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Native Hawaiians, or simply Hawaiians ( haw, kānaka ʻōiwi, , and ), are the
Indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are culturally distinct ethnic groups who are native to a particular place. The term ' ...
Polynesian people Polynesians form an ethnolinguistic group of closely related people who are Indigenous peoples of Oceania , native to Polynesia (islands in the Polynesian Triangle), an expansive region of Oceania in the Pacific Ocean. They trace their early preh ...
of the
Hawaiian Islands The Hawaiian Islands ( haw, Mokupuni o Hawai‘i) are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated pie ...
. The traditional name of the Hawaiian people is ''Kānaka Maoli''. Hawaii was settled at least 800 years ago with the voyage of Polynesians from the
Society Islands The Society Islands (french: Îles de la Société, officially ''Archipel de la Société;'' ty, Tōtaiete mā) are an archipelago located in the South Pacific Ocean. Politically, they are part of French Polynesia, an overseas country of France, ...
. The settlers gradually became detached from their original homeland, developing a distinct Hawaiian culture and identity in their new isolated home. This included the creation of new religious and cultural structures, mostly in response to the new living environment and the need for a structured belief system through which to pass on knowledge. Hence the
Hawaiian religion Hawaiian religion encompasses the ethnic religion, indigenous religious beliefs and practices of native Hawaiians. It is polytheism, polytheistic and animism, animistic, with a belief in many deities and spirits, including the belief that spirits ...
focuses on ways to live and relate to the land, instilling a sense of communal living as well as a specialized spatial awareness. The
Hawaiian Kingdom The Hawaiian Kingdom, or Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, was a sovereign state located in the Hawaiian Islands The Hawaiian Islands ( haw, Mokupuni o Hawai‘i) are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, a ...
, was formed in 1795, when
Kamehameha the Great Kamehameha I (; Kalani Paiea Wohi o Kaleikini Kealiikui Kamehameha o Iolani i Kaiwikapu kaui Ka Liholiho Kūnuiākea;  – May 8 or 14, 1819), also known as Kamehameha the Great, was the founder and first ruler of the Hawaiian Kingdom, Kingd ...
, of the independent island of Hawaiʻi, conquered the independent islands of Oʻahu, Maui, Molokaʻi, and Lānaʻi and unified them. In 1810, the whole Hawaiian archipelago became unified when Kauaʻi and Niʻihau joined the Kingdom. The Kingdom saw an influx of immigrants from the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
and
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and Northern Hemisphere, Northern Hemisphere of the Earth, Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the cont ...
. The Kingdom became a Republic following its overthrow in 1893, and was annexed by the United States in 1898. An ongoing
Hawaiian sovereignty movement In the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It co ...
exists seeking autonomy or independence for the state of
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Hawaii
. In the 2010 U.S. Census, 527,000 people identified as Native Hawaiian, which is closer to the roughly 750,000 who lived on the island before European contact, and a significant increase from the low of 50,000 in the early 19th century. This growth has been attributed to a high fertility rate and the allowance of multiple race identification in the census: 371,000 people identified themselves as being "Native Hawaiian" combined with one or more other races or
Pacific Islander Pacific Islanders, Pacificer, Pasifika, or Pasefika, are the peoples of the Pacific Islands This is a list of islands in the Pacific Ocean, collectively called the Pacific Islands. Three major groups of island An island (or isle) ...
groups, while 156,000 (33%) identified themselves as being "Native Hawaiian" alone. Two-thirds of Native Hawaiians (roughly 238,000) reside in the state of
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Hawaii
, and the rest are scattered among other states, especially in the American Southwest and
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
.


History

The history of Native Hawaiians, like the history of Hawaii, is commonly classified into four major periods: * the pre-unification period (before ) * the unified
monarchy A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a ...
and
republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...
period ( to 1898) * the US territorial period (1898 to 1959) * the
US statehood period
US statehood period
(1959 to present)


Origins

One theory is that the first
Polynesians Polynesians form an ethnolinguistic group An ethnolinguistic group (or ethno-linguistic group) is a group that is unified by both a common ethnicity An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identif ...
arrived in Hawaii in the 3rd century from the
Marquesas The Marquesas Islands (; french: Îles Marquises or ' or '; Marquesan language, Marquesan: ' (North Marquesan language, North Marquesan) and ' (South Marquesan language, South Marquesan), both meaning "the land of men") are a group of volcano, ...
by travelling in groups of
waka WAKA, virtual channel In most telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its origin in the desire of humans for communication over ...
, and were followed by
Tahitians The Tahitians, ( ty, Mā’ohi; french: Tahitiens) are the Indigenous Indigenous may refer to: *Indigenous peoples Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First people, Aboriginal people, Native people, or autochthonous people, are cultural ...
in AD 1300, who then conquered the original inhabitants. Another is that a single, extended period of settlement populated the islands. Evidence for a Tahitian conquest of the islands include the legends of Hawaiiloa and the navigator-priest Paao, who is said to have made a voyage between Hawaii and the island of "Kahiki" (Tahiti) and introduced many customs. Early historians, such as
Abraham Fornander 200px, Abraham Fornander, about 1878 Abraham Fornander (November 4, 1812 – November 1, 1887) was a Swedish-born emigrant who became an important journalist, judge, and ethnologist Ethnology (from the grc-gre, ἔθνος, meaning 'natio ...

