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Strasbourg (, , ; german: Straßburg ; gsw, label=
Bas Rhin Bas-Rhin (; Alsatian: ''Unterelsàss'', ' or '; traditional german: links=no, Niederrhein; en, Lower Rhine) is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibili ...
Alsatian, Strossburi , gsw, label=
Haut Rhin Haut-Rhin (, ; Alsatian language, Alsatian: ''Owerelsàss'' or ';. german: Oberelsass, ) is a Departments of France, department in the Grand Est Regions of France, region of France, named after the river Rhine. Its name means ''Upper Rhine''. Ha ...
Alsatian, Strossburig ) is the
prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of t ...
and largest city of the
Grand Est Grand Est (; gsw-FR, Grossa Oschta; Moselle Franconian/ lb, Grouss Osten; Rhine Franconian: ''Groß Oschte''; german: Großer Osten ; en, "Great East") is an Regions of France, administrative region in Northeastern France. It superseded three ...

Grand Est
region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography). Geographic re ...
of eastern France and the
official seat An official is someone who holds an office (function or Mandate (politics), mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual Office, working space with it) in an organization or government and participates in the exercise of authority, (either the ...
of the
European Parliament The European Parliament (EP) is one of three legislative branches of the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of that are located primarily in . The union has a total area of and an estimated tot ...

European Parliament
. Located at the
border Borders are boundaries of or legal s, such as s, , , and other . Borders are established through agreements between political or social entities that control those areas; the creation of these agreements is called . Some borders—such as mos ...
with Germany in the historic region of
Alsace Alsace (, also ; Low Alemannic German Low Alemannic German (german: Niederalemannisch) is a branch of Alemannic German Alemannic, or rarely Alemannish (''Alemannisch'', ), is a group of High German dialects. The name derives from the ancien ...

Alsace
, it is the prefecture of the
Bas-Rhin Bas-Rhin (; Alsatian: ''Unterelsàss'', ' or '; traditional german: links=no, Niederrhein; en, Lower Rhine) is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibil ...
department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and administrative division within a country, for e ...
. In 2018, the city proper had 284,677 inhabitants and both the
Eurométropole de Strasbourg Eurométropole de Strasbourg is the '' métropole'', an intercommunal structure, centred on the city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds ...
(Greater Strasbourg) and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 500,510 inhabitants. Strasbourg's
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cul ...
had a population of 790,087 in 2017, making it the ninth-largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants. The transnational
Eurodistrict A eurodistrict is a Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as conti ...
Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 958,421 inhabitants. Strasbourg is one of the ''de facto'' four main capitals of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
(alongside
Brussels Brussels (french: Bruxelles or ; nl, Brussel ), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (french: link=no, Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; nl, link=no, Brusse ...

Brussels
,
Luxembourg Luxembourg ( ; lb, Lëtzebuerg ; french: link=no, Luxembourg; german: link=no, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, ; french: link=no, Grand-Duché de Luxembourg ; german: link=no, Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a landlocked ...
and
Frankfurt Frankfurt, officially Frankfurt am Main (; Hessian dialects, Hessian: , "Franks, Frank ford (crossing), ford on the Main (river), Main"; french: Francfort-sur-le-Main), is the most populous city in the States of Germany, German state of Hess ...

Frankfurt
), as it is the seat of several European institutions, such as the
European Parliament The European Parliament (EP) is one of three legislative branches of the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of that are located primarily in . The union has a total area of and an estimated tot ...

European Parliament
, the
Eurocorps The European Corps (Eurocorps) is an intergovernmental military corps with its headquarters of approximately 1,000 soldiers stationed in Strasbourg Strasbourg (, , ; gsw, label=Bas Rhin Alsatian dialect, Alsatian, Strossburi , gsw, label=H ...

Eurocorps
and the
European Ombudsman The European Ombudsman is the ombudsman An ombudsman (, also , ), ombudsperson, ombud, ombuds, or public advocate is an official who is charged with representing the interests of the public In public relations and communication science ...
of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
. An organization separate from the European Union, the
Council of Europe The Council of Europe (CoE; french: Conseil de l'Europe, ) is an international organization, international organisation founded in the wake of World War II to uphold European Convention on Human Rights, human rights, democracy and the Law in Eu ...

Council of Europe
(with its
European Court of Human Rights European, or Europeans, may refer to: In general * ''European'', an adjective referring to something of, from, or related to Europe ** Ethnic groups in Europe ** Demographics of Europe ** European cuisine, the cuisines of Europe and other Western ...

European Court of Human Rights
, its European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines most commonly known in French as "Pharmacopée Européenne", and its
European Audiovisual Observatory The European Audiovisual Observatory (french: italic=no, Observatoire européen de l’audiovisuel, german: italic=no, Europäische Audiovisuelle Informationsstelle) is a public service organisation, part of the Council of Europe The Council o ...
) is also located in the city. Together with
Basel , french: link=no, Bâlois(e), it, Basilese , neighboring_municipalities= Allschwil , neighboring_municipalities= Baselland (BL), Binningen, Switzerland, Binningen, Buschwiller (FR-68), Hégenheim (FR-68), Neuwiller (FR-68), Oberwil, Basel- ...

Basel
(
Bank for International Settlements The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is an international financial institution An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence is subject ...

Bank for International Settlements
),
Geneva , neighboring_municipalities= Carouge Carouge () is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. History Carouge is first mentioned in the Early Middle Ages as ''Quadruvium'' and ''Quatruvio''. In 124 ...

Geneva
(
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...
),
The Hague The Hague ( ; nl, Den Haag or ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd ed ...

The Hague
(
International Court of Justice The International Court of Justice (ICJ; french: Cour internationale de justice, links=no; ), sometimes known as the World Court, is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmenta ...

International Court of Justice
) and
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from New York State New York is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of ...

New York City
(United Nations world headquarters), Strasbourg is among the few cities in the world that is not a state capital that hosts international organisations of the first order. The city is the seat of many non-European international institutions such as the
Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine The Central Commission for the Navigation of the Rhine (CCNR; french: link=no, Commission centrale pour la navigation du Rhin) is an international organisation whose function is to encourage European prosperity by guaranteeing a high level of secur ...
and the
International Institute of Human Rights The International Institute of Human Rights (French language, French: ''Institut international des droits de l'homme,'' IIDH) is an association under French local law based in Strasbourg, France. It includes approximately 300 members (individual an ...
. It is the second city in France in terms of international congress and symposia, after
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
. Strasbourg's historic city centre, the '' Grande Île'' (Grand Island), was classified a
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
by
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
in 1988, with the newer "'' Neustadt''" being added to the site in 2017. Strasbourg is immersed in Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries, especially through the
University of Strasbourg The University of Strasbourg (french: Université de Strasbourg, Unistra) is a Public university, public research university located in Strasbourg, Alsace, France, with over 52,000 students and 3,300 researchers. The French university traces it ...
, currently the second-largest in France, and the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture. It is also home to the largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque. Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road, rail, and river transportation. The port of Strasbourg is the second-largest on the
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many s ...

Rhine
after
Duisburg Duisburg () is a city in the Ruhr metropolitan area of the western Germany, German States of Germany, state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Lying on the confluence of the Rhine and the Ruhr (river), Ruhr rivers, Duisburg is one of the largest cities ...

Duisburg
in Germany, and the second-largest river port in France after
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
.


