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Havana (;
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
: ''La Habana'' ) is the
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
and largest city of
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
. The heart of the
La Habana province La Habana Province, formerly known as Ciudad de La Habana Province, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major t ...
, Havana is the country's main port and leading commercial center.Cuba
''
The World Factbook ''The World Factbook'', also known as the ''CIA World Factbook'', is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA; ), known informally as the Agency and the Company, is a civilian ...
''.
Central Intelligence Agency The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA; ), known informally as the Agency and the Company, is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States The federal government of the United States (U.S. fed ...
.
The city has a population of 2.1 million inhabitants, and it spans a total of – making it the largest city by area, the most populous city, and the
fourth largest metropolitan areaFourth is the ordinal form of the Four (number), number four. Fourth or the fourth may refer to: * Fourth (album), ''Fourth'' (album), a 1971 album by Soft Machine * Fourth (angle), in ancient astronomical works an angle equal to of of an arcse ...
in the
Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles ...
region. The city of Havana was founded by the
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
in the 16th century, it served as a springboard for the
Spanish conquest of the Americas Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish conquest of the Americas
becoming a stopping point for Spanish
galleon on the "Suez Expedition" (part of the Portuguese Armada of 72 ships sent against the Ottoman fleet anchor in Suez, Egypt, in response to its entry in the Indian Ocean and the siege of Diu in 1538) – ''Tábuas da India'' in the João de Cast ...
s returning to Spain.
Philip II of Spain Philip II) in Spain, while in Kingdom of Portugal, Portugal and his Italian kingdoms he ruled as Philip I ( pt, Filipe I). (21 May 152713 September 1598), also known as Philip the Prudent ( es, Felipe el Prudente), was King of Spain from 1556, K ...

Philip II of Spain
granted Havana the title of capital in 1592. Walls as well as forts were built to protect the city. The sinking of the in Havana's harbor in 1898 was the immediate cause of the
Spanish–American War The Spanish–American War (April 21 – August 13, 1898, es, Guerra hispano-estadounidense or ; fil, Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was an armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, So ...
. The city is the center of the
Cuban government Cuba has had a socialist political system since 1959 based on the " one state – one party" principle. Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as w ...
, and home to various ministries, headquarters of businesses and over 100 diplomatic offices. The governor is
Reinaldo García Zapata Reinaldo García Zapata is the current governor of Havana Havana (; Spanish: ''La Habana'' ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, coun ...
of the
Communist Party of Cuba The Communist Party of Cuba (PCC) is the ruling political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas ...
(PCC).
Preside Esteban Lazo toma de posesión de las autoridades de Gobierno en La Habana
In 2009, the city/province had the third highest income in the country. Contemporary Havana can essentially be described as three cities in one:
Old Havana Old Havana ( es, link=no, La Habana Vieja) is the city-center (downtown) and one of the Municipalities of Havana, 15 municipalities (or boroughs) forming Havana, Cuba. It has the second highest population density in the city and contains the core ...

Old Havana
,
Vedado Vedado ( es, El Vedado, ) is a central business district and urban neighborhood in the city of Havana, Cuba. Bordered on the east by Calzada de Infanta and Centro Habana, Cuba, Central Havana, and on the west by the Alemendares River and Miramar, ...
and the newer suburban districts. The city extends mostly westward and southward from the
bay A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) is the body of salt water which covers approximately 71% of the surface ...
, which is entered through a narrow inlet and which divides into three main harbors: Marimelena, Guanabacoa and Antares. The
Almendares River The Almendares River is a river that runs for 45 km in the western part of Cuba. It originates from the east of Tapaste and flows north-west into the Straits of Florida. The river acts as a water supply for Havana. The final stretch divides ...
traverses the city from south to north, entering the
Straits of Florida 250px, The Straits of Florida The Straits of Florida, Florida Straits, or Florida Strait ( es, Estrecho de Florida) is a strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. M ...

Straits of Florida
a few miles west of the bay. The city attracts over a million
tourists at the archaeological site of Chichén Itza. in Vienna. Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring (disambiguation), touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and th ...

tourists
annually; the Official Census for Havana reports that in 2010 the city was visited by 1,176,627 international tourists, a 20% increase from 2005. Old Havana was declared a
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialised agency of th ...

UNESCO
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
in 1982. The city is also noted for its
history History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...
, culture, architecture and monuments. As typical of Cuba, Havana experiences a
tropical climate Tropical climate is one of the five major climate groups in the . Tropical climates are characterized by monthly average temperatures of 18 °C (64.4 °F) or higher year-round and feature hot temperatures. Annual precipitation is often ...
.


Etymology

''Havana'' comes from Habaguanex, the name of a local Taíno chief.


Coat of arms

The coat of arms of Havana,
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
, consists of three castles that represent the three castles that defended the city—namely, the Fuerza Castle, the Morro Castle and the Punta Castle. The key represents that Havana was the gateway to the
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The re ...
. The shield, supported by an
oak An oak is a tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including on ...

oak
branch on one side and a
laurel wreath A laurel wreath is a round wreath made of connected branches and leaves of the bay laurel (), an aromatic broadleaf evergreen, or later from spineless butcher's broom (''Ruscus hypoglossum'') or cherry laurel (''Prunus laurocerasus''). It is a sy ...

laurel wreath
on the other, symbolizes the strength of the nation, the laurel wreath, honor, and glory. These symbols represent the rights of man.


Culture

Havana is the cultural center of Cuba. It offers museums, palaces, public squares, avenues, churches, fortresses (including the largest fortified complex in the Americas dating from the 16th through 18th centuries).


History


16th century

Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Diego Velázquez de CuéllarPronounced: (1465 – c. June 12, 1524) was a Spanish conquistador is one of the most famous Portuguese conquerors, having expanded the Portuguese Empire The Portuguese Empire ( pt, Império Português), ...
founded Havana on August 25, 1515, on the southern coast of the island, near the present town of Surgidero de Batabanó on the banks of the
Mayabeque River Mayabeque River (alternately ''Rio Mayabeque'') ( es, Río Mayabeque) is a river of western Cuba, considered the largest in the southwestern watershed of Cuba, with an extensive fluvial network that encompasses the municipalities of Güines, San J ...
close to Playa Mayabeque. However, all attempts to found a city on Cuba's south coast failed; an early map of Cuba drawn in 1514 places the town at the mouth of the river. Between 1514 and 1519 the Spanish established two settlements on the north coast, one of them in ''La Chorrera'', around the site of the Torreón de la Chorrera, what eventually became the neighborhoods of Vedado and Miramar, next to the mouth of the
Almendares River The Almendares River is a river that runs for 45 km in the western part of Cuba. It originates from the east of Tapaste and flows north-west into the Straits of Florida. The river acts as a water supply for Havana. The final stretch divides ...
. The town that became Havana originated adjacent to what was then called ''Puerto de Carenas'' (literally, "
Careening Careening (also known as "heaving down") is the practice of grounding a sailing vessel at high tide (U.S.), low tide occurs roughly at moonrise and high tide with a high Moon, corresponding to the simple gravity model of two tidal bulges; at ...
Bay"), in 1519. The quality of this natural bay, which now hosts Havana's harbor, warranted this change of location.
Pánfilo de Narváez Pánfilo de Narváez (; 147?–1528) was a Spanish '' conquistador'' and soldier in the Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North and South America South America is ...
gave Havana – the sixth town founded by the Spanish on Cuba – its name: ''San Cristóbal de la Habana''. The name combines ''San Cristóbal'',
patron saint A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint In religious belief, a saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness Sacred describes something that is dedicated or set ...
of Havana. Shortly after the founding of Cuba's first cities, the island served as little more than a base for the ''Conquista'' of other lands. Havana began as a , and suffered regular attacks by
buccaneer up"Buccaneer of the Caribbean" from Howard Pyle's ''Book of Pirates''. Buccaneers were a kind of privateer A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war. Since robbery under arms was a co ...

buccaneer
s,
pirates Piracy is an act of robbery Robbery is the crime In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term ''crime'' does not, in modern criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted ...

pirates
, and
French corsairs Statue of the corsair Robert Surcouf, in Saint-Malo, Brittany Corsairs (french: corsaire) were privateer A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war. Since robbery under arms was a common a ...
. The first attack and resultant burning of the city was by the French corsair Jacques de Sores in 1555. Such attacks convinced the Spanish Crown to fund the construction of the first fortresses in the main cities – not only to counteract the pirates and corsairs, but also to exert more control over commerce with the West Indies, and to limit the extensive ''contrabando'' (
black market Barcelona 2015 A black market, underground economy or shadow economy, is a clandestine ''The ClanDestine'' (also known simply as ''ClanDestine'') is an appellation used to refer to the Destines, a fictional secret family of long-lived su ...
) that had arisen due to the trade restrictions imposed by the '' Casa de Contratación'' of
Seville Seville (; es, Sevilla, Castilian Spanish , Andalusian Spanish (with yeísmo) ) is the capital and largest city of the Spain, Spanish autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville. It is situated ...

Seville
(the crown-controlled trading house that held a
monopoly A monopoly (from Greek el, μόνος, mónos, single, alone, label=none and el, πωλεῖν, pōleîn, to sell, label=none) is as described by Irving Fisher, a market with the "absence of competition", creating a situation where a specific ...

monopoly
on New World trade). Ships from all over the New World carried products first to Havana, in order to be taken by the fleet to Spain. The thousands of ships gathered in the city's bay also fueled Havana's agriculture and manufacture, since they had to be supplied with food, water, and other products needed to traverse the ocean. On December 20, 1592,
King Philip II of Spain Philip II ( es, Felipe II; 21 May 152713 September 1598) was King of Spain (1556–1598), King of Portugal (1580–1598, as Philip I, pt, Filipe I), King of Naples and List of monarchs of Sicily, Sicily (both from 1554), and ''jure uxoris'' Kin ...
granted Havana the title of City. Later on, the city would be officially designated as "Key to the New World and Rampart of the West Indies" by the
Spanish Crown , coatofarms = Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg , coatofarms_article = Coat of arms of the King of Spain , image = (Felipe de Borbón) Inauguración de FITUR 2018 (39840659951) (cropped).jpg , incumbent = Feli ...
. In the meantime, efforts to build or improve the defensive infrastructures of the city continued.


17th century

Havana expanded greatly in the 17th century. New buildings were constructed from the most abundant materials of the island, mainly
wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. ...

wood
, combining various
Iberian Iberian refers to Iberia (disambiguation), Iberia. Most commonly Iberian refers to: *Someone or something originating in the Iberian Peninsula, namely from Spain, Portugal and Andorra. The term ''Iberian'' is also used to refer to anything pertain ...

Iberian
architectural styles, as well as borrowing profusely from
Canarian Canary Islanders, or Canarians ( es, canarios), are a Romance peoples, Romance people and subgroup of the Spaniards. They are indigenous to the Canary Islands, an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Spain near the coast of West ...
characteristics. During this period the city also built civic monuments and religious constructions. The convent of St Augustin, El Morro Castle, the chapel of the Humilladero, the fountain of Dorotea de la Luna in La Chorrera, the church of the Holy Angel, the hospital de San Lazaro, the monastery of Santa Teresa and the convent of San Felipe Neri were completed in this era. In 1649 a fatal epidemic, brought from
Cartagena Cartagena or Carthagena may refer to: Places Chile *Cartagena, Chile, a commune in Valparaíso Region Colombia *Cartagena, Colombia, a city in the Bolívar Department, the largest city with this name **Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cartagena, an ...

Cartagena
in Colombia, affected a third of the population of Havana. On November 30, 1665, Queen
Mariana of Austria Mariana of Austria ( es, Mariana de Austria) or Maria Anna (24 December 163416 May 1696) was the queen consort of her uncle Philip IV of Spain from their marriage in 1649 until Philip died in 1665. She was then appointed regent for their three-yea ...

Mariana of Austria
, widow of King
Philip IV of Spain Philip IV ( es, Felipe, pt, Filipe; 8 April 160517 September 1665), also called the Planet King (Spanish: ''Rey Planeta''), was King of Spain , coatofarms = Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg , coatofarms_article = Coat of arms of ...

