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Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...

state
of
Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is a German state The Federal Republic of Germany, as a federal state, consists of sixteen partly sovereign federated states (german: Land (state), plural (sta ...
. Its 534,049 (2020) inhabitants make it the 13th-largest city in
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the , according to population within city l ...

Germany
as well as the third-largest city in
Northern Germany Northern Germany (german: Norddeutschland) is the region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomen ...
after
Hamburg
Hamburg
and
Bremen Bremen (, also ; Low German also: ''Breem'' or ''Bräm''), officially the City Municipality of Bremen (german: Stadtgemeinde Bremen, ), is the capital of the Germany, German States of Germany, state Bremen (state), Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (' ...
. Hanover's
urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as city, cities, towns, conurbat ...
comprises the towns of
Garbsen Garbsen () is a town in the Hanover (district), district of Hanover, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated on the river Leine, approx. 11 km northwest of Hanover. The name Garbsen can be traced back to 1223. Today's 13 city districts have ...
,
Langenhagen Langenhagen is a town in the Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lower Saxony. Its 534,049 (2020) inhabitants make it the List of cities in Germany by ...
and
Laatzen Laatzen is a town in the district of Hanover, in Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is a German state (''Land'') situated in Northern Germany, northwestern Germany. It is the second-largest ...
and has a population of about 791,000 (2018). The
Hanover Region Hanover Region (german: Region Hannover) is a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning r ...
has approximately 1.16 million inhabitants (2019). The city lies at the
confluence In geography, a confluence (also: ''conflux'') occurs where two or more flowing bodies of water join together to form a single channel. A confluence can occur in several configurations: at the point where a tributary joins a larger river (main ...

confluence
of the
River Leine The Leine (; Old Saxon ''Lagina'') is a river in Thuringia and Lower Saxony, Germany. It is a left tributary of the Aller (Germany), Aller and the Weser and it is long. The river's source is located close to the town of Leinefelde in Thuringia. ...

River Leine
and its
tributary A tributary, or affluent, is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage ba ...
the
Ihme Ihme (in its upper course: Wennigser Mühlbach) is a river of Lower Saxony, Germany. It is a left tributary of the Leine. The Ihme is long. Its source is in the village , a district of Wennigsen. After about , the Ihme reaches the city of Hanove ...
, in the south of the
North German Plain 250px, Morning fog in East Frisia. The North German Plain or Northern Lowland (german: Norddeutsches Tiefland) is one of the major geographical regions of Germany. It is the German part of the North European Plain. The region is bounded by the co ...
, and is the largest city in the
Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region The Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region (German: ''Metropolregion Hannover-Braunschweig-Göttingen-Wolfsburg'') is an economic and cultural region in Northern Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , m ...
. It is the fifth-largest city in the
Low German : : : : : , minority = (70,000) (30,000) (8,000) , familycolor = Indo-European , fam2 = Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic langua ...
dialect area after Hamburg,
Dortmund Dortmund (; Westphalian language, Westphalian nds, Düörpm ; la, Tremonia) is the third-largest city in North Rhine-Westphalia after Cologne and Düsseldorf, and the List of cities in Germany by population, eighth-largest city of Germany, with ...

Dortmund
,
Essen Essen (; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republ ...