Abraham Fornander
and
Martha Beckwith Martha Warren Beckwith (January 19, 1871 – January 28, 1959) was an American folklorist Folklore studies, also known as folkloristics, and occasionally tradition studies or folk life studies in the United Kingdom, is the branch of anthropo ...
, subscribed to this Tahitian invasion theory, but later historians, such as Patrick Kirch, do not mention it. King Kalākaua claimed that Paao was from
Samoa Samoa (, ), officially the Independent State of Samoa ( sm, Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa; sm, Sāmoa, ) and until 1997 known as Western Samoa, is a Polynesia Polynesia (, ; from grc, πολύς "many" and grc, νῆσος "i ...

Samoa
. Some writers claim that other settlers in Hawaii were forced into remote valleys by newer arrivals. They claim that stories about the
Menehune Menehune are a mythological race of dwarf Dwarf or dwarves may refer to: Common uses *Dwarf (folklore) Two dwarfs as depicted in a 19th-century edition of the '' Poetic Edda'' poem ''Völuspá'' (1895) by Lorenz Frølich">Völuspá.html" ...
, little people who built
heiau A ''heiau'' () is a Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (new ...
and
fishponds Fishponds is a large suburb in the north-east of the English city of Bristol, about from Bristol city centre, the city centre. It has two large Victorian architecture, Victorian-era parks: Eastville Park and Vassall's Park (once the Vassall Fam ...
, prove the existence of ancient peoples who settled the islands before the Hawaiians, but similar stories exist throughout Polynesia.


Demographics

At the time of
Captain Cook Captain (Royal Navy), Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old Style and New Style dates, Old Style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, Cartography, cartographer, and Captain (Royal Navy), captain in the British ...

Captain Cook
's arrival in 1778, the population is estimated to have been between 250,000 and 800,000. This is the peak population of singularly Native Hawaiian people on the islands, with the 293,000 of today being made of both dual lineage Native Hawaiian and mixed lineage/ multi-racial Native Hawaiians. This was also the highest number of any Native Hawaiians living on the island until 2014, a period of almost 226 years. This long spread was marked by a die-off of 1-in-17 Native Hawaiians, to begin with, which would gradually increase to almost 8-10 Hawaiians having died from the first contact to the lowest demographic total in 1950. Over the span of the first century after the first contact, the native Hawaiians were nearly wiped out by
diseases A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function (biology), function of all or part of an organism, and that is not due to any immediate external injury. Diseases are often known to be medical ...
introduced to the islands. Native Hawaiians had no resistance to
influenza Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host (biology), ...

influenza
,
smallpox Smallpox was an infectious disease An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host (biology), host tissues to the infectious ...

smallpox
,
measles Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host (biology), host tissues to ...
, or
whooping cough Whooping cough, also known as pertussis or the 100-day cough, is a highly contagious bacterial disease. Initial symptoms are usually similar to those of the common cold The common cold, also known simply as a cold, is a viral infectious d ...
, among others. These diseases were similarly catastrophic to indigenous populations in the continental United States, and show a larger trend of violence and disease wiping out native people. The 1900 U.S. Census identified 37,656 residents of full or partial native Hawaiian ancestry. The 2000 U.S. Census identified 283,430 residents of Native Hawaiian or
Pacific Islander Pacific Islanders, Pacificer, Pasifika, or Pasefika, are the peoples of the Pacific Islands This is a list of islands in the Pacific Ocean, collectively called the Pacific Islands. Three major groups of island An island (or isle) ...
ancestry, showing a dramatic growth trend since annexation by the U.S. in 1898. Some Hawaiians left the islands during the period of the
Kingdom of Hawaii The Hawaiian Kingdom, or Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, was a sovereign state located in the Hawaiian Islands The Hawaiian Islands ( haw, Mokupuni o Hawai‘i) are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, a ...
like
Harry Maitey The name Harry Maitey was given by Germans to a Native Hawaiians, native Hawaiian (April 23, 1807Moore, Anneliese. Harry Maitey: From Polynesia to Prussia'. Hawaiian Journal of History 11 (1977): 125–161 – February 26, 1872), who was the first ...
, who became the first Hawaiian in
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
. Over the span of the first century after the first contact, the native Hawaiians were nearly wiped out by diseases introduced to the islands. The 2000 U.S. Census identified 283,430 residents of Native Hawaiian or
Pacific Islander Pacific Islanders, Pacificer, Pasifika, or Pasefika, are the peoples of the Pacific Islands This is a list of islands in the Pacific Ocean, collectively called the Pacific Islands. Three major groups of island An island (or isle) ...
ancestry, showing a dramatic growth trend since annexation by the U.S. in 1898. This rapid increase in population has also occurred outside of the island, with many of the populations in California and Washington experiencing dramatic increases in total population. This has been part of the larger Hawaiian cultural revival and reflects an important resurgence in the presence of Native Hawaiians in the fabric of modern island life.


