The Info List - Cologne

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(English: /kəˈloʊn/; German: Köln, pronounced [kœln] ( listen), Ripuarian: Kölle [ˈkœɫə] ( listen)) is the largest city in the German federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
and the fourth most populated city in Germany
(after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich). It is located within the Rhine-Ruhr
metropolitan region which is Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas. Cologne
is about 45 kilometres (28 mi) southwest of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital of Dusseldorf
and 25 kilometres (16 mi) northwest of Bonn. Cologne
is located on both sides of the Rhine, near Germany's borders with Belgium
and the Netherlands. The city's famous Cologne
Cathedral (Kölner Dom) is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop
of Cologne. The University of Cologne
University of Cologne
(Universität zu Köln) is one of Europe's oldest and largest universities.[2] Cologne
was founded and established in Ubii
territory in the 1st century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, the first word of which is the origin of its name.[3] An alternative Latin name of the settlement is Augusta Ubiorum, after the Ubii.[4] "Cologne", the French version of the city's name, has become standard in English as well. The city functioned as the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior
Germania Inferior
and as the headquarters of the Roman military in the region until occupied by the Franks in 462. During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
it flourished on one of the most important major trade routes between east and west in Europe. Cologne
was one of the leading members of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
and one of the largest cities north of the Alps
in medieval and Renaissance times. Prior to World War II
World War II
the city had undergone several occupations by the French and also by the British (1918–1926). Cologne
was one of the most heavily bombed cities in Germany
during World War II, with the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF) dropping 34,711 long tons (35,268 tonnes) of bombs on the city.[5] The bombing reduced the population by 95%, mainly due to evacuation, and destroyed almost the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many historic buildings as possible, the successful postwar rebuilding has resulted in a very mixed and unique cityscape. Cologne
is a major cultural centre for the Rhineland; it hosts more than 30 museums and hundreds of galleries. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics and sculpture. The Cologne Trade Fair
Cologne Trade Fair
hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne, imm Cologne, Gamescom, and the Photokina.


1 History

1.1 Roman Cologne 1.2 Middle Ages 1.3 Early modern history 1.4 From the 19th century until World War II 1.5 World War II 1.6 Post-war Cologne
until today 1.7 Post-reunification

2 Geography

2.1 Districts 2.2 Climate 2.3 Flood protection

3 Demographics

3.1 Residents of Cologne
with foreign citizenship 3.2 Language 3.3 Religion

4 Government

4.1 Political traditions and developments 4.2 Mayor 4.3 Elections 4.4 Make-up of city council

5 Cityscape 6 Wildlife 7 Tourism

7.1 Landmarks

7.1.1 Churches 7.1.2 Medieval houses 7.1.3 Medieval city gates

7.2 Streets 7.3 Bridges 7.4 High-rise structures

8 Culture

8.1 Carnival 8.2 Rivalry with Düsseldorf 8.3 Museums 8.4 Music fairs and festivals

9 Economy 10 Transport

10.1 Road transport 10.2 Cycling 10.3 Rail transport 10.4 Water transport 10.5 Air transport

11 Education 12 Media 13 Sports 14 Notable residents 15 International relations

15.1 Twin towns and sister cities

16 See also 17 References 18 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of Cologne
History of Cologne
and Timeline of Cologne Roman Cologne[edit]

Fresco with Dionysian scenes from a Roman villa of Cologne, Germany (site of the ancient city Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium), 3rd century AD, Romano-Germanic Museum

The first urban settlement on the grounds of modern-day Cologne
was Oppidum Ubiorum, founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, a Cisrhenian Germanic tribe. In 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia on the Rhine[3] and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior in 85 AD.[6] The city was named Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium in 50 AD.[6] Considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne, especially near the wharf area, where a notable discovery of a 1900-year-old Roman boat was made in late 2007.[7] From 260 to 271 Cologne
was the capital of the Gallic Empire under Postumus, Marius, and Victorinus. In 310 under Constantine a bridge was built over the Rhine
at Cologne. Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it became one of the most important trade and production centres in the Roman Empire north of the Alps.[3] Cologne is shown on the 4th century
4th century
Peutinger Map. Maternus, who was elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne. The city was the capital of a Roman province until occupied by the Ripuarian Franks
Ripuarian Franks
in 462. Parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system having opened in 1890. Middle Ages[edit] Early medieval Cologne
was part of Austrasia
within the Frankish Empire. Cologne
had been the seat of a bishop since the Roman period; under Charlemagne, in 795, bishop Hildebold
was promoted to archbishop.[3] In 843, Cologne
became a city within the Treaty of Verdun-created East Francia. In 953, the archbishops of Cologne
first gained noteworthy secular power, when bishop Bruno was appointed as duke by his brother Otto I, King of Germany. In order to weaken the secular nobility, who threatened his power, Otto endowed Bruno and his successors on the bishop's see with the prerogatives of secular princes, thus establishing the Electorate of Cologne, formed by the temporal possessions of the archbishopric and included in the end a strip of territory along the left Bank of the Rhine
east of Jülich, as well as the Duchy of Westphalia
Duchy of Westphalia
on the other side of the Rhine, beyond Berg and Mark. By the end of the 12th century, the Archbishop
of Cologne was one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor. Besides being prince elector, he was Arch-chancellor of Italy
as well, technically from 1238 and permanently from 1263 until 1803. Following the Battle of Worringen
Battle of Worringen
in 1288, Cologne
gained its independence from the archbishops and became a Free City. Archbishop Sigfried II von Westerburg was forced into exile in Bonn.[8] The archbishop nevertheless preserved the right of capital punishment. Thus the municipal council (though in strict political opposition towards the archbishop) depended upon him in all matters concerning criminal justice. This included torture, which sentence was only allowed to be handed down by the episcopal judge, the so-called "Greve". This legal situation lasted until the French conquest of Cologne.[citation needed] Besides its economic and political significance Cologne
also became an important centre of medieval pilgrimage, when Cologne's Archbishop Rainald of Dassel
Rainald of Dassel
gave the relics of the Three Wise Men
Three Wise Men
to Cologne's cathedral in 1164 (after they, in fact, had been captured from Milan). Besides the three magi Cologne
preserves the relics of Saint Ursula and Albertus Magnus.[9] Cologne's location on the river Rhine
placed it at the intersection of the major trade routes between east and west as well as the main Western Europe
trade route, South – North Northern Italy-Flanders. These two trade routes were the basis of Cologne's growth. By 1300 the city population was 50,000-55,000.[10] Cologne
was a member of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
in 1475, when Frederick III confirmed the city's imperial immediacy.[3]

around 1411

Early modern history[edit] The economic structures of medieval and early modern Cologne
were characterised by the city's status as a major harbour and transport hub on the Rhine. Craftsmanship was organised by self-administering guilds, some of which were exclusive to women. As a free city, Cologne
was a sovereign state within the Holy Roman Empire and as such had the right (and obligation) to maintain its own military force. As they wore a red uniform, these troops were known as the Rote Funken (red sparks). These soldiers were part of the Army of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
("Reichskontingent") and fought in the wars of the 17th and 18th century, including the wars against revolutionary France, when the small force was almost completely wiped out in combat. The tradition of these troops is preserved as a military persiflage by Cologne's most outstanding carnival society, the Rote Funken.[11] The free city of Cologne
must not be confused with the Archbishopric of Cologne
which was a state of its own within the Holy Roman Empire. Since the second half of the 16th century the archbishops were drawn from the Bavaria
dynasty. Due to the free status of Cologne, the archbishops were usually not allowed to enter the city. Thus they took up residence in Bonn
and later in Brühl on the Rhine. As members of an influential and powerful family, and supported by their outstanding status as electors, the archbishops of Cologne repeatedly challenged and threatened the free status of Cologne
during the 17th and 18th centuries, resulting in complicated affairs, which were handled by diplomatic means and propaganda as well as by the supreme courts of the Holy Roman Empire. From the 19th century until World War II[edit]

