COLOGNE (English: /kəˈloʊn/ ; German : Köln, pronounced (
listen ), Ripuarian : Kölle ( listen )) is the largest city in the
German federal State of
North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth most
populated city in
Hamburg , and
Munich ). It
is located within the
Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region which is
Germany\'s largest and one of Europe\'s major metropolitan areas .
Cologne is about 45 kilometres (28 mi) southwest of North
Rhine-Westphalia's capital of
Dusseldorf and 25 kilometres (16 mi)
Cologne is located on both sides of the
Rhine , near Germany's
Belgium and the
Netherlands . The city's famous Cologne
Cathedral (Kölner Dom) is the seat of the Catholic
Cologne . The
University of Cologne (Universität zu Köln) is one of
Europe's oldest and largest universities.
Cologne was founded and established in
Ubii territory in the 1st
century AD as the Roman
Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium , the first
word of which is the origin of its name. An alternative Latin name of
the settlement is Augusta Ubiorum, after the Ubii. "Cologne", the
French version of the city's name, has become standard in English as
well. The city functioned as the capital of the Roman province of
Germania Inferior and as the headquarters of the Roman military in the
region until occupied by the Franks in 462. During the
Middle Ages it
flourished on one of the most important major trade routes between
east and west in Europe.
Cologne was one of the leading members of the
Hanseatic League and one of the largest cities north of the
medieval and Renaissance times. Prior to
World War II
World War II the city had
undergone several occupations by the French and also by the British
Cologne was one of the most heavily bombed cities in
Germany during World War II, with the
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force (RAF) dropping
34,711 long tons (35,268 tonnes) of bombs on the city . The bombing
reduced the population by 95%, mainly due to evacuation, and destroyed
almost the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many
historic buildings as possible, the successful postwar rebuilding has
resulted in a very mixed and unique cityscape.
Cologne is a major cultural centre for the
Rhineland ; it hosts more
than 30 museums and hundreds of galleries. Exhibitions range from
local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics and
Cologne Trade Fair
Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows such
Art Cologne , imm
Gamescom , and the
* 1 History
* 1.1 Roman
* 1.3 Early modern history
* 1.4 From the 19th century until
World War II
World War II
World War II
World War II
* 1.6 Post-war
Cologne until today
* 1.7 Post-reunification
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Districts
* 2.2 Climate
* 2.3 Flood protection
* 3 Demographics
* 3.1 Residents in
Cologne with foreign cititzenship
* 3.2 Language
* 3.3 Religion
* 4 Government
* 4.1 Political traditions and developments
* 4.2 Mayor
* 4.3 Elections
* 4.4 Make-up of city council
* 5 Cityscape
* 6 Wildlife
* 7 Tourism
* 7.1 Landmarks
* 7.1.1 Churches
* 7.1.2 Medieval houses
* 7.1.3 Medieval city gates
* 7.2 Streets
* 7.3 Bridges
* 7.4 High-rise structures
* 8 Culture
* 8.1 Carnival
* 8.2 Rivalry with
* 8.3 Museums
* 8.4 Music fairs and festivals
* 9 Economy
* 10 Transport
* 10.1 Road transport
* 10.2 Cycling
* 10.3 Rail transport
* 10.4 Water transport
* 10.5 Air transport
* 11 Education
* 12 Media
* 13 Sports
* 14 Notable residents
* 15 International relations
Twin towns and sister cities
Twin towns and sister cities
* 16 See also
* 17 References
* 18 External links
History of Cologne and
Timeline of Cologne
Fresco with Dionysian scenes from a Roman villa of Cologne,
Germany (site of the ancient city Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium
), 3rd century AD,
The first urban settlement on the grounds of modern-day
Oppidum Ubiorum, founded in 38 BC by the
Ubii , a Cisrhenian Germanic
tribe . In 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia on the
Rhine and the
city became the provincial capital of
Germania Inferior in 85 AD. The
city was named
Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium in 50 AD.
Considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne,
especially near the wharf area, where a notable discovery of a
1900-year-old Roman boat was made in late 2007. From 260 to 271
Cologne was the capital of the
Gallic Empire under
Postumus , Marius ,
Victorinus . In 310 under Constantine a bridge was built over the
Rhine at Cologne. Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it
became one of the most important trade and production centres in the
Roman Empire north of the Alps.
Cologne is shown on the 4th century
Peutinger Map .
Maternus, who was elected as bishop in 313, was the first known
bishop of Cologne. The city was the capital of a Roman province until
occupied by the
Ripuarian Franks in 462. Parts of the original Roman
sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system
having opened in 1890.
Cologne was part of
Austrasia within the Frankish
Cologne had been the seat of a bishop since the Roman period;
Charlemagne , in 795, bishop
Hildebold was promoted to
archbishop . In 843,
Cologne became a city within the Treaty of
East Francia .
In 953, the archbishops of
Cologne first gained noteworthy secular
power, when bishop Bruno was appointed as duke by his brother Otto I ,
Germany . In order to weaken the secular nobility, who
threatened his power, Otto endowed Bruno and his successors on the
bishop's see with the prerogatives of secular princes, thus
Electorate of Cologne , formed by the temporal
possessions of the archbishopric and included in the end a strip of
territory along the left Bank of the
Rhine east of
Jülich , as well
Duchy of Westphalia on the other side of the Rhine, beyond Berg
and Mark . By the end of the 12th century, the
Archbishop of Cologne
was one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor. Besides being
prince elector, he was Arch-chancellor of
Italy as well, technically
from 1238 and permanently from 1263 until 1803.
Battle of Worringen in 1288,
Cologne gained its
independence from the archbishops and became a Free City . Archbishop
Sigfried II von Westerburg was forced into exile in
Bonn . The
archbishop nevertheless preserved the right of capital punishment.
Thus the municipal council (though in strict political opposition
towards the archbishop) depended upon him in all matters concerning
criminal justice. This included torture, which sentence was only
allowed to be handed down by the episcopal judge, the so-called
"Greve". This legal situation lasted until the French conquest of
Besides its economic and political significance
Cologne also became
an important centre of medieval pilgrimage, when Cologne's Archbishop
Rainald of Dassel gave the relics of the
Three Wise Men
Three Wise Men to Cologne's
cathedral in 1164 (after they in fact had been captured from
Besides the three magi
Cologne preserves the relics of Saint Ursula
Albertus Magnus .