Religion and cultural practice

The Native Hawaiians initially began with a culture that was similar to their Polynesian roots, but with time and isolation began to develop their own
religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...
and cultural practices. This new worship centered on the ideas of land (''aina'') and family (''ohana'') with land being held as a sacred part of life and family going beyond blood. These concepts are very different from Western views of familial structure and ownership. Much of this changed during the imperialist allotment system, and familial relations were also changed by US settler policies. The Hawaiian religion is
polytheistic Polytheism is the worship of or belief in multiple deities A deity or god is a supernatural The supernatural encompasses supposed phenomena or entities that are not subject to the . This term is attributed to , such as s, s, , and . It ...
but mostly focuses on two gods. These are Papa and Wakea, the mother and father of the Hawaiian islands, whose stillborn child formed the deep roots of Hawaii, and whose second child, Haloa, is the god from which all Hawaiians originate. Hawaiian culture is deeply
caste Caste is a form of social stratification Social stratification refers to a society's categorization Categorization is the ability and activity to recognize shared features or similarities between the elements of the experience of the ...
oriented, with definitive roles for people based on their pre-ascribed social standing. This is also reflected in their land system, with moku, tracts of land given to people of high standing and is kept within the family, being split into smaller ahupua'a, which extend from the sea to the mountains, ensuring that each tract of land includes all necessary resources for survival, including hardwoods and food sources. The ahupua'a is managed by managers, who are charged by the chief to collect tributes from each tract. Specialized splits of the ahupua'a are based on the level of tribute, with the major split being 'Ili. 'Ili give a small tribute to the chief of the ahupua'a and another to the chief of the island. This is a form of
tax A tax is a compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer (an individual or legal entity In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act accord ...
, as well as a condition of the caste oriented land system. This is very comparable to the European system of
feudalism Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the disc ...
, since the usage of land for political control and social order is very similar. Native Hawaiians refer to themselves as ''kama'aina'', a word meaning "people of the land", not just because of the connection to the land and their stewardship of it, but as part of the spiritual belief system that holds Native Hawaiian origin to the island itself. This is reinforced by the
taro ''Colocasia esculenta'' is a tropical plant grown primarily for its edible corm A corm, bulbo-tuber, or bulbotuber is a short, vertical, swollen underground plant stem '' has lost its leaves, but is producing adventitious rootsImportant ...

taro
plant, a crop that is said to be the manifestation of Hāloa, the stillborn son of Papa and Wakea. The taro plant comes to represent the deep root network that tethers Hawaiians to the island, as well as symbolizing the branching networks of the currently living Hawaiian people. The struggle to preserve Native Hawaiian culture is apparent in the schooling system that centers indigenous knowledge and language, as well as activism to preserve traditional landholdings. Much of the Hawaiian culture has been commodified, with
hula Hula () is a Polynesian dance form accompanied by chant (Oli) or song (Mele Mele ( lij, Mê) is a ''comune'' (municipality) in the Province of Genoa in the Italy, Italian region Liguria, located about west of Genoa. Mele borders the followi ...
dancers and symbols being mass-produced for non-Hawaiian consumption, which some scholars like Haunani-Kay Trask have considered prostitution of Hawaiian traditions. This also includes things like the use of the word "Aloha", and the assimilation of Hawaiian culture into non-native lifestyles. For many Native Hawaiians, this is a difficult situation as the financial incentive offers a chance to escape joblessness, poverty, and complete erasure, while also allowing the dilution of cultural practice.


Culture and arts

Several cultural preservation societies and organizations have been established over the course of the 20th century. The largest of those institutions is the Bernice Pauahi
Bishop Museum The Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, designated the Hawaii State Museum of Natural and Cultural History, is a museum of history and science in the historic Kalihi district of Honolulu, Hawaii, Honolulu on the Hawaiian island of Oahu, O'ahu. Founded ...

Bishop Museum
, established in 1889 and designated as the Hawaiʻi State Museum of Natural and Cultural History. The Bishop Museum houses the largest collection of native Hawaiian artifacts, documents, and other information available for educational use. Most objects are held for preservation alone. The museum has links with major colleges and universities throughout the world to facilitate research. With the support of the Bishop Museum, the
Polynesian Voyaging Society The Polynesian Voyaging Society (PVS) is a non-profit research and educational corporation based in Honolulu, Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, Hawaii. PVS was established to research and perpetuate traditional Polynesian Polynesian navigation, voyaging m ...
's double-hulled canoe, '' Hōkūlea'', has contributed to rediscovery of native Hawaiian culture, especially in the revival of
celestial navigation Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is the ancient and modern practice of position fixing that enables a navigator to transition through a space without having to rely on estimated calculations, or dead reckoning, to know their p ...

celestial navigation
, by which ancient Polynesians originally settled Hawaiʻi. One of the most commonly known arts of Hawaii is
hula Hula () is a Polynesian dance form accompanied by chant (Oli) or song (Mele Mele ( lij, Mê) is a ''comune'' (municipality) in the Province of Genoa in the Italy, Italian region Liguria, located about west of Genoa. Mele borders the followi ...
dancing. Traditionally, hula was a religious ritualistic dance that was more about honoring the gods and goddesses than about entertainment. In the 21st century, many people recognize the hula dance in two different categories, which are Hula Kahiko and Hula ʻAuana. Hula Kahiko, which is an "old" style of the hula dancing that is an interpretive dance, famous for its grace and romantic feel, that expresses stories and feeling from almost any phase of life and culture of Hawaiians. While dancing, they also use
percussion instruments A percussion instrument is a musical instrument A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make Music, musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpo ...
and . Hawaiians make their own traditional instruments to use while the dancers are dancing. These include the pahu hula, kilu or puniu, ipu, hano or phe hano ihu, ka, pu, oeoe, pahupahu kaekeeke, hokio, and wi. Dancers employ implements to create sounds. Some of the traditional hula implements are uliuli, puili, iliili, papahehi, and kalaau. Hula ʻAuana is a hula that was changed by Western influences and performed with musical instruments that do not originate from the Hawaiian Islands. It was popularized and influenced by the influx of tourists to the Hawaiian Islands. The stories are told primarily with the movements of the body and hands, music, and and
guitars The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that typically has six string instrument, strings. It is held flat against the player's body and played by strumming or Plucked string instrument, plucking the strings with the dominant hand, while sim ...

