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World Athletics (name since October 2019, formerly known as the International Amateur Athletic Federation (from 1912 to 2001) and International Association of Athletics Federations (from 2001 to 2019), both abbreviated as the IAAF) is the international
governing body A governing body is a group of people that has the authority to exercise governance Governance is all the processes of interactions be they through the laws Law is a system of rules created and law enforcement, enforced through social o ...
for the
sport of athletics Athletics is a group of sporting events that involves competitive running, jumping, throwing sports, throwing, and walking. The most common types of athletics competitions are track and field, road running, cross country running, and racewalkin ...
, covering
track and field Track and field is a sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants and, in some cases, ...
,
cross country running Cross country running is a sport Sport pertains to any form of competitive Competition is a rivalry A rivalry is the state of two people or groups engaging in a lasting competitive relationship. Rivalry is the "against each other" ...
,
road running Image:1990 Synwell 10-01.jpg, Athletes at the start of a 10-mile race in Gloucestershire in England, United Kingdom, UK in 1990. Road running is the sport of running on a measured course over an established road. This differs from track and fie ...
,
racewalking Racewalking, or race walking, is a long-distance discipline within the . Although a foot race, it is different from in that one foot must appear to be in contact with the ground at all times. This is assessed by . Typically held on either s or s ...
,
mountain running Mountain running is a sports discipline which takes place mainly off-road Off-roading is the activity of driving Driving is the controlled operation and movement of a vehicle, including cars, motorcycles, truck mining truck A tr ...
, and
ultra running An ultramarathon, also called ultra distance or ultra running, is any footrace longer than the traditional marathon length of . Overview There are two main types of ultramarathon events: those that cover a specified distance or route, and those ...
. Included in its charge are the standardization of rules and regulations for the sports, certification of athletic facilities, recognition and management of
world records A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill, sport, or other kind of activity. The book ''Guinness World Records'' collates and publishes notable record ...
, and the organisation and sanctioning of athletics competitions, including the
World Athletics Championships The World Athletics Championships are a biennial athletics competition organized by World Athletics (formerly IAAF, International Association of Athletics Federations). The World Championships were started in 1976 in response to the Internationa ...
. The organisation's president is
Sebastian Coe Sebastian Newbold Coe, Baron Coe, (born 29 September 1956), often referred to as Seb Coe or Lord Coe, is a British politician and former track and field Track and field is a sport that includes athletic contests established on the skill ...
of the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
, who was elected in 2015 and re-elected unopposed in 2019 for a further four years.


History

The process to found World Athletics began in
Stockholm Stockholm (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Stockholm
, Sweden, on 18 July 1912 soon after the completion of the
1912 Summer Olympics The 1912 Summer Olympics (Swedish: ''Olympiska sommarspelen 1912''), officially known as the Games of the V Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event A multi-sport event is an organized sporting event, often held over multiple days, feat ...
in that city. At that meeting, 27 representatives from 17 national federations agreed to meet at a congress in
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
, Germany, the following year, overseen by
Sigfrid Edström Johannes Sigfrid Edström (11 November 1870 – 18 March 1964) was a Swedish industrialist, chairman of the Sweden-America Foundation, and 4th President of the International Olympic Committee The president of the International Olympic Comm ...
who was to become the fledgling organisation's first president. The 1913 congress formally completed the founding of what was then known as the International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF). It was headquartered in
Stockholm Stockholm (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Stockholm
from 1912 to 1946, in
London London is the Capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. It stands on the River Thames in south-east England at the head of a estuary down to the North Sea, and has b ...

London
from 1946 to 1993, and thereafter moved to its current location in
Monaco Monaco (; ), officially the Principality of Monaco (french: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque Ligurian: ''Prinçipatu de Mu̍negu''), is a sovereign Sovereign is a title which can be applied to the highest leader in various categories. The ...