Etymology and names

Before the 5th century BC, the city was known as ''Argantorati'' (in the
nominative In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...
, ''Argantorate'' in the
locative In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, a ...
), a Celtic
Gaulish Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language The Celtic languages ( , ) are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the ancestral proto-language of all the known Celti ...
name
Latinised Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s and 1930s to replace traditional writing sy ...
first as ''Argentorate'' (with Gaulish locative ending, as appearing on the first
Roman milestones
Roman milestones
in the 1st century BC) and then as ''
Argentoratum Argentoratum or Argentorate was the Classical Antiquity, ancient name of the city of Strasbourg. The name was first mentioned in 12 BC, when it was a Roman military outpost established by Nero Claudius Drusus. From 90 AD the Legio VIII Augusta was ...
'' (with regular Latin nominative ending, in later Latin texts). That Gaulish name is a compound of ''-rati'', the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the
Old Irish Old Irish (''Goídelc''; ga, Sean-Ghaeilge; gd, Seann Ghàidhlig; gv, Shenn Yernish or ; Old Irish: ᚌᚑᚔᚇᚓᚂᚉ), sometimes called Old Gaelic, is the oldest form of the Goidelic The Goidelic or Gaelic languages ( ga, teangacha ...
''ráth'' (see
ringfort Ringforts, ring forts or ring fortresses are circular fortified settlements that were mostly built during the Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas ...
) and ''arganto(n)-'' (cognate to Latin ''argentum'', which gave modern French ''argent''), the Gaulish word for silver, but also any precious metal, particularly gold, suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers. After the 5th century AD, the city became known by a completely different name which was later Gallicized as Strasbourg ( Lower Alsatian: ''Strossburi''; ). That name is of
Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes * Germanic languages :* Proto-Germanic language, a reconstructed proto-language of ...

Germanic
origin and means 'town (at the crossing) of roads'. The modern ''Stras-'' is
cognate In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Itali ...
to the German '' Straße'' and English ''street'', all of which are derived from
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
''
strata In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that was formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers. The "str ...

strata
'' ("paved road"), while ''-bourg'' is cognate to the German ''
Burg The German word Burg means castle. Burg or Bürg may refer to: Places Placename element * ''-burg'', a combining form in Dutch, German and English placenames * Burg, a variant of burh, the fortified towns of Saxon England Settlements * Burg, Aarg ...
'' and English ''
borough A borough is an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic names for ...
'', all of which are derived from
Proto-Germanic Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; also called Common Germanic) is the reconstructed Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a company's (or several companies') business to a new ...
'' *burgz'' ("hill fort, fortress").
Gregory of Tours Gregory of Tours (30 November 538 – 17 November 594 AD) was a Gallo-Roman The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanization (cultural), Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire. This was characterized by the Gaulish ...
was the first to mention the name change: in the tenth book of his '' History of the Franks'' written shortly after 590 he said that Egidius,
Bishop of Reims The Archdiocese of Reims (traditionally spelt "Rheims" in English) ( la, Archidiœcesis Remensis; French: ''Archidiocèse de Reims'') is a Latin Church , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rome.jpg , i ...
, accused of plotting against King
Childebert II Childebert II (c.570–596) was the Merovingian king of Austrasia Austrasia was a territory which formed the northeastern section of the Merovingian The Merovingian dynasty () was the ruling family of the Franks The Franks ( la, Fr ...

Childebert II
of
Austrasia Austrasia was a territory which formed the northeastern section of the Merovingian The Merovingian dynasty () was the ruling family of the Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was first mention ...
in favor of his uncle King
Chilperic I Chilperic I (c. 539 – September 584) was the king of Neustria (or Soissons) from 561 to his death. He was one of the sons of the Frankish king Clotaire I and Queen Aregund. Life Immediately after the death of his father in 561, he ende ...
of
Neustria Neustria was the western part of the Kingdom of the Franks Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks ( la, Regnum Francorum), Frankland, or Frankish Empire, was the largest post-Roman barbarian kingdom in Western Europe Western ...
, was tried by a
synod A synod () is a council of a Ecclesia (church), church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. The word ''wikt:synod, synod'' comes from the meaning "assembly" or "meeting" and is analogous with the L ...

synod
of Austrasian bishops in
Metz Metz ( , , lat, Divodurum Mediomatricorum, then ) is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle (river), Moselle and the Seille (Moselle), Seille rivers. Metz is the Prefectures in France, prefecture of the Moselle (de ...

Metz
in November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood, then taken "''ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant''" ("to the city of Argentoratum, which they now call ''Strateburgus''"), where he was exiled.


Geography


Location

Strasbourg is situated at the eastern border of France with Germany. This border is formed by the
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many s ...

Rhine
, which also forms the eastern border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town
Kehl Kehl (; gsw, label= Low Alemannic, Kaal) is a town in southwestern Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , ...

Kehl
. The historic core of Strasbourg, however, lies on the Grande Île in the river
IllILL may refer to: * '' I Love Lucy'', a landmark American television sitcom * Illorsuit Heliport (location identifier: ILL), a heliport in Illorsuit, Greenland * Institut Laue–Langevin The Institut Laue–Langevin (ILL) is an internationally ...
, which here flows parallel to, and roughly from, the Rhine. The natural courses of the two rivers eventually join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city. The city lies in the
Upper Rhine PlainThe Upper Rhine Plain, Rhine Rift Valley or Upper Rhine Graben (German language, German: ''Oberrheinische Tiefebene'', ''Oberrheinisches Tiefland'' or ''Oberrheingraben'', French language, French: ''Vallée du Rhin'') is a major rift, about and on a ...
, at between and above sea level, with the upland areas of the
Vosges Mountains The Vosges ( , ; german: Vogesen ;Franconian (linguistics), Franconian and gsw, Vogese) are a range of low mountains in Eastern France, near its France–Germany border, border with Germany. Together with the Palatine Forest to the north on the ...
some to the west and the
Black Forest The Black Forest (german: italic=no, Schwarzwald ) is a large forest A forest is an area of land dominated by tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting ...

Black Forest
to the east. This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north–south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself, and major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks. The city is some east of
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
. The mouth of the Rhine lies approximately to the north, or as the river flows, whilst the head of navigation in
Basel , french: link=no, Bâlois(e), it, Basilese , neighboring_municipalities= Allschwil , neighboring_municipalities= Baselland (BL), Binningen, Switzerland, Binningen, Buschwiller (FR-68), Hégenheim (FR-68), Neuwiller (FR-68), Oberwil, Basel- ...

Basel
is some to the south, or by river.


Climate

In spite of its position far inland, Strasbourg has an
oceanic climate An oceanic climate, also known as a maritime climate or marine climate, is the Köppen classification of climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the deg ...
( Köppen: ''Cfb''), though with less maritime influence than the milder climates of Western and
Southern France Southern France, also known as the South of France or colloquially in French as , is a defined geographical area consisting of the regions of France France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République fr ...
. The city has warm, relatively sunny summers and cool,
overcast Overcast or overcast weather, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization ...

overcast
winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains largely constant throughout the year, totaling annually. On average, snow falls 30 days per year. The second highest temperature ever recorded was in August 2003, during the
2003 European heat wave The 2003 European heat wave led to the hottest summer on record in Europe since at least 1540. France was hit especially hard. The heat wave led to health crises in several countries and combined with drought to create a crop shortfall in parts ...
. This record was broken, on June 30, 2019, when it reached . The lowest temperature ever recorded was in December 1938. Strasbourg's location in the Rhine valley, sheltered from strong winds by the Vosges and Black Forest mountains, results in poor natural ventilation, making Strasbourg one of the most atmospherically polluted cities of France. Nonetheless, the progressive disappearance of
heavy industry Heavy industry is an industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (economics) In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy that produces a closely related set of raw materials, goods, or services. For example, one ...
on both banks of the Rhine, as well as effective measures of traffic regulation in and around the city have reduced air pollution in recent years.


History

The
Roman camp In the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, the Latin word ''castrum'' (plural ''castra'') was a building, or plot of land, used as a fortified military camp. In English language, English, the terms 'Roman fort', 'Roman camp' and 'Roman fortress' ...