Philip IV of Spain
, ratified the heraldic shield of Cuba, which took as its symbolic
motif Motif may refer to: General concepts * Motif (chess composition), an element of a move in the consideration of its purpose * Motif (folkloristics), a recurring element that creates recognizable patterns in folklore and folk-art traditions * Motif ...
s the first three castles of Havana: the Real Fuerza, the Tres Santos Reyes Magos del Morro and San Salvador de la Punta. The shield also displayed a symbolic golden key to represent the title "Key to the Gulf". On 1674, the works for the City Walls were started, as part of the fortification efforts. They would be completed by 1740. By the middle of the 18th century Havana had more than seventy thousand inhabitants, and was the third-largest city in the Americas, ranking behind
Lima Lima ( ; ) is the capital and the largest city of Peru , , image_flag = Flag_of_Peru.svg , image_coat = Escudo_nacional_del_Perú.svg , other_symbol = Great Seal of the State , other_symbol_t ...

Lima
and
Mexico City Mexico City ( es, link=no, Ciudad de México, ; abbreviated as CDMX; nah, Āltepētl Mēxihco) is the capital city, capital and largest city of Mexico, as well as the List of North American cities by population, most populous city in North Americ ...

Mexico City
but ahead of
Boston Boston (, ), officially the City of Boston, is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Massachusetts, most populous city of the Commonwealth (U.S. state), Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States and 21st List of Unit ...

Boston
and
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * New ...

New York
.


18th century

During the 18th century Havana was the most important of the Spanish ports because it had facilities where ships could be refitted and, by 1740, it had become Spain's largest and most active shipyard and only
drydock A dry dock (sometimes drydock or dry-dock) is a narrow basin or vessel that can be flooded to allow a load to be floated in, then drained to allow that load to come to rest on a dry platform. Dry docks are used for the construction, maintenance, ...
in the New World. The city was captured by the
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, ...

British
during the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain and Kingdom of France, France. In Europe, the conflict ar ...
. The
episode An episode is a narrative unit within a larger drama Drama is the specific Mode (literature), mode of fiction Mimesis, represented in performance: a Play (theatre), play, opera, mime, ballet, etc., performed in a theatre, or on Radio drama, ...
began on June 6, 1762, when at dawn, a British fleet, comprising more than 50 ships and a combined force of over 11,000 men of the
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
and Army, sailed into Cuban waters and made an amphibious landing east of Havana. The British immediately opened up trade with their
North American North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It can also be described as the northern subcontinent of a single continent, Americas, America. It is bordered to the north by the A ...
and Caribbean colonies, causing a rapid transformation of Cuban society. Less than a year after Havana was seized, the Peace of Paris was signed by the three warring powers thus ending the Seven Years' War. The treaty gave Britain
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geor ...
in exchange for the return of the city of Havana on to Spain.Thomas, Hugh: Cuba: The Pursuit of Freedom 2nd edition. Chapter One After regaining the city, the Spanish transformed Havana into the most heavily fortified city in the Americas. Construction began on what was to become the Fortress of , the third biggest Spanish fortification in the New World after Castillo San Cristóbal (the biggest) and
Castillo San Felipe del Morro Castillo San Felipe del Morro, also known as El Morro, is a citadel built between 16th and 18th centuries in San Juan, Puerto Rico.www ...
both in San Juan, Puerto Rico. On January 15, 1796, the remains of
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
were transported to the island from
Santo Domingo , total_type = Total , population_density_km2 = auto , timezone = , area_code_type = Area codes , area_code = 809, 829, 849 , postal_code_type = Postal codes , postal_code = 10100–10699 () , website Ayuntamiento del Distrito Nac ...

Santo Domingo
. They rested here until 1898, when they were transferred to
Seville's Cathedral The Cathedral of Saint Mary of the See ( es, Catedral de Santa María de la Sede), better known as Seville Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Seville, Andalusia, Spain. It was registered in 1987 by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, along w ...
, after Spain's loss of Cuba.


19th century

As trade between Caribbean and North American states increased in the early 19th century, Havana became a flourishing and fashionable city. Havana's theaters featured the most distinguished actors of the age, and prosperity among the burgeoning middle-class led to expensive new classical mansions being erected. During this period Havana became known as the Paris of the
Antilles The Antilles (; gcf, label=Antillean Creole Antillean Creole (Antillean French Creole, Kreyol, Kwéyòl, Patois) is a French-based creole, which is primarily spoken in the Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles ( es, link=no, Pequeñas Anti ...

Antilles
. In 1837, the first railroad was constructed, a stretch between Havana and
Bejucal Bejucal is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordi ...

Bejucal
, which was used for transporting
sugar Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrate is a disaccharide A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or ''biose'') is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined by glycosidic linkage. Like monosacc ...

sugar
from the valley of Güines to the harbor. With this, Cuba became the fifth country in the world to have a railroad, and the first
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
-speaking country. Throughout the century, Havana was enriched by the construction of additional cultural facilities, such as the , one of the most luxurious in the world. The fact that slavery was legal in Cuba until 1886 led to Southern American interest, including a plan by the
Knights of the Golden Circle The Knights of the Golden Circle (KGC) was a secret society founded in 1854, the objective of which was to create a new country, known as the Golden Circle ( es, Círculo Dorado), where slavery would be legal. The country would have been center ...
to create a with a 1200 mile-radius centered on Havana. After the
Confederate States of America The Confederate States of America (CSA), commonly referred to as the Confederate States or simply the Confederacy, was an unrecognized herrenvolk republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system ...

Confederate States of America
were defeated in the
American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon nove ...
in 1865, many former slaveholders continued to run plantations by moving to Havana. In 1863, the city walls were knocked down so that the
metropolis A metropolis () is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communications. A big city ...

metropolis
could be enlarged. At the end of the 19th century, Havana witnessed the final moments of Spanish colonialism in the Americas.


Republican period

Cuba's first presidential period under
Tomás Estrada Palma Tomás Estrada Palma (c. July 6, 1832 – November 4, 1908) was a Cuban politician A politician is a person active in party politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or ot ...

Tomás Estrada Palma
from 1902 to 1906 was considered to uphold the highest standards of administrative integrity in the history of the Republic of Cuba. Initially he was the President of the Cuban Republic in Arms during the
Ten Years' War The Ten Years' War ( es, Guerra de los Diez Años) (1868–1878), also known as the Great War (''Guerra Grande'') and the War of '68, was part of Cuba's fight for independence from Spain. The uprising was led by Cuban-born planters and other wea ...
and again between May 20, 1902 and September 28, 1906. His collateral career as a New York City Area Educator and writer enabled Estrada Palma to create Pro-Cuban literature aimed at gaining sympathy, assistance, and publicity. He was eventually successful in garnering the attention of influential Americans. Estrada Palma was an early and persistent voice calling for the United States to intervene in Cuba on humanitarian grounds. He was the
first First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill ...
President of Cuba The president of Cuba ( es, Presidente de Cuba), officially the president of the Republic of Cuba ( es, Presidente de la República de Cuba), is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially em ...
. During his presidency, his major accomplishments include improving Cuba's infrastructure, communication, and public health. He is remembered in Cuba however for allowing the
Platt Amendment On March 2, 1901, the Platt Amendment was passed as part of the 1901 Army Appropriations Bill.tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease An infection is the invasion of an organism's body Tissue (biology), tissues by Pathogen, disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host (biology), host tissues to the in ...

tuberculosis
. A study conducted in 1959 by public health authorities found that throughout the country around 72% of the population was afflicted with parasitism and in the rural areas this percentage was as high as 86.54%. Only 1 in 4 peasants were able to afford regularly eating meat, eggs and fish and chronic unemployment was at 25%. Cuba was a very unequal society with a mere 8% of landowners owning approximately 75% of the land, the bottom fifth of the population took in 2% of the national income meanwhile one-fifth of the population took in 58% of the national income this was one of the lowest rates for the bottom 20% in the world then and even now. Cuba was also under a lot of influence from the United States to the point where the U.S. controlled 80% of Cuba's trade. In 1959 around 40% of Cuban sugar land, almost all the cattle ranches, 90% of mines and 80% of the utilities were owned by American firms. In 1958, Cuba was a relatively well-advanced country by Latin American standards, and in some cases by world standards.. On the other hand, Cuba was affected by perhaps the largest labor union privileges in Latin America, including bans on dismissals and mechanization. They were obtained in large measure "at the cost of the unemployed and the peasants", leading to disparities. Between 1933 and 1958, Cuba extended economic regulations enormously, causing economic problems. Unemployment became a problem as graduates entering the workforce could not find jobs. The middle class, which was comparable to that of the United States, became increasingly dissatisfied with unemployment and political persecution. The labor unions supported Batista until the very end. Batista stayed in power until he was forced into exile in December 1958.


Revolution

The Cuban Revolution had domestic and international repercussions. In particular, it transformed
Cuba–United States relations Cuba–United States relations (), also knows as Cuban-American relations, refers to the bilateral relations between Cuba and the United States. Cuba and the United States restored diplomacy, diplomatic relations on 20 July 2015, relations whi ...
, although efforts to improve diplomatic relations have gained momentum in recent years such as the Cuban thaw. In the immediate aftermath of the revolution, Castro's government began a program of
nationalization Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming privately-owned asset In financial accountancy, financial accounting, an asset is any resource owned or controlled by a business or an economic entity. It is anything (tangi ...
, centralization of the press and political consolidation that transformed Cuba's economy and civil society.Lazo, Mario (1970). ''American Policy Failures in Cuba – Dagger in the Heart''. Twin Circle Publishing Co.: New York. pp. 198–200, 204. Library of Congress Card Catalog Number: 68-31632. The revolution also heralded an era of Cuban medical internationalism and Foreign interventions by Cuba, Cuban intervention in foreign conflicts in Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East.Several rebellions occurred in the six years following 1959, mainly in the Escambray Mountains, which were defeated by the revolutionary government. After the Cuban Revolution, revolution of 1959, the new government under Fidel Castro began to improve social services, public housing, and official buildings. Nevertheless, after Castro's abrupt expropriation of all private property and industry (May 1959 onwards) under a strong communist model backed by the Soviet Union followed by the U.S. United States embargo against Cuba, embargo, shortages that affected Cuba in general hit Havana especially hard. By 1966–68, the Cuban government had nationalized all privately owned business entities in Cuba, down to "certain kinds of small retail forms of commerce" as per law No. 1076. An economic downturn occurred after the Dissolution of the Soviet Union, collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Soviet subsidies ended, representing billions of dollars which the Soviet Union had given the Cuba – Soviet Union relations, Cuban government. Many believed the revolutionary government would soon collapse, as happened to the Soviet satellite states of Eastern Europe. After many years of economic struggle and prohibition, the socialist government has turned to tourism in Cuba, tourism for revenue and has brought foreign investors to remodel the nationalized, former Manzana de Gomez building, and turn it into the Gran Hotel Manzana Kempinski La Habana, a new Hotel rating, 5-star hotel attempting to develop a new hospitality industry. In Old Havana, a number of streets and squares have been rehabilitated in an effort to rebuild for tourists. But Old Havana is a large city, and the restoration efforts concentrate in all on less than 10% of its area.


Geography

Havana lies on the northern coast of Cuba along the
Straits of Florida 250px, The Straits of Florida The Straits of Florida, Florida Straits, or Florida Strait ( es, Estrecho de Florida) is a strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. M ...

Straits of Florida
, south of the Florida Keys, where the Gulf of Mexico joins the Atlantic Ocean. The city extends mostly westward and southward from the bay, which is entered through a narrow inlet and which divides into three main harbors: Marimelena, Guanabacoa, and Atarés. The
Almendares River The Almendares River is a river that runs for 45 km in the western part of Cuba. It originates from the east of Tapaste and flows north-west into the Straits of Florida. The river acts as a water supply for Havana. The final stretch divides ...
traverses the city from south to north, entering the Straits of Florida a few miles west of the bay. There are low hills on which the city lies rise gently from the waters of the straits. A noteworthy elevation is the 200-foot-high (60-meter) limestone ridge that slopes up from the east and culminates in the heights of La Cabaña and Castillo de los Tres Reyes del Morro, El Morro, the sites of colonial fortifications overlooking the eastern bay. Another notable rise is the hill to the west that is occupied by the University of Havana and the Castillo del Príncipe (Havana).