Cologne's location on the river
Rhine placed it at the intersection
of the major trade routes between east and west as well as the main
Europe trade route, South – North Northern Italy-Flanders.
These two trade routes were the basis of Cologne's growth. By 1300 the
city population was 50,000-55,000.
Cologne was a member of the
Hanseatic League in 1475, when Frederick III confirmed the city's
Cologne around 1411
EARLY MODERN HISTORY
The economic structures of medieval and early modern
characterised by the city's status as a major harbour and transport
hub on the Rhine. Craftsmanship was organised by self-administering
guilds, some of which were exclusive to women.
As a free city,
Cologne was a sovereign state within the Holy Roman
Empire and as such had the right (and obligation) to maintain its own
military force. As they wore a red uniform, these troops were known as
the Rote Funken (red sparks). These soldiers were part of the Army of
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire ("Reichskontingent") and fought in the wars of
the 17th and 18th century, including the wars against revolutionary
France, when the small force was almost completely wiped out in
combat. The tradition of these troops is preserved as a military
persiflage by Cologne's most outstanding carnival society, the Rote
The free city of
Cologne must not be confused with the Archbishopric
Cologne which was a state of its own within the
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire .
Since the second half of the 16th century the archbishops were drawn
Wittelsbach dynasty. Due to the free status of
Cologne, the archbishops were usually not allowed to enter the city.
Thus they took up residence in
Bonn and later in Brühl on the Rhine.
As members of an influential and powerful family, and supported by
their outstanding status as electors , the archbishops of Cologne
repeatedly challenged and threatened the free status of
the 17th and 18th centuries, resulting in complicated affairs, which
were handled by diplomatic means and propaganda as well as by the
supreme courts of the Holy Roman Empire.
FROM THE 19TH CENTURY UNTIL WORLD WAR II
Hohestraße, 1912 Hängebrücke
Cologne lost its status as a free city during the French period.
According to the Peace
Treaty of Lunéville (1801) all the territories
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire on the left bank of the
Rhine were officially
incorporated into the French Republic (which had already occupied
Cologne in 1794). Thus this region later became part of Napoleon\'s
Cologne was part of the French Département Roer (named after
the river Roer, German:
Rur ) with
Aachen (French: Aix-la-Chapelle) as
its capital. The French modernised public life, for example by
Napoleonic code and removing the old elites from
Napoleonic code remained in use on the left bank of the
Rhine until 1900, when a unified civil code (the Bürgerliches
Gesetzbuch ) was introduced in the
German Empire . In 1815 at the
Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna ,
Cologne was made part of the
Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia ,
first in the Jülich-Cleves-Berg province and then the
The permanent tensions between the Roman Catholic
Rhineland and the
overwhelmingly Protestant Prussian state repeatedly escalated with
Cologne being in the focus of the conflict. In 1837 the archbishop of
Clemens August von Droste-Vischering
Clemens August von Droste-Vischering , was arrested and
imprisoned for two years after a dispute over the legal status of
marriages between Protestants and Roman Catholics (Mischehenstreit).
In 1874, during the
Paul Melchers was
imprisoned before taking refuge in the Netherlands. These conflicts
alienated the Catholic population from
Berlin and contributed to a
deeply felt anti-Prussian resentment, which was still significant
after World War II, when the former mayor of Cologne, Konrad Adenauer
, became the first West German chancellor.
During the 19th and 20th centuries,
Cologne absorbed numerous
surrounding towns, and by
World War I
World War I had already grown to 700,000
inhabitants. Industrialisation changed the city and spurred its
growth. Vehicle and engine manufacturing were especially successful,
though heavy industry was less ubiquitous than in the
Ruhr area . The
cathedral , started in 1248 but abandoned around 1560, was eventually
finished in 1880 not just as a place of worship but also as a German
national monument celebrating the newly founded
German empire and the
continuity of the German nation since the Middle Ages. Some of this
urban growth occurred at the expense of the city's historic heritage
with much being demolished (for example, the city walls or the area
around the cathedral) and sometimes replaced by contemporary
Cologne was designated as one of the Fortresses of the German
Confederation . It was turned into a heavily armed fortress (opposing
the French and Belgian fortresses of
Verdun and Liège ) with two
fortified belts surrounding the city, the remains of which can be seen
to this day. The military demands on what became Germany's largest
fortress presented a significant obstacle to urban development, with
forts, bunkers, and wide defensive dugouts completely encircling the
city and preventing expansion; this resulted in a very densely
built-up area within the city itself.
World War I
World War I
Cologne was the target of several minor air raids,
but suffered no significant damage.
Cologne was occupied by the
British Army of the
Rhine until 1926, under the terms of the Armistice
and the subsequent Versailles Peace Treaty . In contrast with the
harsh behaviour of the French occupation troops in Germany, the
British forces were more lenient to the local population. Konrad
Adenauer , the mayor of
Cologne from 1917 until 1933 and later a West
German chancellor, acknowledged the political impact of this approach,
especially since Britain had opposed French demands for a permanent
Allied occupation of the entire Rhineland.
As part of the demilitarisation of the
Rhineland , the city's
fortifications had to be dismantled. This was an opportunity to create
two green belts (Grüngürtel) around the city by converting the
fortifications and their fields of fire into large public parks. This
was not completed until 1933. In 1919 the
University of Cologne ,
closed by the French in 1798, was reopened. This was considered to be
a replacement for the loss of the
University of Strasbourg on the west
bank of the Rhine, which reverted to
France with the rest of
Cologne prospered during the
Weimar Republic (1919–33), and progress
was made especially in public governance, city planning, housing and
social affairs. Social housing projects were considered exemplary and
were copied by other German cities.
Cologne competed to host the
Olympics, and a modern sports stadium was erected at Müngersdorf.
When the British occupation ended, the prohibition of civil aviation
was lifted and
Cologne Butzweilerhof Airport soon became a hub for
national and international air traffic, second in
Germany only to
Berlin Tempelhof Airport .