Roman camp
of
Argentoratum Argentoratum or Argentorate was the Classical Antiquity, ancient name of the city of Strasbourg. The name was first mentioned in 12 BC, when it was a Roman military outpost established by Nero Claudius Drusus. From 90 AD the Legio VIII Augusta was ...
was first mentioned in 12 BC; the city of Strasbourg which grew from it celebrated its 2,000th anniversary in 1988. The fertile area in the
Upper Rhine PlainThe Upper Rhine Plain, Rhine Rift Valley or Upper Rhine Graben (German language, German: ''Oberrheinische Tiefebene'', ''Oberrheinisches Tiefland'' or ''Oberrheingraben'', French language, French: ''Vallée du Rhin'') is a major rift, about and on a ...
between the rivers
IllILL may refer to: * '' I Love Lucy'', a landmark American television sitcom * Illorsuit Heliport (location identifier: ILL), a heliport in Illorsuit, Greenland * Institut Laue–Langevin The Institut Laue–Langevin (ILL) is an internationally ...
and
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many s ...

Rhine
had already been populated since the
Middle Paleolithic The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (), also called the Old Stone Age (from Greek palaios - old, lithos - stone), is a period in prehi ...
. Between 362 and 1262, Strasbourg was governed by the bishops of Strasbourg; their rule was reinforced in 873 and then more in 982. In 1262, the citizens violently rebelled against the bishop's rule (
Battle of Hausbergen The Battle of Hausbergen took place on 8 March 1262 and marks the freeing of the western European city of Strasbourg from Episcopal polity, episcopal authority. The bourgeois#History, bourgeois of the town defeated the army of knights of the Bisho ...
) and Strasbourg became a
free imperial city In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (german: Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (', la, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that h ...
. It became a French city in 1681, after the conquest of Alsace by the armies of
Louis XIV Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), also known as Louis the Great () or the Sun King (), was King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the List of longest-reigning mo ...

Louis XIV
. In 1871, after the
Franco-Prussian War The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War,, german: Deutsch-Französischer Krieg often referred to in France as the War of 1870, was a conflict between the Second French Empire The Second French Empire (; officially the French Empire ...
, the city became German again, until 1918 (end of
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
), when it reverted to France. After the defeat of France in 1940 (
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
), Strasbourg came under German control again through formal annexation into the
Gau Baden The Gau Baden, renamed Gau Baden–Alsace (German: ''Gau Baden-Elsaß'') in March 1941, was a ''de facto'' Administrative divisions of Nazi Germany, administrative division of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 in the German state of Baden and, from 19 ...
-Elsaß under the Nazi Gauleiter
Robert Wagner Robert John Wagner Jr. (born February 10, 1930) is an American actor of stage, screen, and television. He is known for starring in the television shows '' It Takes a Thief'' (1968–1970), ''Switch In electrical engineering, a switch is an el ...
; since the end of 1944, it is again a French city. In 2016, Strasbourg was promoted from capital of
Alsace Alsace (, also ; Low Alemannic German Low Alemannic German (german: Niederalemannisch) is a branch of Alemannic German Alemannic, or rarely Alemannish (''Alemannisch'', ), is a group of High German dialects. The name derives from the ancien ...

Alsace
to capital of
Grand Est Grand Est (; gsw-FR, Grossa Oschta; Moselle Franconian/ lb, Grouss Osten; Rhine Franconian: ''Groß Oschte''; german: Großer Osten ; en, "Great East") is an Regions of France, administrative region in Northeastern France. It superseded three ...

Grand Est
. Strasbourg played an important part in
Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abra ...

Protestant Reformation
, with personalities such as
John Calvin John Calvin (; Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family The Indo-European languages are a language fami ...

John Calvin
,
Martin Bucer Martin Bucer (Early New High German, early German: ''Martin Butzer''; 11 November 1491 – 28 February 1551) was a German Protestant reformer based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and practices. Buce ...

Martin Bucer
,
Wolfgang Capito Wolfgang Fabricius Capito (also Koepfel) ( – November 1541) was a German Protestant reformer in the Reformed tradition. His life and work Capito was born circa 1478 to a smith at Hagenau in Alsace. He attended the famous Latin school in Pfo ...

Wolfgang Capito
,
Matthew
Matthew
and Katharina Zell, but also in other aspects of Christianity such as
German mysticism The Friends of God (German: Gottesfreunde; or gotesvriunde) was a medieval mystical group of both ecclesiastical and lay persons within the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List o ...
, with
Johannes Tauler Johannes Tauler OP (c. 1300 – 16 June 1361) was a German mystic, a Roman Catholic priest and a theologian. A disciple of Meister Eckhart, he belonged to the Dominican order The Order of Preachers, whose members are known as Domini ...
,
Pietism Pietism (), also known as Pietistic Lutheranism, is a movement within Lutheranism Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of that identifies with the teachings of and was founded by , a 16th-century German monk and whose efforts to ref ...
, with
Philipp Spener Philipp Jakob Spener (23 January 1635 – 5 February 1705), was a German Lutheran Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism that identifies with the teachings of Martin Luther, a 16th-century German Protestant Reformers, refo ...
, and Reverence for Life, with
Albert Schweitzer Ludwig Philipp Albert Schweitzer (; 14 January 1875 – 4 September 1965) was an Alsace, Alsatian polymath. He was a theologian, organist, writer, humanitarian, philosopher, and physician. A Lutheran, Schweitzer challenged both the secular ...

Albert Schweitzer
. Delegates from the city took part in the
Protestation at Speyer On April 19, 1529, six Fürst, princes and representatives of 14 Imperial Free City, Imperial Free Cities petitioned the Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), Imperial Diet at Speyer against an Reichsacht, imperial ban of Martin Luther, as well as ...
. It was also one of the first centres of the printing industry with pioneers such as
Johannes Gutenberg Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (; – 3 February 1468) was a German inventor, printer (publisher), printer, publisher, and goldsmith who introduced printing to Europe with his mechanical movable type, movable-type printing press ...

Johannes Gutenberg
,
Johannes Mentelin Johannes Mentelin, sometimes also spelled Mentlin, (born around 1410 in Schlettstadt, today Sélestat; died December 12, 1478 in Strasbourg) was a pioneering Germany, German book Printer (publisher), printer and bookseller active during the peri ...
, and
Heinrich Eggestein Heinrich Eggestein (born around 1415/1420 in Rosheim, Alsace Alsace (, also ; Low Alemannic German/ gsw-als, 's Elsàss ; german: Elsass ; la, Alsatia; ) is a cultural region and a territorial collectivity in Eastern France, on the west ban ...

Heinrich Eggestein
. Among the darkest periods in the city's long history were the years 1349 (
Strasbourg massacre The Strasbourg massacre occurred on February 14, 1349, when several hundred Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international ...
), 1518 ( Dancing plague), 1793 (
Reign of Terror The Reign of Terror, commonly called The Terror (french: link=no, la Terreur), was a period of the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General of 1789 and ended in coup of 18 Br ...
), 1870 (
Siege of Strasbourg A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault. This derives from la, sedere, lit=to sit. Siege warfare is a form of constant, low-intensity conflict characteri ...
) and the years 1940–1944 with the Nazi occupation (atrocities such as the
Jewish skeleton collection The Jewish skeleton collection was an attempt by the Nazis to create an Anthropology, anthropological display to showcase the alleged racial inferiority of the "Jews, Jewish race" and to emphasize the Jews' status as ''Untermenschen'' ("sub-humans") ...
) and the British and American
bombing raids after the massive firebombing attack on the night of March 9–10, 1945, the single most destructive raid in military aviation history. The bombing of Tokyo in World War II cut the city's industrial productivity by half and killed around 100,000 ci ...
. Some other notable dates were the years 357 (
Battle of Argentoratum The Battle of Strasbourg, also known as the Battle of Argentoratum, was fought in 357 between the Western Roman army under the ''Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general and statesman who played ...
), 842 (
Oaths of Strasbourg The Oaths of Strasbourg were a military pact made on the 14th of February, A.D. 842 by Charles the Bald and Louis the German against their older brother Lothair I, the designated heir of Louis the Pious, the successor of Charlemagne. One year late ...
), 1538 (establishment of the university), 1605 (world's first newspaper printed by
Johann Carolus 200px, Title page of the ''Relation'' from 1609 Johann Carolus (26 March 1575 − 15 August 1634) was a German publisher of the first newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, informa ...
), 1792 (
La Marseillaise "La Marseillaise" is the national anthem A national anthem is a Patriotism, patriotic musical composition symbolizing and evoking eulogies of the history and traditions of a country or nation. The majority of national anthems are March (mu ...