Administration

The governor is
Reinaldo García Zapata Reinaldo García Zapata is the current governor of Havana Havana (; Spanish: ''La Habana'' ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, coun ...
, he was elected on January, 2020. The city is administered by a city-provincial council, with a governor as chief administrative officer, thus Havana functions as both a city and a province. The city has little autonomy and is dependent upon the national government, particularly, for much of its budgetary and overall political direction. The national government is headquartered in Havana and plays an extremely visible role in the city's life. Moreover, the all-embracing authority of many national institutions has led to a declining role for the city government, which, nevertheless, still provides much of the essential services and has competences in education, health care, city public transport, garbage collection, small industry, agriculture, etc. Voters elect delegates to Municipal Assemblies in competitive elections every five years, and the Municipal Assemblies are responsible for each of the city's boroughs. These assemblies elect the borough presidents and vice presidents, which are equivalents to mayors and vice mayors in the other provinces. There is only one political party, the Communist Party of Cuba, Communist Party, but since there must be a minimum of two candidates, members of the Communist Party often run against each other. Candidates are not required to be members of the party. They are nominated directly by citizens in open meetings within each election district. Municipal Assembly delegates within the boroughs in turn elect members of the Provincial Council (until 2019 the Provincial Assembly), which in Havana serves roughly as the City Council; its president appoints the Governor and Vice Governor, who serve as the Mayor and Vice Mayor of Havana and can be either elected by the council or appointed by the president with council confirmation. There are direct elections for the city's deputies to the National Assembly based on slates, and a portion of the candidates is nominated at the local level. The People's Councils (Consejos Populares) consist of local city delegates who elect a full-time representative to preside over the body. These councils are directly responsible for the city's neighbourhoods and wards. In addition, there is involvement of "mass organizations" and representatives of local government agencies, industries and services. The 105 People's Councils in Havana cover an average of 20,000 residents. Havana city borders are contiguous with the Mayabeque Province on the south and east and to Artemisa Province on the west, since former La Habana Pro=vince (rural) was abolished in 2010. Havana functions as both a city and a province. The city has little autonomy and it is dependent upon the national government, particularly, its budgetary and political direction. The governor is
Reinaldo García Zapata Reinaldo García Zapata is the current governor of Havana Havana (; Spanish: ''La Habana'' ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, coun ...
, he was elected on January, 2020. The city is administered by a city-provincial council, with a governor as a chief administrative officer.


Cityscape

Contemporary Havana can essentially be described as three cities in one:
Old Havana Old Havana ( es, link=no, La Habana Vieja) is the city-center (downtown) and one of the Municipalities of Havana, 15 municipalities (or boroughs) forming Havana, Cuba. It has the second highest population density in the city and contains the core ...

Old Havana
,
Vedado Vedado ( es, El Vedado, ) is a central business district and urban neighborhood in the city of Havana, Cuba. Bordered on the east by Calzada de Infanta and Centro Habana, Cuba, Central Havana, and on the west by the Alemendares River and Miramar, ...
, and the newer suburban districts. Old Havana, with its narrow streets and overhanging balconies, is the traditional centre of part of Havana's commerce, industry, and entertainment, as well as being a residential area. To the west a newer section, centred on the uptown area known as
Vedado Vedado ( es, El Vedado, ) is a central business district and urban neighborhood in the city of Havana, Cuba. Bordered on the east by Calzada de Infanta and Centro Habana, Cuba, Central Havana, and on the west by the Alemendares River and Miramar, ...
, has become the rival of Old Havana for commercial activity and nightlife. The National Capitol Building (Havana), ''Capitolio Nacional'' building marks the beginning of Centro Habana, a working-class neighborhood that lies between Vedado and Old Havana. Barrio Chino and the Real Fabrica de Tabacos Partagás, one of Cuba's oldest cigar factories is located in the area. A third Havana is that of the more affluent residential and industrial districts that spread out mostly to the west. Among these is Marianao, one of the newer parts of the city, dating mainly from the 1920s. Some of the suburban exclusivity was lost after the revolution, many of the suburban homes having been nationalized by the Cuban government to serve as schools, hospitals, and government offices. Several private country clubs were converted to public recreational centres. Miramar, Havana, Miramar, located west of Vedado along the coast, remains Havana's exclusive area; mansions, foreign embassies, diplomatic residences, upscale shops, and facilities for wealthy foreigners are common in the area. The International School of Havana is located in the Miramar neighborhood. In the 1980s many parts of
Old Havana Old Havana ( es, link=no, La Habana Vieja) is the city-center (downtown) and one of the Municipalities of Havana, 15 municipalities (or boroughs) forming Havana, Cuba. It has the second highest population density in the city and contains the core ...

Old Havana
, including the Plaza de Armas, became part of a projected 35-year multimillion-dollar restoration project, for Cubans to appreciate their past and boost tourism. In the past ten years, with the assistance of foreign aid and under the support of local city historian Eusebio Leal Spengler, large parts of Habana Vieja have been renovated. The city is moving forward with their renovations, with most of the major plazas (Plaza Vieja, Plaza de la Catedral, Plaza de San Francisco and Plaza de Armas) and major tourist streets (Obispo and Mercaderes) near completion.


Districts

The city is divided into 15 municipalities Population by Province and Municipality – or ''boroughs'', which are further subdivided into 105 Ward (country subdivision), wards (''consejos populares''). (Numbers refer to map). # Playa, Havana, Playa: Santa Fe, Havana, Santa Fe, Siboney, Cubanacán, Ampliación Almendares, Miramar, Havana, Miramar, Sierra, Ceiba, Buena Vista. # Plaza de la Revolución: El Carmelo, Vedado-Malecón, Rampa, Príncipe, Plaza, Nuevo Vedado-Puentes Grandes, Colón-Nuevo Vedado,
Vedado Vedado ( es, El Vedado, ) is a central business district and urban neighborhood in the city of Havana, Cuba. Bordered on the east by Calzada de Infanta and Centro Habana, Cuba, Central Havana, and on the west by the Alemendares River and Miramar, ...
. # Centro Habana: Cayo Hueso, Havana, Cayo Hueso, Pueblo Nuevo, Los Sitios, Dragones, Colón. # Old Havana, La Habana Vieja: Prado, Catedral, Plaza Vieja, Havana, Plaza Vieja, Belén, San Isidro, Jesús María, Tallapiedra. # Regla: Guaicanimar, Loma Modelo, Casablanca, Havana, Casablanca. # Habana del Este, La Habana del Este: Camilo Cienfuegos, Cojímar, Guiteras, Alturas de Alamar, Alamar Este, Guanabo, Campo Florido, Alamar, Alamar-Playa. # Guanabacoa: Mañana-Habana Nueva, Villa I, Villa II, Chivas-Roble, Debeche-Nalon, Hata-Naranjo, Peñalver-Bacuranao, Minas-Barreras. # San Miguel del Padrón: Rocafort, Luyanó Moderno, Diezmero, San Francisco de Paula, Dolores-Veracruz, Jacomino. # Diez de Octubre: Luyanó, Jesús del Monte, Lawton, Vista Alegre, Goyle, Sevillano, La Víbora, Havana, La Víbora, Santos Suárez, Tamarindo. # Cerro, Havana, Cerro: Latinoamericano, Pilar-Atares, Cerro, Las Cañas, El Canal, Palatino, Armada. # Marianao: CAI-Los Ángeles, Pocito-Palmas, Zamora-Cocosolo, Libertad, Pogoloti-Belén-Finlay, Santa Felicia. # La Lisa : Alturas de La Lisa, Balcón Arimao, El Cano-Valle Grande-Bello 26 y Morado, Punta Brava, Arroyo Arenas, San Agustín, Versalles-Coronela. # Boyeros: Santiago de Las Vegas, Nuevo Santiago, Boyeros, Wajay, Calabazar, Altahabana-Capdevila, Armada-Aldabó. # Arroyo Naranjo: Los Pinos, Poey, Víbora Park, Mantilla, Párraga, Calvario-Fraternidad, Guinera, Eléctrico, Managua, Callejas. # Cotorro: San Pedro-Centro Cotorro, Santa Maria del Rosario, Lotería, Cuatro Caminos, Magdalena-Torriente, Alberro.


Demographics

By the end of 2012 official Census, 19.1% of the population of Cuba lived in Havana. According to the census of 2012, the population was 2,106,146. The city has an average life expectancy of 76.81 years at birth. In 2009, there were 1,924 people living with HIV/AIDS in the city, 78.9% of these are men, and 21.1% being women. According to the 2012 official census (the Cuban census and similar studies use the term "skin color" instead of "race"). * White people#Cuba, White: 58.4%, (Spaniards, Spanish descent were most common)Embassy of Cuba in Beijing – History of Immigration in Cuba
"The first (immigrants) came from various regions of Spain, mostly peasants from the Canaries and Galicia, which like those from China, were subjected to conditions of living and working conditions similar to those of slaves."
* ''Mestizo or Mulatto'' (mixed race): 26.4% * Afro-Cuban, Black: 15.2% * Chinese Cuban, Asian: 0.2% As with the other Caribbean nations, there are few mestizos in Havana (and Cuba as a whole), in contrast to many other Latin American countries, because the indigenous Taíno population was virtually wiped out by Eurasian diseases in colonial times. Havana agglomeration grew rapidly during the first half of the 20th century reaching 1 million inhabitants in the 1943 census. The con-urbanization expanded over the Havana municipality borders into neighbor municipalities of Marianao, Regla and Guanabacoa. Starting from the 1980s, the city's population is growing slowly as a result of balanced development policies, low birth rate, its relatively high rate of emigration abroad, and controlled domestic migration. Because of the city and country's low birth rate and high life expectancy, its age structure is similar to a developed country, with Havana having an even higher proportion of elderly than the country as a whole. The Cuban government controls the movement of people into Havana on the grounds that the Havana metropolitan area (home to nearly 20% of the country's population) is overstretched in terms of land use, water, electricity, transportation, and other elements of the urban infrastructure. There is a population of internal migrants to Havana nicknamed ''"palestinos"'' (Palestinians), sometimes considered a racist term, these mostly hail from the eastern region of Oriente Province, Oriente. The city's significant minority of Chinese people, Chinese, mostly Cantonese people, Cantonese ancestors, were brought in the mid-19th century by Spanish settlers via the Philippines with work contracts and after completing 8-year contracts many Chinese immigrants settled permanently in Havana. Before the revolution the Chinese population counted to over 200,000, today, Chinese ancestors could count up to 100,000. Chinese born/ native Chinese (mostly Cantonese as well) are around 400 presently. There are some 3,000 Russians living in the city; as reported by the Russian Embassy in Havana, most are women married to Cubans who had studied in the Soviet Union. Havana also shelters other non-Cuban population of an unknown size. There is a population of several thousand North African teen and pre-teen refugees.


Landmarks and historical centers

* Old Havana, Habana Vieja: contains the core of the original city of Havana. It was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. * Plaza Vieja, Havana, Plaza Vieja: a plaza in Old Havana, it was the site of executions, processions, bullfights, and ''Festival, fiestas''. * La Cabaña, Fortress San Carlos de la Cabaña, a fortress located on the east side of the Havana bay, La Cabaña is the most impressive fortress from colonial times, particularly its walls constructed at the end of the 18th century. * El Capitolio Nacional: built in 1929 as the Senate and House of Representatives, the colossal building is recognizable by its dome which dominates the city's skyline. Inside stands the third largest indoor statue in the world, ''La Estatua de la República''. Nowadays, the Cuban Academy of Sciences headquarters and the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural (the National Museum of Natural History) has its venue within the building and contains the largest natural history collection in the country. * Castillo de los Tres Reyes Magos del Morro, El Morro Castle: is a fortress guarding the entrance to Havana bay; Morro Castle was built because of the threat to the harbor from pirates. * San Salvador de la Punta Fortress, Fortress San Salvador de la Punta: a small fortress built in the 16th century, at the western entry point to the Havana harbor, it played a crucial role in the defense of Havana during the initial centuries of colonization. It houses some twenty old guns and military antiques. * Christ of Havana: Havana's 20-meter (66 ft) marble statue of Christ (1958) blesses the city from the east hillside of the bay, much like the famous Christ the Redeemer (statue), Cristo Redentor in Rio de Janeiro. * Great Theatre of Havana, The Great Theatre of Havana: is an opera house famous particularly for the National Ballet of Cuba, it sometimes hosts performances by the National Opera. The theater is also known as concert hall, García Lorca, the biggest in Cuba. * Malecón, Havana, The Malecon/Sea wall: is the avenue that runs along the north coast of the city, beside the seawall. The Malecón is the most popular avenue of Havana, it is known for its sunsets. * Hotel Nacional de Cuba: an Art Deco National Hotel famous in the 1950s as a gambling and entertainment complex. * Museum of the Revolution (Cuba), Museo de la Revolución: located in the former Presidential Palace, with the yacht Granma (yacht), Granma on display behind the museum. * Colon Cemetery, Havana, Necrópolis Cristóbal Colón: a cemetery and open-air museum, it is one of the most famous cemeteries in Latin America, known for its beauty and magnificence. The cemetery was built in 1876 and has nearly one million to=mbs. Some gravestones are decorated with sculpture by Ramos Blancos, among others.