Hohestraße, 1912


lost its status as a free city during the French period. According to the Peace Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
(1801) all the territories of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
on the left bank of the Rhine
were officially incorporated into the French Republic (which had already occupied Cologne
in 1794). Thus this region later became part of Napoleon's Empire. Cologne
was part of the French Département Roer (named after the river Roer, German: Rur) with Aachen
(French: Aix-la-Chapelle) as its capital. The French modernised public life, for example by introducing the Napoleonic code
Napoleonic code
and removing the old elites from power. The Napoleonic code
Napoleonic code
remained in use on the left bank of the Rhine
until 1900, when a unified civil code (the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch) was introduced in the German Empire. In 1815 at the Congress of Vienna, Cologne
was made part of the Kingdom of Prussia, first in the Jülich-Cleves-Berg province and then the Rhine
province. The permanent tensions between the Roman Catholic Rhineland
and the overwhelmingly Protestant Prussian state repeatedly escalated with Cologne
being in the focus of the conflict. In 1837 the archbishop of Cologne, Clemens August von Droste-Vischering, was arrested and imprisoned for two years after a dispute over the legal status of marriages between Protestants and Roman Catholics (Mischehenstreit). In 1874, during the Kulturkampf, Archbishop
Paul Melchers
Paul Melchers
was imprisoned before taking refuge in the Netherlands. These conflicts alienated the Catholic population from Berlin
and contributed to a deeply felt anti-Prussian resentment, which was still significant after World War II, when the former mayor of Cologne, Konrad Adenauer, became the first West German chancellor. During the 19th and 20th centuries, Cologne
absorbed numerous surrounding towns, and by World War I had already grown to 700,000 inhabitants. Industrialisation changed the city and spurred its growth. Vehicle and engine manufacturing was especially successful, though the heavy industry was less ubiquitous than in the Ruhr area. The cathedral, started in 1248 but abandoned around 1560, was eventually finished in 1880 not just as a place of worship but also as a German national monument celebrating the newly founded German empire
German empire
and the continuity of the German nation since the Middle Ages. Some of this urban growth occurred at the expense of the city's historic heritage with much being demolished (for example, the city walls or the area around the cathedral) and sometimes replaced by contemporary buildings. Cologne
was designated as one of the Fortresses of the German Confederation.[12] It was turned into a heavily armed fortress (opposing the French and Belgian fortresses of Verdun
and Liège) with two fortified belts surrounding the city, the remains of which can be seen to this day.[13] The military demands on what became Germany's largest fortress presented a significant obstacle to urban development, with forts, bunkers, and wide defensive dugouts completely encircling the city and preventing expansion; this resulted in a very densely built-up area within the city itself. During World War I Cologne
was the target of several minor air raids but suffered no significant damage. Cologne
was occupied by the British Army of the Rhine
until 1926, under the terms of the Armistice and the subsequent Versailles Peace Treaty.[14] In contrast with the harsh behaviour of the French occupation troops in Germany, the British forces were more lenient to the local population. Konrad Adenauer, the mayor of Cologne
from 1917 until 1933 and later a West German chancellor, acknowledged the political impact of this approach, especially since Britain had opposed French demands for a permanent Allied occupation of the entire Rhineland. As part of the demilitarisation of the Rhineland, the city's fortifications had to be dismantled. This was an opportunity to create two green belts (Grüngürtel) around the city by converting the fortifications and their fields of fire into large public parks. This was not completed until 1933. In 1919 the University of Cologne, closed by the French in 1798, was reopened. This was considered to be a replacement for the loss of the University of Strasbourg
University of Strasbourg
on the west bank of the Rhine, which reverted to France
with the rest of Alsace. Cologne
prospered during the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
(1919–33), and progress was made especially in public governance, city planning, housing and social affairs. Social housing projects were considered exemplary and were copied by other German cities. Cologne
competed to host the Olympics, and a modern sports stadium was erected at Müngersdorf. When the British occupation ended, the prohibition of civil aviation was lifted and Cologne Butzweilerhof Airport
Cologne Butzweilerhof Airport
soon became a hub for national and international air traffic, second in Germany
only to Berlin
Tempelhof Airport. The democratic parties lost the local elections in Cologne
in March 1933 to the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
and other right wing parties. The Nazis then arrested the Communist and Social Democrats members of the city assembly, and Mayor Adenauer was dismissed. Compared to some other major cities, however, the Nazis never gained decisive support in Cologne. (Significantly, the number of votes cast for the Nazi
Party in Reichstag elections had always been the national average.)[15][16] By 1939 the population had risen to 772,221 inhabitants. World War II[edit]

The devastation of Cologne, 1945

During World War II, Cologne
was a Military Area Command Headquarters (Militärbereichshauptkommandoquartier) for the Military District (Wehrkreis) VI of Münster. Cologne
was under the command of Lieutenant-General Freiherr Roeder von Diersburg, who was responsible for military operations in Bonn, Siegburg, Aachen, Jülich, Düren, and Monschau. Cologne
was home to the 211th Infantry Regiment and the 26th Artillery Regiment. The Allies dropped 44,923.2 tons of bombs on the city during World War II, destroying 61% of its built up area. During the Bombing of Cologne in World War II, Cologne
endured 262 air raids[17] by the Western Allies, which caused approximately 20,000 civilian casualties and almost completely wiped out the central part of the city. During the night of 31 May 1942, Cologne
was the target of "Operation Millennium", the first 1,000 bomber raid by the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
in World War II. 1,046 heavy bombers attacked their target with 1,455 tons of explosives, approximately two-thirds of which were incendiary.[18] This raid lasted about 75 minutes, destroyed 600 acres (243 ha) of built-up area (61%),[19] killed 486 civilians and made 59,000 people homeless. Cologne
was taken by the American First Army in early March, 1945.[20] By the end of the war, the population of Cologne
had been reduced by 95 percent. This loss was mainly caused by a massive evacuation of the people to more rural areas. The same happened in many other German cities in the last two years of war. By the end of 1945, however, the population had already recovered to approximately 500,000. By the end of the war, essentially all of Cologne's pre-war Jewish population of 11,000 had been deported or killed by the Nazis.[21] The six synagogues of the city were destroyed. The synagogue on Roonstraße was rebuilt in 1959.[22] Post-war Cologne
until today[edit]

Cologne, seen from the International Space Station

Despite Cologne's status as the largest city in the region, nearby Düsseldorf
was chosen as the political capital of the federated state of North Rhine-Westphalia. With Bonn
being chosen as the provisional federal capital (provisorische Bundeshauptstadt) and seat of the government of the Federal Republic of Germany
(then informally West Germany), Cologne
benefited by being sandwiched between two important political centres. The city became–and still is–home to a number of federal agencies and organizations. After reunification in 1990, Berlin
was made the capital of Germany. In 1945 architect and urban planner Rudolf Schwarz called Cologne
the "world's greatest heap of rubble". Schwarz designed the master plan for reconstruction in 1947, which included the construction of several new thoroughfares through the city centre, especially the Nord-Süd-Fahrt ("North-South-Drive"). The master plan took into consideration the fact that even shortly after the war a large increase in automobile traffic could be anticipated. Plans for new roads had already, to a certain degree, evolved under the Nazi administration, but the actual construction became easier when most of the city centre was in ruins. The destruction of 95% of the city centre, including the famous Twelve Romanesque churches such as St. Gereon, Great St. Martin, St. Maria im Kapitol and several other monuments in World War II, meant a tremendous loss of cultural treasures. The rebuilding of those churches and other landmarks such as the Gürzenich event hall was not undisputed among leading architects and art historians at that time, but in most cases, civil intention prevailed. The reconstruction lasted until the 1990s, when the Romanesque church of St. Kunibert was finished. In 1959, the city's population reached pre-war numbers again. It then grew steadily, exceeding 1 million for about one year from 1975. It remained just below that until mid-2010, when it exceeded 1 million again.

in 2013


Soviet letter's envelope in honor of the Internationale Philatelic Exhibition LUPOSTA in Cologne
in 1983.

In the 1980s and 1990s Cologne's economy prospered for two main reasons. The first was the growth in the number of media companies, both in the private and public sectors; they are especially catered for in the newly developed Media Park, which creates a strongly visual focal point in Cologne
city centre and includes the KölnTurm, one of Cologne's most prominent high-rise buildings. The second was the permanent improvement of the diverse traffic infrastructure, which made Cologne
one of the most easily accessible metropolitan areas in Central Europe. Due to the economic success of the Cologne
Trade Fair, the city arranged a large extension to the fair site in 2005. At the same time the original buildings, which date back to the 1920s, were rented out to RTL, Germany's largest private broadcaster, as their new corporate headquarters. Cologne
was the focus of the 2015 New Year's Eve sexual assaults, with over 500 women reporting that they were sexually assaulted by persons of African and Arab appearance.[23][24] Geography[edit] The metropolitan area encompasses over 405 square kilometres (156 square miles), extending around a central point that lies at 50° 56' 33 latitude and 6° 57' 32 longitude. The city's highest point is 118 m (387.1 ft) above sea level (the Monte Troodelöh) and its lowest point is 37.5 m (123.0 ft) above sea level (the Worringer Bruch).[25] The city of Cologne
lies within the larger area of the Cologne
Lowland, a cone-shaped area of southeastern Westphalia that lies between Bonn, Aachen
and Düsseldorf. Districts[edit] Main article: Districts of Cologne Cologne
is divided into 9 boroughs (Stadtbezirke) and 85 districts (Stadtteile):[26]

Innenstadt (Stadtbezirk 1) Altstadt-Nord, Altstadt-Süd, Neustadt-Nord, Neustadt-Süd, Deutz Rodenkirchen
(Stadtbezirk 2) Bayenthal, Godorf, Hahnwald, Immendorf, Marienburg, Meschenich, Raderberg, Raderthal, Rodenkirchen, Rondorf, Sürth, Weiß, Zollstock Lindenthal (Stadtbezirk 3) Braunsfeld, Junkersdorf, Klettenberg, Lindenthal, Lövenich, Müngersdorf, Sülz, Weiden, Widdersdorf Ehrenfeld (Stadtbezirk 4) Bickendorf, Bocklemünd/Mengenich, Ehrenfeld, Neuehrenfeld, Ossendorf, Vogelsang Nippes (Stadtbezirk 5) Bilderstöckchen, Longerich, Mauenheim, Niehl, Nippes, Riehl, Weidenpesch