The democratic parties lost the local elections in
Cologne in March
1933 to the
Nazi Party and other right wing parties. The Nazis then
arrested the Communist and Social Democrats members of the city
assembly, and Mayor Adenauer was dismissed. Compared to some other
major cities, however, the Nazis never gained decisive support in
Cologne. (Significantly, the number of votes cast for the
in Reichstag elections had always been the national average.) By
1939 the population had risen to 772,221 inhabitants.
WORLD WAR II
The devastation of Cologne, 1945
During World War II,
Cologne was a Military Area Command Headquarters
(Militärbereichshauptkommandoquartier) for the Military District
(Wehrkreis) VI of
Cologne was under the command of
Lieutenant-General Freiherr Roeder von Diersburg, who was responsible
for military operations in
Jülich , Düren
Cologne was home to the 211th Infantry Regiment and
the 26th Artillery Regiment.
The Allies dropped 44,923.2 tons of bombs on the city during World
War II, destroying 61% of its built up area. During the Bombing of
World War II
World War II ,
Cologne endured 262 air raids by the
Western Allies , which caused approximately 20,000 civilian casualties
and almost completely wiped out the central part of the city. During
the night of 31 May 1942,
Cologne was the target of "Operation
Millennium ", the first 1,000 bomber raid by the
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force in
World War II. 1,046 heavy bombers attacked their target with 1,455
tons of explosives, approximately two-thirds of which were incendiary.
This raid lasted about 75 minutes, destroyed 600 acres (243 ha) of
built-up area (61%), killed 486 civilians and made 59,000 people
Cologne was taken by the American First Army in early March, 1945.
By the end of the war, the population of
Cologne had been reduced by
95 percent. This loss was mainly caused by a massive evacuation of the
people to more rural areas. The same happened in many other German
cities in the last two years of war. By the end of 1945, however, the
population had already recovered to approximately 500,000.
By the end of the war, essentially all of Cologne's pre-war Jewish
population of 11,000 had been deported or killed by the Nazis. The
six synagogues of the city were destroyed. The synagogue on
Roonstraße was rebuilt in 1959.
POST-WAR COLOGNE UNTIL TODAY
Cologne, seen from the
International Space Station
International Space Station
Despite Cologne's status as the largest city in the region, nearby
Düsseldorf was chosen as the political capital of the federated state
North Rhine-Westphalia . With
Bonn being chosen as the provisional
federal capital (provisorische Bundeshauptstadt) and seat of the
government of the Federal Republic of
Germany (then informally West
Cologne benefited by being sandwiched between two important
political centres. The city became–and still is–home to a number
of federal agencies and organizations. After reunification in 1990,
Berlin was made the capital of Germany.
In 1945 architect and urban planner Rudolf Schwarz called
"world's greatest heap of rubble". Schwarz designed the master plan
for reconstruction in 1947, which included the construction of several
new thoroughfares through the city centre, especially the
Nord-Süd-Fahrt ("North-South-Drive"). The master plan took into
consideration the fact that even shortly after the war a large
increase in automobile traffic could be anticipated. Plans for new
roads had already, to a certain degree, evolved under the Nazi
administration, but the actual construction became easier when most of
the city centre was in ruins.
The destruction of 95% of the city centre, including the famous
Twelve Romanesque churches such as St. Gereon , Great St. Martin , St.
Maria im Kapitol and several other monuments in World War II, meant a
tremendous loss of cultural treasures. The rebuilding of those
churches and other landmarks such as the Gürzenich event hall was not
undisputed among leading architects and art historians at that time,
but in most cases, civil intention prevailed. The reconstruction
lasted until the 1990s, when the Romanesque church of St. Kunibert was
In 1959, the city's population reached pre-war numbers again. It then
grew steadily, exceeding 1 million for about one year from 1975. It
remained just below that until mid-2010, when it exceeded 1 million
Cologne in 2013
Soviet letter's envelope in honor of the Internationale
Philatelic Exhibition LUPOSTA in
Cologne in 1983.
In the 1980s and 1990s Cologne's economy prospered for two main
reasons. The first was the growth in the number of media companies,
both in the private and public sectors; they are especially catered
for in the newly developed Media Park, which creates a strongly visual
focal point in
Cologne city centre and includes the KölnTurm, one of
Cologne's most prominent high-rise buildings. The second was the
permanent improvement of the diverse traffic infrastructure, which
Cologne one of the most easily accessible metropolitan areas in
Due to the economic success of the
Cologne Trade Fair
Cologne Trade Fair , the city
arranged a large extension to the fair site in 2005. At the same time
the original buildings, which date back to the 1920s, were rented out
to RTL , Germany's largest private broadcaster, as their new corporate
Cologne was the focus of the 2015 New Year\'s Eve sexual assaults ,
with over 500 women reporting that they were sexually assaulted by
persons of African and Arab appearance.
The metropolitan area encompasses over 405 square kilometres (156
square miles), extending around a central point that lies at 50° 56'
33 latitude and 6° 57' 32 longitude. The city's highest point is 118
m (387.1 ft) above sea level (the
Monte Troodelöh ) and its lowest
point is 37.5 m (123.0 ft) above sea level (the
Worringer Bruch ).