Essen
and Bremen. Before it became the capital of Lower Saxony in 1946, Hanover was the capital of the
Principality of Calenberg A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchy, monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a regnant-monarch with the title of prince and/or princess, or by a monarch with another title considered to ...
(1636–1692), the
Electorate of Hanover The Electorate of Hanover (german: Kurfürstentum Hannover or simply ''Kurhannover'') was an Prince-elector, Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, located in northwestern Germany and taking its name from the capital city of Hanover. It was fo ...
(1692–1814), the
Kingdom of Hanover The Kingdom of Hanover (german: Königreich Hannover) was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era. It succeeded the former Electorate of Han ...
(1814–1866), the
Province of Hanover A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are gen ...
of the
Kingdom of Prussia The Kingdom of Prussia (german: Königreich Preußen) was a German Monarchy, kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.Marriott, J. A. R., and Charles Grant Robertson. ''The Evolution of Prussia, the Making of an Empi ...
(1868–1918), the
Province of Hanover A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are gen ...
of the
Free State of Prussia The Free State of Prussia (german: Freistaat Preußen) was a of from 1918 to 1947. It was established in 1918 following the , abolishing the and founding the in the aftermath of the . The was a direct successor to the , but featured a , ...
(1918–1946) and of the
State of Hanover The State of Hanover (german: Land Hannover) was a short-lived state within the British zone of Allied-occupied Germany Allied-occupied Germany (, literally "Germany in the occupation period") was the administration of Germany () upon defeat ...
(1946). From 1714 to 1837 Hanover was by
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title of the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the
Elector of Hanover The Electorate of Hanover (german: Kurfürstentum Hannover or simply ''Kurhannover'') was an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic comp ...
). The city is a major crossing point of railway lines and motorways (
Autobahn The Autobahn (; German plural ) is the federal controlled-access highway system in Germany. The official German term is Bundesautobahn (abbreviated ''BAB''), which translates as "federal motorway". The literal meaning of the word ''Bundesautob ...

Autobahn
en), connecting European main lines in both the east-west (
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the List of cities in the European Union by ...

Berlin
Ruhr area The Ruhr ( ; german: Ruhrgebiet ), also referred to as Ruhr area, Ruhr district, Ruhr region, or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric Polycentric is an English adjective, meaning "having more than one center," derived from the Greek words ''polús'' (" ...

Ruhr area
/
Düsseldorf Düsseldorf ( , , ; often in English sources; Low Franconian and Ripuarian language, Ripuarian: ''Düsseldörp'' ; archaic nl, Dusseldorp) is the capital city of North Rhine-Westphalia, the most populous state of Germany. It is the second-la ...

Düsseldorf
/
Cologne Cologne ( ; german: Köln ; ksh, Kölle ) is the largest city of Germany, Germany's most populous States of Germany, state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and the List of cities in Germany by population, fourth-most populous city and one of t ...

Cologne
) and north-south (
Hamburg
Hamburg
Frankfurt Frankfurt, officially Frankfurt am Main (; Hessian dialects, Hessian: , "Franks, Frank ford (crossing), ford on the Main (river), Main"; french: Francfort-sur-le-Main), is the most populous city in the States of Germany, German state of Hess ...

Frankfurt
/
Stuttgart Stuttgart (; : ; ) is the and of the of . It is located on the river in a fertile valley known locally as the "Stuttgart Cauldron" and lies an hour from the and the . Its area has a population of 635,911, making it the in Germany. 2.8 m ...

Stuttgart
/
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by population, third-largest city in Germany, ...

Munich
) directions.
Hannover Airport Hannover Airport is the international airport of Hanover, capital of the Germany, German state of Lower Saxony. The List of airports in Germany, ninth largest airport in Germany, it is in Langenhagen, north of Hanover. The airport has flights ...
lies north of the city, in
Langenhagen Langenhagen is a town in the Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lower Saxony. Its 534,049 (2020) inhabitants make it the List of cities in Germany by ...
, and is Germany's ninth-busiest airport. The city's most notable institutes of higher education are the
Hannover Medical School The Hannover Medical School (german: Medizinische Hochschule Hannover abbreviated MHH in German), founded in 1965, is a university medical centre in the city of Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest c ...
(''Medizinische Hochschule Hannover''), one of Germany's leading
medical school A medical school is a tertiary education Tertiary education, also referred to as third-level, third-stage or post-secondary education, is the education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowled ...
s, with its university hospital ''Klinikum der Medizinischen Hochschule Hannover'', and the
Leibniz University Hannover The Leibniz University Hannover, long form in German Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover, is a public research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institut ...