(Stadtbezirk 6) Blumenberg, Chorweiler, Esch/Auweiler, Fühlingen, Heimersdorf, Lindweiler, Merkenich, Pesch, Roggendorf/Thenhoven, Seeberg, Volkhoven/Weiler, Worringen Porz
(Stadtbezirk 7) Eil, Elsdorf, Ensen, Finkenberg, Gremberghoven, Grengel, Langel, Libur, Lind, Poll, Porz, Urbach, Wahn, Wahnheide, Westhoven, Zündorf Kalk (Stadtbezirk 8) Brück, Höhenberg, Humboldt/Gremberg, Kalk, Merheim, Neubrück, Ostheim, Rath/Heumar, Vingst Mülheim
(Stadtbezirk 9) Buchforst, Buchheim, Dellbrück, Dünnwald, Flittard, Höhenhaus, Holweide, Mülheim, Stammheim

Climate[edit] Located in the Rhine-Ruhr
area, Cologne
is one of the warmest cities in Germany. It has a temperate–oceanic climate with cool winters and warm summers. It is also one of the cloudiest cities in Germany, with just 1568 hours of sun a year. Its average annual temperature is 10.3 °C (51 °F): 14.8 °C (59 °F) during the day and 5.8 °C (42 °F) at night. In January, the mean temperature is 2.6 °C (37 °F), while the mean temperature in July is 18.8 °C (66 °F). Temperatures can vary significantly over the course of a month with warmer and colder weather. Precipitation
is spread evenly throughout the year with a light peak in summer due to showers and thunderstorms.

Climate data for Cologne/ Bonn
Airport 1981-2010, extremes 1981-present

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 16.2 (61.2) 20.7 (69.3) 25.0 (77) 29.0 (84.2) 34.4 (93.9) 36.8 (98.2) 37.3 (99.1) 38.8 (101.8) 32.8 (91) 27.6 (81.7) 20.2 (68.4) 16.6 (61.9) 38.8 (101.8)

Mean maximum °C (°F) 12.5 (54.5) 14.0 (57.2) 19.0 (66.2) 23.7 (74.7) 27.7 (81.9) 30.8 (87.4) 32.3 (90.1) 32.0 (89.6) 26.4 (79.5) 21.9 (71.4) 16.4 (61.5) 12.8 (55) 34.1 (93.4)

Average high °C (°F) 5.4 (41.7) 6.7 (44.1) 10.9 (51.6) 15.1 (59.2) 19.3 (66.7) 21.9 (71.4) 24.4 (75.9) 24.0 (75.2) 19.9 (67.8) 15.1 (59.2) 9.5 (49.1) 5.9 (42.6) 14.8 (58.6)

Daily mean °C (°F) 2.6 (36.7) 2.9 (37.2) 6.3 (43.3) 9.7 (49.5) 14.0 (57.2) 16.6 (61.9) 18.8 (65.8) 18.1 (64.6) 14.5 (58.1) 10.6 (51.1) 6.3 (43.3) 3.3 (37.9) 10.3 (50.5)

Average low °C (°F) −0.6 (30.9) −0.7 (30.7) 2.0 (35.6) 4.2 (39.6) 8.1 (46.6) 11.0 (51.8) 13.2 (55.8) 12.6 (54.7) 9.8 (49.6) 6.7 (44.1) 3.1 (37.6) 0.4 (32.7) 5.8 (42.4)

Mean minimum °C (°F) −10.3 (13.5) −8.9 (16) −5.2 (22.6) −3.2 (26.2) 1.3 (34.3) 4.7 (40.5) 7.6 (45.7) 6.8 (44.2) 3.5 (38.3) −0.8 (30.6) −4.2 (24.4) −8.3 (17.1) −13.0 (8.6)

Record low °C (°F) −23.4 (−10.1) −19.2 (−2.6) −12.0 (10.4) −8.8 (16.2) −2.2 (28) 1.4 (34.5) 2.9 (37.2) 1.9 (35.4) 0.2 (32.4) −6.0 (21.2) −10.4 (13.3) −16.0 (3.2) −23.4 (−10.1)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 62.1 (2.445) 54.2 (2.134) 64.6 (2.543) 53.9 (2.122) 72.2 (2.843) 90.7 (3.571) 85.8 (3.378) 75.0 (2.953) 74.9 (2.949) 67.1 (2.642) 67.0 (2.638) 71.1 (2.799) 838.6 (33.016)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 54.0 78.8 120.3 167.2 193.0 193.6 209.7 194.2 141.5 109.2 60.7 45.3 1,567.5

Source: Data derived from Deutscher Wetterdienst[27][28]

Flood protection[edit]

The 1930 flood in Cologne

is regularly affected by flooding from the Rhine
and is considered the most flood-prone European city.[29] A city agency (Stadtentwässerungsbetriebe Köln,[30] " Cologne
Urban Drainage Operations") manages an extensive flood control system which includes both permanent and mobile flood walls, protection from rising waters for buildings close to the river banks, monitoring and forecasting systems, pumping stations and programmes to create or protect floodplains, and river embankments.[29][31] The system was redesigned after a 1993 flood, which resulted in heavy damage.[29] Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Cologne

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

50 30,000 —    

150 50,000 +66.7%

1430 40,000 −20.0%

1801 42,024 +5.1%

1840 75,858 +80.5%

1880 144,722 +90.8%

1900 372,229 +157.2%

1910 516,527 +38.8%

1920 657,175 +27.2%

1930 740,082 +12.6%

1940 733,500 −0.9%

1950 603,283 −17.8%

1960 803,616 +33.2%

1975 1,013,771 +26.2%

1980 976,694 −3.7%

1990 953,551 −2.4%

2000 962,884 +1.0%

2010 1,007,119 +4.6%

2013 1,034,175 +2.7%

2014 1,046,680 +1.2%

2015 1,060,582 +1.3%

2016 1,080,701 +1.9%

Significant minority populations[32]

Nationality Population (2018)

 Turkey 93,383

 Poland 40,774

 Soviet Union 33,115

 Italy 26,134

 Yugoslavia 24,036

 Iran 12,540

 Iraq 9,199

 Greece 8,366

 Bulgaria 7,457

 Romania 7,325

 Morocco 7,242

 Spain 5,325

 France 5,048

 Syria 4,729

 Afghanistan 4,703

 Netherlands 4,071

 Austria 4,066

 Portugal 4,017

In the Roman Empire the city was large and rich with a population of 40,000 in 100–200 AD.[33] The city was home to around 20,000 people in 1000 AD, growing to 50,000 in 1200 AD. The Rhineland
metropolis still had 50,000 residents in 1300 AD.[34][35] Cologne
is the fourth-largest city in Germany
after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich. As of 31 December 2016, there were 1,080,701 people registered as living in Cologne
in an area of 401.15 km2 (154.88 sq mi).[36] The population density was 2,641/km2 (6,840/sq mi).[37] The metropolitan area of the Cologne
Bonn Region is home to 3,573,500 living on 4,415/km2 (11,430/sq mi).[38] It is part of the polycentric megacity region Rhine-Ruhr
with a population of over 11,000,000 people. There were 546,498 women and 522,694 men in Cologne. For every 1,000 males, there were 1,046 females. In 2015, there were 11,337 births in Cologne
(of which 34.53% were to unmarried women); 7,704 marriages and 2,203 divorces, and 9,629 deaths. In the city, the population was spread out with 15.6% under the age of 18, and 17.6% were 65 years of age or older. 163 people in Cologne
were over the age of 100.[37] According to the Statistical Office of the City of Cologne, the number of people with a migrant background is at 36.7% (393,7936). 2,537 people acquired German citizenship in 2015.[37] In 2015, there were 557,090 households, of which 18.3% had children under the age of 18; 50.6% of all households were made up of singles. 8.7% of all households were single-parent households. The average household size was 1.87.[37] Residents of Cologne
with foreign citizenship[edit] Cologne
residents with a foreign citizenship as of 31 December 2015 is as follows:[39]