La Marseillaise
), and 1889 (pancreatic origin of
diabetes Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as just diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorder A metabolic disorder is a disorder that negatively alters the body's processing and distribution of macronutrients such as proteins, fats, and carbohydrate ...
discovered by Minkowski and Von Mering). Strasbourg has been the seat of European Institutions since 1949: first of the
International Commission on Civil Status The International Commission on Civil Status, or ICCS (french: Commission internationale de l'état civil, or CIEC), is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) or international organization is an organization com ...
and of the
Council of Europe The Council of Europe (CoE; french: Conseil de l'Europe, ) is an international organization, international organisation founded in the wake of World War II to uphold European Convention on Human Rights, human rights, democracy and the Law in Eu ...

Council of Europe
, later of the
European Parliament The European Parliament (EP) is one of three legislative branches of the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of that are located primarily in . The union has a total area of and an estimated tot ...

European Parliament
, of the
European Science Foundation The European Science Foundation (ESF) is an association of 11 member organizations devoted to scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development ...
, of
Eurocorps The European Corps (Eurocorps) is an intergovernmental military corps with its headquarters of approximately 1,000 soldiers stationed in Strasbourg Strasbourg (, , ; gsw, label=Bas Rhin Alsatian dialect, Alsatian, Strossburi , gsw, label=H ...

Eurocorps
, and others as well.


Districts

Strasbourg is divided into the following districts: # Bourse, Esplanade, Krutenau # Centre République # Centre Gare # Conseil des XV, Rotterdam # Cronenbourg, Hautepierre, Poteries, Hohberg # Koenigshoffen, Montagne-Verte, Elsau # Meinau # Neudorf, Schluthfeld, Port du Rhin, Musau # Neuhof, Strasbourg, Neuhof, Stockfeld, Ganzau # Robertsau, Wacken


Main sights


Architecture

The city is chiefly known for its sandstone Gothic architecture, Gothic Strasbourg Cathedral, Cathedral with its famous Strasbourg astronomical clock, astronomical clock, and for its medieval cityscape of Rhineland black and white timber framing, timber-framed buildings, particularly in the ''Petite France, Strasbourg, Petite France'' district or ''Gerberviertel'' ("tanners' district") alongside the Ill and in the streets and squares surrounding the cathedral, where the renowned ''Kammerzell House, Maison Kammerzell'' stands out. Notable medieval streets include ''Rue Mercière'', ''Rue des Dentelles'', ''Rue du Bain aux Plantes'', ''Rue des Juifs'', ''Rue des Frères'', ''Rue des Tonneliers'', ''Rue du Maroquin'', ''Rue des Charpentiers'', ''Rue des Serruriers'', ''Grand' Rue'', ''Quai des Bateliers'', ''Quai Saint-Nicolas'' and ''Quai Saint-Thomas''. Notable medieval squares include ''Place de la Cathédrale'', ''Place du Marché Gayot'', ''Place Saint-Étienne'', ''Place du Marché aux Cochons de Lait'' and ''Place Benjamin Zix''. In addition to the cathedral, Strasbourg houses several other medieval churches that have survived the many wars and destructions that have plagued the city: the Romanesque architecture, Romanesque ''Église Saint-Étienne'', partly destroyed in 1944 by Allied Strategic bombing, bombing raids; the part-Romanesque, part-Gothic, very large ''St. Thomas, Strasbourg, Église Saint-Thomas'' with its Gottfried Silbermann, Silbermann organ on which Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and
Albert Schweitzer Ludwig Philipp Albert Schweitzer (; 14 January 1875 – 4 September 1965) was an Alsace, Alsatian polymath. He was a theologian, organist, writer, humanitarian, philosopher, and physician. A Lutheran, Schweitzer challenged both the secular ...

Albert Schweitzer
played; the Gothic ''Saint-Pierre-le-Jeune Protestant Church, Église protestante Saint-Pierre-le-Jeune'' with its crypt dating back to the seventh century and its cloister partly from the eleventh century; the Gothic ''Saint William's Church, Strasbourg, Église Saint-Guillaume'' with its fine early-Renaissance stained glass and furniture; the Gothic ''Église Saint-Jean''; the part-Gothic, part-Art Nouveau ''Sainte-Madeleine Church; Strasbourg, Église Sainte-Madeleine'' etc. The Gothic Revival architecture, Neo-Gothic church ''Old Saint Peter's Church, Strasbourg, Saint-Pierre-le-Vieux Catholique'' (there is also an adjacent church ''Saint-Pierre-le-Vieux Protestant'') serves as a shrine for several 15th-century wood-worked and painted Altar#In Western Christian churches, altars coming from other, now destroyed churches and installed there for public display; especially the The Passion of Christ (Strasbourg), Passion of Christ. Among the numerous secular medieval buildings, the monumental ''Ancienne Douane (Strasbourg), Ancienne Douane'' (old custom-house) stands out. The German Renaissance has bequeathed the city some noteworthy buildings (especially Neubau (Strasbourg), the current ''Chambre de commerce et d'industrie'', former City and town halls, town hall, on ''Place Gutenberg''), as did the French Baroque and Classicism with several ''hôtels particuliers'' (i.e. palaces), among which the ''Palais Rohan, Strasbourg, Palais Rohan'' (1742, now housing three museums) is the most spectacular. Other buildings of its kind are the "Hôtel de Hanau" (1736, now the city hall); the ''Hôtel de Klinglin'' (1736, now residence of the préfet); the ''Hôtel des Deux-Ponts'' (1755, now residence of the Military Governor, military governor); the ''Hôtel d'Andlau-Klinglin'' (1725, now seat of the administration of the Port autonome de Strasbourg) etc. The largest baroque building of Strasbourg though is the 1720s main building of the ''Hôpital civil, Strasbourg, Hôpital civil''. As for French Neoclassicism, Neo-classicism, it is the Strasbourg Opera House, Opera House on Place Broglie that most prestigiously represents this style. Strasbourg also offers high-class eclecticism in art, eclecticist buildings in its very extended German district, the '' Neustadt'', being the main memory of Wilhelm I, German Emperor, Wilhelmian architecture since most of the major cities in Germany proper suffered intensive damage during World War II. Streets, boulevards and avenues are homogeneous, surprisingly high (up to seven stories) and broad examples of German urban lay-out and of this architectural style that summons and mixes up five centuries of European architecture as well as Neo-Egyptian, Neo-Grec, Neo-Greek and Neo-Babylonian styles. The former imperial palace ''Palais du Rhin'', the most political and thus heavily criticized of all German Strasbourg buildings epitomizes the grand scale and stylistic sturdiness of this period. But the two most handsome and ornate buildings of these times are the ''École internationale des Pontonniers'' (the former ''Höhere Mädchenschule'', with its towers, turrets and multiple round and square angles and the ''Haute école des arts du Rhin'' with its lavishly ornate façade of painted bricks, woodwork and Maiolica, majolica. Notable streets of the German district include: ''Avenue de la Forêt Noire'', ''Avenue des Vosges'', ''Avenue d'Alsace'', ''Avenue de la Marseillaise'', ''Avenue de la Liberté'', ''Boulevard de la Victoire'', ''Rue Sellénick'', ''Rue du Général de Castelnau'', ''Rue du Maréchal Foch'', and ''Rue du Maréchal Joffre''. Notable squares of the German district include ''Place de la République (Strasbourg), Place de la République'', ''Place de l'Université'', ''Place Brant'', and ''Place Arnold''. Impressive examples of Kingdom of Prussia, Prussian military architecture of the 1880s can be found along the newly reopened ''Rue du Rempart'', displaying large-scale fortifications among which the aptly named ''Kriegstor'' (war gate). As for modern and contemporary architecture, Strasbourg possesses some fine Art Nouveau buildings (such as the huge ''Palais des Fêtes'' and houses and villas like ''Villa Schutzenberger'' and ''Hôtel Brion''), good examples of post-World War II functional architecture (the ''Cité Rotterdam'', for which Le Corbusier did not succeed in the architectural contest) and, in the very extended ''Quartier Européen'', some spectacular administrative buildings of sometimes utterly large size, among which the European Court of Human Rights building by Richard Rogers is arguably the finest. Other noticeable contemporary buildings are the new College or university school of music, Music school ''Cité de la Musique et de la Danse'', the ''Strasbourg Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, Musée d'Art moderne et contemporain'' and the ''Hôtel du Département'' facing it, as well as, in the outskirts, the tramway-station Hoenheim-Nord designed by Zaha Hadid. The city has many bridges, including the medieval and four-towered ''Ponts Couverts (Strasbourg), Ponts Couverts'' that, despite their name, are no longer covered. Next to the ''Ponts Couverts'' is the ''Barrage Vauban'', a part of Vauban's 17th-century fortifications, that does include a covered bridge. Other bridges are the ornate 19th-century ''Pont de la Fonderie'' (1893, stone) and ''Pont d'Auvergne'' (1892, iron), as well as architect :fr:Marc Mimram, Marc Mimram's futuristic ''Passerelle'' over the Rhine, opened in 2004. The largest square at the centre of the city of Strasbourg is the Place Kléber. Located in the heart of the city's commercial area, it was named after general Jean Baptiste Kléber, Jean-Baptiste Kléber, born in Strasbourg in 1753 and assassinated in 1800 in Cairo. In the square is a statue of Kléber, under which is a vault containing his remains. On the north side of the square is the Aubette (building), Aubette (Orderly Room), built by Jacques-François Blondel, Jacques François Blondel, architect of the king, in 1765–1772.