The city of
Cologne lies within the larger area of the
, a cone-shaped area of southeastern Westphalia that lies between Bonn
Districts of Cologne
Cologne is divided into 9 boroughs (Stadtbezirke) and 85 districts
Innenstadt (Stadtbezirk 1) Altstadt-Nord, Altstadt-Süd,
Neustadt-Nord, Neustadt-Süd, Deutz
Rodenkirchen (Stadtbezirk 2)
Bayenthal , Godorf, Hahnwald, Immendorf, Marienburg, Meschenich,
Raderberg, Raderthal, Rodenkirchen, Rondorf, Sürth, Weiß, Zollstock
Lindenthal (Stadtbezirk 3) Braunsfeld,
Junkersdorf , Klettenberg,
Lindenthal, Lövenich, Müngersdorf,
Sülz , Weiden, Widdersdorf
Ehrenfeld (Stadtbezirk 4) Bickendorf, Bocklemünd/Mengenich,
Ehrenfeld, Neuehrenfeld, Ossendorf, Vogelsang Nippes (Stadtbezirk 5)
Bilderstöckchen, Longerich, Mauenheim, Niehl , Nippes, Riehl,
Chorweiler (Stadtbezirk 6) Blumenberg, Chorweiler, Esch/Auweiler,
Fühlingen, Heimersdorf, Lindweiler, Merkenich, Pesch,
Roggendorf/Thenhoven, Seeberg, Volkhoven/Weiler,
(Stadtbezirk 7) Eil , Elsdorf, Ensen, Finkenberg, Gremberghoven,
Grengel, Langel, Libur, Lind, Poll , Porz, Urbach, Wahn, Wahnheide,
Zündorf Kalk (Stadtbezirk 8) Brück, Höhenberg,
Humboldt/Gremberg, Kalk, Merheim, Neubrück, Ostheim,
Mülheim (Stadtbezirk 9) Buchforst, Buchheim, Dellbrück,
Dünnwald, Flittard, Höhenhaus, Holweide, Mülheim, Stammheim
Located in the
Cologne is one of the warmest cities
in Germany. It has a temperate –oceanic climate with cool winters
and warm summers. It is also one of the cloudiest cities in Germany,
with just 1568 hours of sun a year. Its average annual temperature is
10.3 °C (51 °F): 14.8 °C (59 °F) during the day and 5.8 °C (42
°F) at night. In January, the mean temperature is 2.6 °C (37 °F),
while the mean temperature in July is 18.8 °C (66 °F). Temperatures
can vary significantly over the course of a month with warmer and
Precipitation is spread evenly throughout the year
with a light peak in summer due to showers and thunderstorms.
CLIMATE DATA FOR COLOGNE/BONN AIRPORT 1981-2010, EXTREMES
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
MEAN MAXIMUM °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
MEAN MINIMUM °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Source: Data derived from
Flood protection in
Cologne The 1930 flood in
Cologne is regularly affected by flooding from the
Rhine and is
considered the most flood-prone European city. A city agency
(Stadtentwässerungsbetriebe Köln, "
Cologne Urban Drainage
Operations") manages an extensive flood control system which includes
both permanent and mobile flood walls , protection from rising waters
for buildings close to the river banks, monitoring and forecasting
systems, pumping stations and programmes to create or protect
floodplains , and river embankments. The system was redesigned after
a 1993 flood, which resulted in heavy damage.
Demographics of Cologne
SIGNIFICANT FOREIGN BORN POPULATIONS
In the Roman Empire the city was large and rich with a population of
40,000 in 100–200 AD. The city was home to around 20,000 people in
1000 AD, growing to 50,000 in 1200 AD. The
Rhineland metropolis still
had 50,000 residents in 1300 AD.
Cologne is the fourth-largest city in
Berlin , Hamburg
Munich . As of 31 December 2016, there were 1,080,701 people
registered as living in
Cologne in an area of 401.15 km2 (154.88 sq
mi). The population density was 2,641/km2 (6,840/sq mi). The
metropolitan area of the
Bonn Region is home to 3,573,500
living on 4,415/km2 (11,430/sq mi). It is part of the polycentric
Rhine-Ruhr with a population of over 11,000,000
There were 546,498 women and 522,694 men in Cologne. For every 1,000
males, there were 1,046 females. In 2015, there were 11,337 births in
Cologne (of which 34.53% were to unmarried women); 7,704 marriages and
2,203 divorces, and 9,629 deaths. In the city, the population was
spread out with 15.6% under the age of 18, and 17.6% were 65 years of
age or older. 163 people in
Cologne were over the age of 100.
According to the Statistical Office of the City of Cologne, the
number of people with a migrant background is at 36.7% (393,7936).
2,537 people acquired German citizenship in 2015. In 2015, there were
557,090 households, of which 18.3% had children under the age of 18;
50.6% of all households were made up of singles. 8.7% of all
households were single parent households. The average household size
RESIDENTS IN COLOGNE WITH FOREIGN CITITZENSHIP
Cologne residents with a foreign citizenship as of 31 December 2015
is as follows
COLOGNIAN or KöLSCH (Colognian (Kölsch) pronunciation: ) (natively
Kölsch Platt) is a small set of very closely related dialects, or
variants, of the Ripuarian
Central German group of languages. These
dialects are spoken in the area covered by the Archdiocese and former
Electorate of Cologne reaching from
Neuss in the north to just south
Bonn , west to
Düren and east to Olpe in the North-West of Germany
. Kölsch is one of the very few city dialects in Germany, besides for
example, the dialect spoken in
Slightly more than half of the residents of
Cologne are members of a
religion. As of 2015, 35.5% of the population belonged to the Roman
Catholic Church , the largest religious body, and 15.5% to the
Cologne is the seat of the Roman Catholic
Cologne . There are several mosques, including the
Turkish-Islamic Union for Religious Affairs run
Cologne Central Mosque
Cologne also has one of the oldest and largest
Jewish communities in
Cologne City Hall
Cologne City Hall
The city's administration is headed by the mayor and the three deputy
POLITICAL TRADITIONS AND DEVELOPMENTS
The long tradition of a free imperial city, which long dominated an
exclusively Catholic population and the age-old conflict between the
church and the bourgeoisie (and within it between the patricians and
craftsmen) has created its own political climate in Cologne. Various
interest groups often form networks beyond party boundaries. The
resulting web of relationships, with political, economic, and cultural
links with each other in a system of mutual favours, obligations and
dependencies, is called the '
Cologne coterie'. This has often led to
an unusual proportional distribution in the city government and
degenerated at times into corruption: in 1999, a "waste scandal" over
kickbacks and illegal campaign contributions came to light, which led
not only to the imprisonment of the entrepreneur Hellmut Trienekens,
but also to the downfall of almost the entire leadership of the ruling
Lord Mayor of
Henriette Reker . She received 52.66% of
the vote at the municipal election on 17 October 2015 and was
appointed on 15 December 2015.