Monaco
. In 1926, the IAAF created a commission to regulate all ball games which were played by hand, including
basketball Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most commonly of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, ...

basketball
and
handball Handball (also known as team handball, European handball or Olympic handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outcourt players and a Handball goalkeeper, goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of thr ...

handball
. Subsequently, the
International Amateur Handball Federation The International Amateur Handball Federation (IAHF) was the administrative and controlling body for handball and field handball. IAHF was responsible for the organisation of handball's major international tournaments, notably the World Men's Handba ...
was founded in 1928, and the
International Basketball Federation The International Basketball Federation (FIBA ; French language, French: ) is an association of national organizations which governs the sport of basketball worldwide. Originally known as the (hence FIBA), in 1989 it dropped the word ''amateur' ...
was founded in 1932. Beginning in 1982, the IAAF passed several amendments to its rules to allow athletes to receive compensation for participating in international competitions. However, the organization retained the word ''
amateur An amateur (; ; ) is generally considered a person who pursues a particular activity or field of study independently from their source of income. Amateurs and their pursuits are also described as popular, informal, , , , and ist. History Histor ...
'' in its name until its 2001 congress, at which it changed its name to the International Association of Athletics Federations. In June 2019 the organization chose to rebrand as ''World Athletics'', with a rollout beginning after the 2019 World Championships in
Doha Doha ( ar, الدوحة, ad-Dawḥa or ''ad-Dōḥa'') is the capital city, capital and most populous city of Qatar. It has a population of 2,382,000 (2018). The city is located on the coast of the Persian Gulf, Persian gulf in the east of the ...

Doha
. Following repeated requests, World Athletics became the last body within the
Association of Summer Olympic International Federations The Association of Summer Olympic International Federations (ASOIF) is a non-profit association of international sports federations that compete in the Summer Olympic Games The Summer Olympic Games (french: Jeux olympiques d'été) also known ...
to make public its financial reports in 2020. It revealed the organisation had revenue of around US$200 million spread over a four-year Olympic cycle, with around a fifth of that revenue coming from Olympic broadcasting rights. The reports showed a deficit in each of the non-Olympic years of 2017 and 2018 of around US$20 million. It also showed heavy dependence on its partnership with Japanese marketing agency
Dentsu Dentsu Inc. ( ja, 株式会社電通 ''Kabushiki-gaisha Dentsū'' or 電通 ''Dentsū'' for short) is a Japanese international advertising and public relations joint stock company A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of ...

Dentsu
, which made up half of 2018's revenue. It also highlighted reserves of US$45 million at the end of 2018, which would allow the organisation to remain solvent in the face of delays to the
2020 Summer Olympics The , officially the , and also known as , is an upcoming international multi-sport event scheduled to be held from 23 July to 8 August 2021 in Tokyo, Japan. Originally due to take place from 24 July to 9 August 2020, the ...
due to the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...

COVID-19 pandemic
. World Athletics Day is celebrated on 7 May.


Governance

World Athletics is headed by a
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
. The World Athletics Council has a total of 26 elected members, comprising one president, four
vice-president A vice president (in British English: vice-president for governments and director for businesses) is an officer in government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), ...
s (one senior), the presidents of the six area associations, two members of the Athletes' Commission and 13 Council members. Each member of the Council is elected for a four-year period by the World Athletics Congress, a biennial gathering of athletics officials that consists of the Council, Honorary Members, and up to three delegates from each of the national member federations. Chairpersons and member of Committees, which manage specialist portfolios, are also elected by the Congress. There are four committees: the Cross Country Committee, the Race Walking Committee, the Technical Committee, and the Women's Committee. A further three committees were launched in 2019: Development, Governance and Competitions. The governance structure is outlined in the World Athletics Constitution, which may be amended by the Congress. The World Athletics Council appoints a
chief executive officer A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator officer, or just chief executive (CE), is one of a number of Corporate Executive, corporate executives in charge of managing an organization especially an independent Legal person, legal entity ...
(CEO), who is focused on improving the coverage of the sport and the organisation's commercial interests. This role was created and merged with the General Secretary role that had existed previously. British former athlete and businessman
Jon Ridgeon Jonathan ("Jon") Peter Ridgeon (born 14 February 1967) is an English former athlete An athlete (also sportsman or sportswoman) is a person who competes in one or more sports that involve physical strength, speed or endurance. The use of the ...
was appointed to the role in December 2018. Olivier Gers was the first person to officially hold the position in 2016, succeeding the interim CEO/General Secretary Jean Gracia. In order to give active athletes a voice in the governance of the sport, World Athletics created the Athletes' Commission. Athletes are elected to the commission by other athletes, typically held at the Congress attached to the World Athletics Championships. The commission chairperson and one other athlete of the opposite sex are given voting rights on the Council. The last election was held in October 2019 at the 2019 World Athletics Championships. Following doping and corruption issues, a Code of Ethics was agreed in 2013 and an Ethics Commission was appointed in 2014. The Council appoints the chairperson from the elected members, and in turn the chairperson appoints a deputy chair. The Ethics Board's scope was limited in 2017 with the creation of the independent Athletics Integrity Unit, headed by Australia's Brett Clothier, to oversee ethical issues and complaints at arm's length. The International Athletics Foundation is a charity closely associated with World Athletics that engages in projects and programmes to develop the sport.
Albert II, Prince of Monaco Albert II – Website of the Palace of Monaco (Albert Alexandre Louis Pierre Grimaldi; born 14 March 1958) is the Monarchy of Monaco, Sovereign Prince of Monaco and head of the House of Grimaldi, Princely House of Grimaldi. He is the son of Rain ...