Parks

Strasbourg features a number of prominent parks, of which several are of cultural and historical interest: the ''Parc de l'Orangerie'', laid out as a French garden by André Le Nôtre, André le Nôtre and remodeled as an Landscape garden, English garden on behalf of Joséphine de Beauharnais, now displaying noteworthy French gardens, a neo-classical castle and a small zoo; the ''Parc de la Citadelle'', built around impressive remains of the 17th-century Fortification, fortress erected close to the
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Rhine
by Vauban; the ''Parc de Pourtalès'', laid out in English style around a baroque castle (heavily restored in the 19th century) that now houses a small three-star hotel, and featuring an open-air museum of international contemporary sculpture. The Jardin botanique de l'Université de Strasbourg (botanical garden) was created under the German administration next to the Observatory of Strasbourg, built in 1881, and still owns some greenhouses of those times. The ''Parc des Contades'', although the oldest park of the city, was completely remodeled after World War II. The futuristic ''Parc des Poteries'' is an example of European park-conception in the late 1990s. The ''Jardin des deux Rives'', spread over Strasbourg and
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on both sides of the Rhine opened in 2004 and is the most extended (60-hectare) park of the agglomeration. The most recent park is ''Parc du Heyritz'' (8,7 ha), opened in 2014 along a canal facing the ''Hôpital civil, Strasbourg, hôpital civil''.


Museums

As of 2020, the city of Strasbourg has eleven municipal museums (including ''Aubette 1928''), eleven university museums, and at least two privately owned museums (''Musée vodou'' and ''Musée du barreau de Strasbourg''). Five communes in the metropolitan area also have museums (see below), three of them dedicated to military history.


Overview

The collections in Strasbourg are distributed over a wide range of museums, according to a system that takes into account not only the types and geographical provenances of the items, but also the epochs. This concerns in particular the following domains: *Old Master, Old master paintings from the Germanic Rhine, Rhenish territories and until 1681 are displayed in the ''Musée de l'Œuvre Notre-Dame'' (MOND); old master paintings from all the rest of Europe (including the Dutch Rhenish territories) and until 1871, as well as old master paintings from the Germanic Rhenish territories between 1681 and 1871, are displayed in the ''Musée des Beaux-Arts''; paintings since 1871 are displayed in the ''Musée d'art moderne et contemporain'' (MAMCS). *Decorative arts until 1681 are on display in the MOND, decorative arts from the years 1681 until 1871 are on display in the ''Musée des arts décoratifs'', decorative arts after 1871 are on display at the MAMCS, with items from each epoch also shown in the ''Musée historique''. *Prints and drawings until 1871 are displayed in the ''Cabinet des estampes et dessins'', save for the original plans of Strasbourg Cathedral, displayed in the MOND. Prints and drawings after 1871 are displayed in the MAMCS, and in the ''Musée Tomi Ungerer/Centre international de l’illustration'' (the combined number of prints and drawings amounts to well over 200,000). *Artefacts from Ancient Egypt are on display in two entirely different collections, one in the ''Musée archéologique'' and the other belonging to the ''Instituts d'Égyptologie et de Papyrologie'' of the University of Strasbourg.


Fine art museums

* The ''Musée des Beaux-Arts de Strasbourg, Musée des Beaux-Arts'' owns paintings by Hans Memling, Francisco Goya, Francisco de Goya, Tintoretto, Paolo Veronese, Giotto di Bondone, Sandro Botticelli, Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony van Dyck, El Greco, Antonio da Correggio, Correggio, Cima da Conegliano and Piero di Cosimo, among others. * The ''Musée de l'Œuvre Notre-Dame'' (located in a part-Gothic, part-Renaissance building next to the cathedral) houses a large and renowned collection of medieval and Renaissance upper-Rhenish art, among which original sculptures, plans and stained glass from the cathedral and paintings by Hans Baldung and Sebastian Stoskopff. * The ''Strasbourg Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, Musée d'Art moderne et contemporain'' is among the largest museums of its kind in France. * The ''Musée des Arts décoratifs, Strasbourg, Musée des Arts décoratifs'', located in the sumptuous former residence of the cardinals of Rohan, the Palais Rohan, Strasbourg, Palais Rohan displays a reputable collection of 18th century furniture and china. * The ''Cabinet des estampes et des dessins (Strasbourg), Cabinet des estampes et des dessins'' displays five centuries of engravings and drawings, but also woodcuts and lithography, lithographies. * The ''Musée Tomi Ungerer/Centre international de l'illustration'', located in a large former villa next to the Theatre, displays original works by Ungerer and other artists (Saul Steinberg, Ronald Searle ... ) as well as Ungerer's large collection of ancient toys.