Leibniz University Hannover
. The Hanover fairground, owing to numerous extensions, especially for the
Expo 2000 Expo 2000 was a World Expo held in Hanover, Germany from Thursday 1 June to Tuesday 31 October 2000. It was located on the Hanover Fairground (Messegelände Hannover), which is the largest exhibition ground in the world. Initially some ...
, is the largest in the world. Hanover hosts annual commercial
trade fairs A trade fair (trade show, trade exhibition, or trade exposition) is an exhibition organized so that companies in a specific Industry (economics), industry can showcase and demonstrate their latest Product (business), products and services, meet wi ...
such as the
Hanover Fair The Hannover Messe (HM; "Hanover Fair") is one of the world's largest trade fair A trade fair (trade show, trade exhibition, or trade exposition) is an exhibition organized so that companies A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal perso ...
and up to 2018 the
CeBIT Number of CeBIT visitors 1986 - 2013 CeBIT was the largest and most internationally representative computer expo A trade fair (trade show, trade exhibition, or trade exposition) is an exhibition organized so that companies A company, ...
. The IAA Commercial Vehicles show takes place every two years. It is the world's leading trade show for transport, logistics and mobility. Every year Hanover hosts the
Schützenfest Hannover A Schützenfest (, ''marksman, marksmen's festival'') is a traditional festival or fair featuring a target shooting competition in the cultures of culture of Germany, Germany, Culture of the Netherlands, the Netherlands and culture of Switzerlan ...
, the world's largest marksmen's festival, and the
Oktoberfest Hannover
Oktoberfest Hannover
. 'Hanover' is the traditional English spelling. The German spelling (with a double n) is becoming more popular in English; recent editions of encyclopedias prefer the German spelling, and the local government uses the German spelling on English websites. The English pronunciation, with stress on the first syllable, is applied to both the German and English spellings, which is different from German pronunciation, with stress on the second syllable and a long second vowel. The traditional English spelling is still used in historical contexts, especially when referring to the British
House of Hanover The House of Hanover (german: Haus von Hannover), whose members are known as Hanoverians, is a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ...
.


History

Hanover was founded in medieval times on the east bank of the River
Leine The Leine (; Old Saxon Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a Germanic language The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, incl ...

Leine
. Its original name ''Honovere'' may mean 'high (river)bank', though this is debated (cf. ''das Hohe Ufer''). Hanover was a small village of ferrymen and fishermen that became a comparatively large town in the 13th century, receiving
town privileges File:Square of Spisska Sobota 6.jpg, 250px, Medieval square in Spišská Sobota, Slovakia (Now Poprad). The former name of the town literally means "Saturday in Spiš" and it is derived from a day of week in which the town was granted a right ...
in 1241, owing to its position at a natural crossroads. As overland travel was relatively difficult its position on the upper navigable reaches of the river helped it to grow by increasing trade. It was connected to the
Hanseatic League The Hanseatic League (; gml, Hanse, , ; german: label=Modern German New High German (NHG) is the term used for the most recent period in the history of the German language German (: , ) is a mainly spoken in . It is the most widely ...
city of
Bremen Bremen (, also ; Low German also: ''Breem'' or ''Bräm''), officially the City Municipality of Bremen (german: Stadtgemeinde Bremen, ), is the capital of the Germany, German States of Germany, state Bremen (state), Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (' ...
by the Leine and was situated near the southern edge of the wide
North German Plain 250px, Morning fog in East Frisia. The North German Plain or Northern Lowland (german: Norddeutsches Tiefland) is one of the major geographical regions of Germany. It is the German part of the North European Plain. The region is bounded by the co ...
and north-west of the
Harz The Harz () is a highland area in northern Germany. It has the highest elevations for that region, and its rugged terrain extends across parts of Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is ...

Harz
mountains, so that east-west traffic such as mule trains passed through it. Hanover was thus a gateway to the
Rhine ), Surselva Surselva Region is one of the eleven administrative districts Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many s ...