Albert II, Prince of Monaco
is the Honorary President and the role of IAF President is held by the World Athletics President. A World Athletics Heritage department was created in 2018 to maintain historic artefacts and display them through a physical gallery in Monaco, a virtual online gallery, and a travelling exhibition. The department also issues World Athletics Heritage Plaques to commemorate locations of historic interest to the sport.


Presidents

There have been six presidents since the establishment of World Athletics:


World Athletics Council


Athletes' Commission

;Members elected in 2019 Following *
Renaud Lavillenie Renaud Lavillenie ( or ; born 18 September 1986) is a French pole vault Pole vaulting, also known as pole jumping, is a track and field Track and field is a sport that includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, j ...
(FRA), 627 votes *
Valerie Adams Dame Valerie Kasanita Adams (formerly Vili; born 6 October 1984) is a New Zealand shot putter. She is a four-time World champion, four-time World Indoor champion, two-time Olympic, three-time Commonwealth Games The Commonwealth Games ...
(NZL), 613 votes *
Bernard Lagat Bernard Kipchirchir Lagat (born December 12, 1974) is a Kenyan-American Middle-distance running, middle and long-distance running, long-distance runner. Lagat was born in Kapsabet, Kenya. Prior to his List of eligibility transfers in athletics, ...

Bernard Lagat
(USA), 589 votes * Kevin Borlée (BEL), 572 votes *
Katerina Stefanidi
Katerina Stefanidi
(GRE), 556 votes * Aisha Praught-Leer (JAM), votes ;Existing members * Iñaki Gómez (CAN) *
Kim Collins Kim Collins (born 5 April 1976) is a former track and field Track and field is a sport that includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing. The name is derived from where the sport takes place, a ...

Kim Collins
(SKN) *
Adam Kszczot Adam Piotr Kszczot (pronounced ; born 2 September 1989) is a Polish middle-distance runner, who specializes in the 800 metres. His achievements include a gold medal at the 2018 World Indoor Championships as well as silver medals at the 2014 Wo ...
(POL) *
Thomas Röhler
Thomas Röhler
(GER) *
Ivana Španović
Ivana Španović
(SRB) *
Benita Willis Benita Jaye Willis (born on 6 May 1979 in Mackay, Queensland Mackay () is a city in the Mackay Region on the eastern or Coral Sea The Coral Sea () is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean, South Pacific off the northeast coast of Austral ...

Benita Willis
(AUS)


Chairpersons

*Athletes' Commission: Iñaki Gómez (CAN) *Ethics Board:
Michael Beloff Michael Jacob Beloff, QC (born 18 April 1942) is an English barrister A barrister is a type of lawyer in common law jurisdiction (area), jurisdictions. Barristers mostly specialise in courtroom advocacy and litigation. Their tasks include taking ...
(GBR) *Cross Country Committee: Carlos Cardoso (POR) *Race Walking Committee:
Maurizio Damilano Maurizio Damilano (born 6 April 1957 in Scarnafigi, Italy) is an Italy, Italian former race walking, race walker. He won 15 medals individual (22 also with team events), at senior (athletics), senior level, at the International athletics champions ...
(ITA) *Technical Committee: Jorge Salcedo (POR) *Women's Committee: Esther Fittko (GER) *Athletics Integrity Unit: David Howman (NZL)