Cititzenship Number %

Total 393,793 100%

Europe 276,486 70.2%

European Union 133,822 34%

Asian 58,869 14.9%

African 25,301 6.4%

American 11,805 3.0%

and Oceanian 680 0.2%

Language[edit] See also: Colognian dialect Colognian or Kölsch (Colognian (Kölsch) pronunciation: [kœɫːʃ]) (natively Kölsch Platt) is a small set of very closely related dialects, or variants, of the Ripuarian Central German
Central German
group of languages. These dialects are spoken in the area covered by the Archdiocese and former Electorate of Cologne
Electorate of Cologne
reaching from Neuss
in the north to just south of Bonn, west to Düren
and east to Olpe in the North-West of Germany. Kölsch is one of the very few city dialects in Germany, besides for example, the dialect spoken in Berlin. Religion[edit] Slightly more than half of the residents of Cologne
are members of a religion. As of 2015, 35.5% of the population belonged to the Roman Catholic Church, the largest religious body, and 15.5% to the Evangelical Church.[37] Cologne
is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cologne. There are several mosques, including the Turkish-Islamic Union for Religious Affairs
Turkish-Islamic Union for Religious Affairs
run Cologne
Central Mosque. Cologne
also has one of the oldest and largest Jewish communities in Germany.[40] Government[edit] See also: Cologne
City Hall The city's administration is headed by the mayor and the three deputy mayors. Political traditions and developments[edit] The long tradition of a free imperial city, which long dominated an exclusively Catholic population and the age-old conflict between the church and the bourgeoisie (and within it between the patricians and craftsmen) have created its own political climate in Cologne. Various interest groups often form networks beyond party boundaries. The resulting web of relationships, with political, economic, and cultural links with each other in a system of mutual favours, obligations and dependencies, is called the ' Cologne
coterie'. This has often led to an unusual proportional distribution in the city government and degenerated at times into corruption: in 1999, a "waste scandal" over kickbacks and illegal campaign contributions came to light, which led not only to the imprisonment of the entrepreneur Hellmut Trienekens, but also to the downfall of almost the entire leadership of the ruling Social Democrats. Mayor[edit] The Lord Mayor
Lord Mayor
of Cologne
is Henriette Reker. She received 52.66% of the vote at the municipal election on 17 October 2015 and was appointed on 15 December 2015.[41] Elections[edit] City Councillors are elected for a five-year term and the Mayor has a six-year term.[42] Make-up of city council[edit]

Party Seats

Social Democratic Party 27

Christian Democratic Union 24

Green Party 18

The Left 6

Free Democratic Party 5

Alternative for Germany 3

Pirate Party Germany 2

pro Cologne 2

The Good Ones 2

Free Voters 1

Source: City of Cologne[43] Cityscape[edit]

Panoramic view of the city at night as seen from Deutz; from left to right: Deutz Bridge, Great St. Martin Church, Cologne
Cathedral, Hohenzollern Bridge

The inner city of Cologne
was completely destroyed during World War II. The reconstruction of the city followed the style of the 1950s, while respecting the old layout and naming of the streets. Thus, the city today is characterized by simple and modest post-war buildings, with a few interspersed pre-war buildings which were reconstructed due to their historical importance. Some buildings of the "Wiederaufbauzeit" (era of reconstruction), for example, the opera house by Wilhelm Riphahn, are nowadays regarded as classics of modern architecture.[citation needed] Nevertheless, the uncompromising style of the Cologne Opera
Cologne Opera
house and other modern buildings has remained controversial. Green areas account for over a quarter of Cologne, which is approximately 75 m2 (807.29 sq ft) of public green space for every inhabitant.[44] Wildlife[edit] The presence of animals in Cologne
is generally limited to insects, small rodents, and several species of birds. Pigeons are the most often seen animals in Cologne, although the number of birds is augmented each year by a growing population of feral exotics, most visibly parrots such as the rose-ringed parakeet. The sheltered climate in southeast Northrhine-Westphalia
allows these birds to survive through the winter, and in some cases, they are displacing native species. The plumage of Cologne's green parrots is highly visible even from a distance, and contrasts starkly with the otherwise muted colours of the cityscape.[45] Tourism[edit] Cologne
had 5.8 million overnight stays booked and 3.35 million arrivals in 2016.[46] The city also has the most pubs per capita in Germany.[47] The city has 70 clubs, "countless" bars, restaurants, and pubs.[47] Landmarks[edit] Churches[edit]

Cologne Cathedral
Cologne Cathedral
(German: Kölner Dom) is the city's most famous monument and the Cologne
residents' most loved landmark. It is a Gothic church, started in 1248, and completed in 1880. In 1996, it was designated a World Heritage site; it houses the Shrine of the Three Kings, which supposedly contains the relics of the Three Magi (see also[48]). Residents of Cologne
sometimes refer to the cathedral as "the eternal construction site" (die ewige Baustelle). Twelve Romanesque churches: These buildings are outstanding examples of medieval church architecture. The origins of some of the churches go back as far as Roman times, for example St. Gereon, which was originally a chapel in a Roman graveyard. With the exception of St. Maria Lyskirchen all of these churches were very badly damaged during World War II. Reconstruction was only finished in the 1990s.


Great St. Martin Church

Basilica of St. Severin

Church of the Assumption

Trinity Church

Medieval houses[edit] The Cologne City Hall
Cologne City Hall
(Kölner Rathaus), founded in the 12th century, is the oldest city hall in Germany
still in use.[49] The Renaissance-style loggia and tower were added in the 15th century. Other famous buildings include the Gürzenich, Haus Saaleck and the Overstolzenhaus.

City Hall



Medieval city gates[edit]

A plan published in 1800 shows the mediaeval city wall still intact, locating 16 gates (Nr. 36-51 in the legend), e.g. 47: Eigelsteintor, 43: Hahnentor, 39: Severinstor

Of the twelve medieval city gates that once existed, only the Eigelsteintorburg at Ebertplatz, the Hahnentor at Rudolfplatz and the Severinstorburg at Chlodwigplatz still stand today.




Streets[edit] Main article: Streets in Cologne

The Cologne Ring
Cologne Ring
boulevards (such as Hohenzollernring, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Ring, Hansaring) with their medieval city gates (such as Hahnentorburg on Rudolfplatz) are also known for their night life. Hohe Straße
Hohe Straße
(literally: High Street) is one of the main shopping areas and extends past the cathedral in an approximately southerly direction. The street contains many gift shops, clothing stores, fast food restaurants and electronic goods dealers. Schildergasse
– connects Neumarkt square at its western end to the Hohe Strasse shopping street at its eastern end and has been named the busiest shopping street in Europe
with 13,000 people passing through every hour, according to a 2008 study by GfK. Ehrenstraße – the shopping area around Apostelnstrasse, Ehrenstrasse, and Rudolfplatz is a little more on the quirky and stylish side.

Bridges[edit] Several bridges cross the Rhine
in Cologne. They are (from south to north): the Cologne
Bridge, South Bridge (railway), Severin Bridge, Deutz Bridge, Hohenzollern Bridge
Hohenzollern Bridge
(railway), Zoo Bridge (Zoobrücke) and Cologne
Bridge. In particular the iron tied arch Hohenzollern Bridge
Hohenzollern Bridge
(Hohenzollernbrücke) is a dominant landmark along the river embankment. A Rhine
crossing of a special kind is provided by the Cologne Cable Car
Cologne Cable Car
(German: Kölner Seilbahn), a cableway that runs across the Rhine
between the Cologne
Zoological Garden in Riehl and the Rheinpark
in Deutz. High-rise structures[edit] Cologne's tallest structure is the Colonius
telecommunication tower at 266 m or 873 ft. The observation deck has been closed since 1992. A selection of the tallest buildings in Cologne
is listed below. Other tall structures include the Hansahochhaus (designed by architect Jacob Koerfer and completed in 1925—it was at one time Europe's tallest office building), the Kranhaus
buildings at Rheinauhafen, and the Messeturm Köln
Messeturm Köln
("trade fair tower").

Skyscraper Image Height in metres Floors Year Address Notes


148.5 43 2001 MediaPark
8, Neustadt-Nord (literally: Cologne
Tower), Cologne's second tallest building at 165.48 metres (542.91 ft) in height, second only to the Colonius telecommunication tower. The 30th floor of the building has a restaurant and a terrace with 360° views of the city.


147 45 1973 An der Schanz 2, Riehl tallest building in Germany
from 1973 to 1976. Today, it is still the country's tallest residential building.


138 34 1980 Raderberggürtel, Marienburg former headquarters of Deutsche Welle, since 2007 under renovation with the new name Rheintower Köln-Marienburg.


133 45 1973 Luxemburger Straße, Sülz

TÜV Rheinland

112 22 1974 Am Grauen Stein, Poll


109 26 1973 Ebertplatz, Neustadt-Nord

Justizzentrum Köln

105 25 1981 Luxemburger Straße, Sülz


103 29 2006 Ottoplatz 1, Deutz opposite to the cathedral with a 103 m (338 ft) high viewing platform and a view of the cathedral over the Rhine.