Rhine
,
Ruhr The Ruhr ( ; german: Ruhrgebiet ), also referred to as Ruhr area, Ruhr district, Ruhr region, or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric Polycentric is an English adjective, meaning "having more than one center," derived from the Greek words ''polús'' (" ...
and
Saar Saar or SAAR has several meanings: People Given name * Saar Boubacar (born 1951), Senegalese professional football player *Saar Ganor, Israeli archaeologist *Saar Klein (born 1967), American film editor Surname *Ain Saar (born 1968), Eston ...
river valleys, their industrial areas which grew up to the southwest and the plains regions to the east and north, for overland traffic skirting the Harz between the
Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les Pays-Bas) and historically called the Netherlands ( nl, de Nederlanden), Flanders, or Belgica, refers to a coastal lowland region in Northwestern Europe ...
and
Saxony Saxony (german: Sachsen ; Upper Saxon Upper Saxon (german: Obersächsisch, ; ) is an East Central German East Central German (german: Ostmitteldeutsch) is the eastern, non-Franconian languages, Franconian Central German language, part o ...
or
Thuringia Thuringia (; german: Thüringen ), officially the Free State of Thuringia ( ), is a states of Germany, state of Germany. Located in central Germany, it covers , being the sixth smallest of the sixteen German States (including City States). It ...
. In the 14th century the main churches of Hanover were built, as well as a
city wall A defensive wall is a fortification A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially authorize ...

city wall
with three city gates. The beginning of industrialization in Germany led to trade in iron and silver from the northern
Harz Mountains The Harz () is a highland area in northern Germany. It has the highest elevations for that region, and its rugged terrain extends across parts of Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is ...
, which increased the city's importance. In 1636 George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ruler of the Brunswick-Lüneburg
principality of Calenberg A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchy, monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a regnant-monarch with the title of prince and/or princess, or by a monarch with another title considered to ...
, moved his residence to Hanover. The Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg were elevated by the
Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as ...
to the rank of
Prince-Elector The prince-electors (german: Kurfürst pl. , cz, Kurfiřt, la, Princeps Elector), or electors for short, were the members of the that elected the of the . From the 13th century onwards, the prince-electors had the privilege of who would ...
in 1692 and this elevation was confirmed by the
Imperial DietImperial Diet means the highest representative assembly in an empire, notably: * Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), general assembly of the Imperial Estates of the Holy Roman Empire (962–1806) * Diet of Japan, Has been going on since 1889 (1889 ...
in 1708. Thus the principality was upgraded to the
Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg The Electorate of Hanover (german: Kurfürstentum Hannover or simply ''Kurhannover'') was an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic comp ...
, colloquially known as the
Electorate of Hanover The Electorate of Hanover (german: Kurfürstentum Hannover or simply ''Kurhannover'') was an Prince-elector, Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, located in northwestern Germany and taking its name from the capital city of Hanover. It was fo ...
after Calenberg's capital (see also:
House of Hanover The House of Hanover (german: Haus von Hannover), whose members are known as Hanoverians, is a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ...
). Its Electors later become monarchs of
Great Britain Great Britain is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), ...

Great Britain
(and from 1801 of the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some f ...

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
). The first of these was George I Louis, who acceded to the British throne in 1714. The last British monarch who reigned in Hanover was
William IV William IV (William Henry; 21 August 1765 – 20 June 1837) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England ...

William IV
. Semi-Salic law, which required succession by the male line if possible, forbade the accession of
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
in Hanover. As a male-line descendant of George I, Queen Victoria was herself a member of the House of Hanover. Her descendants, however, bore her husband's titular name of
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (german: Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha), or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (), was an ErnestineErnestine is a feminine given name. Ernest is the male counterpart of this name. Notable people with the name include: * Ernestine Anderson (19 ...
. Three kings of Great Britain, or the United Kingdom, were concurrently also Electoral Princes of Hanover. During the time of the personal union of the crowns of the United Kingdom and Hanover (1714–1837) the monarchs rarely visited the city. In fact during the reigns of the final three joint rulers (1760–1837) there was only one short visit, by
George IV George IV (George Augustus Frederick; 12 August 1762 – 26 June 1830) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of ...