Area associations

World Athletics has a total of 214 member federations divided into 6 area associations. : AAA –
Asian Athletics Association The Asian Athletics Association is the continental governing body for the sport of athletics Athletics may refer to: Sports * Sport of athletics, a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking ** ...
in Asia : CAA –
Confederation of African Athletics The Confederation of African Athletics (CAA; French: ''Confédération Africaine d'Athlétisme'') is the continental association for the sport of athletics in Africa. It is headquartered in Dakar, Senegal. It organises the African Championships in ...
in Africa : CONSUDATLE – Confederación Sudamericana de Atletismo in
South America South America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continent ...

South America
: EAA –
European Athletic Association The European Athletic Association (more commonly known as European Athletics) is the governing body for Sport of athletics, athletics in Europe. It is one of the six Area Associations of the world's athletics governing body World Athletics. Europe ...
in Europe : NACAC –
North American, Central American and Caribbean Athletic Association The North American, Central American and Caribbean Athletic Association (NACAC) is the continental confederation governing body of athletics for national governing bodies and multi-national federations within Northern America, Central America and t ...
in
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
: OAA –
Oceania Athletics Association The Oceania Athletics Association (OAA) is the governing body for the sport of athletics Athletics is a group of sporting events that involves competitive running, jumping, throwing sports, throwing, and walking. The most common types of athl ...
in
Oceania Oceania (, , ) is a geographic region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena of the Eart ...

Oceania


Partner organisations

As of 1 November 2015: *
Association of International Marathons and Distance Races The Association of International Marathons and Distance Races, also known as AIMS, is an association of the organisers of long-distance road running Image:1990 Synwell 10-01.jpg, Athletes at the start of a 10-mile race in UK in 1990.">England,_ ...
(AIMS) *
International Association of Ultrarunners The International Association of Ultrarunners (IAU) is the world governing body of ultra running, race events longer than the marathon The marathon is a long-distance race with an official distance of , usually run as a road race. The e ...
(IAU) *
International Paralympic Committee The International Paralympic Committee (IPC; german: Internationales Paralympisches Komitee) is an international non-profit organisation and the global governing body for the Paralympic Movement. The IPC organizes the Paralympic Games The P ...
(IPC Athletics) *
International Trail Running AssociationInternational Trail Running Association (ITRA) is the governing body for trail running. It was formed in 2013, emerging from the 1st International Trail Running Conference held in 2012. Trail running was first recognised by the International Associa ...
(ITRA) *
World Masters Athletics World Masters Athletics (WMA) is the worldwide governing body for the sport of masters athleticsMasters athletics is a class of the sport of athletics for athletes of over 30 years of age. Events include track and field Track and field is a ...
(WMA) *
World Mountain Running Association The World Mountain Running Association (WMRA) is the global governing body of mountain running. For World Athletics purposes, mountain running takes place on terrain that is mainly off-road, but if there is significant elevation gain on the route, ...
(WMRA) * Elite Ltd (for incorporation of statistics from all-athletics.com into World Athletics website)


Rules and regulations


Age

To allow athletes of different ages to compete against athletes of similar ability, several age categories are maintained. The open class of competition without age limit is defined as "senior". For younger athletes, World Athletics organises events for under-20 athletes (athletes aged 18 or 19 years on 31 December of the year of the competition) as well as under-18 athletes (athletes aged 16 or 17 years on 31 December of the year of the competition), historically referred to as "junior" and "youth" age groups, respectively. Age-group competitions over the age of 35 are organised by
World Masters Athletics World Masters Athletics (WMA) is the worldwide governing body for the sport of masters athleticsMasters athletics is a class of the sport of athletics for athletes of over 30 years of age. Events include track and field Track and field is a ...
and are divided into five-year groupings.