Old Havana

In 1555, Old Havana was destroyed by the French corsair Jacques de Sores. The pirate had taken Havana easily, overpowering the few defenders, plundering the city, and burning much of it to the ground, but he left without obtaining the enormous wealth that he had been hoping to find there. After the incident, the Spanish brought soldiers into the city and built fortresses and walls to protect it. Construction of Castillo de la Real Fuerza, the first fortress built, was begun in 1558, and was overseen by engineer Bartolomé Sanchez. Havana was founded by the Spanish November 16, 1519 in the natural harbor of the Bay of Havana. It became a stopping point for the treasure laden Spanish
galleon on the "Suez Expedition" (part of the Portuguese Armada of 72 ships sent against the Ottoman fleet anchor in Suez, Egypt, in response to its entry in the Indian Ocean and the siege of Diu in 1538) – ''Tábuas da India'' in the João de Cast ...
s on the crossing between the
New World The "New World" is a term for the majority of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continents and islands. The re ...
and the Old World. In the 17th century, it was one of the main shipbuilding centers. The city was built in baroque and Neoclassicism, neoclassical styles. Many buildings have fallen into ruin in the latter half of the 20th century, but a number are being restored. The narrow streets of Old Havana contain many buildings, accounting for perhaps as many as one-third of the approximately 3,000 buildings found in Old Havana. It is the ancient city formed from the port, the official center, and the Plaza de Armas. Old Havana resembles Cadiz and Tenerife. Alejo Carpentier called it "de las columnas"(of the columns), but it could also be named for the gateways, the revoco, the deterioration and the rescue, the intimacy, the shade, the cool, the courtyards. There are all the big ancient monuments, the forts, the convents and churches, the palaces, the alleys, the arcade. The Cuban State had undertaken enormous efforts to preserve and restore Old Havana through the efforts of the Office of the Historian of the City, which was directed by Eusebio Leal. Old Havana and its fortifications were added to the
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a List of specialized agencies of the United Nations, specialised agency of th ...

UNESCO
World Heritage Site, World Heritage List in 1982.


La Alameda de Paula, Havana

The Alameda de Paula is a promenade in Havana, Cuba, and was the first to be built in the city. The Alameda de Paula was commissioned by Captain General ( es, Capitanía General de Cuba) Felipe de Fons de Viela, member of the court of Charles III of Spain, King Carlos III. It was built by architect Antonio Fernández de Trebejos in 1777. The site of the old Rincón refuse dump, initially the promenade was a dirt track with some benches and flanked by two rows of poplar trees. It was given the name Alameda de Paula because of its proximity to the Hospital and Iglesia of Iglesia de San Francisco de Paula, Havana, San Francisco de Paula which had been built in 1664. An ornamented marble fountain was built in 1847. Between 1803 and 1805 the pavement was tiled, a fountain and stone benches, lampposts and the marble column were added, it qualified as a pleasant entertainment for the residents of the Villa de San Cristóbal, lacking recreational sites at that time. The Alameda de Paula became one of Havana's most important social and cultural spaces and the model of the Paseo del Prado, Havana, Paseo del Prado designed in 1925 by Jean-Claude Nicolas Forestier. The Alameda de Paula became one of Havana's most important social and cultural spaces, it was the model of the Paseo del Prado, Havana, Paseo del Prado designed in 1925 by Jean-Claude Nicolas Forestier. It was given the name Alameda de Paula because of its proximity to the old Hospital and Iglesia of Iglesia de San Francisco de Paula, Havana, San Francisco de Paula. Between 1803 and 1805 the pavement was tiled, a fountain and stone benches, lampposts and the marble column were added, it qualified as a pleasant entertainment for the residents of the Villa de San Cristóbal, lacking recreational sites at that time. The promenade was the subject of various transformations in the course of the 19th century; the embankment was tiled, a fountain was located there and the back of the seats was latticed. By that time it was considered the most popular and busiest place in the city. Toilets were built which increased its popularity. In the 1940s, squares were drawn at its ends, widened, and provided with access stairs and seats, street lamps were updated. In 1841, the stairs that gave access to the promenade were widened and several lampposts were added. In the year 2000, the Havana promenade was restored and extended until it reached the Iglesia de Iglesia de San Francisco de Paula, Havana, San Francisco de Paula.


Paseo de Tacón

The Paseo de Tacón, or Paseo Militar, was created by the Captain General ( es, Capitanía General de Cuba) Miguel Tacón y Rosique (1834–1838) who promoted the reform of the “road” that, starting from the calles of San Luis de Gonzaga (Reina) and Barrio de San Lázaro, Havana, Belascoáin, connected to the Castillo del Príncipe. Calle Barrio de San Lázaro, Havana, Belascoáin was the edge between the city and the countryside. Avenida Carlos III, was a promenade that Captain General (Spanish: Capitanía General de Cuba) Miguel Tacón y Rosique, put into operation in 1836. When first created, it was called the Paseo de Tacón. Years later, the name was changed to Carlos III in honor of the Charles III of Spain, King of Spain, a statue of the king was erected. Avenida de Carlos III begins at the intersection with the Ayestarán and Presidente Menocal or Calle Infanta. The beautification plan of Havana by the engineer Mariano Carrillo de Albornoz during the third decade of the nineteenth century, contemplated the construction of s comfortable and beautiful walk that would serve for the recreation of the city's residents who were already spreading to more and more of its original city limits and as framed by the original wall that protected them from foreign attacks. The Paseo de Tacón would allow for better communication with the colonial troops in the Castillo del Príncipe, because until then it was difficult to reach that military installation by having to circumvent a low and muddy road that became practically impassable in times of rains. Tacon said about this project:
“It lacked the capital of a country walk where you could breathe the pure and free air, and I resolved to undertake it from the field that they call from Peñalver to the hillside where the Prince's castle is located. It was this site, once swampy and watery, the most on purpose for a work of this kind in the surroundings of this city, in the part where it is not surrounded by the sea. There was also another reason that turned the work into doubly useful, which was the frank communication of this square with the castle, interrupted by that part in the rainy season. ”
Well-known since the time of the monarchy by the name Carlos III, the street is more than 50 meters in width and serves to direct traffic to and from the oldest areas of Havana. It has four lanes of traffic it is the widest traffic artery in the city.


Quinta de los molinos

The Quinta de Los Molino

is more than two centuries old and a national monument, an oasis in the heart of the city located at the intersection of one of Havana’s heaviest traffic arteries: Infanta, Carlos III, and Boyeros avenues. The Quinta since colonial times has had a complicated history to various events and characters, mainly with Máximo Gómez, General Máximo Gómez. The original area exceeded the territory it currently occupies as it extended north to approximately the location of the University of Havana, to the northwest to Hospital Calixto García, and west to G Street, including the Castillo del Príncipe (Havana), Castillo del Principe, and south to Salvador Allende avenue and east to Infanta stree

It is in the general vicinity of the Paseo de Tacón (Avenida Carlos III), the University of Havana, and the Castillo del Príncipe (Havana), Castillo del Principe]

The Quinta de Los Molino

was the location where the Captaincy General of Cuba maintained their summer residenc

in the 1850s – 1870s. The location acquires the name Quinta de Los Molino

due to the existence of two mills used to grind tobacco and obtain snuff. The mills were owned by Martín de Aróstegui, president of the Royal Tobacco Factory belonging to the Spanish king, hence its name. This name appeared in the National Archive of Cuba in 1850 and has been maintained to this day. Before 1850 it was known as the Tacón Garden, as it appears in a plan of 1843 and in a marble plaque, enclosed in the wall of an old building in the area. These mills operated until the second half of the 19th century, moved by the force of the water from the so-called Zanja Real, the first aqueduct that Havana had. Its construction began in 1592, and they were finished after 27 years of work. Very close to the Cathedral of Havana is the Callejón del Chorro, whose name comes from its old use. Originally the Cathedral was called Plaza de la Ciénaga, since it was there where the people of Havana came to stock up on water, brought by the Zanja Real. At the end of the War of Independence in Cuba, with the defeat of Spain and in the absence of the representation of the Cuban people, the Treaty of Paris was signed on December 10. After the war was formally ended, the President of the Republic of Cuba in Arms, Bartolomé Masó, met the Assembly of Representatives of Santa Cruz del Sur and resigned from his position. The Assembly moved to Havana, to house number 819 on Calzada del Cerro. The more than 11 km long El Chorro, as the Zanja Real was known, started at the Almendares River and brought water to
Old Havana Old Havana ( es, link=no, La Habana Vieja) is the city-center (downtown) and one of the Municipalities of Havana, 15 municipalities (or boroughs) forming Havana, Cuba. It has the second highest population density in the city and contains the core ...

Old Havana
crossing Zanja Street (bearing its name). This first aqueduct ceased its use with the development of the city. Thus the Spanish government was forced to find an alternative solution for the supply of water to Old Havana, creating in 1835, the aqueduct of Fernando VII and the Acueducto de Albear, Albear in 1858 which were joined in 1878. When the king's mills disappeared, the Botanical Garden of Havana was founded, along with the construction of the resthouse of the Captaincy General of Cuba. Starting in the 1820s, research and studies on plants were carried out by Felipe Poey Aloy. The Botanical Garden was transferred, from the area that currently includes the American Fraternity Park and the south of the National Capitol, where the first Botanical Garden had been founded in 1817. The herbarium of the old Botanical Garden of Havana, in which it was started, sought the development of the botanical collection. Álvaro Reinoso carried out many of his experiments, having many small plots dedicated to the cultivation of sugar cane. The University of Havana took over between 1850 and 1871, during this time it passed into the hands of the Spanish government for a period of 8 years. After this period, the Spanish government returned the land to the University establishing the School of Botany, which sharing its function with the School of Second Education. In 1906 the garden was inscribed in the World System of Botanical Gardens. The butterfly Hedychium coronarium was declared in 1936 as the national flower of Cuba. The villa’s botanical garden was surrounded by wrought-iron railings. In addition to its plants, attributing it in 1906 a place in the International Association of Botanic Gardens, there are life-size statues and busts of Olympian gods such as Minerva, Juno, and Ceres. In 1888 the Cuban Grand Master and World Chess Champion José Raúl Capablanca was born in the Castillo del Príncipe (Havana), Castillo del Príncipe whose father was a Spanish army officer who lived there.


El Malecon

The Malecón (officially Avenida de Antonio Maceo Grajales, Maceo) is a broad esplanade, roadway, and seawall that stretches for 8 km (5 miles) along the coast in Havana,
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
, from the mouth of Havana Harbor in
Old Havana Old Havana ( es, link=no, La Habana Vieja) is the city-center (downtown) and one of the Municipalities of Havana, 15 municipalities (or boroughs) forming Havana, Cuba. It has the second highest population density in the city and contains the core ...