George IV
in 1821. From 1816 to 1837
Viceroy A viceroy () is an official who runs a polity in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix ''vice-'', meaning "in the place of" and the French word ''roy'', meaning "king". A ...

Viceroy
Adolphus represented the monarch in Hanover. During the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain and Kingdom of France, France. In Europe, the conflict ar ...
the
Battle of Hastenbeck The Battle of Hastenbeck (26 July 1757) was fought as part of the Invasion of Hanover during the Seven Years' War between the allied forces of Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the Ger ...
was fought near the city on 26 July 1757. The French army defeated the Hanoverian Army of Observation, leading to the city's occupation as part of the Invasion of Hanover. It was recaptured by Anglo-German forces led by
Ferdinand of Brunswick Ferdinand is a Germanic nameGermanic given names are traditionally dithematic; that is, they are formed from two elements, by joining a prefix A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word. Adding it to the beginning of one w ...
the following year.


19th century

After
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
imposed the
Convention of Artlenburg The Convention of Artlenburg or Elbkonvention was the surrender of the Electorate of Hanover The Electorate of Hanover (german: Kurfürstentum Hannover or simply ''Kurhannover'') was an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Em ...
(Convention of the Elbe) on July 5, 1803, about 35,000 French soldiers occupied Hanover. The Convention also required disbanding the army of Hanover. However,
George III George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 173829 January 1820) was King of Great Britain There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on th ...

George III
did not recognise the Convention of the Elbe. This resulted in a great number of soldiers from Hanover eventually emigrating to Great Britain, where the
King's German Legion The King's German Legion (KGL; german: Des Königs Deutsche Legion, semantically erroneous obsolete german variations are ''Deutsche Legion des Königs'', ''Englisch-Deutsche Legion'', ''Deutsche Legion'') was a British Army The British ...
was formed. It was only troops from Hanover and
Brunswick Brunswick is the historical English name for the German city of Braunschweig (Low German: ''Brunswiek'', Braunschweig dialect: ''Bronswiek''). Brunswick may also refer to: Places and other topographs Australia * Brunswick, Victoria, a suburb of ...
that consistently opposed France throughout the entire Napoleonic wars. The Legion later played an important role in the
Peninsular War The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was the military conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or paramilitary groups such as Mercenary, mercenaries, Insurgency, insurg ...

Peninsular War
and the
Battle of Waterloo The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo Waterloo most commonly refers to: * Battle of Waterloo, a battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat :* Waterloo, Belgium, a municipality in Belgium fr ...

Battle of Waterloo
in 1815. The
Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna (, ) of 1814–1815 was an international diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) w ...

Congress of Vienna
in 1815 elevated the electorate to the
Kingdom of Hanover The Kingdom of Hanover (german: Königreich Hannover) was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era. It succeeded the former Electorate of Han ...
. The capital town Hanover expanded to the western bank of the
Leine The Leine (; Old Saxon Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a Germanic language The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, incl ...

Leine
and since then has grown considerably. In 1837, the
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The Stat ...

personal union
of the United Kingdom and Hanover ended because
William IV's
William IV's
heir in the United Kingdom was female (
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland There have been 12 British monarchs since the political union of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of En ...

Queen Victoria
). Hanover could be inherited only by male heirs. Thus, Hanover passed to William IV's brother, Ernest Augustus, and remained a kingdom until 1866, when it was annexed by
Prussia Prussia, , Old Prussian Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE (boundaries are approximate). Old Prussian was a Western Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages The Indo-Europ ...