102 31 1969 Graeffstraße 1, Ehrenfeld


102 19 1975 Raderberggürtel, Marienburg


Courtyard of the Kolumba
museum in 2007, designed by Peter Zumthor

has several museums. The famous Roman-Germanic Museum
Roman-Germanic Museum
features art and architecture from the city's distant past; the Museum Ludwig houses one of the most important collections of modern art in Europe, including a Picasso
collection matched only by the museums in Barcelona
and Paris. The Museum Schnütgen
Museum Schnütgen
of religious art is partly housed in St. Cecilia, one of Cologne's Twelve Romanesque churches. Many art galleries in Cologne
enjoy a worldwide reputation like e.g. Galerie Karsten Greve, one of the leading galleries for postwar and contemporary art. Several orchestras are active in the city, among them the Gürzenich Orchestra and the WDR Symphony Orchestra Cologne, both based at the Cologne
Philharmonic Orchestra Building.[51] Other orchestras are the Musica Antiqua Köln and the WDR Rundfunkorchester Köln, as well as the Cologne Opera
Cologne Opera
and several choirs, including the WDR Rundfunkchor Köln. Cologne
was also an important hotbed for electronic music in the 1950s (Studio für elektronische Musik, Karlheinz Stockhausen) and again from the 1990s onward. The public radio and TV station WDR was involved in promoting musical movements such as Krautrock
in the 1970s; the influential Can was formed there in 1968. There are several centres of nightlife, among them the Kwartier Latäng (the student quarter around the Zülpicher Straße) and the nightclub-studded areas around Hohenzollernring, Friesenplatz and Rudolfplatz. The large annual literary festival Lit. Cologne
features regional and international authors. The main literary figure connected with Cologne is the writer Heinrich Böll, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature. Cologne
is well known for its beer, called Kölsch. Kölsch is also the name of the local dialect. This has led to the common joke of Kölsch being the only language one can drink. Cologne
is also famous for Eau de Cologne
Eau de Cologne
(German: Kölnisch Wasser; lit: "Water of Cologne"), a perfume created by Italian expatriate Johann Maria Farina
Johann Maria Farina
at the beginning of the 18th century. During the 18th century, this perfume became increasingly popular, was exported all over Europe
by the Farina family and Farina became a household name for Eau de Cologne. In 1803 Wilhelm Mülhens entered into a contract with an unrelated person from Italy
named Carlo Francesco Farina who granted him the right to use his family name and Mühlens opened a small factory at Cologne's Glockengasse. In later years, and after various court battles, his grandson Ferdinand Mülhens
Ferdinand Mülhens
was forced to abandon the name Farina for the company and their product. He decided to use the house number given to the factory at Glockengasse during the French occupation in the early 19th century, 4711. Today, original Eau de Cologne
Eau de Cologne
is still produced in Cologne
by both the Farina family, currently in the eighth generation, and by Mäurer & Wirtz who bought the 4711 brand in 2006. Carnival[edit] The Cologne carnival
Cologne carnival
is one of the largest street festivals in Europe. In Cologne, the carnival season officially starts on 11 November at 11 minutes past 11 a.m. with the proclamation of the new Carnival Season, and continues until Ash Wednesday. However, the so-called "Tolle Tage" (crazy days) do not start until Weiberfastnacht (Women's Carnival) or, in dialect, Wieverfastelovend, the Thursday before Ash Wednesday, which is the beginning of the street carnival. Zülpicher Strasse and its surroundings, Neumarkt square, Heumarkt and all bars and pubs in the city are crowded with people in costumes dancing and drinking in the streets. Hundreds of thousands of visitors flock to Cologne
during this time. Generally, around a million people celebrate in the streets on the Thursday before Ash Wednesday.[52] Rivalry with Düsseldorf[edit] Cologne
and Düsseldorf
have a "fierce regional rivalry",[53] which includes carnival parades, football, and beer.[53] People in Cologne prefer Kölsch while people in Düsseldorf
prefer Altbier
("Alt").[53] Waiters and patrons will "scorn" and make a "mockery" of people who order Alt beer in Cologne
or Kölsch in Düsseldorf.[53] The rivalry has been described as a "love–hate relationship".[53] Museums[edit]

The Museum Ludwig
Museum Ludwig
houses one of the most important collections of modern art.

Roman excavation in Cologne: Dionysus
Mosaic on display at Römisch-Germanisches Museum

Main article: List of museums in Cologne

Farina Fragrance Museum
Fragrance Museum
– birthplace of Eau de Cologne Römisch-Germanisches Museum
Römisch-Germanisches Museum
(Roman-Germanic Museum) – ancient Roman and Germanic culture Wallraf-Richartz Museum
Wallraf-Richartz Museum
– European painting from the 13th to the early 20th century Museum Ludwig
Museum Ludwig
– modern art Museum Schnütgen
Museum Schnütgen
– medieval art Museum für Angewandte Kunst – applied art Kolumba
Kunstmuseum des Erzbistums Köln (art museum of the Archbishopric of Cologne) – modern art museum built around medieval ruins, completed 2007 Cathedral Treasury "Domschatzkammer" – historic underground vaults of the Cathedral EL-DE Haus
EL-DE Haus
– former local headquarters of the Gestapo
houses a museum documenting Nazi
rule in Cologne
with a special focus on the persecution of political dissenters and minorities German Sports and Olympic Museum – exhibitions about sports from antiquity until the present Imhoff-Schokoladenmuseum
– Chocolate Museum Geomuseum of the University of Cologne
University of Cologne
– the exhibition includes fossils (such as dinosaur bones and the skeleton of an Eryops), stones and minerals Forum for Internet Technology in Contemporary Art – collections of Internet-based art, corporate part of (NewMediaArtProjectNetwork):cologne, the experimental platform for art and New Media Flora und Botanischer Garten Köln
Flora und Botanischer Garten Köln
– the city's formal park and main botanical garden Forstbotanischer Garten Köln
Forstbotanischer Garten Köln
– an arboretum and woodland botanical garden

Music fairs and festivals[edit] The city was home to the internationally famous Ringfest, and now to the C/o pop festival.[54] In addition, Cologne
enjoys a thriving Christmas Market Weihnachtsmarkt presence with several locations in the city. Economy[edit]

North entrance to Koelnmesse, 2008

Modern office building at Rheinauhafen

As the largest city in the Rhine-Ruhr
metropolitan region, Cologne benefits from a large market structure.[55] In competition with Düsseldorf, the economy of Cologne
is primarily based on insurance and media industries,[56] while the city is also an important cultural and research centre and home to a number of corporate headquarters. Among the largest media companies based in Cologne
are Westdeutscher Rundfunk, RTL Television
RTL Television
(with subsidiaries), n-tv, Deutschlandradio, Brainpool TV
Brainpool TV
and publishing houses like J. P. Bachem, Taschen, Tandem Verlag, and M. DuMont Schauberg. Several clusters of media, arts and communications agencies, TV production studios, and state agencies work partly with private and government-funded cultural institutions. Among the insurance companies based in Cologne
are Central, DEVK, DKV, Generali Deutschland, Gen Re, Gothaer, HDI Gerling and national headquarters of AXA
Insurance, Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance Group and Zurich Financial Services. The German flag carrier Lufthansa
and its subsidiary Lufthansa CityLine have their main corporate headquarters in Cologne.[57] The largest employer in Cologne
is Ford Europe, which has its European headquarters and a factory in Niehl (Ford-Werke GmbH).[58] Toyota Motorsport GmbH (TMG), Toyota's official motorsports team, responsible for Toyota
rally cars, and then Formula One
Formula One
cars, has its headquarters and workshops in Cologne. Other large companies based in Cologne include the REWE Group, TÜV Rheinland, Deutz AG
Deutz AG
and a number of Kölsch breweries. Cologne
has the country's highest density of pubs per capita.[47] The largest three Kölsch breweries are Reissdorf, Gaffel, and Früh.

Brewery Established Annual output in hectoliters

Heinrich Reissdorf 1894 650,000

Gaffel Becker & Co 1908 500,000

Cölner Hofbräu Früh 1904 440,000

Historically, Cologne
has always been an important trade city, with land, air, and sea connections.[2] The city has five Rhine
ports,[2] the second largest inland port in Germany
and one of the largest in Europe. Cologne- Bonn
Airport is the second largest freight terminal in Germany.[2] Today, the Cologne trade fair
Cologne trade fair
(Koelnmesse) ranks as a major European trade fair location with over 50 trade fairs[2] and other large cultural and sports events. In 2008 Cologne
had 4.31 million overnight stays booked and 2.38 million arrivals.[26] Cologne's largest daily newspaper is the Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger. Cologne
shows a significant increase in startup companies, especially when considering digital business.[59] Transport[edit] Main article: Transport in Cologne Road transport[edit]

Major roads through and around Cologne

Road building had been a major issue in the 1920s under the leadership of mayor Konrad Adenauer. The first German limited-access road was constructed after 1929 between Cologne
and Bonn. Today, this is the Bundesautobahn 555. In 1965, Cologne
became the first German city to be fully encircled by a motorway ring road. Roughly at the same time, a city centre bypass (Stadtautobahn) was planned, but only partially put into effect, due to opposition by environmental groups. The completed section became Bundesstraße ("Federal Road") B 55a, which begins at the Zoobrücke ("Zoo Bridge") and meets with A 4 and A 3 at the interchange Cologne
East. Nevertheless, it is referred to as Stadtautobahn by most locals. In contrast to this, the Nord-Süd-Fahrt ("North-South-Drive") was actually completed, a new four/six-lane city centre through-route, which had already been anticipated by planners such as Fritz Schumacher in the 1920s. The last section south of Ebertplatz was completed in 1972. In 2005, the first stretch of an eight-lane motorway in North Rhine-Westphalia was opened to traffic on Bundesautobahn 3, part of the eastern section of the Cologne Beltway
Cologne Beltway
between the interchanges Cologne
East and Heumar. Cycling[edit]