Old Havana
, along the north side of the Centro Habana neighborhood and the
Vedado Vedado ( es, El Vedado, ) is a central business district and urban neighborhood in the city of Havana, Cuba. Bordered on the east by Calzada de Infanta and Centro Habana, Cuba, Central Havana, and on the west by the Alemendares River and Miramar, ...
neighborhood, ending at the mouth of the
Almendares River The Almendares River is a river that runs for 45 km in the western part of Cuba. It originates from the east of Tapaste and flows north-west into the Straits of Florida. The river acts as a water supply for Havana. The final stretch divides ...
. New businesses are appearing on the esplanade due to economic reforms in Cuba that now allow Cubans to own private businesses. Construction of the Malecón began in 1901, during United States Military Government in Cuba, temporary U.S. military rule."HISTORIA DEL MALECON HABANERO", Tania Díaz Castro, 26 March 2010, ''Primavera Digital''
The main purpose of building the Malecón was to protect Havana from the sea. To celebrate the construction of the first 500m section of the Malecón, the American government built a roundabout at the intersection of Paseo del Prado, which, according to architects of the period, was the first one built in Cuba with steel-reinforced concrete. In front of the roundabout, where every Sunday bands played Cuban melodies, the Miramar Hotel was built, which was very much in fashion for the first 15 years of independence, and which was the first one where the waiters wore tuxedos (dinner jackets) and vests (waistcoats) with gold buttons. Subsequent Cuban governments continued the extension of the first section of the Malecón. In 1923, it reached the mouth of the
Almendares River The Almendares River is a river that runs for 45 km in the western part of Cuba. It originates from the east of Tapaste and flows north-west into the Straits of Florida. The river acts as a water supply for Havana. The final stretch divides ...
between K and L streets in
Vedado Vedado ( es, El Vedado, ) is a central business district and urban neighborhood in the city of Havana, Cuba. Bordered on the east by Calzada de Infanta and Centro Habana, Cuba, Central Havana, and on the west by the Alemendares River and Miramar, ...
, where the United States Interests Section in Havana, United States Embassy was built, near the José Martí Sports Park and, further out, the Hotel Rosita de Hornedo (today, the Sierra Maestra). In 1957 and 1958, the roadway served as the venue of the Cuban Grand Prix. * In 1901 and 1902, from the Paseo del Prado to Calle Crespo * Between 1902 and 1921 as far as the Monument to the Victims of the USS Maine (Havana), Monument to the Victims of the USS Maine * Between 1948 and 1952 to the mouth of the
Almendares River The Almendares River is a river that runs for 45 km in the western part of Cuba. It originates from the east of Tapaste and flows north-west into the Straits of Florida. The river acts as a water supply for Havana. The final stretch divides ...
The Malecón continues to be popular among Cubans. It is also a means of income for poorer families as individual fishermen cast their lures there. In addition, it is a hotspot for prostitution in Cuba by men and women. Although the houses lining the Malecón are mostly in ruins, the Malecón remains one of the most spectacular and popular destinations in Havana. There are a number of important monuments along the Malecón, including those to General Máximo Gomez, Antonio Maceo Grajales, Antonio Maceo, General Calixto García, and the Monument to the Victims of the USS Maine (Havana), Monument to the Victims of the USS ''Maine''. At the intersection of 23rd Street, the Malecón marks the northeast end of the La Rampa section of 23rd Street,
Vedado Vedado ( es, El Vedado, ) is a central business district and urban neighborhood in the city of Havana, Cuba. Bordered on the east by Calzada de Infanta and Centro Habana, Cuba, Central Havana, and on the west by the Alemendares River and Miramar, ...
. In the Plaza de la Dignidad is a statue of José Martí and in front of the Embassy of the United States, Havana, Embassy of the United States, the José Martí Anti-Imperialist Platform. Significant buildings include the Castillo de la Real Fuerza, the Castillo de San Salvador de la Punta, Malecón 17 (Las Cariátides) and the Hotel Nacional de Cuba, Hotel Nacional. There were several buildings, monuments, and geographical features that were a part of Barrio de San Lázaro, Havana, Barrio de San Lázaro including the Torreón de San Lázaro, La Casa de Beneficencia y Maternidad de La Habana, La Casa de Beneficencia, Hospital de San Lázaro, Havana, Hospital de San Lázaro, exthe Espada Cemetery, the Casa de Dementes de San Dionisio, the Quarry of San Lázaro, the Batería de la Reina, the Santa Clara Battery, and Hill of Taganana, among others. The Malecón has served as an inspiration for several cocktail names, including the Malecon (cocktail), "Malecón cocktail" by John Escalante that can be traced back to his 1915 Cuban cocktail guide, ''Manual Del Cantinero'' (p,23).


Colon Cemetery

El Cementerio de Cristóbal Colón, also called La Necrópolis de Cristóbal Colón, was founded in 1876 in the
Vedado Vedado ( es, El Vedado, ) is a central business district and urban neighborhood in the city of Havana, Cuba. Bordered on the east by Calzada de Infanta and Centro Habana, Cuba, Central Havana, and on the west by the Alemendares River and Miramar, ...
neighbourhood of Havana,
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
to replace the Espada Cemetery in the Barrio de San Lázaro, Havana, Barrio de San Lázaro. Named for
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
, the cemetery is noted for its many elaborately sculpted memorials. It is estimated the cemetery has more than 500 major mausoleums. Before the Espada Cemetery and the Colon Cemetery were built, interments took place in crypts at the various churches throughout Havana, for example, at the Havana Cathedral or Iglesia del Espíritu Santo, Havana#History, Church Crypts in Havana Vieja. The Colon Cemetery is one of the most important cemeteries in the world and is generally held to be one of the most important in Latin America in historical and architectural terms, second only to La Recoleta Cemetery, La Recoleta in Buenos Aires. Prior to the opening of the Colon Cemetery, Havana's dead were laid to rest in the crypts of local churches and then, beginning in 1806, at Havana's newly opened Espada Cemetery located in the Barrio de San Lázaro, Havana, Barrio de San Lazaro and near the cove of Juan Guillen close to the Hospital de San Lazaro, Havana, San Lázaro Leper Hospital and the La Casa de Beneficencia y Maternidad de La Habana, Casa de Beneficencia. When locals realized there would be a need for a larger space for their community for the deceased (due to a cholera outbreak in 1868), planning began for the Colon Cemetery. The Colón is a Catholic cemetery and has elaborate monuments, tombs and statues by 19th and 20th century artists. Plots were assigned according to social class, and soon became a means for patrician families to display their wealth and power with ever more elaborate tombs and mausoleums. The north main entrance is marked by a gateway decorated with biblical reliefs and topped by a marble sculpture by José Vilalta Saavedra: Faith, Hope and Charity. Some of the most important and elaborate tombs lie between the main gate and the Capilla Central. The Monumento a los Bomberos (Firemen's Monument) built by Spanish sculptor Agustín Querol and architect Julio M Zapata, commemorates the twenty eight firemen who died when a hardware shop in La Habana Vieja caught fire in 1890 In front of the main entrance, at the axes of the principal avenues Avenida Cristobal Colón, Obispo Espada, and Obispo Fray Jacinto, stands the Central Chapel modelled on Florence Cathedral, Il Duomo in Florence is the octagonal Capilla Central (central chapel), the Capilla del Amor (Chapel of Love), built by Juan Pedro Baró for his wife Catalina Laza. On every side rectangular streets lead geometrically to the cemetery's 50,000 hectares. The area of the cemetery is defined by rank and social status of the dead with distinct areas: priests, soldiers, brotherhoods, the wealthy, the poor, infants, victims of epidemics, pagans and the condemned. The best preserved and grandest tombs stand on or near the central avenues and their axes. With more than 800,000 graves and 1 million interments, space in the Colon Cemetery is currently at a premium and as such after three years remains are removed from their tombs, boxed and placed in a storage building. Yet, for all its elegance and grandeur, the Colon Cemetery conceals as much as it displays. Empty tombs and desecrated family chapels disfigure the stately march of family memorials even in the most prominent of the avenues, and away from the central cross-streets are in ruin. Many of these are the tombs of exiled families, whose problems with caring for their dead have been complicated by residency outside of Cuba since the Cuban Revolution, Revolution of 1959. The Cementerio Colón measures 620 by 800 meters (122.5 acres). Designed by the Galicia, Spain, Galician architect Calixto Arellano de Loira y Cardoso, a graduate of Madrid's Royal Academy of Arts of San Fernando, who became the Colón's first resident when he died and before his work was completed. It was built between 1871 and 1886, on former farmland. Laid out in a grid similar to El Vedado by numbered and lettered streets it becomes an urban microcosm of the city. The cemetery contains works by some of the most distinguished Cuban artists of the 19th and 20th centuries, such as Miguel Melero, José Vilalta de Saavedra, Rene Portocarrero, Rita longa, Eugenio Batista, Max Sorges Recio, Juan José Sicre, and others. The design follows the custom of laying out the plan with five crosses formed by perpendicularly intersecting streets. The two main avenues give rise to the central cross, each of the four resulting spaces, called barracks, is subdivided in turn by two other streets that intersect at right angles. Five squares are formed at the intersections, the main one of which is the Central Chapel, with an octagonal floor plan and surrounded by portals, a Loire project completed with modifications by Francisco Marcotegui. The cemetery is laid out roughly on a north–south axis, parallel to the last stretch of the
Almendares River The Almendares River is a river that runs for 45 km in the western part of Cuba. It originates from the east of Tapaste and flows north-west into the Straits of Florida. The river acts as a water supply for Havana. The final stretch divides ...
, and against the street grid of
Vedado Vedado ( es, El Vedado, ) is a central business district and urban neighborhood in the city of Havana, Cuba. Bordered on the east by Calzada de Infanta and Centro Habana, Cuba, Central Havana, and on the west by the Alemendares River and Miramar, ...
. It is on the north axis, thus its main streets are on the four cardinal points of the compass. Symbolized by a Christian cross variants, Greek cross, it represents the four directions of the earth and the spread of the gospel to all directions as well as the four platonic elements. We find Greek crosses against a yellow background along the perimeter fence enclosing the cemetery, as well as part of the design diagram of the cemetery, which employs several Greek crosses at different scales thus forming an architectural tapestry. The main avenues, Avenida Cristobal Colón, Obispo Espada, and Obispo Fray Jacinto, at six hundred by eight hundred meters, is the first cross at the scale of the city (red cross-areal photo). Calixto Arellano de Loira y Cardoso was also the designer of the main portal, of Romanesque inspiration. It is 21.66 meters high, 34.40 in length, and 2.50 in thickness, executed with variations by Eugenio Rayneri Sorrentino for and eventually crowned, by José Vilalta Saavedra, by the sculptural group Fe. Esperanza y Caridad (Theological virtues, Faith, Hope and Charity). The first stone for its construction was placed on October 30, 1871, since 1868 burials have been carried out.


Paseo del Prado, Havana

Construction of the first European-style boulevard in Havana, the first street of its type outside the city walls, was proposed by Don Felipe Fons de Viela y Ondeano in 1770, and work was completed in the mid-1830s during the term of Captain General ( es, Capitanía General de Cuba) Miguel Tacón y Rosique (1834–1838) who was also responsible for the Paseo de Tacón, the Plaza del Vapor, Havana, Plaza del Vapor and the Tacón Theatre. in 1925 French landscape architect Jean-Claude Nicolas Forestier redesigned the Paseo del Prado, lined it with trees, bronze sculptures of lions, coral stone walls and marble benches. The bronze lions were added in 1928. The Lions were commissioned by President Gerardo Machado. They were authored by French sculptor Jean Puiforcat and Cuban-born master caster Juan Comas Masique, who used the metal from decommissioned cannons to forge the lions. Lining the boulevard are important buildings such as the Gran Teatro de La Habana, hotels (including the Hotel Sevilla), cinemas such as the Faust

theaters, and mansions imitating styles from Madrid, París and Vienna. El Prado was the first paved street in Havana. When El Capitolio was built in 1929 that section of the promenade was removed. At the corner of Cárcel street the car dealership ''Packard & Cunnigham'' was located, and in 1940 the radio network RHC-Cadena Azul established its studios on the Prado. Jean-Claude Nicolas Forestier (9 January 1861 in Aix-les-Bains – 26 October 1930 in Paris) was a French landscape architect, who trained with Adolphe Alphand and became conservator of the promenades of Paris. Forestier was the landscape architect of El Prado and had moved to Havana from France for five years to collaborate with architects and landscape architects on various projects throughout the city including the design of the gardens for the El Capitolio, Capitolio. He worked on the master plan of the city with the aim to create a harmonic balance between classical forms and the tropical landscape of Havana. He embraced and connected the city's road network while accentuating prominent landmarks through a series of parks, avenues, "paseos," and boulevards which 50 years later proved to be a direct contrast to the Havana Plan Piloto of Josep Lluis Sert which was influenced by Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne, CIAM planning principles. The Congrès internationaux d'architecture moderne (CIAM), was an organization founded in 1928 and disbanded in 1959, responsible for a series of events and congresses arranged across Europe by the most prominent architects of the time, with the objective of spreading the principles of the Modern architecture, Modern Movement focusing in all the main domains of architecture, landscape architecture, urbanism, industrial design, and many other design practices. Nicolas Forestier's influence has left his mark on Havana; many of his ideas were cut short by the Great Depression of 1929. The Paseo del Prado had been a replacement for the first promenade in the City of La Alameda de Paula, Havana, La Alameda de Paula which was buildt around 1776 by Antonio Fernández Trevejo. By the 1950s, families were moving from the Prado to Miramar, Havana, Miramar and other parts of the city such as the
Vedado Vedado ( es, El Vedado, ) is a central business district and urban neighborhood in the city of Havana, Cuba. Bordered on the east by Calzada de Infanta and Centro Habana, Cuba, Central Havana, and on the west by the Alemendares River and Miramar, ...
and Siboney, Cuba, Siboney. After the 1959 revolution, the Prado streets and many of its buildings were, like the majority of buildings in Havana, physically deteriorated to the point that many collapsed and remain to this day in a ruined state.