guitars
to accompany the dancers. The entire performance makes it more entertaining for those who are new to the culture. The Hawaiian people have various traditions and holidays they celebrate annually. One of the most important holidays is Prince Kuhio Day. Celebrated every year since 1949 on his birthday (March 26), Prince Kuhio Day honors Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole, a Congressman who succeeded in helping Native Hawaiian families become public landowners. It is celebrated with canoe races and luaus across the islands of Hawaii. The most popular and well-known form of celebration in Hawaii are luaus. A luau is a traditional Hawaiian banquet, commonly featuring food such as poi, poke, lomi-lomi salmon, kalua pig,
haupia Haupia is a traditional A tradition is a belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In epistemology, philosophers use the term "belief" to ref ...

haupia
, and classic Hawaiian entertainment like ukulele music and hula. Every June 11 Native Hawaiians celebrate King Kamehameha day. was the king who unified
Niʻihau Niihau (Hawaiian language, Hawaiian: ), anglicized as Niihau ( ), is the westernmost List of islands of Hawaii, main and seventh largest inhabited island in Hawaii. It is southwest of Kauai, Kauaʻi across the Channels of the Hawaiian Islands#Kaul ...

Niʻihau
, , , ,
Lānaʻi Lanai ( haw, Lānai, , , also ,) is the sixth-largest of the Hawaiian Islands The Hawaiian Islands ( haw, Mokupuni o Hawai‘i) are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and seamounts in the Paci ...

Lānaʻi
,
Kahoʻolawe Kahoolawe (Hawaiian: ), anglicized as Kahoolawe (), is the smallest of the eight main volcanic A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object A planet is an astronomical body orbit In physics, an orbit is the g ...
,
Maui The island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), sometimes known as ...

Maui
, and
Hawaiʻi Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States, located in the Pacific Ocean about 2,000 miles from the U.S. mainland. It is the only state outside North America, the only state that is an archipelago, a ...
under one flag and established the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi. He was also known as a fearless warrior, wise diplomat, and the most respected leader in the history of the Hawaiian monarchy. The holiday is celebrated with parades and lei draping ceremonies, where Native Hawaiians bring lei to the multiple King Kamehameha statues located across the islands and drape them from his cast bronze arms and neck to honor his contributions to the people of Hawaiʻi.


Hawaiian cultural revival

Native Hawaiian culture has seen a revival in recent years as an outgrowth of decisions made at the 1978 Hawaiʻi State Constitutional Convention, held 200 years after the arrival of Captain Cook. At the convention, the Hawaiʻi state government committed itself to a progressive study and preservation of native Hawaiian culture, history, and language. A comprehensive Hawaiian culture curriculum was introduced into the State of Hawaiʻi's public elementary schools teaching: ancient Hawaiian art, lifestyle, geography,
hula Hula () is a Polynesian dance form accompanied by chant (Oli) or song (Mele Mele ( lij, Mê) is a ''comune'' (municipality) in the Province of Genoa in the Italy, Italian region Liguria, located about west of Genoa. Mele borders the followi ...
, and Hawaiian language vocabulary. Intermediate and high schools were mandated to impose two sets of Hawaiian history curricula on every candidate for graduation. Statutes and charter amendments were passed acknowledging a policy of preference for Hawaiian place and street names. For example, with the closure of
Barbers Point Naval Air Station Naval Air Station Barbers Point , on O'ahu, also called John Rodgers (naval officer, World War I), John Rodgers Field (the original name of Honolulu International Airport), is a former United States Navy airfield closed in 1999, and renamed Kalaeloa ...
in the 1990s, the region formerly occupied by the base was renamed
Kalaeloa Kalaeloa is a census-designated place A census-designated place (CDP) is a Place (United States Census Bureau), concentration of population defined by the United States Census Bureau for statistical purposes only. CDPs have been used in each decen ...
.


Activism

While Native Hawaiian protest has a long history, beginning just after the
overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom The overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom began on January 16, 1893, with a ''coup d'état A coup d'état (; French for "blow of state"), often shortened to coup in English, (also known as an overthrow) is a seizure and removal of a governmen ...
, many of the most notable struggles and protest movements by Native Hawaiians were conducted during or after the Hawaiian cultural revival. These include the Kalama Valley protests, the Waiāhole-Waikāne struggle, the
Kahoolawe Kahoolawe (Hawaiian: ), anglicized as Kahoolawe (), is the smallest of the eight main volcano, volcanic islands in the Hawaiian Islands. Kahoolawe is located about southwest of Maui and also southeast of Lanai, Lānaʻi, and it is long by wide ...
protests, and the Thirty Meter Telescope protests.


Hawaiian language


Hawaiian Traditional Language

The Hawaiian language (or ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi) was once the primary language of the native Hawaiian people; today, native Hawaiians predominantly speak the
English language English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), g ...