Prussia
during the
Austro-Prussian war The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War, known in Germany as ("German War") and by a variety of other names, was fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was ...
. Despite Hanover being expected to defeat Prussia at the Battle of Langensalza, Prussia employed Moltke the Elder's Kesselschlacht order of battle to instead destroy the Hanoverian army. The city of Hanover became the capital of the Prussian
Province of Hanover A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are gen ...
. After the annexation, the people of Hanover generally opposed the Prussian government. To Hanover's industry, however, the new connection with Prussia meant an improvement in business. The introduction of
free trade Free trade is a trade policy A commercial policy (also referred to as a trade policy or international trade policy) is a government's policy governing international trade International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and servic ...
promoted economic growth and led to the recovery of the
Gründerzeit in Leipzig, Germany (1892) (; "founders' period") was the economic phase in 19th-century Germany and Austria before the great Panic of 1873, stock market crash of 1873. In Central Europe, the age of industrialisation had been taking place since ...
(the founders' era). Between 1879 and 1902 Hanover's population grew from 87,600 to 313,940. In 1842 the first horse railway was inaugurated, and from 1893 an electric
tram A tram (also known as a streetcar or trolley in North America) is a train that runs on tramway track Tramway track is used on tramways or light rail operations. Groove (engineering), Grooved rails (or Rail profile#Grooved rail, girder ...

tram
was installed. In 1887 Hanover's
Emile Berliner Emile Berliner (May 20, 1851 – August 3, 1929) originally Emil Berliner, was a German-American inventor. He is best known for inventing the lateral-cut flat disc gramophone record, record (called a "gramophone record" in British and American En ...

Emile Berliner
invented the record and the
gramophone A phonograph, in its later forms also called a gramophone (as a trademark since 1887, as a generic name in the UK since 1910) or since the 1940s called a record player, is a device for the mechanical Sound recording and reproduction, recording ...

gramophone
.


Nazi Germany

After 1937 the
lord mayor Lord mayor is a title of a mayor In many countries, a mayor is the highest-ranking official An official is someone who holds an office (function or mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual working space with it) in an organization or ...
and the state commissioners of Hanover were members of the Nazi Party, NSDAP (Nazi party). A large German Jews, Jewish population then existed in Hanover. In October 1938, 484 Hanoverian Jews of Polish origin were expelled to Poland, including the Herschel Grynszpan, Grynszpan family. However, Poland refused to accept them, leaving them stranded at the border with thousands of other Polish-Jewish deportees, fed only intermittently by the Polish International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Red Cross and Jewish welfare organisations. The Grynszpans' son Herschel Grynszpan was in Paris at the time. When he learned of what was happening, he drove to the German embassy in Paris and shot the German diplomat Eduard Ernst vom Rath, who died shortly afterwards. The Nazis took this act as a pretext to stage a nationwide pogrom known as Kristallnacht (9 November 1938). On that day, the synagogue of Hanover, designed in 1870 by Edwin Oppler in Neo-romanticism, neo-romantic style, was burnt by the Nazis. In September 1941, through the "Action Lauterbacher" plan, a ghettoisation of the remaining Hanoverian Jewish families began. Even before the Wannsee Conference, on 15 December 1941, the first Jews from Hanover were deported to Riga. A total of 2,400 people were deported, and very few survived. During the war seven concentration camps were constructed in Hanover, in which many Jews were confined. Of the approximately 4,800 Jews who had lived in Hannover in 1938, fewer than 100 were still in the city when troops of the United States Army arrived on 10 April 1945 to occupy Hanover at the end of the war. Today, a memorial at the Opera Square is a reminder of the persecution of the Jews in Hanover. After the war a large group of Orthodox Judaism, Orthodox Jewish survivors of the nearby Bergen-Belsen concentration camp settled in Hanover.