Cologne Stadtbahn
Cologne Stadtbahn
at Bensberg station

Train at Köln Hauptbahnhof

Compared to other German cities, Cologne
has a traffic layout that is not very bicycle-friendly. It has repeatedly ranked among the worst in an independent evaluation[60] conducted by the Allgemeiner Deutscher Fahrrad-Club. In 2014 it ranked 36th out of 39 German cities with a population greater than 200,000. Rail transport[edit] Cologne
has a railway service with Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn
and ICE-trains stopping at Köln Hauptbahnhof
Köln Hauptbahnhof
( Cologne
Main Station), Köln Messe/Deutz and Cologne/ Bonn
Airport. ICE and TGV Thalys high-speed trains link Cologne
with Amsterdam, Brussels
(in 1h47, 9 departures/day) and Paris (in 3h14, 6 departures/day). There are frequent ICE trains to other German cities, including Frankfurt
am Main and Berlin. ICE Trains to London
via the Channel Tunnel
Channel Tunnel
were planned for 2013.[61] The Cologne Stadtbahn
Cologne Stadtbahn
operated by Kölner Verkehrsbetriebe (KVB)[62] is an extensive light rail system that is partially underground and serves Cologne
and a number of neighbouring cities. It evolved from the tram system. Nearby Bonn
is linked by both the Stadtbahn and main line railway trains, and occasional recreational boats on the Rhine. Düsseldorf
is also linked by S-Bahn
trains, which are operated by Deutsche Bahn. The Rhine-Ruhr
has 5 lines which cross Cologne.The S13/S19 runs 24/7 between Cologne
Hbf and Cologne/ Bonn
airport. There are also frequent buses covering most of the city and surrounding suburbs, and Eurolines
coaches to London
via Brussels. Water transport[edit] Häfen und Güterverkehr Köln
Häfen und Güterverkehr Köln
(Ports and Goods traffic Cologne, HGK) is one of the largest operators of inland ports in Germany.[63] Ports include Köln-Deutz, Köln-Godorf, and Köln-Niehl I and II. Air transport[edit] Cologne's international airport is Cologne/ Bonn
Airport (CGN). It is also called Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
Airport after Germany's first post-war Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, who was born in the city and was mayor of Cologne
from 1917 until 1933. The airport is shared with the neighbouring city of Bonn. Cologne
is headquarters to the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). The airport is also the main hub of the airline Germanwings. Education[edit] Cologne
is home to numerous universities and colleges,[64][65] and host to some 72,000 students.[2] Its oldest university, the University of Cologne
(founded in 1388)[3] is the largest university in Germany, as the Cologne University of Applied Sciences
Cologne University of Applied Sciences
is the largest university of Applied Sciences in the country. The Cologne
University of Music and Dance is the largest conservatory in Europe.[66] Foreigners can have German lessons in the VHS (Adult Education Centre).[67]

Public and state universities:

University of Cologne
University of Cologne
(Universität zu Köln); German Sport University Cologne
German Sport University Cologne
(Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln).

Public and state colleges:

Cologne University of Applied Sciences
Cologne University of Applied Sciences
("Technology, Arts, Sciences TH KöLN" Technische Hochschule Köln); Köln International School of Design; Cologne
University of Music and Dance (Hochschule für Musik und Tanz Köln); Academy of Media Arts Cologne
Academy of Media Arts Cologne
(Kunsthochschule für Medien Köln);

Private colleges:

Catholic University of Applied Sciences (Katholische Hochschule Nordrhein-Westfalen); Cologne
Business School; international filmschool cologne (internationale filmschule köln); Rhenish University of Applied Sciences (Rheinische Fachhochschule Köln)

Research institutes:

German Aerospace Centre
German Aerospace Centre
(Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt); European Astronaut Centre
European Astronaut Centre
(EAC) of the European Space Agency; European College of Sport Science
European College of Sport Science
(ECSS); Max Planck Institute for the Biology of Ageing (Max-Planck-Institut für die Biologie des Alterns); Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies
Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies
(Max-Planck-Institut für Gesellschaftsforschung); Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research (Max-Planck-Institut für neurologische Forschung); Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research (Max-Planck-Institut für Züchtungsforschung). CologneAMS – Centre for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Institute for Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne

Former colleges include:

The Cologne Art and Crafts Schools (Kölner Werkschulen); The Cologne
Institute for Religious Art (Kölner Institut für religiöse Kunst)

Media[edit] Within Germany, Cologne
is known as an important media centre. Several radio and television stations, including Westdeutscher Rundfunk
Westdeutscher Rundfunk
(WDR), RTL and VOX, have their headquarters in the city. Film and TV production is also important. The city is "Germany's capital of TV crime stories".[68] A third of all German TV productions are made in the Cologne
region.[68] Furthermore, the city hosts the Cologne
Comedy Festival, which is considered to be the largest comedy festival in mainland Europe.[69] Sports[edit]

is the stadium of Bundesliga
club 1. FC Köln.

hosts 1. FC Köln,[70] who play in the Bundesliga. They play their home matches in RheinEnergieStadion
which also hosted 5 matches of the 2006 FIFA World Cup.[71] The International Olympic Committee and Internationale Vereinigung Sport- und Freizeiteinrichtungen e.V. gave RheinEnergieStadion
a bronze medal for "being one of the best sporting venues in the world".[71] Cologne
also hosts FC Viktoria Köln 1904 and SC Fortuna Köln, who play in the Regionalliga West (fourth division) respectively the 3. Liga
3. Liga
(third division). The city is also home of the ice hockey team Kölner Haie, in the highest ice hockey league in Germany, the Deutsche Eishockey Liga.[70] They are based at Lanxess Arena.[70] Several horse races per year are held at Cologne-Weidenpesch Racecourse since 1897, the annual Cologne Marathon
Cologne Marathon
was started in 1997. From 2002 to 2009, the Panasonic Toyota
Racing Formula One
Formula One
team was based in the Marsdorf suburb, at the Toyota
Motorsport GmbH facility. Cologne
is considered "the secret golf capital of Germany".[70] The first golf club in North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
was founded in Cologne
in 1906.[70] The city offers the most options and top events in Germany.[70] The city has hosted several athletic events which includes the 2005 FIFA Confederations Cup, 2006 FIFA World Cup, 2007 World Men's Handball Championship, 2010 and 2017 Ice Hockey World Championships and 2010 Gay Games.[6] Notable residents[edit] Notable people, whose roots can be found in Cologne:

Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1876–1967), politician, mayor of Cologne (1917–33, 1945) and first West German Federal Chancellor Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa
Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa
(1486–1535), alchemist, occultist, and author of Three Books of Occult
Philosophy Agrippina the Younger
Agrippina the Younger
(15–59), Roman Empress (wife of Emperor Claudius) and mother of Emperor Nero Heinrich Birnbaum (1403–73), a Catholic monk Heinrich Boigk
Heinrich Boigk
(1912–2003), Knights Cross winner Robert Blum
Robert Blum
(1807–48), German politician and martyr of the 19th century democratic movement in Germany Heinrich Böll
Heinrich Böll
(1917–85), German writer and winner of the Nobel prize for literature in 1972 Georg Braun
Georg Braun
(1541-1622), topogeographer Max Bruch
Max Bruch
(1838–1920), composer Álex Calatrava (born 1973), Spanish professional tennis player Heribert Calleen
Heribert Calleen
(born 1924), German sculptor Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck
Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck
(born 1973), Oscar-winning director and screenwriter Max Ernst
Max Ernst
(1891–1976), German painter and artist Kota Ezawa (born 1969), Japanese German animator and artist Angela Gossow
Angela Gossow
(born 1974), former German lead vocalist of Swedish melodic death metal band Arch Enemy Everhard von Groote (1798–1864), Germanist and writer Britta Heidemann
Britta Heidemann
(born 1982), épée fencer and Olympic medalist H. Robert Heller (born 1940), former professor, Governor of the Federal Reserve System and President of VISA U.S.A. Trude Herr (1927–91), actress and singer Jakob Ignaz Hittorff, (1792–1867), French architect of German origin Stefanie Höner (born 1969), actress Ernst Ising, (1900–1998), mathematician and physicist Lilli Jahn, (born 1900), doctor, died presumably on 19 June 1944 in Auschwitz Udo Kier
Udo Kier
(born 1944), actor Lukas Podolski
Lukas Podolski
(born 1985), German footballer Johannes Kalitzke
Johannes Kalitzke
(born 1959), composer and conductor Jutta Kleinschmidt
Jutta Kleinschmidt
(born 1962), off-road automotive racing competitor Werner Klemperer
Werner Klemperer
(1920–2000), Emmy Award-winning comedy actor Erich Klibansky
Erich Klibansky
(1900–1942), Jewish
headmaster and teacher Adolf Kober
Adolf Kober
(1870–1958), Jewish
rabbi and medievalist Peter Kohlgraf
Peter Kohlgraf
(born 1967), Catholic Bishop of Mainz Gaby Köster (born 1961), German actress and comedian Wilhelm Kratz, (1902–1944), resistance fighter and nazi victim Hildegard Krekel
Hildegard Krekel
(1952–2013), German actress Lotti Krekel (born 1941), actress and singer Uwe Krupp
Uwe Krupp
(born 1965), professional (ice) hockey player Heinz Kühn
Heinz Kühn
(1912–92), Minister-President
of North Rhine-Westphalia (1966–78) Heiner Lauterbach
Heiner Lauterbach
(1953), German actor Julia Leischik (born 1970), German editor-in-chief, television presenter and television producer. Ottmar Liebert
Ottmar Liebert
(born 1961), musician Mariele Millowitsch (born 1955), actress Peter Millowitsch (born 1949), actor, playwright and theatre director Willy Millowitsch
Willy Millowitsch
(1909–1999), actor, playwright and theatre director Wolfgang Niedecken
Wolfgang Niedecken
(born 1951), German singer, musician, artist and bandleader of BAP Theodore of Corsica
Theodore of Corsica
(1694–1756), briefly King Theodore of Corsica Jacques Offenbach
Jacques Offenbach
(1819–80), German-born French composer Willi Ostermann
Willi Ostermann
(1876–1936), composer Nikolaus Otto
Nikolaus Otto
(1832–1891), German inventor, 4 cycle internal combustion engine Kim Petras (born 1992), German singer Frederik Prausnitz (1920–2004), American conductor and teacher Christa Päffgen a.k.a. Nico
(1938–1988), model, actress, singer, and songwriter in Velvet Underground
Velvet Underground
and Warhol Superstar Hedwig Potthast
Hedwig Potthast
(1912–1997), secretary and mistress of Heinrich Himmler Stefan Raab
Stefan Raab
(born 1966), German entertainer and host of Eurovision Song Contest 2011 Joseph Nicolas Robert-Fleury
Joseph Nicolas Robert-Fleury
(1797–1890), painter Jürgen Rüttgers
Jürgen Rüttgers
(born 1951), German politician (CDU), Minister-President
of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
(2005–2010) Jürgen Fritz (born 1953), musician and composer Adam Schall von Bell
Adam Schall von Bell
(1592–1666), since 1622 active missionary of the Order of the Jesuits in China Markus Stockhausen
Markus Stockhausen
(born 1957), musician and composer Wolfgang von Trips
Wolfgang von Trips
(1928–61), German Formula One
Formula One
racing driver Joost van den Vondel
Joost van den Vondel
(1587–1679), Dutch poet and playwright Moshe Wallach
Moshe Wallach
(1866–1957), founder and director of Shaare Zedek Hospital, Jerusalem Christoph Watrin (born 1988), singer, US5 Robert Weimar (1932–2013), German legal scientist and psychologist Thomas Wensing (born 1978), German writer Carl Wyland
Carl Wyland
(1886–1972), German blacksmith Leon Draisaitl
Leon Draisaitl
(born 1995), German ice hockey player for the Edmonton Oilers Gökhan Töre
Gökhan Töre
(born 1992), Turkish footballer

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Twin towns and sister cities[edit] Cologne
is twinned with:

Barcelona, Spain
(since 1984) Berlin-Neukölln, Germany Berlin-Treptow, Germany Bethlehem, Palestine (1996) Cluj Napoca/Klausenburg, Romania
(1976) Corinto/El Realejo, Nicaragua
(1988) Cork, Ireland
(27. June 1988) Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg
(1958) Indianapolis, USA Istanbul, Turkey
(1997) Katowice, Poland
(15 March 1991) Kyoto, Japan
(21 January 1963) Lille, France
(1958) Liverpool, UK (1952) Lüttich, Belgium
(1958) Beijing, China
(14 September 1987) Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (19 September 2011) Rotterdam, Netherlands
(1958) Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel
(6 August 1979) Thessaloniki, Greece
(3 May 1988) Tunis, Tunisia
(12 June 1964) Turin, Italy
(1958) Turku, Finland
(1967) Volgograd, Russia

See also[edit]

List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany Stadtwerke Köln, the municipal infrastructure company, operator of the city's railways, ports, and other utilities. New Year's Eve sexual assaults in Germany Hänneschen-Theater


^ "Amtliche Bevölkerungszahlen". Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW (in German). 18 July 2016.  ^ a b c d e f "Economy". KölnTourismus. Retrieved 18 April 2011.  ^ a b c d e f "From Ubii
village to metropolis". City of Cologne. Retrieved 16 April 2011.  ^ Smith, Benjamin E. (1895). "Augusta Ubiorum". The Century Cyclopedia of Names. 1 (2nd ed.). New York: Century Co. p. 96. OCLC 237135281.  ^ "bomber command – mines laid – flight august – 1945 – 1571 – Flight Archive".  ^ a b c "Facts and figures". City of Cologne. Retrieved 17 April 2011.  ^ "C.Michael Hogan, '' Cologne
Wharf'', The Megalithic Portal, editor Andy Burnham, 2007". Megalithic.co.uk. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ Harry de Quetteville. "History of Cologne". The Catholic Encyclopedia, 28 November 2009. ^ Joseph P. Huffman, Family, Commerce, and Religion in London
and Cologne
(1998) covers from 1000 to 1300. ^ The population of European cities, Bairoch ^ "Rote Funken – Kölsche Funke rut-wieß vun 1823 e.V. – Rote Funken Koeln". Rote-funken.de. Retrieved 5 May 2009.  ^ United Services Magazine, December 1835 ^ "Festung Köln". Retrieved 1 April 2011.  ^ Cologne
Evacuated, TIME Magazine, 15 February 1926 ^ "Weimarer Wahlen". Web.archive.org. 11 February 2008. Archived from the original on 11 February 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ "Voting results 1919–1933 Cologne-Aachen". Wahlen-in-deutschland.de. Retrieved 8 August 2010.  ^ koelnarchitektur (15 July 2003). "on the reconstruction of Cologne". Koelnarchitektur.de. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ Tourtellot, Arthur B. et al. Life's Picture History of World War II, p. 237. Time, Inc., New York, 1950. ^ http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/worldwar2/theatres-of-war/western-europe/investigation/hamburg/sources/docs/6/ ^ Zabecki, David T. (1999-01-01). World War Two in Europe. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780824070298.  ^ Kirsten Serup-Bilfeld, Zwischen Dom und Davidstern. Jüdisches Leben in Köln von den Anfängen bis heute. Köln 2001, page 193 ^ "Synagogen-Gemeinde Köln". Sgk.de. 26 June 1931. Retrieved 8 August 2010.  ^ Connolly, Kate (7 January 2016). "Tensions rise in Germany
over handling of mass sexual assaults in Cologne". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 January 2016.  ^ "1075 Anzeigen nach Kölner Silvesternacht – 73 Verdächtige" [1,075 assaults by Cologne
New Year's Eve – 73 suspects]. Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung
Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung
(in German). Retrieved 15 February 2016.  ^ Bezirksregierung Köln: Topografische Karte 1:50.000 (TK 50), Blatt L 5108 Köln-Mülheim. Köln 2012, ISBN 978-3-89439-422-6. ^ a b " Cologne
at a glance". City of Cologne. Retrieved 17 April 2011.  ^ "Ausgabe der Klimadaten: Monatswerte".  ^ "Klimastatistik Köln-Wahn".  ^ a b c Martin Gocht; Reinhard Vogt. "Flood Forecasting and Flood Defence in Cologne" (PDF). Mitigation of Climate Induced Natural Hazards (MITCH). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 March 2009. Retrieved 20 March 2009.  ^ "Stadtentwässerungsbetriebe Köln : Flood Management". Steb-koeln.de. Retrieved 7 July 2009.  ^ "Flood Defence Scheme City of Cologne" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 March 2009. Retrieved 20 March 2009.  ^ "Statistisches Jahrbuch Köln 2015" (PDF). Stadt Köln. Retrieved 2015-10-01.  ^ van Tilburg, C. (2007). Traffic and Congestion in the Roman Empire. Taylor & Francis. p. 42. ISBN 9781134129751. Retrieved 5 October 2014.  ^ Bruce, S.G. (2010). Ecologies and Economies in Medieval and Early Modern Europe: Studies in Environmental History for Richard C. Hoffmann. Brill. p. 48. ISBN 9789004180079. Retrieved 5 October 2014.  ^ Diego Puga & Daniel Trefler (30 November 2009). "International trade and institutional change: A death in Venice" (PDF). Retrieved 5 October 2014. [permanent dead link] ^ "1 081 701 Kölnerinnen und Kölner in 2016" (PDF). stadt-koeln.de. Retrieved 25 September 2016.  ^ a b c d e "Statistisches Jahrbuch 2016". stadt-koeln.de. 1 February 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2017.  ^ "Region Köln Bon". region-koeln-bonn.de. 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2017.  ^ http://www.stadt-koeln.de/politik-und-verwaltung/statistik/jahrbuecher ^ Serup-Bilfeldt, Kirsten (19 August 2005). "Cologne: Germany's Oldest Jewish
Community". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 6 September 2011.  ^ "Oberbürgermeisterwahl – Wahl des/der Oberbürgermeisters/in 2015 in der Stadt Köln – Gesamtergebnis". stadt-koeln.de (in German). Archived from the original on 20 October 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2015.  ^ "Wahlperiode" (in German). City of Cologne. Retrieved 15 April 2011.  ^ "Alle Ratsmitglieder" (in German). City of Cologne. Retrieved 22 June 2014.  ^ "Green Cologne". KölnTourismus. Retrieved 17 April 2011.  ^ "In NRW behaupten sich immer mehr exotische Vögel". RP Online. Retrieved 16 January 2013.  ^ "Tourism results for 2016: Moderate decrease in visitor numbers due to difficult general conditions". KölnTourismus. 21 February 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.  ^ a b c "Nightlife". KölnTourismus. Retrieved 13 September 2017.  ^ "Offizielle Webseite des Kölner Doms Bedeutende Werke". Koelner-dom.de. Retrieved 5 May 2009.  ^ "Strategic Management Society – Cologne
Conference – Cologne Information". Cologne.strategicmanagement.net. 14 October 2008. Retrieved 26 July 2010.  ^ "Homepage of the Uni-Center". Unicenterkoeln.de. Archived from the original on 27 March 2010. Retrieved 8 August 2010.  ^ "Kölner Philharmonie". Web.archive.org. 11 December 2007. Archived from the original on 11 December 2007. Retrieved 8 August 2010.  ^ "Carnival – Cologne's "fifth season" – Cologne
Sights & Events – Stadt Köln". Web.archive.org. 26 January 2008. Archived from the original on 25 January 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ a b c d e "Giving Beer A Home in the Rhineland". The Local. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.  ^ "C/o Pop Official Website".  ^ stadt-koeln.de Cologne
Business Guide (in German) (in English) ^ "Cologne". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ "Directory: World Airlines". Flight International. 3 April 2007. p. 107.  ^ "Über Ford – Standorte". Ford Germany
(in German). Retrieved 20 June 2009.  ^ Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft Kölm. "Kölner Digitalwirtschaft gut aufgestellt". Retrieved 28 October 2016.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 March 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2015.  ^ "High-speed trains to link England and Germany". Brisbanetimes.com.au. 16 October 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2012.  ^ "Kölner Verkehrsbetriebe (KVB)". Kvb-koeln.de. Retrieved 24 July 2009.  ^ " Häfen und Güterverkehr Köln
Häfen und Güterverkehr Köln
AG". Hgk.de. Retrieved 8 August 2010.  ^ "Hochschulen – Wissensdurst KĂśln – Das KĂślner Wissenschaftsportal". Wissensdurst-koeln.de. Retrieved 26 July 2010.  ^ "Forschungsschwerpunkte" (PDF). Wissensdurst-koeln.de.  ^ "goethe.de". goethe.de. Retrieved 8 August 2010.  ^ " Cologne
Adult Education Centre – City of Cologne". Stadt-koeln.de. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.  ^ a b "Productions "made in Cologne"". Cologne
Tourism. Retrieved 22 April 2011.  ^ " Cologne Comedy Festival website". Koeln-comedy.de. 21 October 2007.  ^ a b c d e f "Sport and relaxation". Cologne
Tourist Information. Retrieved 13 March 2013.  ^ a b "The RheinEnergie Stadium". 1. FC Köln. Retrieved 20 April 2011. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutCologneat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Cologne.