English language
. A major factor for this change was an 1896 law that required that English "be the only medium and basis of instruction in all public and private schools". This law prevented the Hawaiian language from being taught as a second language. In spite of this, some Native Hawaiians (as well as non-Native Hawaiians) have learned ʻŌlelo as a second language. As with others local to Hawaii, Native Hawaiians often speak
Hawaiian Creole English Hawaiian Pidgin (alternately, Hawai'i Creole English or HCE, known locally as Pidgin) is an English language, English-based creole language spoken in Hawaii, Hawaiʻi. An estimated 600,000 residents of Hawaiʻi speak Hawaiian Pidgin and 400,000 ...
(referred to in Hawaiʻi as Pidgin), a creole which developed during Hawaiʻi's plantation era in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries with the influence of the various ethnic groups living in Hawaii during that time. Nowadays, ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi is the official language of the State of Hawaii, alongside
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
. The Hawaiian language has been promoted for revival most recently by a state program of cultural preservation enacted in 1978. Programs included the opening of Hawaiian language immersion schools, and the establishment of a Hawaiian language department at the
University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa The University of Hawaii at Mānoa (University of Hawaii—Mānoa, U.H. Mānoa, and formally known as the University of Hawai'i, or simply UH) is a public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and dis ...
. As a result, Hawaiian language learning has climbed among all races in Hawaiʻi. In 2006, the established a masters program in the Hawaiian Language. In fall 2006, they established a doctoral (
Ph.D A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known a ...
) program in the Hawaiian Language. In addition to being the first doctoral program for the study of Hawaiian, it is the first doctoral program established for the study of any native language in the
United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States of America
. Hawaiian is still spoken as the primary language by the residents on the private island of
Niʻihau Niihau (Hawaiian language, Hawaiian: ), anglicized as Niihau ( ), is the westernmost List of islands of Hawaii, main and seventh largest inhabited island in Hawaii. It is southwest of Kauai, Kauaʻi across the Channels of the Hawaiian Islands#Kaul ...
.


Hawai'i Sign Language

Alongside 'Ōlelo Hawai'i, some Maoli (Native Hawaiians) spoke Hawai'i Sign Language (or HSL). Little is known about the language by Western academics and efforts are being made to preserve and revitalize the language.


Education

Hawaiian children are publicly educated under the same terms as any other children in the United States. In
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Hawaii
, children are publicly educated by the Hawaiʻi State
Department of Education An education ministry is a national or subnational government agency politically responsible for education. Various other names are commonly used to identify such agencies, such as Ministry of Education, Department of Education, and Ministry of Pub ...

Department of Education
. Under the administration of Governor Benjamin J. Cayetano from 1994 to 2002, the state's educational system established Hawaiian language immersion schools. In these schools, all subject courses are taught in the Hawaiian language and use native Hawaiian subject matter in curricula. These schools were created in the spirit of cultural preservation and are not exclusive to native Hawaiian children. Native Hawaiians are eligible for an education from the
Kamehameha Schools Kamehameha may refer to: House of Kamehameha *House of Kamehameha The House of Kamehameha ''(Hale O Kamehameha)'', or the Kamehameha dynasty, was the reigning Royal Family of the Hawaiian Kingdom, Kingdom of Hawaii, beginning with its founding b ...
, established through the last will and testament of
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Bernice Pauahi Bishop Royal_Order_of_Kamehameha_I, KGCOK Royal_Order_of_Kal%C4%81kaua, RoK (December 19, 1831 – October 16, 1884), born Bernice Pauahi Pākī, was an ''Aliʻi, alii'' (noble) of the Royal Family of the Hawaiian Kingdom, Kingd ...
of the . The largest and wealthiest
private school Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United ...
in the United States, Kamehameha Schools was intended to benefit orphans and the needy, with preference given to native Hawaiians. The Kamehameha Schools educates thousands of children of entire and part native Hawaiian ancestry at its campuses during the regular school year, and also has summer and off-campus programs that are not restricted by ancestry. Kamehameha Schools' practice of accepting primarily gifted students, in lieu of intellectually challenged children, has been a controversial topic amongst the native Hawaiian community. Many families feel that the gifted students could excel at any learning institution, public or private, and that the Hawaiian community may be better served by educating children from high-risk, high-crime districts so that a greater proportion of disadvantaged youths may grow up to be responsible community contributors. As with other children in Hawaiʻi, some native Hawaiians are educated by other prominent private academies in the Aloha State. They include:
Punahou School Punahou School (known as Oahu College until 1934) is a private, co-educational Mixed-sex education, also known as mixed-gender education, co-education, or coeducation (abbreviated to co-ed or coed), is a system of education Educ ...
, Saint Louis School, Mid-Pacific Institute, and Iolani School, ʻIolani School.