City Councillors are elected for a five-year term and the Mayor has a
MAKE-UP OF CITY COUNCIL
Social Democratic Party
Christian Democratic Union
Free Democratic Party
The Good Ones
Source: City of
Panoramic view of
Cologne over the city forest
Panoramic view of the city at night as seen from Deutz ; from left to
right: Deutz Bridge,
Great St. Martin Church ,
Cologne Cathedral ,
The inner city of
Cologne was completely destroyed during World War
II. The reconstruction of the city followed the style of the 1950s,
while respecting the old layout and naming of the streets. Thus, the
city today is characterized by simple and modest post-war buildings,
with a few interspersed pre-war buildings which were reconstructed due
to their historical importance. Some buildings of the
"Wiederaufbauzeit" (era of reconstruction), for example the opera
Wilhelm Riphahn , are nowadays regarded as classics of modern
architecture. Nevertheless, the uncompromising style of the Cologne
Opera house and other modern buildings has remained controversial.
Green areas account for over a quarter of Cologne, which is
approximately 75 m2 (807.29 sq ft) of public green space for every
The presence of animals in
Cologne is generally limited to insects,
small rodents, and several species of birds. Pigeons are the most
often seen animals in Cologne, although the number of birds is
augmented each year by a growing population of feral exotics, most
visibly parrots such as the rose-ringed parakeet . The sheltered
climate in southeast
Northrhine-Westphalia allows these birds to
survive through the winter, and in some cases they are displacing
native species. The plumage of Cologne's green parrots is highly
visible even from a distance, and contrasts starkly with the otherwise
muted colours of the cityscape.
Cologne had 5.8 million overnight stays booked and 3.35 million
arrivals in 2016. The city also has the most pubs per capita in
Germany. The city has 70 clubs, "countless" bars, restaurants, and
Cologne Cathedral (German: Kölner Dom) is the city's most famous
monument and the
Cologne residents' most loved landmark. It is a
Gothic church, started in 1248, and completed in 1880. In 1996, it was
World Heritage site
World Heritage site ; it houses the Shrine of the Three
Kings , which supposedly contains the relics of the Three Magi (see
also ). Residents of
Cologne sometimes refer to the cathedral as "the
eternal construction site" (die ewige Baustelle).
* Twelve Romanesque churches : These buildings are outstanding
examples of medieval church architecture. The origins of some of the
churches go back as far as Roman times, for example St. Gereon, which
was originally a chapel in a Roman graveyard. With the exception of
St. Maria Lyskirchen all of these churches were very badly damaged
during World War II. Reconstruction was only finished in the 1990s.
Great St. Martin Church
Basilica of St. Severin
Church of the Assumption
Cologne City Hall
Cologne City Hall (Kölner Rathaus), founded in the 12th century,
is the oldest city hall in
Germany still in use. The Renaissance
style loggia and tower were added in the 15th century. Other famous
buildings include the Gürzenich, Haus Saaleck and the
Cologne City Hall
Cologne City Hall
Medieval City Gates
A plan published in 1800 shows the mediaeval city wall still
intact, locating 16 gates (Nr. 36-51 in the legend), e.g. 47:
Eigelsteintor, 43: Hahnentor, 39: Severinstor
Of the once 12 medieval city gates , only the Eigelsteintorburg at
Ebertplatz, the Hahnentor at Rudolfplatz and the Severinstorburg at
Chlodwigplatz still stand today.
Streets in Cologne
Cologne Ring boulevards (such as Hohenzollernring,
Kaiser-Wilhelm-Ring, Hansaring) with their medieval city gates (such
as Hahnentorburg on Rudolfplatz) are also known for their night life.
Hohe Straße (literally: High Street) is one of the main shopping
areas and extends past the cathedral in an approximately southerly
direction. The street contains many gift shops, clothing stores, fast
food restaurants and electronic goods dealers.
Schildergasse – connects Neumarkt square at its western end to
the Hohe Strasse shopping street at its eastern end and has been named
the busiest shopping street in
Europe with 13,000 people passing
through every hour, according to a 2008 study by
* Ehrenstraße – the shopping area around Apostelnstrasse,
Ehrenstrasse, and Rudolfplatz is a little more on the quirky and
Several bridges cross the
Rhine in Cologne. They are (from South to
Rodenkirchen Bridge , South Bridge (railway),
Severin Bridge, Deutz Bridge,
Hohenzollern Bridge (railway), Zoo
Bridge (Zoobrücke) and
Cologne Mülheim Bridge . In particular the
iron tied arch
Hohenzollern Bridge (Hohenzollernbrücke) is a dominant
landmark along the river embankment. A
Rhine crossing of a special
kind is provided by the
Cologne Cable Car (German: Kölner Seilbahn),
a cableway that runs across the
Rhine between the
Garden in Riehl and the
Rheinpark in Deutz.
Cologne's tallest structure is the
Colonius telecommunication tower
at 266 m or 873 ft. The observation deck has been closed since 1992. A
selection of the tallest buildings in
Cologne is listed below. Other
tall structures include the Hansahochhaus (designed by architect Jacob
Koerfer and completed in 1925—it was at one time Europe's tallest
office building), the
Kranhaus buildings at
Rheinauhafen , and the
Messeturm Köln ("trade fair tower").
HEIGHT IN METRES
MediaPark 8, Neustadt-Nord
Cologne Tower), Cologne's second tallest building at
165.48 metres (542.91 ft) in height, second only to the Colonius
telecommunication tower. The 30th floor of the building has a
restaurant and a terrace with 360° views of the city.
An der Schanz 2, Riehl
tallest building in
Germany from 1973 to 1976. Today, it is still
the country's tallest residential building.
former headquarters of
Deutsche Welle , since 2007 under renovation
with the new name Rheintower Köln-Marienburg.
Am Grauen Stein, Poll
Ebertplatz , Neustadt-Nord
Ottoplatz 1, Deutz
opposite to the cathedral with a 103 m (338 ft) high viewing
platform and a view of the cathedral over the Rhine.