Other museums

* The ''Musée archéologique (Strasbourg), Musée archéologique'' presents a large display of regional findings from the first ages of man to the sixth century, focussing especially on the Roman and Celtic period. It also includes a collection of works from Ancient Egypt, and Ancient Greece, assembled and bequeathed by Gustave Schlumberger. * The ''Musée alsacien (Strasbourg), Musée alsacien'' is dedicated to traditional Alsatian daily life. * ''Le Vaisseau'' ("The vessel") is a science and technology centre, especially designed for children. * The ''Musée historique de Strasbourg, Musée historique'' (historical museum) is dedicated to the tumultuous history of the city and displays many artifacts of the times, among which the ''Grüselhorn'', the horn that was blown every evening at 10:00, during medieval times, to order the Jews out of the city. * The ''Voodoo Castle (Strasbourg), Musée vodou'' (Haitian Vodou, Voodoo museum) opened its doors on 28 November 2013. Displaying a private collection of artefacts from Haiti, it is located in a former water tower (''château d'eau'') built in 1883 and classified as a Monument historique. * The ''Musée du barreau de Strasbourg'' (The Strasbourg bar association museum) is a museum dedicated to the work and the history of lawyers in the city.


University museums

The University of Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg is in charge of a number of permanent public displays of its collections of scientific artefacts and products of all kinds of exploration and research. * The Musée zoologique de la ville de Strasbourg, ''Musée zoologique'' is one of the oldest in France and is especially famous for its collection of birds. The museum is co-administrated by the municipality. * The Palais Universitaire, Strasbourg#Gypsothèque, ''Gypsothèque'' (also known as ''Musée des moulages'' or ''Musée Adolf Michaelis'') is France's second-largest Plaster cast, cast collection and the largest university cast collection in France. * The ''Musée de seismology, Sismologie et magnetism, Magnétisme terrestre'' displays antique instruments of measure. * The ''Musée Louis Pasteur, Pasteur'' is a collection of medical curiosities. * The ''Musée de minéralogie'' is dedicated to minerals. * The ''Musée d'egyptology, Égyptologie'' houses a collections of archaeological findings made in and brought from Egypt and Sudan. This collection is entirely separate from the Schlumberger collection of the Musée archéologique (see above). * The ''Crypte aux étoiles'' ("star crypt") is situated in the vaulted basement below the Observatory of Strasbourg and displays old telescopes and other antique astronomical devices such as clocks and theodolites.


Museums in the suburbs

* ''Musée Les Secrets du Chocolat'' (Chocolate museum) in Geispolsheim * Fort Frère in Oberhausbergen * Fort Rapp in Reichstett * ''Pixel Museum'', a video game museum, in Schiltigheim * ''MM Park France'', a military museum, in La Wantzenau


Demographics

The commune of Strasbourg proper had a population of 284,677 on 1 January 2018, the result of a constant moderate annual growth which is also reflected in the constant growth of the number of students at its University of Strasbourg, university (e. g. from 42,000 students in 2010 to 52,000 students in 2019). The
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area, geographical area distinct from rural areas * Urban culture, the cul ...
of Strasbourg had a population of 785,839 inhabitants in 2016 (French side of the border only), while the transnational Strasbourg-Ortenau Eurodistrict, Eurodistrict had a population of 958,421 inhabitants. In the Middle Ages, Strasbourg (a Free imperial city since 1262), was an important town. According to a 1444 census, the population was circa 20,000; only one third less than Cologne, then a major European city.


Population growth


Population composition


Culture

Strasbourg is the seat of internationally renowned institutions of music and drama: * The Orchestre philharmonique de Strasbourg, founded in 1855, one of the oldest symphonic orchestras in western Europe. Based since 1975 in the Palais de la musique et des congrès. * The Opéra national du Rhin * The Théâtre national de Strasbourg * The Percussions de Strasbourg * The Théâtre du Maillon * The "Laiterie" * Joshy's house - a venue for performance poetry and freestyle urban music. * Au Zénith Other theatres are the ''Théâtre jeune public'', the ''TAPS Scala'', the ''Kafteur'' ...  


Events

* Musica (French music festival), Musica, international festival of contemporary classical music (autumn) * Strasbourg Music Festival, Festival international de Strasbourg (founded in 1932), festival of classical music and jazz (summer) * Festival des Artefacts, festival of contemporary non-classical music * Les Nuits électroniques de l'Ososphère * Strasbourg European Fantastic Film Festival is an annual film festival devoted to science fiction, horror film, horror and fantasy. It was known as the Spectre Film Festival before 2008. * The Strasbourg International Film Festival is an annual film festival focusing on new and emerging independent filmmakers from around the world.


Education


Universities and tertiary education

Strasbourg, well known as centre of humanism, has a long history of excellence in higher-education, at the crossroads of French and German intellectual traditions. Although Strasbourg had been annexed by the Kingdom of France in 1683, it still remained connected to the German-speaking intellectual world throughout the 18th century, and the university attracted numerous students from the Holy Roman Empire, with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Goethe, Klemens Wenzel, Prince von Metternich, Metternich and Maximilian von Montgelas, Montgelas, who studied law in Strasbourg, among the most prominent. With 19 Nobel prizes in total, Strasbourg is the most eminent French university outside of Paris. Up until January 2009, there were three University of Strasbourg, universities in Strasbourg, with an approximate total of 48,500 students (another 4,500 students are being taught at one of the diverse Postgraduate education, post-graduate schools): * Strasbourg I – Louis Pasteur University * Strasbourg II – Marc Bloch University * Strasbourg III – Robert Schuman University As of 1 January 2009, those three universities have merged and now constitute the Université de Strasbourg. Schools part of the Université de Strasbourg include: * Sciences Po Strasbourg (Institut d'études politiques de Strasbourg), the University of Strasbourg's political science & international studies center * The EMS (EM Strasbourg Business School), the University of Strasbourg's business school * The INSA (Institut national des sciences appliquées), the University of Strasbourg's engineering school * The ENA (École nationale d'administration). ENA trains most of the nation's high-ranking civil servants. The relocation to Strasbourg was meant to give a European vocation to the school and to implement the French government's "décentralisation" plan. * The ESAD (École supérieure des arts décoratifs) is an art school of European reputation. * The ISEG Group (Institut supérieur européen de gestion group) * The ISU (International Space University) is located in the south of Strasbourg (Illkirch-Graffenstaden). * The ECPM (École européenne de chimie, polymères et matériaux) * The EPITA (École pour l'informatique et les techniques avancées) * The EPITECH (École pour l'informatique et les nouvelles technologies) * The INET (Institut national des études territoriales) * The IIEF (Institut international d'études françaises) * The ENGEES (École nationale du génie de l'eau et de l'environnement de Strasbourg) * The CUEJ (Centre universitaire d'enseignement du journalisme) * TÉLÉCOM Physique Strasbourg (École nationale supérieure de physique de Strasbourg), Institute of Technology, located in the South of Strasbourg (Illkirch-Graffenstaden)


Primary and secondary education

International schools include: Multiple levels: * European School of Strasbourg (priority given to children whose parents are employed at the European institutions) For elementary education:International schooling in Strasbourg

Archive
. City of Strasbourg. Retrieved on 28 March 2016. p. 1.
* École Internationale Robert Schuman * Strasbourg International School * International School at Lucie Berger * Russian Mission School in Strasbourg For middle school/junior high school education: * Collège International de l'Esplanade For senior high school/sixth form college: * Lycée international des Pontonniers (:fr:Lycée international des Pontonniers, FR)


Libraries

The Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire (BNU) is, with its collection of more than 3,000,000 titles, the second-largest library in France after the Bibliothèque nationale de France. It was founded by the German administration after the complete destruction of the previous municipal library in 1871 and holds the unique status of being simultaneously a students' and a national library. The Strasbourg municipal library had been marked erroneously as "City Hall" in a French commercial map, which had been captured and used by the German artillery to lay their guns. A librarian from Munich later pointed out "...that the destruction of the precious collection was not the fault of a German artillery officer, who used the French map, but of the slovenly and inaccurate scholarship of a Frenchman."Butler, Pierce. 1945. ''Books and libraries in wartime''. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. p. 15 The municipal library Bibliothèque municipale de Strasbourg (BMS) administrates a network of ten medium-sized librairies in different areas of the town. A six stories high "Grande bibliothèque", the ''Médiathèque André Malraux'', was inaugurated on 19 September 2008 and is considered the largest in Eastern France.