Barrio Chino

Barrio Chino was once Latin America's largest and most vibrant Chinese community,Havana's Chinatown
– The once largest Chinese community in Latin America

Chinese in Cuba
Embassy of Cuba in Beijing, History of Chinese in Cuba
Surgido en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX, el Barrio Chino de La Habana experimentó un rápido desarrollo y llegó a convertirse, en la siguiente centuria, en el más importante de América Latina.
incorporated into the city by the early part of the 20th century. Hundreds of thousands of Chinese workers were brought in by Spanish settlers from Guangdong, Fujian, Hong Kong, and Macau via Manila, Philippines starting in the mid-19th century to replace or work alongside Native ethnic groups of Africa, African slaves.Embassy of Cuba in Beijing-Immigration in Cuba
After completing 8-year contracts, many Chinese immigrants settled permanently in Havana. The first 206 Chinese-born arrived in Havana on June 3, 1847. The neighborhood was booming with Chinese restaurants, laundries, banks, pharmacies, theaters and several Chinese-language newspapers, the neighborhood comprised 44 square blocks during its prime. The heart of Barrio Chino is on ''el Cuchillo de Zanja'' (or The Zanja Canal). The strip is a pedestrian-only street adorned with many red lanterns, dancing red paper dragons and other Chinese cultural designs, there is a great number of restaurants that served a full spectrum of Chinese dishes. The district has two paifang (Chinese arches), the larger one located on ''Calle Dragones''. China donated the materials in the late 1990s. It has a well defined written welcoming sign in Chinese language, Chinese and Spanish. The smaller arch is located on Calle Zanja. The Cuban's Chinese boom ended when Fidel Castro's 1959 revolution seized private businesses, sending tens of thousands of business-minded Chinese fleeing, mainly to the United States. Descendants are now making efforts to preserve and revive the culture.


Culture


Architecture

Havana has diverse styles of architecture, from castles built in the 16th century, to modernist high-rise buildings. The present condition of many structures have deteriorated since 1959 or have been demolished, including the demolition of the Plaza del Vapor, Havana, Plaza del Vapor, built in 1835 by the architect of the Palacio de la Marquesa de Villalba, Havana, Palacio de la Marquesa de Villalba Eugenio Rayneri Sorrentino the father of Eugenio Rayneri Piedra the architect of the El Capitolio of 1929. The Plaza del Vapor, Havana, Plaza del Vapor was demolished in 1959 by the new, revolutionary government. Numerous building collapses throughout the city have resulted in injuries and deaths due to a lack of maintenance.


Colonial

Riches were brought from the colonialists into and through Havana as it was a key transshipment point between the new world and old world. As a result, Havana was the most heavily fortified city in the Americas. Most examples of early architecture can be seen in military fortifications such as La Cabaña, La Fortaleza de San Carlos de la Cabana (1558–1577) designed by Battista Antonelli and the Morro Castle (Havana), Castillo del Morro (1589–1630). This sits at the entrance of Havana Harbor, Havana Bay and provides an insight into the supremacy and wealth at that time. Old Havana was also protected by a defensive wall begun in 1674 but had already overgrown its boundaries when it was completed in 1767, becoming the new neighborhood of Centro Habana. The influence from different styles and cultures can be seen in Havana's colonial architecture, with a diverse range of Moorish architecture, Spanish architecture, Spanish, Architecture of Italy, Italian, Ancient Greek architecture, Greek and Roman architecture, Roman. The San Carlos and San Ambrosio Seminary (18th century) is a good example of early Spanish influenced architecture. Cathedral of Havana, The Havana cathedral (1748–1777) dominating the Plaza de la Catedral (1749) is the best example of Cuban Baroque. Surrounding it are the former palaces of the Count de Casa-Bayona (1720–1746) Marquis de Arcos (1746) and the Marquis de Aguas Claras (1751–1775).


=Iglesia del Espíritu

= The Iglesia del Espíritu Santo at #161 Calle Acosta was built in 1635 on the corner of the corner of Calles Cuba and Acosta by a fraternity of Afro-Cuban ex slaves. The Espíritu Santo contains some notable paintings including a seated, post-crucifixion Christ on the right wall, and catacombs. It is considered one of the oldest temples in Havana and it is said that its main interest lies essentially in the simplicity or simplicity of the beautiful stone construction. The church was rebuilt and expanded in 1648 and given the rank of a parish. During the colonial era it had exceptional importance, since by a Papal Bull of 1772 and a Royal Certificate of 1773, of Charles III of Spain, it was declared "Única Iglesia inmune en esta ciudad, construida en 1855." (”the only immune church in this city, built-in 1855."), which meant that any persecuted individual could find Amparo (sanctuary) in it against the action of the authorities or of justice. A metal plaque at the foot of the bell tower attests to this fact. Many illustrious people of Havana were baptized in this church, among them the educator José de la Luz y Caballero. Bishop Gerónimo Valdés, a founder of La Casa de Beneficencia y Maternidad de La Habana, was buried in the Church; the master sepulcher of Bishop Valdés was found in 1936. There are original paintings by the Cuban painter José Nicolás de la Escalera ("Cuba's first painter") and Aristides Fernandez (20th century), among them the large oil painting titled The Burial of Christ. The Iglesia del Espíritu Santo's greatest interest from an architectural point of view lies in the simplicity of the coral stone construction and the lack of lavish decoration. Other elements of great importance are the funerary crypts that were discovered in 1953. The crypt is from times before the Colon Cemetery, Havana, Colon Cemetery (1876) in El Vedado was built. The crypt is entered from the left of the altar and contains several catacombs.


Cuban uni-nave

The building was built in the "uni-nave" style, as pointed out by Joaquín Weiss, a Cuban architect, and historian and one of the most authoritative authorities on the subject. Uni-nave was the style of Cuban religious constructions in the seventeenth century and meant that it originally had only one central nave. An additional side nave In the first years of the 18th century, the bell tower was built and around 1720 the vault of the Chancel, presbytery was built. In 1760, Bishop D. Pedro Morell of Santa Cruz ordered the construction of a nave (8x29m) lateral to the main temple nave. The church sits on a plinth of about 18 cm that may be seen along Calles Cuba and Acosta. The building is 60m long as measured on the exterior, East-West along Calle Acosta, although from the interior it appears that the last 10m was a later addition as the walls of this ten-meter square room are thinner (along Calle Acosta) and the roof structure does not span the ten-meter dimension. There is a column in the middle of the room to distribute the weight of the roof. There are seven bays of approximately fifty-seven centimeters in length along the main nave. The first bay at the entrance is the shortest of about five meters in length and contains a balcony above which is reached by the stairs of the Belfry (architecture), belfry. The elliptical arch supported by matching pilasters at opposite walls date from 1808 which is the year of the construction of the bell tower. In the middle of the 19th century, the entire wall that faces Acosta Street was rebuilt and the main façade was remodeled. The three-story bell-tower was built in the year 1808 and it is located immediately to the left of the church upon entering, it is one of the tallest structures in Old Havana. The tower was built by the master Pedro Hernández de Santiago. There are five windows along the Calle Acosta wall and, except for the window in the Chancel, presbytery which aligns with the center of the room, do not align with the grid of the columns. Thus the windows appear to be haphazardly placed without regard for the geometry of the nave or the rhythm of the structure.


Ceiling

The roof of the church terminates on the interior in a wooden ceiling of paired cross-tie braces and hidden tie backs springing from every column and supported on wooden corbels. The wood cross-tie brace ceiling is a common construction in Havana and may be seen in the wooden ceiling of the Church of Santo Cristo del Buen Viaje at Amargura and Cristo Streets in Havana Vieja and Iglesia de Santa Clara de Asis


Neoclassical

Neoclassical architecture, Neoclassism was introduced into the city in the 1840s, at the time including Gas public lighting in 1848 and the railroad in 1837. In the second half of the 18th century, sugar and coffee production increased rapidly, which became essential in the development of Havana's most prominent architectural style. Many wealthy ''Habaneros'' took their inspiration from the French; this can be seen within the interiors of upper-class houses such as the ''Aldama Palace'' built in 1844. This is considered the most important neoclassical residential building in Cuba and typifies the design of many houses of this period with portales of neoclassical columns facing open spaces or courtyards. In 1925 Jean-Claude Nicolas Forestier, the head of urban planning in Paris moved to Havana for five years to collaborate with architects and landscape designers. In the master planning of the city his aim was to create a harmonic balance between the classical built form and the tropical landscape. He embraced and connected the city's road networks while accentuating prominent landmarks. His influence has left a huge mark on Havana although many of his ideas were cut short by the Great Depression, great depression in 1929. During the first decades of the 20th century Havana expanded more rapidly than at any time during its history. Great wealth prompted architectural styles to be influenced from abroad. The peak of Neoclassicism came with the construction of the Vedado, Vedado district (begun in 1859). This area features a number of set back well-proportioned buildings in the Neoclassical style.


=Palacio de la Marquesa de Villalba

= Built in 1875, in the Reparto de las Las Murallas, (wide strip of land that remained after the city walls were demolished in 1863), it was the work of the architect Eugenio Rayneri y Sorrentino. Around 1880 the mansion was owned by the Count of Casa Moré. The “La Flor de José Murias” tobacco factory was installed in the building. Later, through the exploitation of rents, it became a tenement house. In 1951 some of its spaces were dedicated to housing. On its upper floor, the Spanish Center and the Israeli Center of Cuba had their headquarters. The palace of the Marquesa de Villalba and the Plaza del Vapor, Havana, Mercado de Tacón were designed by the Eugenio Rayneri y Sorrentino at almost the same time, 1875 and 1876, respectively, each in a style that accommodated the particular typology (residential and commercial) thus conceiving each work with the formal element accomodating different aesthetic requirements. The property is, after the Palacio de Aldama, Aldama Palace, the strongest example of Cuban Neoclassicism. The palace of the Marquesa de Villalba is in the neoclassical style, perhaps only comparable in Havana – according to Alina Castellanos – to the Aldama Palace. But while the latter limits the decoration to the natural slenderness of the colonnade, in the most classical way of the Greek Parthenon, the former uses Roman and Renaissance elaborations, hence, the arcade has been projected on pillars, the building was crowned with a considerable cornice. The neoclassical decoration can also be seen in the window covers, which take alternate forms of a triangular or semicircular pediment, and glass over the door, similar to the Plaza del Vapor, Havana, Plaza del Vapor. Some interior spaces and the openings to the street on the ground floor have been heavily modified, it is still possible to appreciate the monumentality of the building in its three street facades, well proportioned, with a portal composed of a semicircular arcade that culminates in pointed arches at the ends. There are openings on the upper floor, which are alternately topped by triangular or semicircular pediments, a detail that shows a strong influence of the Italian Renaissance, which makes the Palacio one of the most openly academic of the period. There is an unusual Corinthian pilaster order attached to the upper floor, and the main portal by Calle Egido, resolved in a semicircular arch with and a cast iron door. The rest of the composition remains within the scheme of the large intramural mansions, with the ground floor, mezzanine, and main floor, located, in this case, around three interior courtyards.