Doping

The organisation is a signatory to the
World Anti-Doping Agency The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA; french: Agence mondiale antidopage, AMA) is a foundation initiated by the International Olympic Committee The International Olympic Committee (IOC; french: Comité international olympique, CIO) is a non ...
's World Anti-Doping Code and applies sanctions to athletes, coaches and other sportspeople who breach the code through doping or impeding any anti-doping actions.
Doping Doping may refer to: * Doping, adding a dopant to something * Doping (semiconductor), intentionally introducing impurities into an extremely pure semiconductor to change its electrical properties * Aircraft dope, a lacquer that is applied to fabric ...
is still a serious issue in world
athletics Athletics may refer to: Sports * Sport of athletics, a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking ** Track and field, a sub-category of the above sport * Athletics (physical culture), competitio ...
due to the increased use of banned substances by athletes to improve their athletic performance. To address the problem, athletes participating in sports are required to sign the
World Anti-Doping Agency The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA; french: Agence mondiale antidopage, AMA) is a foundation initiated by the International Olympic Committee The International Olympic Committee (IOC; french: Comité international olympique, CIO) is a non ...
code and are subjected to random urine and/or blood samples testing, leading to penalties like game suspension, or lifetime ban for violating code.


Sex

International level athletics competitions are mostly divided by sex and World Athletics applies eligibility rules for the women's category. World Athletics has regulations for
intersex Intersex people are individuals born with any of several sex characteristics Sexual characteristics are physical or behavioral traits of an organism (typically of a sexually dimorphic organism) which are indicative of its biological sex. Th ...
and
transgender Transgender people have a gender identity Gender identity is the personal sense of one's own gender Gender is the range of characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between femininity Femininity (also called womanliness or ...

transgender
athletes. The differences of sex development (DSD) regulations apply to athletes who are legally female or intersex and have certain
physiology Physiology (; ) is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...
. Currently, such DSD limitations only apply to athletes competing in track running events from
400 metres The 400 metres, or 400-metre dash, is a sprinting Sprinting is running over a short distance at the top-most speed of the body in a limited period of time. It is used in many sports that incorporate running, typically as a way of quickly reac ...
to the
mile run The mile run (1,760 yard 300px, Bronze Yard No.11, the official standard of length for the Treasury Department A treasury is either *A government department related to finance and taxation, a Finance minister, finance ministry. *A ...
, though World Athletics publicly remains open to extending this to other events based on new scientific study. A DSD athlete who is legally female or intersex will be subjected to specific rules if she has XY male chromosomes,
testes Testicle or testis (plural testes) is the male Male (symbol: ♂) is the sex of an organism that produces the gamete (sex cell) known as sperm, which fuses with the larger female gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male or ...

testes
rather than
ovaries The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system 300px, 1. Labia_majora.html"_;"title="Vulva: 2. Labia_majora">Vulva: 2. Labia_majora; 3. Labia_minora; 4. Vulval_vestibule.html" "title="Labia_minora.html ...

ovaries
, have circulating testosterone within the typical male range (7.7 to 29.4 nmol/L), and are androgen-sensitive so that their body makes use of that testosterone. World Athletics requires that any such athlete must reduce their blood testosterone level to 5 nmol/L or lower for a six-month period before becoming eligible for international competition. World Athletics created these rules as a way to ensure fair competition in the women's category. In October 2019, World Athletics changed the testosterone limit for transgender competitors, setting it at 5 nmol/L, from the previous 10 nmol/L, in order to bring it in line with the DSD regulations. According to regulations from October 2019, in order for a
trans woman A trans woman is a woman A woman is an adult female Female (symbol: ♀) is the sex of an organism that produces the large non-mobile ovum, ova (egg cells), the type of gamete (sex cell) that fuses with the Sperm, male gamete during ...
to compete in the women's category: "3.2.1 she must provide a written and signed declaration, in a form satisfactory to the Medical Manager, that her gender identity is female; 3.2.2 she must demonstrate to the satisfaction of the Expert Panel (on the balance of probabilities), in accordance with clause 4, that the concentration of testosterone in her serum has been less than 5 nmol/L3 continuously for a period of at least 12 months; and 3.2.3 she must keep her serum testosterone concentration below 5 nmol/L for so long as she wishes to maintain her eligibility to compete in the female category of competition." The rules have been challenged by affected athletes in the
Court of Arbitration for Sport The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS; french: Tribunal arbitral du sport, ''TAS'') is an international body established in 1984 to settle disputes related to sport through arbitration Image:LCIA.jpg, upright=1.5, The London Court of Inter ...
(CAS), though no athlete has done so successfully. In May 2019, CAS upheld the rules on the basis that discrimination against the minority of DSD athletes was proportional as a method of preserving access to the female category to a much larger majority of women without DSDs.