Graeffstraße 1, Ehrenfeld
Courtyard of the
Kolumba museum in 2007, designed by Peter
Cologne has several museums . The famous Roman-Germanic Museum
features art and architecture from the city's distant past; the Museum
Ludwig houses one of the most important collections of modern art in
Europe, including a
Picasso collection matched only by the museums in
Barcelona and Paris . The
Museum Schnütgen of religious art is partly
housed in St. Cecilia, one of Cologne's Twelve Romanesque churches .
Many art galleries in
Cologne enjoy an worldwide reputation like e.g.
Galerie Karsten Greve , one of the leading galleries for postwar and
Several orchestras are active in the city, among them the Gürzenich
Orchestra and the
WDR Symphony Orchestra Cologne , both based at the
Cologne Philharmonic Orchestra Building. Other orchestras are the
Musica Antiqua Köln and the
WDR Rundfunkorchester Köln , as well as
Cologne Opera and several choirs, including the WDR Rundfunkchor
Cologne was also an important hotbed for electronic music in
the 1950s (Studio für elektronische Musik,
Karlheinz Stockhausen )
and again from the 1990s onward. The public radio and TV station WDR
was involved in promoting musical movements such as
Krautrock in the
1970s; the influential Can was formed there in 1968. There are several
centres of nightlife, among them the Kwartier Latäng (the student
quarter around the Zülpicher Straße) and the nightclub-studded areas
Hohenzollernring , Friesenplatz and Rudolfplatz.
The large annual literary festival Lit.
Cologne features regional and
international authors. The main literary figure connected with Cologne
Heinrich Böll , winner of the
Nobel Prize for Literature
Nobel Prize for Literature .
Cologne is well known for its beer, called Kölsch . Kölsch is also
the name of the local dialect. This has led to the common joke of
Kölsch being the only language one can drink.
Food Festival, 2017
Cologne is also famous for
Eau de Cologne (German: Kölnisch Wasser;
lit: "Water of Cologne"), a perfume created by Italian expatriate
Johann Maria Farina at the beginning of the 18th century. During the
18th century this perfume became increasingly popular, was exported
Europe by the Farina family and Farina became a household
name for Eau de Cologne. In 1803 Wilhelm Mülhens entered into a
contract with an unrelated person from
Italy named Carlo Francesco
Farina who granted him the right to use his family name and Mühlens
opened a small factory at Cologne's Glockengasse. In later years, and
after various court battles, his grandson
Ferdinand Mülhens was
forced to abandon the name Farina for the company and their product.
He decided to use the house number given to the factory at
Glockengasse during the French occupation in the early 19th century,
4711 . Today, original
Eau de Cologne is still produced in
both the Farina family , currently in the eighth generation, and by
Mäurer "> The
Museum Ludwig houses one of the most important
collections of modern art . Roman excavation in Cologne:
Dionysus Mosaic on display at
Römisch-Germanisches Museum Main
List of museums in Cologne
List of museums in Cologne
Fragrance Museum – birthplace of
Eau de Cologne
Römisch-Germanisches Museum (Roman-Germanic Museum) – ancient
Roman and Germanic culture
Wallraf-Richartz Museum – European painting from the 13th to the
early 20th century
Museum Ludwig – modern art
Museum Schnütgen – medieval art
* Museum für Angewandte Kunst – applied art
Kolumba Kunstmuseum des Erzbistums Köln (art museum of the
Archbishopric of Cologne) – modern art museum built around medieval
ruins, completed 2007
* Cathedral Treasury "Domschatzkammer" – historic underground
vaults of the Cathedral
EL-DE Haus – former local headquarters of the
Gestapo houses a
Nazi rule in
Cologne with a special focus on the
persecution of political dissenters and minorities
* German Sports and Olympic Museum – exhibitions about sports from
antiquity until the present
Imhoff-Schokoladenmuseum – Chocolate Museum
* Geomuseum of the
University of Cologne – the exhibition includes
fossils (such as dinosaur bones and the skeleton of an
stones and minerals
* Forum for Internet Technology in Contemporary Art – collections
of Internet-based art, corporate part of
(NewMediaArtProjectNetwork):cologne, the experimental platform for art
and New Media
Flora und Botanischer Garten Köln – the city's formal park and
main botanical garden
Forstbotanischer Garten Köln – an arboretum and woodland
MUSIC FAIRS AND FESTIVALS
The city was home to the internationally famous
Ringfest , and now to
the C/o pop festival.
Cologne enjoys a thriving Christmas Market
Weihnachtsmarkt presence with several locations in the city.
North entrance to
Koelnmesse , 2008 Modern office
As the largest city in the
Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region, Cologne
benefits from a large market structure . In competition with
Düsseldorf , the economy of
Cologne is primarily based on insurance
and media industries , while the city is also an important cultural
and research centre and home to a number of corporate headquarters .
Among the largest media companies based in
Cologne are Westdeutscher
RTL Television (with subsidiaries), n-tv , Deutschlandradio
Brainpool TV and publishing houses like J. P. Bachem,
Tandem Verlag , and
M. DuMont Schauberg . Several clusters of media,
arts and communications agencies, TV production studios, and state
agencies work partly with private and government-funded cultural
institutions. Among the insurance companies based in
Central, DEVK, DKV,
Generali Deutschland ,
Gen Re , Gothaer , HDI
Gerling and national headquarters of
AXA Insurance, Mitsui Sumitomo
Insurance Group and
Zurich Financial Services .
The German flag carrier
Lufthansa and its subsidiary Lufthansa
CityLine have their main corporate headquarters in Cologne. The
largest employer in
Cologne is Ford
Europe , which has its European
headquarters and a factory in Niehl (Ford-Werke GmbH ). Toyota
Motorsport GmbH (TMG),
Toyota 's official motorsports team,
Toyota rally cars, and then
Formula One cars, has its
headquarters and workshops in Cologne. Other large companies based in
Cologne include the
REWE Group ,
TÜV Rheinland ,
Deutz AG and a
number of Kölsch breweries.
Cologne has the country's highest density
of pubs per capita. The largest three Kölsch breweries are
Reissdorf, Gaffel, and Früh.