Art Deco

Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. It influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners. It took its name, short for ''Arts Décoratifs'', from the International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts, Exposition internationale des arts décoratifs et industriels modernes (International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts) held in Paris in 1925. It combined modern styles with fine craftsmanship and rich materials. During its heyday, it represented luxury, glamour, exuberance, and faith in social and technological progress. From its outset, Art Deco was influenced by the bold geometric forms of Cubism and the Vienna Secession; the bright colours of Fauvism and of the Ballets Russes; the updated craftsmanship of the furniture of the eras of Louis Philippe I and Louis XVI; and the exoticized styles of Chinese art, China and Japanese art, Japan, Indian art, India, Persian art, Persia, Art of ancient Egypt, ancient Egypt and ancient Maya art, Maya art. It featured rare and expensive materials, such as ebony and ivory, and exquisite craftsmanship. The Chrysler Building and Art Deco architecture of New York City, other skyscrapers of New York City built during the 1920s and 1930s are monuments of the style.


= The Bacardi Building

= The Bacardi Building (''Edificio Bacardí'') is an Art Deco Havana landmark designed by the architects Esteban Rodríguez-Castells and Rafael Fernández Ruenes and completed in 1930. It is located on the corner of Calles Monserrate and San Juan de Dios on a 1,320 sq meter lot in Las Murallas,
Old Havana Old Havana ( es, link=no, La Habana Vieja) is the city-center (downtown) and one of the Municipalities of Havana, 15 municipalities (or boroughs) forming Havana, Cuba. It has the second highest population density in the city and contains the core ...

Old Havana
. The Bacardi Building was designed to be the headquarters for the Bacardi Rum Company; it was nationalized by the Castro government in the early 1960s. In 2001, the building was restored by an Italian construction firm. The interior retains the original decorations in marble and granite. It is regarded as one of the finest Art Deco buildings in Latin America. The building was the outcome of an architectural design competition. The owners of the Bacardi company invited a number of architects to present their design proposals for a new headquarters building offering 1,000 pesos to the winner. The competition was made up of a panel of judges that included Henri Schueg Chassin, president of Bacardi, and the architects Leonardo Morales y Pedroso, the architect for Colegio Instituto Técnico Militar, Belen, Enrique Gil, Emilio de Soto, and Pedro Martínez Inclán. The first prize was awarded to architects Esteban Rodríguez-Castells and Rafael Fernández Ruenes. José Menéndez Menéndez was the architect-engineer in the project. Construction of the building started on January 6, 1930, and was completed by the 300-day deadline the company had set for December. Poor conditions of the land required that the foundation use piles of hardwood (jiqui and júcaro negro) and Types of concrete#High-strength concrete, high strength concrete. At the peak of the building (47m) is a bronze sculpture of the company logo, a fruit bat. Its design gives the building a unique chromatic effect and a decorative element of Catalan modernism. At the brim of the building are inflected flat panel sculptures of sirens. The first floor contained a bar with column archways where patrons of the restaurant in the mezzanine area could overlook the bar while they dined. It was open to the public and known to have many celebrities who frequented. Most of the marble and granite were imported from Europe: Germany, Sweden, Norway, Italy, France, Belgium and Hungary. With an area of 1,075 sq. meters and 7.25 meters of support, the first floor walls, floor, and ceiling are adorned in pink granite from Bavaria, and the two halls are of green marble from floor to ceiling. The construction work was carried out by the company Grasyma of Wansiedel, Bavaria of Germany, which took great care in the fine details of the work and the time sensitivity of the project deadline. The property has a cistern with capacity for of water, which pumped into a tank inside the tower with capacity for . In addition, it has four elevators for different uses: two are used for passengers with a capacity of 10 people each and a speed of 350 feet per minute; another is a cargo elevator for the transportation of furniture, with a capacity of ; and the fourth one makes trips between the basement and the first floor to transport goods. Construction was completed in December 1930 and at the time it was the tallest building in Havana.


=López Serrano Building

= Designed by the architect Ricardo Mira in 1929, who in 1941 designed La Moderna Poesia bookstore on Obispo Street for the same owner, the López Serrano Building was the tallest residential building in Cuba until the construction of the FOCSA Building in 1956. The congressman, senator, and presidential candidate Eduardo Chibás was living on the fourteenth-floor penthouse when he committed suicide in August 1951 on the air at CMQ Radio Station. The construction of the building was promoted by José Antonio López Serrano, a publisher who ran La Moderna Poesía. He was the son of Ana Luísa Serrano and José López Rodríguez, "Pote", a banker with ties to publishing.} Pote arrived in Cuba as a poor and illiterate teenager who became an influential banker with ties to the government. In 1890 Pote married Ana Luísa Serrano, a wealthy widow who owned one of the best bookstores in Havana, La Moderna Poesía. After the marriage, Pote took charge of the business opening several branches in other locations in Cuba. José López's fortune was due not only to his advantageous marriage to Ana Luísa but also from supporting the Cuban independence cause. Relations with the main Cuban leaders would bring important economic benefits. Among these political alliances was the figure of General José Miguel Gómez, whom Pote financed the 1907 electoral campaign that would propel Gómez to the Presidency of the Republic. In 1908 Pote got an exclusive contract to print the tickets of the National Lottery, which translated into extensive financial benefits. He monopolized the printing of official documents such as bonds, stocks, stamps and bank notes, printed in La Casa del Timbre. Later, he would obtain from the Government of Gómez the concession for the construction of an iron bridge over the Almendares River connecting Calle Calzada with Miramar. José López Rodríguez committed suicide on March 28, 1921, at the time, he had accumulated 93 million dollars.


Modernism

Some commentators define modernism as a mode of thinking—one or more philosophically defined characteristics, like self-consciousness or self-reference, that run across all the novelties in the arts and the disciplines.Everdell, William, ''The First Moderns, The First Moderns: Profiles in the Origins of Twentieth Century Thought'', University of Chicago Press, 1997, . More common, especially in the West, are those who see it as a socially progressive trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to create, improve, and reshape their environment with the aid of practical experimentation, scientific knowledge, or technology. From this perspective, modernism encouraged the re-examination of every aspect of existence, from commerce to philosophy, with the goal of finding that which was 'holding back' progress (history), progress, and replacing it with new ways of reaching the same end. According to Roger Griffin, modernism can be defined as a broad cultural, social, or political initiative, sustained by the ethos of "the temporality of the new". Modernism sought to restore, Griffin writes, a "sense of sublime order and purpose to the contemporary world, thereby counteracting the (perceived) erosion of an overarching ‘Nomos (sociology), nomos’, or ‘sacred canopy’, under the fragmenting and secularizing impact of modernity." Therefore, phenomena apparently unrelated to each other such as "Expressionism, Futurism, vitalism, Theosophy, psychoanalysis, nudism, eugenics, utopian Urban planning, town planning and architecture, modern dance, Bolsheviks, Bolshevism, Romantic nationalism, organic nationalism – and even the cult of self-sacrifice that sustained the hecatomb of the First World War – disclose a common cause and psychological matrix in the fight against (perceived) decadence." All of them embody bids to access a "supra-personal experience of reality", in which individuals believed they could transcend their own mortality, and eventually that they had ceased to be victims of history to become instead its creators. Known by buildings of high-quality, Modernism transformed much of the city. Examples are the Havana Hilton Hotel of (1958), the Radiocentro CMQ Building of 1955 by Martín Domínguez Esteban architect of the FOCSA Building in 1956, and the Edificio del Seguro Médico, Havana by Antonio Quintana Simonetti.


=Hotel Tryp Habana Libre

= Hotel Tryp Habana Libre is one of the larger hotels in
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
, situated in
Vedado Vedado ( es, El Vedado, ) is a central business district and urban neighborhood in the city of Havana, Cuba. Bordered on the east by Calzada de Infanta and Centro Habana, Cuba, Central Havana, and on the west by the Alemendares River and Miramar, ...
, Havana. The hotel has 572 rooms in a 25-floor tower at Calle 23 ("La Rampa") and Calle L. Opened in 1958 as the Habana Hilton, the hotel famously served as the residence of Fidel Castro and other revolutionaries throughout 1959, after their capture of Havana. The Habana Hilton was constructed at a cost of $24 million, under the personal auspices of President Fulgencio Batista. It was built as an investment by the Caja de Retiro y Asistencia Social de los Trabajadores Gastronomicos, the pension plan of the Cuban catering workers' union, with additional financing from the Banco de Fomento Agricola e Industrial de Cuba (BANFAIC). It was operated by the American Hilton Hotels & Resorts, Hilton Hotels International group and was designed by the well-known Los Angeles architect Welton Becket, who had previously designed the Beverly Hilton for the chain. Becket designed the 27-story Habana Hilton in collaboration with Havana-based architects Lin Arroyo and Gabriela Menéndez. Arroyo was the Minister of Public Works under Batista. The hotel was constructed by the Frederick Snare Corporation. The architectural historian Peter Moruzzi, author of Havana Before Castro, notes what the Hilton meant to Batista:
“Batista considered the Habana Hilton among his proudest achievements, its huge blue-lit rooftop ‘Hilton’ name announcing to the world that the eminent Conrad Hilton had confidence in Cuba’s future – that the country was a safe place in which to invest – and that tourists could now find in Havana the modern comforts they expected in a top international resort.”
The Habana Hilton was Latin America's tallest and largest hotel. It boasted 630 guest rooms, including 42 suites; an elegant casino; six restaurants and bars, including a Trader Vic's and a rooftop bar; a huge supper club; extensive convention facilities; a shopping arcade; an outdoor pool surrounded by cabanas; and two underground garages with a capacity of 500 cars. The hotel also featured artwork commissioned from some of the most important Cuban modern artists of the day, including an enormous mosaic mural by Amelia Peláez over the main entrance and a tiled wall mural by René Portocarrero in the second-floor Antilles Bar overlooking the pool terrace. The Habana Hilton opened with five days of festivities, from March 19–23, 1958, with Conrad Hilton himself in attendance, joined by his companion, actress Ann Miller. Hilton was joined by 300 invited guests, including socialite Virginia Warren, daughter of Chief Justice Earl Warren; renowned Hollywood columnist Hedda Hopper; actress Terry Moore (actress), Terry Moore; actress Dorothy Johnson (model actress), Dorothy Johnson; married radio hosts Tex McCrary and Jinx Falkenburg; actress Linda Cristal; dancer Vera-Ellen; actor Don Murray (actor), Don Murray; actress Dolores Hart; ABC network President Leonard Goldenson; and journalist Leonard Lyons. A formal blessing ceremony was held in the hotel's lobby on March 22, 1958, attended by Cuba's First Lady, Marta Fernandez Miranda de Batista, Marta Fernandez de Batista; Francisco Aguirre, head of the catering workers' union; José Suárez Rivas, Minister of Labor; and other dignitaries. The ceremony was followed by a luncheon, with speeches by Hilton and Aguirre, and a huge gala dinner and ball in the hotel's grand ballroom. The casino in the hotel was leased for $1 million a year to a group consisting of Roberto "Chiri" Mendoza, his brother Mario Mendoza, Clifford A. Jones, Clifford "Big Juice" Jones, Kenneth F. Johnson, and Sidney Orseck. Roberto Mendoza was a wealthy Cuban contractor and sugar planter who was a business associate of Fulgencio Batista, President Batista; Mario Mendoza was a lawyer; Orseck was an attorney from New York; Johnson was a senator in the Nevada state legislature and Jones was a former lieutenant governor of Nevada who had ownership interests in a number of Las Vegas casinos. Hilton officials said that 13 groups tried to lease the casino and 12 were "turned down because they either had underworld connections or had refused to subject themselves to rigid investigation." Speculation surfaced that the murder of Gambino crime family boss Albert Anastasia in October 1957 was tied to his interest in securing an ownership stake in the Hilton's casino. Roberto Mendoza and Santo Trafficante Jr., who had substantial gambling interests in Cuba, were both in New York at the time of Anastasia's murder. The police investigation of the murder focused on this theory for a while but later looked at other theories. The murder was never solved.