Certified Athletic Facilities

World Athletics provides approval certificates to venues of athletic facilities: Class 1, Class 2 and Indoor. To receive certification, venues are required to submit measurement reports of their track and field facilities. Class 1 venues are fully certified along with in-situ tests of the actual synthetic track surface, whilst Class 2 venues only ensures that the synthetic surface has a valid Product Certificate (from an accredited synthetic track surface manufacturer) and the facility conforms to the stringent requirements for accurate measurement contained in World Athletics Rules and Regulations.


Competitions

World Athletics organizes many major athletics competitions worldwide.


World Athletics Series

: Formerly IAAF World Championships in Athletics : Known as IAAF World Road Running Championships in 2006 and 2007, with 20 km race in 2006 :†† Formerly IAAF World Junior Championships :††† Formerly IAAF World Race Walking Cup :†††† Formerly IAAF World Cup


One-day events

World Athletics became involved in annual one-day meetings as the sport began to professionalise in the late 1970s. Between 1978 and 1982, World Athletics staged twelve Golden Events, all for men and principally in track running, which saw World Athletics offer prizes to encourage competition. Three years later in 1985, an annual
track and field Track and field is a sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants and, in some cases, ...
circuit was created in the form of the
IAAF Grand Prix The IAAF Grand Prix was an annual, global circuit of one-day outdoor track and field Track and field is a sport that includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing. The name is derived from where th ...
, which linked existing top-level one-day meetings with a season-ending
IAAF Grand Prix Final The IAAF Grand Prix Final was an athletics (sport), athletics competition featuring track and field events staged by the International Association of Athletics Federations. It was first held in 1985 and replaced in 2003 by the IAAF World Athletics F ...
for a selection of men's and women's events.Grand Prix
GBR Athletics. Retrieved 2019-10-20.
The
IAAF World Cross Challenge The IAAF World Cross Challenge was an annual global series of cross country running Cross country running is a sport in which teams and individuals run a race on open-air courses over natural terrain such as dirt or grass. Sometimes the runners ar ...
followed in 1990 and began an annual series for
cross country running Cross country running is a sport Sport pertains to any form of competitive Competition is a rivalry A rivalry is the state of two people or groups engaging in a lasting competitive relationship. Rivalry is the "against each other" ...
. The track and field circuit was expanded in 1993 with the creation of the IAAF Grand Prix II level, and the
IAAF Golden League The IAAF Golden League was an annual series of outdoor track and field Track and field is a sport that includes Competition#Sports, athletic contests based on running, jumping, and throwing skills. The name is derived from where the sport take ...
in 1998. World Athletics began recognising annual indoor track meets via the
IAAF Indoor Permit Meetings The IAAF Indoor Permit Meetings were an annual series of indoor track and field competitions organized by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) from 1997 until the end of 2015 season. In 2016 IAAF launched the IAAF World Indo ...
series in 1997, and in 1998 decathletes and heptathletes found seasonal support with the creation of the
IAAF Combined Events Challenge The World Athletics Challenge - Combined Events is an annual series of combined track and field events meetings, organised since 1998 by World Athletics World Athletics (name since October 2019, formerly known as the International Amateur Athle ...
. The World Cross Challenge was disbanded in 2000 and cross country reverted to a permit format via the IAAF Cross Country Permit Meetings. The IAAF Race Walking Challenge was initiated in 2003 to provide a seasonal calendar for racewalking. World Athletics reformed its track and field circuit in 2003, with the
IAAF World Outdoor Meetings The IAAF World Outdoor Meetings were an annual, global circuit of one-day outdoor track and field Track and field is a sport that includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing. The name is derived ...
series grouping five tiers of annual track and field competitions: the Golden League,
IAAF Super Grand Prix The IAAF Super Grand Prix was an annual series of one-day track and field Track and field is a sport that includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing. The name is derived from where the sport tak ...
, Grand Prix, Grand Prix II, and the
IAAF World Athletics Final The IAAF World Athletics Final was an annual track and field competition organised by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). It was inaugurated in 2003 to replace the IAAF Grand Prix Final. The competition was part of the I ...
. The new final format was introduced with a new global performance ranking system for qualification and featured an increased programme of track and field events, mirroring the
World Championships in Athletics The World Athletics Championships are a biennial Athletics (sport), athletics competition organized by World Athletics (formerly IAAF, International Association of Athletics Federations). The World Championships were started in 1976 in response ...
programme bar the road events, combined events, relays, and the
10,000 metres The 10,000 metres or the 10,000-metre run is a common long-distance track running Track and field is a sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physi ...
. The final achieved gender parity in events in 2005, with the inclusion of a women's 3000 metres steeplechase. The track and field circuit was rebranded as the
IAAF World Athletics Tour The IAAF World Athletics Tour was an annual global circuit of one day track and field Track and field is a sport that includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing. The name is derived from where th ...
in 2006, which removed the global rankings and the IAAF Grand Prix II (replaced with a level of meetings given permit status by continental governing bodies). With World Athletics having recognised the sport of
mountain running Mountain running is a sports discipline which takes place mainly off-road Off-roading is the activity of driving Driving is the controlled operation and movement of a vehicle, including cars, motorcycles, truck mining truck A tr ...
in 2002, the annual
WMRA World Cup The WMRA World Cup is an annual series of mountain running competitions organised by the World Mountain Running Association (WMRA) that runs from around May to October. Athletes are awarded points for each performance on the tour. Its predecessor wa ...
meetings received official sanctioning in 2006. The IAAF Race Walking Challenge Final was created in 2007 to serve as a seasonal final for the Race Walking Challenge. World Athletics designed a sanctioning process for the
road running Image:1990 Synwell 10-01.jpg, Athletes at the start of a 10-mile race in Gloucestershire in England, United Kingdom, UK in 1990. Road running is the sport of running on a measured course over an established road. This differs from track and fie ...
competitions in 2008, with races having to meet organisational requirements to achieve Gold or Silver status under the
IAAF Road Race Label Events World Athletics Label Road Races are races that the World Athletics designates as one of the "leading road races around the world." The classification was first introduced for the 2008 running season, upon the suggestion of the IAAF Road Running Co ...
brand. This incorporated the
World Marathon Majors The World Marathon Majors (WMM) (known for sponsorship reasons as the Abbott World Marathon Majors) is a championship-style competition for marathon runners that started in 2006. A points-based competition founded on six major marathon races recogn ...
(a privately run series for major marathons initiated in 2006) within the Gold Label category. Road running was the last sport governed by World Athletics to receive seasonal sanctioning. The 2010 season saw several changes to World Athletics' one-day governance. The World Athletics Tour was made defunct and replaced with three separate series: the 14-meet
Diamond League The Diamond League is an annual series of elite track and field Track and field is a sport that includes Competition#Sports, athletic contests based on running, jumping, and throwing skills. The name is derived from where the sport takes pla ...
as the top level of track meetings, the
IAAF World Challenge The IAAF World Challenge was an annual, global circuit of one-day track and field Track and field is a sport that includes athletic contests established on the skills of running, jumping, and throwing. The name is derived from where the sp ...
as a second tier of track meetings, and the IAAF Hammer Throw Challenge as the top level of hammer throwing contests (as hammer was not included in the Diamond League). The Road Race Label grouping was also expanded that year with the creation of a Bronze label status. The Race Walking Challenge Final was removed from the racewalking schedule after 2012, as the series focused on international championship performances. In 2016, the IAAF World Indoor Tour was introduced as a replacement of the Indoor Permit Meetings series. The track and field circuit is due for further changes in 2020, including an increase in the number of Diamond League meetings, the reduction of Diamond League events from 32 to 24, reduction of the Diamond League television running time to 90 minutes, the creation of a one-day Diamond League final, and the relaunch of the World Challenge series as the World Athletics Continental Tour.


Awards

The organisation hosts the annual World Athletics Awards, formerly the World Athletics Gala until 2017, at the end of each year to recognise the achievements of athletes and other people involved in the sport. Members may also be inducted into the IAAF Hall of Fame as part of the ceremony. The following awards are given: *World Athlete of the Year, Male Athlete of the Year *World Athlete of the Year, Female Athlete of the Year *Male Rising Star Award *Female Rising Star Award *Coaching Achievement Award *Distinguished Career Award *Women's Award *President's Award *Athletics Photograph of the Year


Doping controversy

In 2015, a whistleblower leaked World Athletics' blood test records from major competitions. The records revealed that, between 2001 and 2012, athletes with suspicious drug test results won a third of the medals in endurance events at the Olympics and World Championships—a total of 146 medals including 55 golds—but the World Athletics caught none of them. After reviewing the results, Robin Parisotto, a scientist and leading "anti-doping" expert, said, "Never have I seen such an alarmingly abnormal set of blood values. So many athletes appear to have doped with impunity, and it is damning that the IAAF appears to have idly sat by and let this happen." Craig Reedie, president of the
World Anti-Doping Agency The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA; french: Agence mondiale antidopage, AMA) is a foundation initiated by the International Olympic Committee The International Olympic Committee (IOC; french: Comité international olympique, CIO) is a non ...
(WADA), said his organisation was "very disturbed by these new allegations ... which will, once again, shake the foundation of clean athletes worldwide", and that its "independent commission will investigate the claims". Around the same time, the University of Tübingen in Germany claimed that World Athletics suppressed publication of a 2011 report in which "[h]undreds of athletes", as many as a third of the world's top athletes, "admitted violating anti-doping rules". On 1 November 2015, former World Athletics president Lamine Diack was arrested in France and is under investigation on suspicion of corruption and money laundering. Diack allegedly accepted "$1.2 million from the All-Russia Athletic Federation, Russian athletics federation to cover up the positive doping tests of at least six Russian athletes in 2011." In November 2015, WADA published its report, which found "systemic failures" in the World Athletics had prevented an "effective" anti-doping programme and concluded that Russia should be banned from competing in international competitions because of its athletes' test results. The report continued that "the World Athletics allowed the conduct to occur and must accept its responsibility" and that "corruption was embedded" in the organization. In January 2016, as a result of the doping scandal and WADA's report, the World Athletics' biggest sponsor, Adidas, announced that it was ending its sponsorship deal with the World Athletics four years early. The BBC reported that as a result World Athletics would lose $33 million (£23 million) worth of revenue. The 11-year sponsorship deal with Adidas was due to run until 2019. World-record holding sprinter Michael Johnson (sprinter), Michael Johnson described the scandal as more serious than that faced by FIFA. In February 2016, Nestlé announced that it was ending its World Athletics sponsorship. In June 2016, following a meeting of the IAAF's ruling council, World Athletics upheld its ban on Russia's track and field team from entering the Rio de Janeiro Olympics. In February 2017, All-Russia Athletic Federation was disqualified by decision of the World Athletics Council for 8 years for the creation of a doping system. World Athletics has since resisted demands that Russia be re-instated, on the basis that the country repeatedly failed to satisfy all the agreed criteria. The decision was supported by Sean Ingle of ''The Guardian'' who wrote in a column that World Athletics should maintain their ban on Russia through the 2016 Summer Olympics, 2016 Olympics in Rio. That meant Russian athletes could compete at all major events in the following years, including the 2017 World Championships in Athletics, 2017 IAAF World Championships in London and the 2018 European Athletics Championships, 2018 European Championships in Berlin. In September 2018, World Athletics faced a legal challenge by Russia to overturn the suspension after the reinstatement of the Russian Anti-Doping Agency, but Hugo Lowell of the I (newspaper), ''i newspaper'' reported the country's status would not change. The legal case was later dropped.


See also

* List of doping cases in athletics * List of eligibility transfers in athletics * World Athletics Rankings


References


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:International Association Of Athletics Federations World Athletics, Athletics organizations Sports organizations established in 1912 1912 establishments in Sweden Sports organisations of Monaco