Native Hawaiian ways of learning

Native Hawaiians exemplify patterns of observational learning, a model that captures seven interrelated descriptions, or facets, of learning found in Indigenous communities in the Americas.Rogoff, B. (2014). Learning by Observing and Pitching In to Family and Community Endeavors. Learning by Observing and Pitching In to Family and Community Endeavors: An Orientation, 4(57), 69-81. Native Hawaiian views on learning flow from three basic tenets that correspond directly to the observational learning model: "''I ka nānā no a ʻike'': by observing, one learns. ''I ka hoʻolohe no a hoʻomaopopo:'' by listening, one commits to memory. ''I ka hana no a ʻike'': by practice one masters the skill."Pukui, M. K., Haertig, E. W., Lee, C. A., & Queen Liliʻuokalani Children's Center. (1972). Nānā i ke kumu: Look to the source. Honolulu, HI: Hui Hanai. Learner collaboration and contribution Similar to the indigenous communities of the Americas, Native Hawaiian children contribute alongside the adults, and the adults' presence is there to offer support. In most Native Hawaiian communities, household work tasks, such as ironing and cooking, etc., play a major role in contributing to the home life and children's participation enhances their importance within the family. Native Hawaiian children have shared aspirations to accomplish Collaboration, collaborative tasks, and they individually take initiative to work together.Weisner, T. S., Gallimore, R. and Jordan, C. (1988), Unpackaging Cultural Effects on Classroom Learning: Native Hawaiian Peer Assistance and Child-Generated Activity. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 19: 327–353. Children absorb very early the community-wide belief that ''hana'' (work) is respected and laziness is shameful. The phrase "''E hoʻohuli ka lima i lalo''" (The palms of the hands should be turned down) was used to communicate the idea that idleness (associated with upturned palms) was to be avoided. Collaborative and flexible ensembles Native Hawaiian children Cooperation, cooperate with flexible leadership to combine their skills, ideas, and abilities, like that found in observational learning in the indigenous communities of the Americas. Family organization is a "shared-function" system that includes flexible roles and fluid responsibility within the group. Basic family values include interdependence, responsibility for others, sharing of work and resources, obedience, and respect. Children assume important family responsibilities early and act as members of a sibling workforce that is held collectively responsible for completing tasks. Children also take initiative to help others in the classroom. It has been observed that when children are working in a group with their peers and face difficulty, they will scan the room for an adult to assist or turn to their close fellows to either ask for help. Children also scan to provide help to others when necessary. In this way, children shift between the roles of assisted and assistant. Adults were present and available, but the children were more often found to take the initiative to learn from, and teach, one another how to perform tasks such as sweeping, homework, and caring for younger siblings. Learning to transform participation Among Native Hawaiians, the goal of learning is to transform Youth participation, participation to encompass conscientious accountability as active contributing members of the community, like that found in Learning by Observing and Pitching In (LOPI). For example, in some Native Hawaiian communities, parent(s) teach the older siblings the necessary skills of care taking. Sibling care-taking skills can relate to indigenous American ways of learning by the children becoming considerate of their parents and taking on the responsibility when needed in case of a tragic incident with the parents. Within the classroom and home settings, adults are present but are not always directly monitoring the children. Children ask for help when necessary, but adults appear to rarely interject. Children appeared to adapt to tasks and situations by observations and go off on their own to collectively work out how and what to do to complete the task. Fosterage, Assuming and initiating care has been found across Polynesian cultures, and Native Hawaiian practices are in keeping with this trend. One study observed, interviewed, and evaluated families on the Polynesian Island Sikaiana and found that fostering children from other families within the community is a common shared endeavor that serves to construct relationships, support the community, and nurture compassion and sympathy Aloha, (''aloha'').Donner, W. W. (1999). Sharing and Compassion: Fosterage in a Polynesian Society. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 30(4), autumn, 703-722. Retrieved May 25, 2017. As children mature within the family, they go through a process of having their needs attended and learn to provide and care for the younger children alongside the adults. Adolescent girls who are active caretakers are referred to as parents, even if there is no biological connection. Wide and keen attention for contribution The Hawaiians' ways of learning include wide keen attention from the children while adults are available for guidance, also found in the model of Learning by Observing and Pitching In. Children were found to learn from adults by participating in group activities where they had the chance to observe the performance of more experienced participants as well as having errors in their own performance corrected by more seasoned group members. Because the children Observational learning, learn through observation, and then are encouraged to practice among their peers, we can speculate the children have keen attention to events around them, which is an expectation of adults and community members who are there to assist when needed. It has been observed that Hawaiian children were successful at completing tasks which greatly depend on visual and memory process skills, which coincides with Hawaiian mother's frequent use of non-verbal communication. Coordination through shared reference In some Native Hawaiian communities, there is a constant use of Storytelling, "talk story" which plays an essential role in promoting solidarity in the community by not overpowering or making the members of the community feel inadequate for not understanding something. Talk story can consist of recalled events, folktales, and joking. Joking can be used to tease and guide the children about how to do a chore better or to avoid serious trouble. Talk story relates to an Indigenous way of learning by providing conversations such as narratives and dramatizations with verbal and nonverbal communication between the elder and children. Another example of verbal communication in the Native Hawaiian culture is through the use of chanting, which can allow a child to understand the relationship of their present experiences to those of their ancestors, both alive and deceased. Chanting also allows children to understand the connections of their chants to mother earth. For instance, chanting can voice the need for rain to produce plants and induce ponds to grow fish for harvest.Meyer, Manu Aluli (1998) Native Hawaiian Epistemology: Sites of Empowerment and Resistance, Equity & Excellence in Education, 31:1, 22-28, A study comparing Midwestern and Hawaiian mother – Kindergartener pairs presented with a novel task, found Hawaiian mothers to be much lower than their Midwestern counterparts in the use of verbal-control techniques and much higher in non-verbal communication, a finding which implies coordination through Nonverbal communication, non-verbal and verbal means. Aspects of togetherness, continuity, purpose, and significance are a part of learning and coincide with the Native Hawaiian's spiritual connection to earth and environment. Feedback that appraises mastery and support for learning There is verbal and nonverbal guidance from parents to children with chores and other activities. For example, a pat on the shoulder can communicate to the child that he/she is doing the activity at hand the correct way.This example relates to the LOPI model by there being an appraisal from the parent(s) in order to support their progress in learning and contributing better in the community. As the child gradually advances towards more complex tasks, the goal of mastery and feedback on the adequacy of their contributions become more pronounced. In the context of producing objects e.g. baskets, mats, or quilts, there was a belief that a child must produce a perfect end-product before moving on to learn the skills of producing something else. Perfection in these products was judged by more experienced craftspeople and was attained by repeated attempts interspersed with feedback. The perfected final products were kept as a special reminder and never used. Their production was seen as a necessary first step in "clearing the way" for other products to come; an indication of mastery for that skill set. Throughout several research articles, it becomes clear that many of the Native Hawaiian ways of learning resemble the defining characteristics of LOPI, which is common in many Indigenous communities of the Americas.