Stadt Köln, official City of Cologne
page (in German)

Places adjacent to Cologne

Neuss Düsseldorf Wuppertal




Brühl Bonn Koblenz

v t e

Districts of Cologne

I. Innenstadt II. Rodenkirchen III. Lindenthal IV. Ehrenfeld V. Nippes VI. Chorweiler VII. Porz VIII. Kalk IX. Mülheim

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
in Germany

Urban districts

Bielefeld Bochum Bonn Bottrop Dortmund Duisburg Düsseldorf Essen Gelsenkirchen Hagen Hamm Herne Köln (Cologne) Krefeld Leverkusen Mönchengladbach Mülheim Münster Oberhausen Remscheid Solingen Wuppertal

Rural districts

Aachen Borken Coesfeld Düren Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis Euskirchen Gütersloh Heinsberg Herford Hochsauerlandkreis Höxter Kleve (Cleves) Lippe Märkischer Kreis Mettmann Minden-Lübbecke Oberbergischer Kreis Olpe Paderborn Recklinghausen Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis Rhein-Erft-Kreis Rhein-Kreis Neuss Rhein-Sieg-Kreis Siegen-Wittgenstein Soest Steinfurt Unna Viersen Warendorf Wesel

v t e

Cities in Germany
by population


Berlin Cologne Hamburg Munich


Bremen Dortmund Dresden Düsseldorf Essen Frankfurt Hanover Leipzig Nuremberg Stuttgart


Aachen Augsburg Bielefeld Bochum Bonn Braunschweig Chemnitz Duisburg Erfurt Freiburg im Breisgau Gelsenkirchen Halle (Saale) Karlsruhe Kiel Krefeld Lübeck Magdeburg Mainz Mannheim Münster Mönchengladbach Oberhausen Rostock Wiesbaden Wuppertal


Bergisch Gladbach Bottrop Bremerhaven Cottbus Darmstadt Erlangen Fürth Göttingen Hagen Hamm Heidelberg Heilbronn Herne Hildesheim Ingolstadt Jena Kassel Koblenz Leverkusen Ludwigshafen Moers Mülheim
an der Ruhr Neuss Offenbach am Main Oldenburg Osnabrück Paderborn Pforzheim Potsdam Recklinghausen Regensburg Remscheid Reutlingen Saarbrücken Salzgitter Siegen Solingen Trier Ulm Wolfsburg Würzburg

complete list municipalities metropolitan regions cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants

v t e

Members of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
by Quarter

Chief cities shown in smallcaps. Free Imperial Cities of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
shown in italics.



Anklam Demmin Greifswald Hamburg Kolberg (Kołobrzeg) Lüneburg Rostock Rügenwalde (Darłowo) Stettin (Szczecin) Stolp (Słupsk) Stockholm Stralsund Visby Wismar


Brunswick Magdeburg

Berlin Bremen Erfurt Frankfurt
an der Oder Goslar Mühlhausen Nordhausen


Danzig (Gdańsk)

Breslau (Wrocław) Dorpat (Tartu) Elbing (Elbląg) Königsberg
(Kaliningrad) Cracow (Kraków) Reval (Tallinn) Riga
(Rīga) Thorn (Toruń)


1 Dortmund

Deventer Groningen Kampen Münster Osnabrück Soest



(Bergen) Hanzekantoor

Bruges Antwerp2 

(London) Peterhof (Novgorod)


Bishop's Lynn Falsterbo Ipswich Kaunas Malmö Polotsk Pskov

Other cities

Bristol Boston Damme Leith Herford Hull Newcastle Stargard Yarmouth York Zutphen Zwolle

1 Cologne
and Dortmund
were both capital of the Westphalian Quarter at different times. 2 Antwerp
gained importance once Bruges
became inaccessible due to the silting of the Zwin

v t e

Free imperial cities of the Holy Roman Empire

By 1792

Aachen Aalen Augsburg Biberach Bopfingen BremenH Buchau Buchhorn CologneH Dinkelsbühl DortmundH Eßlingen Frankfurt Friedberg Gengenbach Giengen GoslarH HamburgH Heilbronn Isny Kaufbeuren Kempten Kessenich Leutkirch Lindau LübeckH Memmingen Mühlhausen MülhausenD, S Nordhausen Nördlingen Nuremberg Offenburg Pfullendorf Ravensburg Regensburg Reutlingen Rothenburg RottweilS Schwäbisch Gmünd Schwäbisch Hall Schweinfurt Speyer Überlingen Ulm Wangen Weil Weißenburg in Bayern Wetzlar Wimpfen Windsheim Worms Zell

Free Imperial Cities as of 1648

Lost imperial immediacy or no longer part of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
by 1792

BaselS BernS Besançon Brakel Cambrai Diessenhofen Donauwörth Duisburg Düren Gelnhausen HagenauD Herford KaysersbergD KolmarD Konstanz LandauD Lemgo LucerneS Mainz Metz MunsterD ObernaiD Pfeddersheim Rheinfelden RosheimD St. GallenS Sarrebourg SchaffhausenS Schmalkalden SchlettstadtD SoestH SolothurnS Straßburg Toul TurckheimD Verden Verdun Warburg Weißenburg in ElsaßD ZürichS

D Member of the Décapole H Member of the Hanseatic League S Member or associate of the Swiss Confederacy

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 157037914 LCCN: n80050882 ISNI: 0000 0001 2309 4618 GND: 4031483-2 SUDOC: 026371677 BNF: cb11931745m (data) HDS: