population of European cities, Bairoch * ^ "Rote Funken – Kölsche Funke rut-wieß vun 1823 e.V. – Rote Funken Koeln". Rote-funken.de. Retrieved 5 May 2009. * ^ United Services Magazine, December 1835 * ^ "Festung Köln". Retrieved 1 April 2011. * ^ Cologne
Cologne
Evacuated, TIME Magazine
TIME Magazine
, 15 February 1926 * ^ "Weimarer Wahlen". Web.archive.org. 11 February 2008. Archived from the original on 11 February 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2009. * ^ "Voting results 1919–1933 Cologne-Aachen". Wahlen-in-deutschland.de. Retrieved 8 August 2010. * ^ koelnarchitektur (15 July 2003). "on the reconstruction of Cologne". Koelnarchitektur.de. Retrieved 24 July 2009. * ^ Tourtellot, Arthur B. et al. Life's Picture History of World War II, p. 237. Time, Inc., New York, 1950. * ^ http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/worldwar2/theatres-of-war/western-europe/investigation/hamburg/sources/docs/6/ * ^ Zabecki, David T. (1999-01-01). World War Two in Europe. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780824070298 . * ^ Kirsten Serup-Bilfeld, Zwischen Dom und Davidstern. Jüdisches Leben in Köln von den Anfängen bis heute. Köln 2001, page 193 * ^ "Synagogen-Gemeinde Köln". Sgk.de. 26 June 1931. Retrieved 8 August 2010. * ^ Connolly, Kate (7 January 2016). "Tensions rise in Germany
Germany
over handling of mass sexual assaults in Cologne". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 January 2016. * ^ "1075 Anzeigen nach Kölner Silvesternacht – 73 Verdächtige" . Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 15 February 2016. * ^ Bezirksregierung Köln: Topografische Karte 1:50.000 (TK 50), Blatt L 5108 Köln-Mülheim. Köln 2012, ISBN 978-3-89439-422-6 . * ^ A B " Cologne
Cologne
at a glance". City of Cologne. Retrieved 17 April 2011. * ^ "Ausgabe der Klimadaten: Monatswerte". * ^ "Klimastatistik Köln-Wahn". * ^ A B C Martin Gocht; Reinhard Vogt. "Flood Forecasting and Flood Defence in Cologne" (PDF). Mitigation of Climate Induced Natural Hazards (MITCH). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 March 2009. Retrieved 20 March 2009. * ^ "Stadtentwässerungsbetriebe Köln : Flood Management". Steb-koeln.de. Retrieved 7 July 2009. * ^ "Flood Defence Scheme City of Cologne" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 March 2009. Retrieved 20 March 2009. * ^ "Statistisches Jahrbuch Köln 2015" (PDF). Stadt Köln. Retrieved 2015-10-01. * ^ van Tilburg, C. (2007). Traffic and Congestion in the Roman Empire. Taylor & Francis. p. 42. ISBN 9781134129751 . Retrieved 5 October 2014. * ^ Bruce, S.G. (2010). Ecologies and Economies in Medieval and Early Modern Europe: Studies in Environmental History for Richard C. Hoffmann. Brill. p. 48. ISBN 9789004180079 . Retrieved 5 October 2014.

* ^ Diego Puga ">(PDF). Retrieved 5 October 2014. * ^ "1 081 701 Kölnerinnen und Kölner in 2016" (PDF). stadt-koeln.de. Retrieved 25 September 2016. * ^ A B C D E "Statistisches Jahrbuch 2016". stadt-koeln.de. 1 February 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2017. * ^ "Region Köln Bon". region-koeln-bonn.de. 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2017. * ^ http://www.stadt-koeln.de/politik-und-verwaltung/statistik/jahrbuecher * ^ Serup-Bilfeldt, Kirsten (19 August 2005). "Cologne: Germany\'s Oldest Jewish
Jewish
Community". Deutsche Welle
Deutsche Welle
. Retrieved 6 September 2011.