ANNUAL OUTPUT IN HECTOLITERS
Gaffel Becker "> Major roads through and around
Road building had been a major issue in the 1920s under the
leadership of mayor
Konrad Adenauer . The first German limited access
road was constructed after 1929 between
Bonn . Today, this
Bundesautobahn 555 . In 1965,
Cologne became the first German
city to be fully encircled by a motorway ringroad. Roughly at the same
time a city centre bypass (Stadtautobahn) was planned, but only
partially put into effect, due to opposition by environmental groups.
The completed section became Bundesstraße ("Federal Road") B 55a,
which begins at the Zoobrücke ("Zoo Bridge") and meets with A 4 and A
3 at the interchange
Cologne East. Nevertheless, it is referred to as
Stadtautobahn by most locals. In contrast to this the Nord-Süd-Fahrt
("North-South-Drive") was actually completed, a new four/six-lane city
centre through-route, which had already been anticipated by planners
such as Fritz Schumacher in the 1920s. The last section south of
Ebertplatz was completed in 1972.
In 2005, the first stretch of an eight-lane motorway in North
Rhine-Westphalia was opened to traffic on
Bundesautobahn 3 , part of
the eastern section of the
Cologne Beltway between the interchanges
Cologne East and Heumar.
Cologne Stadtbahn at Bensberg station Train at Köln
Compared to other German cities,
Cologne has a traffic layout that is
not very bicycle-friendly . It has repeatedly ranked among the worst
in an independent evaluation conducted by the Allgemeiner Deutscher
Fahrrad-Club . In 2014 it ranked 36th out of 39 German cities with a
population greater than 200,000.
Cologne has a railway service with
InterCity and ICE
-trains stopping at
Köln Hauptbahnhof (
Cologne Main Station), Köln
Messe/Deutz and Cologne/
Bonn Airport . ICE and TGV
Brussels (in 1h47, 9
departures/day) and Paris (in 3h14, 6 departures/day). There are
frequent ICE trains to other German cities, including
Main and Berlin. ICE Trains to
London via the
Channel Tunnel were
planned for 2013.
Cologne Stadtbahn operated by Kölner Verkehrsbetriebe (KVB) is
an extensive light rail system that is partially underground and
Cologne and a number of neighbouring cities. It evolved from
the tram system. Nearby
Bonn is linked by both the Stadtbahn and main
line railway trains, and occasional recreational boats on the
Düsseldorf is also linked by
S-Bahn trains, which are operated by
S-Bahn has 5 lines which cross Cologne.The S13/S19
runs 24/7 between
Cologne Hbf and Cologne/
There are also frequent buses covering most of the city and
surrounding suburbs, and
Eurolines coaches to
Häfen und Güterverkehr Köln
Häfen und Güterverkehr Köln (Ports and Goods traffic Cologne, HGK)
is one of the largest operators of inland ports in Germany. Ports
include Köln-Deutz, Köln-Godorf, and Köln-Niehl I and II.
Cologne's international airport is Cologne/
Bonn Airport (CGN). It is
Konrad Adenauer Airport after Germany's first post-war
Konrad Adenauer , who was born in the city and was mayor of
Cologne from 1917 until 1933. The airport is shared with the
neighbouring city of
Cologne is headquarters to the European
Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). The airport is also the main hub of the
Cologne is home to numerous universities and colleges, and host to
some 72,000 students. Its oldest university, the University of
Cologne (founded in 1388 ) is the largest university in Germany, as
Cologne University of Applied Sciences is the largest university
of Applied Sciences in the country. The
Cologne University of Music
and Dance is the largest conservatory in Europe. Foreigners can have
German lessons in the VHS (Adult Education Centre).
* Public and state universities:
University of Cologne (Universität zu Köln);
German Sport University Cologne
German Sport University Cologne (Deutsche Sporthochschule Köln).
* Public and state colleges:
Cologne University of Applied Sciences ("Technology, Arts,
Sciences TH KöLN" Technische Hochschule Köln);
Köln International School of Design ;
Cologne University of Music and Dance (Hochschule für Musik und
Academy of Media Arts Cologne (Kunsthochschule für Medien Köln);
* Private colleges:
* Catholic University of Applied Sciences (Katholische Hochschule
Cologne Business School ;
* international filmschool cologne (internationale filmschule
* Rhenish University of Applied Sciences (Rheinische Fachhochschule
* Research institutes:
German Aerospace Centre
German Aerospace Centre (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und
European Astronaut Centre (EAC) of the
European Space Agency ;
European College of Sport Science
European College of Sport Science (ECSS);
* Max Planck Institute for the Biology of Ageing
(Max-Planck-Institut für die Biologie des Alterns);
* Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies
(Max-Planck-Institut für Gesellschaftsforschung);
* Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research
(Max-Planck-Institut für neurologische Forschung);
* Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research
(Max-Planck-Institut für Züchtungsforschung).
* CologneAMS – Centre for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Institute
for Nuclear Physics, University of Cologne
Former colleges include:
Cologne Art and Crafts Schools (Kölner Werkschulen);
Cologne Institute for Religious Art (Kölner Institut für
Cologne is known as an important media centre.
Several radio and television stations, including Westdeutscher
Rundfunk (WDR), RTL and VOX , have their headquarters in the city.
Film and TV production is also important. The city is "Germany's
capital of TV crime stories". A third of all German TV productions
are made in the
Cologne region . Furthermore, the city hosts the
Cologne Comedy Festival , which is considered to be the largest comedy
festival in mainland Europe.
RheinEnergieStadion is the stadium of
Bundesliga club 1. FC
1. FC Köln
1. FC Köln , who play in the
Bundesliga . They play
their home matches in
RheinEnergieStadion which also hosted 5 matches
2006 FIFA World Cup
2006 FIFA World Cup . The
International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee and
Internationale Vereinigung Sport- und Freizeiteinrichtungen e.V. gave
RheinEnergieStadion a bronze medal for "being one of the best sporting
venues in the world".
Cologne also hosts
FC Viktoria Köln 1904 and
SC Fortuna Köln , who play in the Regionalliga West (fourth division)
3. Liga (third division).
The city is also home of the ice hockey team
Kölner Haie , in the
highest ice hockey league in Germany, the
Deutsche Eishockey Liga .