Office of Hawaiian Affairs

Another important outgrowth of the 1978 Hawaiʻi State Constitutional Convention was the establishment of the Office of Hawaiian Affairs, more popularly known as OHA. Delegates that included future Hawaiʻi political stars Benjamin J. Cayetano, John D. Waihee III, and Jeremy Harris (politician), Jeremy Harris created measures intended to address injustices toward native Hawaiians since the Overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom, overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi in 1893. OHA was established as a trust, administered with a mandate to better the conditions of both native Hawaiians and the Hawaiian community in general. OHA was given control over certain public lands, and continues to expand its land-holdings to this day (most recently with Waimea Valley, previously Waimea Falls Park). Besides purchases since its inception, the lands initially given to OHA were originally crown lands of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi used to pay the expenses of the monarchy (later held by the Provisional Government following the fall of the monarchy in 1893). Upon the declaration of the Republic of Hawaiʻi, they were officially designated as public lands. They were ceded to federal control with the establishment of the Territory of Hawaiʻi in 1898, and finally returned to the State of Hawaiʻi as public lands in 1959. OHA is a semi-autonomous government body administered by a nine-member board of trustees, elected by the people of the State of Hawaiʻi through popular suffrage. Originally, trustees and the people eligible to vote for trustees were restricted to native Hawaiians. Rice v. Cayetano—suing the state to allow non-Hawaiians to sit on the board of trustees, and for non-Hawaiians to be allowed to vote in trustee elections—reached the United States Supreme Court, which ruled in favor of Rice on February 23, 2000, forcing OHA to open its elections to all residents of the State of Hawaiʻi, regardless of ethnicity.


Federal developments


United States Annexation

In 1893, after the ascension of Queen Liliuokalani to the Hawaiian Throne in 1891, Sanford Dole created the "Committee of Safety" to overthrow the monarchy. This was in part due to the rejection of the 1887 Constitution by Queen Liliuokalani, which had severely limited the authority of the traditional Hawaiian monarch. See Overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom . This led to the diminishment of traditional governance and the installment of a US-backed, sugar baron government that was set on maximizing land-based profit on the island. This is not the first major US government involvement, see Hawaiian rebellions (1887–1895), but marked one of the biggest shifts in policy. Many have speculated that the coup was due to Kalākaua's unwillingness to sign the amended Treaty of Reciprocity which would have hurt Hawaiian trade, and opened up part of the island for the Pearl Harbor based military installation. The United States coup would be bolstered by the usage of the US Marines and despite being challenged by Grover Cleveland, would eventually be supported by President McKinley in his "Manifest Destiny" plan, which was both harmful to indigenous peoples in the continental United States and the unceded Kingdom of Hawai'i. Overall, this coup left Native Hawaiians as the only major indigenous group with no "nation-to-nation" negotiation method and without any form of self determination.


Native American Programs Act

In 1974, the Native American Programs Act was amended to include native Hawaiians. This paved the way for native Hawaiians to become eligible for some, but not all, federal assistance programs originally intended for Native Americans in the United States, Continental Native Americans. Today, Title 45 CFR Part 1336.62 defines a Native Hawaiian as "an individual any of whose ancestors were natives of the area which consists of the Hawaiian Islands prior to 1778". There is some controversy as to whether or not native Hawaiians should be considered in the same light as Native Americans.


United States apology resolution

On November 23, 1993, President of the United States, U.S. President Bill Clinton signed United States Public Law 103–150, also known as the Apology Resolution, which had previously passed Congress. This resolution "apologizes to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the people of the United States for the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii".