* ^ "Oberbürgermeisterwahl – Wahl des/der Oberbürgermeisters/in 2015 in der Stadt Köln – Gesamtergebnis". stadt-koeln.de (in German). Archived from the original on 20 October 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2015. * ^ "Wahlperiode" (in German). City of Cologne. Retrieved 15 April 2011. * ^ "Alle Ratsmitglieder" (in German). City of Cologne. Retrieved 22 June 2014. * ^ "Green Cologne". KölnTourismus. Retrieved 17 April 2011. * ^ "In NRW behaupten sich immer mehr exotische Vögel". RP Online. Retrieved 16 January 2013. * ^ "Tourism results for 2016: Moderate decrease in visitor numbers due to difficult general conditions". KölnTourismus. 21 February 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017. * ^ A B C "Nightlife". KölnTourismus. Retrieved 13 September 2017.

* ^ "Offizielle Webseite des Kölner Doms Bedeutende Werke". Koelner-dom.de. Retrieved 5 May 2009. * ^ "Strategic Management Society – Cologne
Cologne
Conference – Cologne
Cologne
Information". Cologne.strategicmanagement.net. 14 October 2008. Retrieved 26 July 2010. * ^ "Homepage of the Uni-Center". Unicenterkoeln.de. Archived from the original on 27 March 2010. Retrieved 8 August 2010. * ^ "Kölner Philharmonie". Web.archive.org. 11 December 2007. Archived from the original on 11 December 2007. Retrieved 8 August 2010. * ^ "Carnival – Cologne\'s "fifth season" – Cologne
Cologne
Sights & Events – Stadt Köln". Web.archive.org. 26 January 2008. Archived from the original on 25 January 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2009. * ^ A B C D E "Giving Beer A Home in the Rhineland". The Local
The Local
. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011. * ^ "C/o Pop Official Website". * ^ stadt-koeln.de Cologne
Cologne
Business Guide (in German) (in English) * ^ "Cologne". Encyclopædia Britannica. * ^ "Directory: World Airlines". Flight International . 3 April 2007. p. 107. * ^ "Über Ford – Standorte". Ford Germany
Germany
(in German). Retrieved 20 June 2009. * ^ Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft Kölm. "Kölner Digitalwirtschaft gut aufgestellt". Retrieved 28 October 2016. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 March 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015. * ^ "High-speed trains to link England and Germany". Brisbanetimes.com.au. 16 October 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2012. * ^ "Kölner Verkehrsbetriebe (KVB)". Kvb-koeln.de. Retrieved 24 July 2009. * ^ " Häfen und Güterverkehr Köln
Häfen und Güterverkehr Köln
AG". Hgk.de. Retrieved 8 August 2010. * ^ "Hochschulen – Wissensdurst KĂśln – Das KĂślner Wissenschaftsportal". Wissensdurst-koeln.de. Retrieved 26 July 2010. * ^ "Forschungsschwerpunkte" (PDF). Wissensdurst-koeln.de. * ^ "goethe.de". goethe.de. Retrieved 8 August 2010. * ^ " Cologne
Cologne
Adult Education Centre – City of Cologne". Stadt-koeln.de. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012. * ^ A B "Productions "made in Cologne"". Cologne
Cologne
Tourism. Retrieved 22 April 2011. * ^ " Cologne Comedy Festival website". Koeln-comedy.de. 21 October 2007. * ^ A B C D E F "Sport and relaxation". Cologne
Cologne
Tourist Information. Retrieved 13 March 2013. * ^ A B "The RheinEnergie Stadium". 1. FC Köln
1. FC Köln
. Retrieved 20 April 2011.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Find more aboutCOLOGNEat's sister projects

* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Wikimedia Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Travel guide from Wikivoyage * Learning resources from Wikiversity

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article COLOGNE .

* Stadt Köln, official City of Cologne
Cologne
page (in German)

.