They are based at
Lanxess Arena .
Several horse races per year are held at Cologne-Weidenpesch
Racecourse since 1897, the annual
Cologne Marathon was started in
1997. From 2002 to 2009, the Panasonic
Formula One team
was based in the Marsdorf suburb, at the
Toyota Motorsport GmbH
Cologne is considered "the secret golf capital of Germany". The
first golf club in
North Rhine-Westphalia was founded in
1906. The city offers the most options and top events in Germany.
The city has hosted several athletic events which includes the 2005
FIFA Confederations Cup , 2006 FIFA World Cup, 2007 World Men\'s
Handball Championship , 2010 and 2017 Ice Hockey World Championships
2010 Gay Games .
Notable people, whose roots can be found in Cologne:
Konrad Adenauer (1876–1967), politician, mayor of Cologne
(1917–33, 1945) and first West German Federal Chancellor
Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa
Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa (1486–1535), alchemist, occultist ,
and author of Three Books of
Agrippina the Younger (15–59), Roman Empress (wife of Emperor
Claudius ) and mother of Emperor
Heinrich Birnbaum (1403–73), a Catholic monk
Heinrich Boigk (1912–2003), Knights Cross winner
Robert Blum (1807–48), German politician and martyr of the 19th
century democratic movement in Germany
Heinrich Böll (1917–85), German writer and winner of the Nobel
prize for literature in 1972
Georg Braun (1541-1622), topogeographer
Max Bruch (1838–1920), composer
Álex Calatrava (born 1973), Spanish professional tennis player
Heribert Calleen (born 1924), German sculptor
Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck (born 1973), Academy Award
-winning director and screenwriter
Max Ernst (1891–1976), German painter and artist
Kota Ezawa (born 1969), Japanese German animator and artist
Angela Gossow (born 1974), former German lead vocalist of Swedish
melodic death metal band
* Everhard von Groote (1798–1864), Germanist and writer
Britta Heidemann (born 1982), épée fencer and
H. Robert Heller (born 1940), former professor, Governor of the
Federal Reserve System and President of VISA U.S.A.
Trude Herr (1927–91), actress and singer
Jakob Ignaz Hittorff , (1792–1867), French architect of German
* Stefanie Höner (born 1969), actress
Ernst Ising , (1900–1998), mathematician and physicist
Lilli Jahn , (born 1900), doctor, died presumably on 19 June 1944
Udo Kier (born 1944), actor
Lukas Podolski (born 1985), German footballer
Johannes Kalitzke (born 1959), composer and conductor
Jutta Kleinschmidt (born 1962), off-road automotive racing
Werner Klemperer (1920–2000),
Emmy Award -winning comedy actor
Erich Klibansky (1900–1942),
Jewish headmaster and teacher
Adolf Kober (1870–1958),
Jewish rabbi and medievalist
Peter Kohlgraf (born 1967), Catholic Bishop of Mainz
Gaby Köster (born 1961), German actress and comedian
Wilhelm Kratz , (1902–1944), resistance fighter and nazi victim
Hildegard Krekel (1952–2013), German actress
* Lotti Krekel (born 1941), actress and singer
Uwe Krupp (born 1965), professional (ice) hockey player
Heinz Kühn (1912–92),
Minister-President of North
Heiner Lauterbach (1953), German actor
Julia Leischik (born 1970), German editor-in-chief, television
presenter and television producer.
Ottmar Liebert (born 1961), musician
* Mariele Millowitsch (born 1955), actress
Peter Millowitsch (born 1949), actor, playwright and theatre
Willy Millowitsch (1909–1999), actor, playwright and theatre
Wolfgang Niedecken (born 1951), German singer, musician, artist
and bandleader of BAP
Theodore of Corsica
Theodore of Corsica (1694–1756), briefly King Theodore of
Jacques Offenbach (1819–80), German-born French composer
Willi Ostermann (1876–1936), composer
Nikolaus Otto (1832–1891), German inventor, 4 cycle internal
Kim Petras (born 1992), German singer
Frederik Prausnitz (1920–2004), American conductor and teacher
* Christa Päffgen a.k.a.
Nico (1938–1988), model, actress,
singer, and songwriter in
Velvet Underground and
Hedwig Potthast (1912–1997), secretary and mistress of Heinrich
Stefan Raab (born 1966), German entertainer and host of Eurovision
Song Contest 2011
Joseph Nicolas Robert-Fleury
Joseph Nicolas Robert-Fleury (1797–1890), painter
Jürgen Rüttgers (born 1951), German politician (CDU),
North Rhine-Westphalia (2005–2010)
Jürgen Fritz (born 1953), musician and composer
Adam Schall von Bell (1592–1666), since 1622 active missionary
of the Order of the Jesuits in China
Markus Stockhausen (born 1957), musician and composer
Wolfgang von Trips (1928–61), German
Formula One racing driver
Joost van den Vondel (1587–1679), Dutch poet and playwright
Moshe Wallach (1866–1957), founder and director of Shaare Zedek
* Christoph Watrin (born 1988), singer,
Robert Weimar (1932–2013), German legal scientist and
Thomas Wensing (born 1978), German writer
Carl Wyland (1886–1972), German blacksmith
Leon Draisaitl (born 1995), German ice hockey player for the
Gökhan Töre (born 1992), Turkish footballer
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES
Cologne is twinned with:
Spain (since 1984)
Berlin-Neukölln , Germany
Berlin-Treptow , Germany
Bethlehem , Palestine (1996)
Cluj Napoca /Klausenburg,
* Corinto /El Realejo,
* Cork ,
Ireland (27. June 1988)
Indianapolis , USA
Poland (15 March 1991)
Japan (21 January 1963)
Liverpool , UK (1952)
China (14 September 1987)
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro , Brasil (19 September 2011)
Tel Aviv-Yafo ,
Israel (6 August 1979)
Greece (3 May 1988)
Tunisia (12 June 1964)
Volgograd , Russia
* List of twin towns and sister cities in
Stadtwerke Köln , the municipal infrastructure company, operator
of the city's railways, ports, and other utilities.
* New Year\'s Eve sexual assaults in
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