Native Hawaiian Government Reorganization Act of 2009

In the early 2000s, the Congressional delegation of the State of Hawaiʻi introduced the Native Hawaiian Federal Recognition Bill, beginning the process of US federal recognition of Native Hawaiians, recognizing and forming a Native Hawaiian government entity to negotiate with state and federal governments. The significance of the bill is that it would establish, for the first time in the history of the islands, a new political and legal relationship between a Native Hawaiian entity and the federal government. This Native Hawaiian entity would be a newly created one without any historical precedent in the islands, or direct institutional continuity with previous political entities (unlike many Native American Indian groups, for example). This bill came under scrutiny by the Bush administration's Department of Justice, as well as the United States Senate Judiciary Committee. The political context surrounding the Akaka Bill is both controversial and complex. Proponents, who consider the legislation an acknowledgement and partial correction of past injustices, include Hawaiʻi's Congressional delegation, as well as the former Republican Party (United States), Republican Governor, Linda Lingle. Opponents include the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, (who question the constitutionality of creating race-based governments), libertarian activists, (who challenge the historical accuracy of any claims of injustice), and other Native Hawaiian sovereignty movement, Hawaiian sovereignty activists, (who feel the legislation would thwart their hopes for complete independence from the United States). A Ward Research poll commissioned in 2003 by the Office of Hawaiian Affairs reported that "Eighty-six percent of the 303 Hawaiian residents polled by Ward Research said 'yes.' Only 7 percent said 'no,' with 6 percent unsure ... Of the 301 non-Hawaiians polled, almost eight in 10 (78 percent) supported federal recognition, 16 percent opposed it, with 6 percent unsure." A IBOPE Zogby International, Zogby International poll commissioned in 2009 by the Grassroot Institute, Grassroot Institute of Hawaii indicated that a plurality (39%) of Hawaiʻi residents opposed the Native Hawaiian Reorganization Act of 2009, and that 76% indicated that they were unwilling to pay higher taxes to cover any loss in tax revenues that might be incurred by the act.


Ka Huli Ao: Center for Excellence in Native Hawaiian Law

In 2005, with the support of U.S. Senator Daniel Inouye, federal funding through the Native Hawaiian Education Act created the Center for Excellence in Native Hawaiian Law at the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa's William S. Richardson School of Law. A few years later, the program became known as Ka Huli Ao: Center for Excellence in Native Hawaiian Law. The inaugural director of Ka Huli Ao is Honolulu attorney Melody Kapilialoha MacKenzie, who was the chief editor of the Native Hawaiian Rights Handbook, which describes Native Hawaiian law. Ka Huli Ao focuses on research, scholarship, and community outreach. Ka Huli Ao provides a monthly lunch-time discussion forum referred to as ''Maoli Thursday'', which is free and open to the public. Ka Huli Ao maintains its own blog, as well as a Twitter account and a Facebook group. Ka Huli Ao also provides law students with summer fellowships. Law school graduates are eligible to apply for post-J.D. fellowships that last for one year.


Department of Interior Self-Governance Proposal

In 2016, the Department of Interior (DOI) under the direction of Secretary Jewell and President Obama, started the process of recognizing the Hawaiians’ right to self governance and the ability for nation-to-nation negotiation status and rights. This created opposition from those who did not believe that Native Hawaiians should have to go through US structures to regain sovereignty as well as saw the US attempts as being an "incomplete path to Hawaiian independence and nationhood". The final verdict of 2016 allowed for nation-to-nation relationships if Native Hawaiians created their own government and sought that relationship. Ultimately the naming of delegates and recognition of the results for the new government was stopped by Justice Kennedy, using his earlier precedent in Rice v. Cayetano that "ancestry was a proxy for race" in ancestry based elections, but the voting itself was not stopped (see: United States federal recognition of Native Hawaiians).


Notable Native Hawaiians

In 1873, the first native Hawaiians were given permission from King Lunalilo (prior emigration of native Hawaiians was not allowed) to permanently emigrate to the United States (Salt Lake City, Utah) whose names were Kiha Kaʻawa, and Kahana Pukahi. Kiha was adopted by Mormon Missionary President George Nebeker immediately upon arrival making Kiha Kaʻawa (Nebeker) the first native Hawaiian to become a U.S. citizen in 1873.


See also

* Culture of Hawaii * Hawaiian home land * Hawaiian kinship *
Hawaiian sovereignty movement In the U.S. state In the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It co ...
* History of Hawaii * Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas


References


Further reading

* Maenette K. Nee-Benham and Ronald H. Heck, Culture and Educational Policy in Hawaiʻi: The Silencing of Native Voices, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1998 * Scott Cunningham, Hawaiian Magic and Spirituality, Llewellyn Worldwide, Ltd., 2000 * Rona Tamiko Tamiko Halualani, In the Name of Hawaiians: Native Identities and Cultural Politics, University of Minnesota Press, 2002 * Marshall D. Sahlins, How Natives Think: About Captain Cook, for Example, University of Chicago Press, 1995 * Thomas G. Thrum, Hawaiian Folk Tales: A Collection of Native Legends, International Law & Taxation Publishers, 2001 * Thomas G. Thrum, More Hawaiian Folk Tales: A Collection of Native Legends and Traditions, International Law & Taxation Publishers, 2001 * Houston Wood, Displacing Natives: The Rhetorical Production of Hawaiʻi, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1999 * Kanalu G. Terry Young Rethinking the Native Hawaiian Past, Taylor & Francis, Inc., 1998 *
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External links


Office of Hawaiian Affairs (OHA)

Council for Native Hawaiian Advancement

Ka Huli Ao Center for Excellence in Native Hawaiian Law official website

Ka Huli Ao Blog
* {{Authority control Native Hawaiian Native Hawaiian people Ethnic groups in the United States Indigenous peoples of Polynesia Indigenous peoples in the United States, * Oceanian American Pacific Islands American Polynesian American American culture