World War II

As an important railway and Junction (road), road junction and production centre, Hanover was a major target for strategic bombing during World War II, including the Oil Campaign of World War II, Oil Campaign. Targets included the VARTA, AFA (Herrenhausen, Stöcken), the Oil Campaign of World War II, Deurag-Nerag refinery (Misburg), the Continental AG, Continental plants (Vahrenwald and Linden-Limmer, Limmer), the United light metal works (VLW) in Ricklingen and
Laatzen Laatzen is a town in the district of Hanover, in Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is a German state (''Land'') situated in Northern Germany, northwestern Germany. It is the second-largest ...
(today Hanover fairground), Oil Campaign of World War II#References, the Hanover/Limmer rubber reclamation plant, the Hanomag factory (Linden-Limmer, Linden) and the tank factory ''M.N.H. Maschinenfabrik Niedersachsen'' (Badenstedt). Residential areas were also targeted, and more than 6,000 civilians were killed by the Allied bombing raids. More than 90% of the city centre was destroyed in a total of 88 bombing raids. After the war, the Aegidienkirche, Hanover, Aegidienkirche was not rebuilt and its ruins were left as a war memorial. The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Hanover in April 1945. The US 84th Infantry Division (United States), 84th Infantry Division captured the city on 10 April 1945. Hanover was in the British zone of occupation of Germany and became part of the new States of Germany, state (Land) of
Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is a German state The Federal Republic of Germany, as a federal state, consists of sixteen partly sovereign federated states (german: Land (state), plural (sta ...
in 1946. Today Hanover is a Vice-President City of Mayors for Peace, an international mayoral organisation mobilising cities and citizens worldwide to abolish and eliminate nuclear weapons by the year 2020.


Population development


Geography


Climate

Hanover has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen: ''Cfb'') independent of the isotherm. Although the city is not on a coastal location, the predominant air masses are still from the ocean, unlike other places further east or south-central Germany.


Subdivisions

The city of Hanover is divided into 13 boroughs (''Stadtbezirke'') and 53 quarters (''Stadtteile'').


Boroughs

# Hanover-Mitte, Mitte # Vahrenwald-List # Bothfeld-Vahrenheide # Buchholz-Kleefeld # Misburg-Anderten # Kirchrode-Bemerode-Wülferode # Südstadt-Bult # Döhren-Wülfel # Ricklingen # Linden-Limmer # Ahlem-Badenstedt-Davenstedt # Herrenhausen-Stöcken # Hanover-Nord, Nord


Quarters

A selection of the 53 quarters: * Hannover-Nordstadt, Nordstadt * Hannover-Südstadt, Südstadt * Hannover-Oststadt, Oststadt * Hannover-Zoo, Zoo (for the zoo itself, see Hanover Zoo) * Herrenhausen * Waldheim (Hanover), Waldheim