Incunabula

As one of the earliest centers of book-printing in Europe (see above: History), Strasbourg for a long time held a large number of Incunable, incunabula — books printed before 1500 — in its library as one of its most precious heritages: no less than 7,000. After the total destruction of this institution in 1870, however, a new collection had to be reassembled from scratch. Today, Strasbourg's different public and institutional libraries again display a sizable total number of incunabula, distributed as follows: ''Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire'', ca. 2,120, ''Médiathèque de la ville et de la communauté urbaine de Strasbourg'', 349, ''Bibliothèque du Grand Séminaire'', 238, ''Médiathèque protestante'', 66, and ''Bibliothèque alsatique du Crédit Mutuel'', 5.


Transportation

Train services operate from the ''Gare de Strasbourg'', the city's main station in the city centre, eastward to Offenburg and Karlsruhe in Germany, westward to
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Metz
and Paris, and southward to
Basel , french: link=no, Bâlois(e), it, Basilese , neighboring_municipalities= Allschwil , neighboring_municipalities= Baselland (BL), Binningen, Switzerland, Binningen, Buschwiller (FR-68), Hégenheim (FR-68), Neuwiller (FR-68), Oberwil, Basel- ...

Basel
. Strasbourg's links with the rest of France have improved due to its recent connection to the TGV network, with the first phase of the LGV Est, TGV ''Est'' (Paris–Strasbourg) in 2007, the LGV Rhin-Rhône, TGV ''Rhin-Rhône'' (Strasbourg-Lyon) in 2012, and the second phase of the TGV Est in July 2016. Strasbourg also has its Strasbourg Airport, own airport, serving major domestic destinations as well as international destinations in Europe and North Africa, northern Africa. The airport is linked to the ''Gare de Strasbourg'' by a frequent train service. City transportation in Strasbourg includes the futurist-looking Strasbourg tramway that opened in 1994 and is operated by the regional transit company Compagnie des Transports Strasbourgeois (CTS), consisting of 6 lines with a total length of . The CTS also operates a comprehensive bus network throughout the city that is integrated with the trams. With more than of bicycle paths, biking in the city is convenient and the CTS operates a cheap bike-sharing scheme named ''Vélhop. The CTS, and its predecessors, also operated a previous generation of tram system between 1878 and 1960, complemented by trolleybus routes between 1939 and 1962. Being a city on the
IllILL may refer to: * '' I Love Lucy'', a landmark American television sitcom * Illorsuit Heliport (location identifier: ILL), a heliport in Illorsuit, Greenland * Institut Laue–Langevin The Institut Laue–Langevin (ILL) is an internationally ...
and close to the
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many s ...

Rhine
, Strasbourg has always been an important centre of fluvial navigation, as is attested by archeological findings. In 1682 the ''Canal de la Bruche'' was added to the river navigations, initially to provide transport for sandstone from quarries in the Vosges for use in the fortification of the city. That canal has since closed, but the subsequent ''Canal du Rhône au Rhin'', ''Canal de la Marne au Rhin'' and ''Grand Canal d'Alsace'' are still in use, as is the important activity of the ''Port autonome de Strasbourg''. Water tourism inside the city proper attracts hundreds of thousands of tourists yearly. The tram system that now criss-crosses the historic city centre complements walking and biking in it. The centre has been transformed into a pedestrian zone, pedestrian priority zone that enables and invites walking and biking by making these active modes of transport comfortable, safe and enjoyable. These attributes are accomplished by applying the principle of Permeability (spatial and transport planning), "filtered permeability" to the existing irregular network of streets. It means that the network adaptations favour active transportation and, selectively, "filter out" the car by reducing the number of streets that run through the centre. While certain streets are discontinuous for cars, they connect to a network of pedestrian and bike paths which permeate the entire centre. In addition, these paths go through public squares and open spaces increasing the enjoyment of the trip. This logic of filtering a mode of transport is fully expressed in a comprehensive model for laying out neighbourhoods and districts – the Fused Grid. At present the A35 autoroute, which parallels the Rhine between Karlsruhe and
Basel , french: link=no, Bâlois(e), it, Basilese , neighboring_municipalities= Allschwil , neighboring_municipalities= Baselland (BL), Binningen, Switzerland, Binningen, Buschwiller (FR-68), Hégenheim (FR-68), Neuwiller (FR-68), Oberwil, Basel- ...

Basel
, and the A4 autoroute, which links
Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents , in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris ha ...

Paris
with Strasbourg, penetrate close to the centre of the city. The ''Grand contournement ouest'' (GCO) project, programmed since 1999, planned to construct a highway connection between the junctions of the A4 and the A35 autoroutes in the north and of the A35 and A352 autoroute, A352 autoroutes in the south. This routes well to the west of the city in order to divest a significant portion of motorized traffic from the unité urbaine. The GCO project was opposed by environmentalists, who created a Zone to Defend, ZAD (or Zone to Defend). After much delay, the GCO was finally inaugurated on 11 December 2021.


Strasbourg Public Transportation Statistics

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Strasbourg, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 52 min. 7% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 9 min, while 11% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is , while 0% travel for over in a single direction.


European role


Institutions

Strasbourg is the seat of over twenty international institutions, most famously of the
Council of Europe The Council of Europe (CoE; french: Conseil de l'Europe, ) is an international organization, international organisation founded in the wake of World War II to uphold European Convention on Human Rights, human rights, democracy and the Law in Eu ...

Council of Europe
and of the
European Parliament The European Parliament (EP) is one of three legislative branches of the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of that are located primarily in . The union has a total area of and an estimated tot ...

European Parliament
, of which it is the
official seat An official is someone who holds an office (function or Mandate (politics), mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual Office, working space with it) in an organization or government and participates in the exercise of authority, (either the ...
. Strasbourg is considered the legislative and democratic capital of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
, while
Brussels Brussels (french: Bruxelles or ; nl, Brussel ), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (french: link=no, Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; nl, link=no, Brusse ...

Brussels
is considered the executive and administrative capital and Luxembourg (city), Luxembourg the judiciary and financial capital. Strasbourg is the seat of the following organisations, among others: *
Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine The Central Commission for the Navigation of the Rhine (CCNR; french: link=no, Commission centrale pour la navigation du Rhin) is an international organisation whose function is to encourage European prosperity by guaranteeing a high level of secur ...
(since 1920) *
Council of Europe The Council of Europe (CoE; french: Conseil de l'Europe, ) is an international organization, international organisation founded in the wake of World War II to uphold European Convention on Human Rights, human rights, democracy and the Law in Eu ...

Council of Europe
with all the bodies and organisations affiliated to this institution (since 1949) *
European Parliament The European Parliament (EP) is one of three legislative branches of the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of that are located primarily in . The union has a total area of and an estimated tot ...

European Parliament
(since 1952) *
European Ombudsman The European Ombudsman is the ombudsman An ombudsman (, also , ), ombudsperson, ombud, ombuds, or public advocate is an official who is charged with representing the interests of the public In public relations and communication science ...
*
Eurocorps The European Corps (Eurocorps) is an intergovernmental military corps with its headquarters of approximately 1,000 soldiers stationed in Strasbourg Strasbourg (, , ; gsw, label=Bas Rhin Alsatian dialect, Alsatian, Strossburi , gsw, label=H ...