=Radiocentro CMQ Building

= The Radiocentro CMQ Building complex is a former radio and television production facility and office building at the intersection of Calle L and La Rampa in El Vedado,
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is a country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud Isla de la Juventud (; en, Isle of Youth) is the second-largest Cuban islan ...

Cuba
. It was modeled after Raymond Hood's 1933 Rockefeller Center in New York City. With 1,650 seats, the theater first opened on December 23, 1947 under the name Teatro Warner Radiocentro, it was owned by brothers Goar and Abel Mestre. Today the building serves as the headquarters of the Cuban Institute of Radio and Television (ICRT). ), which starts at a :es:Túnel de La Habana, tunnel under the entrance to Havana Harbor * Autopista del Mediodia, from Havana to San Antonio de los Baños * an autopista from Havana to Melena del Sur * an autopista from Havana to Mariel, Cuba, Mariel


Education

The national government assumes all responsibility for education, and there are adequate primary, secondary, and vocational training schools throughout Cuba. The schools are of varying quality and education is free and compulsory at all levels except higher learning, which is also free. The University of Havana, located in the
Vedado Vedado ( es, El Vedado, ) is a central business district and urban neighborhood in the city of Havana, Cuba. Bordered on the east by Calzada de Infanta and Centro Habana, Cuba, Central Havana, and on the west by the Alemendares River and Miramar, ...
section of Havana, was established in 1728 and was regarded as a leading institution of higher learning in the Western Hemisphere. Soon after the Revolution, the university, as well as all other educational institutions, were nationalized. Since then several other universities have opened, like the Polytechnic José Antonio Echeverría, Higher Learning Polytechnic Institute José Antonio Echeverría where the vast majority of today's Cuban engineers are taught. The Cuban National Ballet School with 4,350 students is one of the largest ballet schools in the world and the most prestigious ballet school in Cuba.


Health

All Cuban residents have free access to health care in hospitals,Harvard Public Health Review/Summer 2002
The Cuban Paradox
local polyclinics, and neighborhood family doctors who serve on average 170 families each, which is one of the highest doctor-to-patient ratio in the world. However, the health system has suffered from shortages of supplies, equipment and medications caused by ending of the Soviet Union subsidies in the early 1990s and the United States embargo against Cuba, US embargo.The effects of the U.S. embargo on medicines in Cuba have been studied in numerous reports.
• R Garfield and S Santana. Columbia University, School of Nursing, New York
"The impact of the economic crisis and the US embargo on health in Cuba"
"this embargo has raised the cost of medical supplies and food Rationing, universal access to primary health services"
• American Association for World Health
Online
American Association for World Health Report. March 1997. Accessed ''6 October 2006''. Supplementary source

"After a year-long investigation, the American Association for World Health has determined that the U.S. embargo of Cuba has dramatically harmed the health and nutrition of large numbers of ordinary Cuban citizens."
• Felipe Eduardo Sixto
An evaluation of Four decades of Cuban Healthcare
.
"The lack of supplies accompanied by a deterioration of basic infrastructure (potable water and sanitation) resulted in a setback of many of the previous accomplishments. The strengthening of the U.S. embargo contributed to these problems."
• Pan American Health organization; Health Situation Analysis and Trends Summar

"The two determining factors underlying the crisis are well known. One is the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the socialist bloc, and the other is the economic embargo the Government of the United States."
• Harvard Public Health

"Because its access to traditional sources of financing is seriously hindered by the sanctions, which until recently included all food and medicine, Cuba has received little foreign and humanitarian aid to maintain the vitality of its national programs"
• ''The Lancet'' medical journal
Role of USA in shortage of food and medicine
"The resultant lack of food and medicines to Cuba contributed to the worst epidemic of neurological disease this century."
Nevertheless, Havana's infant mortality rate in 2009 was 4.9 per 1,000 live births, 5.12 in the country as a whole, which is lower than many Developed country, developed nations,United Nations World Population Prospects: 2011 revision
– 2011 revision

and the lowest in the Developing country, developing world. Administration of the health care system for the nation is centered largely in Havana. Hospitals in Havana are run by the national government, and citizens are assigned hospitals and clinics to which they may go for attention.


Sports

Many Cubans are avid sports fans who particularly favor baseball. Havana's team in the Cuban National Series is Industriales. FCBA. The city has several large sports stadiums, the largest one is the Estadio Latinoamericano. Admission to sporting events is generally free, and impromptu games are played in neighborhoods throughout the city. Social clubs at the beaches provide facilities for water sports and include restaurants and dance halls. * Havana was host to the 1991 Pan American Games, 11th Pan American Games in 1991. Stadiums and facilities for this were built in the relatively unpopulated eastern suburbs. * Havana was host to the 1992 IAAF World Cup in Athletics. * Havana was an applicant to host the 2008 Summer Olympics and 2012 Summer Olympics, but was not shortlisted. * Havana hosted the Centrobasket on three occasions, namely in 1969, 1989 and 1999.


Notable people

Notable Habaneros: File:Alicia Alonso 1955.jpg, Alicia Alonso File:José Raúl Capablanca 1931.jpg, José Raúl Capablanca File:Alejocarpentier.jpg, Alejo Carpentier File:Celia Cruz, 1957.jpg, Celia Cruz File:Guillermo cabrera infante.png, Guillermo Cabrera Infante File:1-El-Caballero-de-París-en-La-Habana.jpg, José María López Lledín, El Caballero de Paris File:Finlay Carlos 1833-1915.jpg, Carlos Finlay File:Wilfredo Lam.jpg, Wifredo Lam File:LecuonaE.jpg, Ernesto Lecuona File:Lezama lima.jpg, José Lezama Lima File:Dulce frente a su escritorio.jpg, Dulce María Loynaz File:MartiJohnManuel K TRestauration.jpg, José Martí File:RitaD.jpg, Rita Montaner File:Benny Moré.jpg, Benny Moré File:Antonio Quintana Simonetti.jpg, Antonio Quintana Simonetti, Antonio Quintana, Architect File:Mario Romañach Paniagua. Architect. Havana, Cuba.jpg, Mario Romañach, Mario Romañach, Architect File:Cirilo Villaverde.jpg, Cirilo Villaverde


Climate

Havana has a
tropical climate Tropical climate is one of the five major climate groups in the . Tropical climates are characterized by monthly average temperatures of 18 °C (64.4 °F) or higher year-round and feature hot temperatures. Annual precipitation is often ...
that is tempered by the island's position in the belt of the trade winds and by the warm offshore currents. Under the Köppen climate classification, Havana has a tropical savanna climate (''Aw'') that closely borders on a tropical rainforest climate (''Af'') and a tropical monsoon climate (''Am''). Average temperatures range from in January and February to in August. The temperature seldom drops below . The lowest temperature was in Santiago de Las Vegas, Boyeros. The lowest recorded temperature in Cuba was in Bainoa, Mayabeque Province (before 2011 the eastern part of Havana province). Rainfall is heaviest in June and October and lightest from December through April, averaging annually. Hurricanes occasionally strike the island, but they ordinarily hit the south coast, and damage in Havana has been less than elsewhere in the country. Tornadoes can be somewhat rare in Cuba, however, on the evening of January 28, 2019, a very rare strong Fujita scale, F4 tornado struck the eastern side of Havana, Cuba's capital city. The tornado caused extensive damage, destroying at least 90 homes, killing four people and injuring 195. By February 4, the death toll had increased to six, with 11 people still in critical condition. The table lists temperature averages:


Gallery

File:Havana Capitol Building-2.jpg, Havana aerial view File:Capitolio de Cuba floor plan. Havana, Cuba.jpg, Capitolio floor plan. Havana, Cuba. 2-Entrance Portico, 3-Rotunda, 4-Apse, 5-Salon de Marti, 6-Library, 7-Committee room, 8-Stair of Honor, 9-Patio-garden, 10-Salon (pasos perdidos), 12-Secretary, 14-Senate, 15-Cámara, 16-Gallery. File:Porton de entrada Cementerio de Colon.jpg, Main gate Cementerio de Colón Palacio de la marquesa de Villalba, Havana, Cuba.jpg, Palacio de la Marquesa de Villalba, Havana


See also

* Largest cities in the Americas * List of cities in the Caribbean * Havana Plan Piloto


Notes


References


Bibliography

* Eddie Lennon, Julie Napier and Farida Haqiqi. ''Wonderful Havana'' (1st ed.). Cool World Books, updated February 2013. * King, Charles Spencer (2009) ''Havana My Kind of Town''. US: CreateSpace. . * Alicia García Santana. ''Havana: History and Architecture of a Romantic City''. Monacelli, October 2000. . * Angela, Ferriol Maruaga; ''et al.'': ''Cuba crisis, ajuste y situación social (1990–1996)'', Editorial de Ciencias Sociales, 1998. . * ''The Rough Guide to Cuba'' (3rd ed.). Rough Guides, May 2005. . * Barclay, Juliet (1993). ''Havana: Portrait of a City''. London: Cassell. (2003 paperback edition). A comprehensive account of the history of Havana from the early 16th century to the end of the 19th century. * Carpentier, Alejo. ''La ciudad de las columnas'' (The city of columns). A historical review of the city from one of the major authors in the iberoamerican literature, a native of this city. * Cluster, Dick, & Rafael Hernández, ''History of Havana.'' New York: Palgrave-MacMillan, 2006. . A social history of the city from 1519 to the present, co-authored by a Cuban writer and editor resident in Havana and an American novelist and writer of popular history. * Eguren, Gustavo. ''La fidelísima Habana'' (The very faithful Havana). A fundamental illustrated book for those who wants to know the history of La Habana, includes chronicles, articles from natives and non-natives, archives documents, and more. * United Railways of Havana. ''Cuba: A Winter Paradise''. 1908–1909, 1912–1913, 1914–1915 and 1915–1916 editions. New York, 1908, 1912, 1914 and 1915. Maps, photos and descriptions of suburban and interurban electric lines. * "Electric Traction in Cuba". ''Tramway & Railway World'' (London), April 1, 1909, pp. 243–44. Map, photos and description of Havana Central Railroad. * "The Havana Central Railroad". ''Electrical World'' (New York), April 15, 1909, pp. 911–12. Text, 4 photos. * "Three-Car Storage Battery Train". ''Electric Railway Journal'' (New York), September 28, 1912, p. 501. Photo and description of Cuban battery cars. * Berta Alfonso Gallol. ''Los Transportes Habaneros. Estudios Históricos''. La Habana, 1991. The definitive survey (but no pictures or maps). * James A. Michener and John Kings. ''Six Days in Havana''. University of Texas Press; first edition (1989). . Interviews with close to 200 Cubans of widely assorted backgrounds and positions, and concerns how the country has progressed after 90 years of independence from Spain and under the 30-year leadership of Castro. * One more interesting note about that edition of ''The New York Times'': On page 5, there is a short blurb mentioning, "The plan for holding a Pan-American exhibition at Buffalo has been shelved for the present owing to the unsettled condition of the public mind consequent upon the Spanish-Cuban complications." President William McKinley was assassinated at the Pan-American Exhibition when it was finally held in 1901. * Cathryn Griffith, ''Havana Revisited: An Architectural Heritage''. W. W. Norton 2010. * Guadalupe Garcia, ''Beyond the Walled City: Colonial Exclusion in Havana''. 2015, Berkeley: University of California Press.
review
.


External links

*
Martín Domínguez EstebanHavana skyline from Havana HiltonExploring Havana: The tallest building in Cuba, El Focsa.FOCSAAlicia Alonso entry
Concise Encyclopædia Britannica; accessed 5 May 2014.

ABT Original Carmen premiere, abt.org; accessed 5 May 2014.

abt.org; accessed 5 May 2014. *Video
Archive footage
Alonso and Erik Bruhn performing "Pas de Deux" from ''Giselle'', Act II (1955) at Jacob's Pillow *Video
''Witness: The First Lady of Cuban Ballet''
interview broadcast on 28 October 2015 from BBC World Service {{Authority control Havana, \Capitals in North America Capitals in the Caribbean Port cities in Cuba Provinces of Cuba World Heritage Sites in Cuba Gulf of Mexico Populated places established in 1515 1510s establishments in Cuba 1515 establishments in the Spanish West Indies 1515 establishments in North America Architects from Havana