Eurocorps
headquarters, * Franco-German television channel Arte *
European Science Foundation The European Science Foundation (ESF) is an association of 11 member organizations devoted to scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development ...
*
International Institute of Human Rights The International Institute of Human Rights (French language, French: ''Institut international des droits de l'homme,'' IIDH) is an association under French local law based in Strasbourg, France. It includes approximately 300 members (individual an ...
* Human Frontier Science Program *
International Commission on Civil Status The International Commission on Civil Status, or ICCS (french: Commission internationale de l'état civil, or CIEC), is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) or international organization is an organization com ...
* Assembly of European Regions * University of Strasbourg, Centre for European Studies (French: ''Centre d'études européennes de Strasbourg'') * Sakharov Prize


Eurodistrict

France and Germany have created a
Eurodistrict A eurodistrict is a Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as conti ...
straddling the Rhine, combining the Greater Strasbourg and the Ortenaukreis, Ortenau district of Baden-Württemberg, with some common administration. It was established in 2005 and has been fully functional since 2010.


Sports

Sporting teams from Strasbourg are the RC Strasbourg Alsace, Racing Club de Strasbourg Alsace (Association football, football), SIG Strasbourg (basketball) and the Étoile Noire de Strasbourg, Étoile Noire (ice hockey). The women's tennis Internationaux de Strasbourg is one of the most important French tournaments of its kind outside French Open, Roland-Garros. In 1922, Strasbourg was the venue for the XVI Grand Prix de l'A.C.F. which saw Fiat battle Bugatti, Ballot, Rolland Pilain, and Britain's Aston Martin and Grand Prix Sunbeams 1922, Sunbeam.


Honours

Honours associated with the city of Strasbourg. * The Medal of Honor Strasbourg * Sakharov Prize seated in Strasbourg * City of Strasbourg Silver (gilt) Medal, a former medal with City Coat of Arms and Ten Arms of the Cities of the Dekapolis


Notable people

In chronological order, notable people born in Strasbourg include: Eric of Friuli,
Johannes Tauler Johannes Tauler OP (c. 1300 – 16 June 1361) was a German mystic, a Roman Catholic priest and a theologian. A disciple of Meister Eckhart, he belonged to the Dominican order The Order of Preachers, whose members are known as Domini ...
, Sebastian Brant, Jean Baptiste Kléber, Louis Ramond de Carbonnières, François Christophe Kellermann, Marie Tussaud, Ludwig I of Bavaria, Charles Frédéric Gerhardt, Louis-Frédéric Schützenberger, Gustave Doré, Émile Waldteufel, René Beeh, Jean Arp, Jean/Hans Arp, Charles Munch (conductor), Charles Münch, Hans Bethe, Maurice Kriegel-Valrimont, Marcel Marceau, Tomi Ungerer, Elizabeth Sombart, Arsène Wenger, Petit (Portuguese footballer), Petit and M. Pokora, Matt Pokora. In chronological order, notable residents of Strasbourg include:
Johannes Gutenberg Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg (; – 3 February 1468) was a German inventor, printer (publisher), printer, publisher, and goldsmith who introduced printing to Europe with his mechanical movable type, movable-type printing press ...

Johannes Gutenberg
, Hans Baldung,
Martin Bucer Martin Bucer (Early New High German, early German: ''Martin Butzer''; 11 November 1491 – 28 February 1551) was a German Protestant reformer based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and practices. Buce ...

Martin Bucer
,
John Calvin John Calvin (; Middle French Middle French (french: moyen français) is a historical division of the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family The Indo-European languages are a language fami ...

John Calvin
, Joachim Meyer,
Johann Carolus 200px, Title page of the ''Relation'' from 1609 Johann Carolus (26 March 1575 − 15 August 1634) was a German publisher of the first newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, informa ...
, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz, Klemens Wenzel, Prince von Metternich, Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, Georg Büchner, Louis Pasteur, Karl Ferdinand Braun, Ferdinand Braun, Albrecht Kossel, Georg Simmel,
Albert Schweitzer Ludwig Philipp Albert Schweitzer (; 14 January 1875 – 4 September 1965) was an Alsace, Alsatian polymath. He was a theologian, organist, writer, humanitarian, philosopher, and physician. A Lutheran, Schweitzer challenged both the secular ...

Albert Schweitzer
, Otto Klemperer, Marc Bloch, Alberto Fujimori, Marjane Satrapi, Paul Ricœur, Paul Ricoeur and Jean-Marie Lehn.


Twin towns and sister cities

Strasbourg is Town twinning, twinned with: * Boston, United States, since 1960 * Leicester, United Kingdom, since 1960 * Stuttgart, Germany, since 1962 * Dresden, Germany, since 1990 * Ramat Gan, Israel, since 1991 * Oran, Algeria, since 2013 Strasbourg has cooperative agreements with: * Jacmel, Haiti, since 1996 (''Coopération décentralisée'') * Veliky Novgorod, Russia, since 1997 (''Coopération décentralisée'') * Fes, Morocco (''Coopération décentralisée'') * Douala, Cameroon (''Coopération décentralisée'') * Bamako, Mali (''Coopération décentralisée'')


In popular culture


In film

* The opening scenes of the 1977 Ridley Scott film ''The Duellists'' take place in Strasbourg in 1800. * The 2007 film ''In the City of Sylvia'' is set in Strasbourg. * Early February 2011, principal photography for ''Sherlock Holmes: A Game of Shadows'' (2011) moved for two days to Strasbourg. Shooting took place on, around, and inside the Strasbourg Cathedral. The opening scene of the movie covers an assassination-bombing in the city.


In literature

* One of the longest chapters of Laurence Sterne's novel ''The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman, Tristram Shandy'' (1759–1767), "Hafen Slawkenbergius, Slawkenbergius' tale", takes place in Strasbourg. * An episode of Matthew Lewis (writer), Matthew Gregory Lewis' novel ''The Monk'' (1796) takes place in the forests then surrounding Strasbourg.


In music

* Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart called his Violin Concerto No. 3 (Mozart), Third violin concerto (1775) ''Straßburger Konzert'' because of one of its most prominent Motif (music), motives, based on a local, minuet-like dance that had already appeared as a tune in a symphony by Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf. It is not related to Mozart's ulterior stay in Strasbourg (1778), where he gave three concert performances on the piano. * Havergal Brian's Symphony No. 7 was inspired by passages in Goethe's memoirs recalling his time spent at Strasbourg University. The work ends with an orchestral bell sounding the note E, the strike-note of the bell of Strasbourg Cathedral. * British art punk, art-punk band The Rakes had a minor hit in 2005 with their song "Strasbourg". This song features witty lyrics with themes of espionage and vodka and includes a count of 'eins, zwei, drei, vier!!', even though Strasbourg's spoken language is French. * On their 1974 album ''Hamburger Concerto'', Dutch progressive band Focus (band), Focus included a track called "La Cathédrale de Strasbourg", which included chimes from a cathedral-like bell. * Strasbourg pie, a dish containing Foie gras#Cold preparations, foie gras, is mentioned in the finale of the Andrew Lloyd Webber musical ''Cats (musical), Cats''. * Several works have specifically been dedicated to Strasbourg Cathedral, notably ''ad hoc'' compositions (Mass (music), masses, motets etc.) by Kapellmeisters Franz Xaver Richter and Ignaz Pleyel and, more recently, ''It is Finished'' by John Tavener.


Notes


References


Citations


Sources

* ''Connaître Strasbourg'' by Roland Recht, Georges Foessel and Jean-Pierre Klein, 1988, . * ''Histoire de Strasbourg des origines à nos jours'', four volumes (ca. 2000 pages) by a collective of historians under the guidance of Georges Livet and Francis Rapp, 1982, .


External links


Strasbourg municipality website

Tourist office of Strasbourg

CTS
– Compagnie des Transports Strasbourgeois, Compagnie des transports strasbourgeois
The museums of Strasbourg

The city archives of Strasbourg
{{DEFAULTSORT:Strasbourg Strasbourg, Cities in France Communes of Bas-Rhin Former republics Populated places on the Rhine Prefectures in France States and territories established in 1262 World Heritage Sites in France Vauban fortifications in France