Main sights

One of Hanover's sights is the Herrenhausen Gardens, Royal Gardens of Herrenhausen. Its Great Garden is an important European baroque garden. The palace itself was largely destroyed by Allied bombing but has been reconstructed and reopened in 2013. Among the points of interest is the Grotto. Its interior was designed by French artist Niki de Saint Phalle). The Great Garden consists of several parts and contains Europe's highest garden fountain. The historic ''Garden Theatre'' hosted the musicals of the German rock musician Heinz Rudolf Kunze. Also at Herrenhausen, the ''Berggarten'' is a botanical garden with the most varied collection of orchids in Europe. Some points of interest are the ''Tropical House'', the ''Cactus House'', the ''Canary House'' and the ''Orchid House'', and free-flying birds and butterflies. Near the entrance to the Berggarten is the historic ''Library Pavillon''. The ''Mausoleum'' of the Guelphs is also located in the Berggarten. Like the Great Garden, the Berggarten also consists of several parts, for example the ''Paradies'' and the ''Prairie Garden''. The ''Georgengarten'' is an English landscape garden. The ''Leibniz Temple'' and the ''Georgen Palace'' are two points of interest there. The landmark of Hanover is the New City Hall (Hanover), New Town Hall (''Neues Rathaus''). Inside the building are four scale models of the city. A worldwide unique diagonal/arch elevator goes up the large dome at a 17 degree angle to an observation deck. The ''Hanover Zoo'' received the Park Scout Award for the fourth year running in 2009/10, placing it among the best zoos in Germany. The zoo consists of several theme areas: Sambesi, Meyers Farm, Gorilla-Mountain, Jungle-Palace, and Mullewapp. Some smaller areas are Australia, the wooded area for wolves, and the so-called swimming area with many seabirds. There is also a tropical house, a jungle house, and a show arena. The new Canadian-themed area, Yukon Bay, opened in 2010. In 2010 the Hanover Zoo had over 1.6 million visitors. There is also the ''Sea Life Centres, Sea Life Centre Hanover'', which is the first tropical aquarium in Germany. Another point of interest is the ''Old Town''. In the centre are the large Marktkirche, Hanover, Marktkirche (Church St. Georgii et Jacobi, preaching venue of the bishop of the Lutheran Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Hanover, Landeskirche Hannovers) and the ''Old Town Hall''. Nearby are the ''Leibniz House'', the ''Nolte House'', and the ''Beguine Tower''. The ''Kreuz-Church-Quarter'' around the ''Kreuz Church'' contains many little lanes. Nearby is the old royal sports hall, now called the ''Ballhof'' theatre. On the edge of the Old Town are the ''Market Hall'', the ''Leine Palace'', and the ruin of the ''Aegidien Church'' which is now a monument to the victims of war and violence. Through the ''Marstall Gate'' the bank of the river ''Leine'' can be reached; the ''Nanas'' of Niki de Saint Phalle are located here. They are part of the ''Mile of Sculptures'', which starts from Trammplatz, leads along the river bank, crosses Königsworther Square, and ends at the entrance of the Georgengarten. Near the Old Town is the district of Calenberger Neustadt where the Catholic Basilica Minor of ''St. Clemens'', the ''Reformed Church'' and the Lutheran Neustädter Kirche, Hannover, Neustädter Hof- und Stadtkirche St. Johannis are located. Some other popular sights are the ''Waterloo Column'', the ''Georg Ludwig Friedrich Laves, Laves House'', the ''Wangenheim Palace'', the ''Lower Saxony State Archives'', the ''Hanover Playhouse'', the ''Kröpcke Clock'', the ''Anzeiger Tower Block'', the ''Administration Building of the NORD/LB'', the ''Cupola Hall'' of the Congress Centre, the ''Lower Saxony Stock'', the ''Ministry of Finance'', the ''Garten Church'', the ''Luther Church'', the ''Gehry Tower'' (designed by the American architect Frank Gehry, Frank O. Gehry), the specially designed ''Bus Stops'', the ''Opera House'', ''the Central Station'', the ''Maschsee'' lake and the city forest ''Eilenriede'', which is one of the largest of its kind in Europe. With around 40 parks, forests and gardens, a couple of lakes, two rivers and one canal, Hanover offers a large variety of leisure activities. Since 2007 the historic ''Leibniz Letters'', which can be viewed in the ''Gottfried Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library'', are on UNESCO's Memory of the World Register. Outside the city centre is the ''EXPO-Park'', the former site of Expo 2000, EXPO 2000. Some points of interest are the ''Planet M.'', the former ''German Pavillon'', some nations' vacant pavilions, the ''Expowale'', the ''EXPO-Plaza'' and the ''EXPO-Gardens'' (Parc Agricole, EXPO-Park South and the Gardens of change). The fairground can be reached by the ''Exponale'', one of the largest pedestrian bridges in Europe. The ''Hanover fairground'' is the largest exhibition centre in the world. It provides of covered indoor space, of open-air space, 27 halls and pavilions. Many of the Exhibition Centre's halls are architectural highlights. Furthermore, it offers the Convention Center with its 35 function rooms, glassed-in areas between halls, grassy park-like recreation zones and its own heliport. Two important sights on the fairground are the ''Hermes Tower'' ( high) and the ''EXPO Roof'', the largest wooden roof in the world. In the district of Anderten is the ''European Cheese Centre'', the only Cheese Experience Centre in Europe. Another tourist sight in Anderten is the ''Hindenburg Lock'', which was the biggest lock in Europe at the time of its construction in 1928. The ''Tiergarten'' (literally the "animals' garden") in the district of Kirchrode is a large forest originally used for deer and other game for the king's table. In the district of Groß-Buchholz the ''Telemax'' is located, which is the tallest building in Lower Saxony and the highest television tower in Northern Germany. Some other notable towers are the ''VW-Tower'' in the city centre and the old towers of the former middle-age defence belt: ''Döhrener Tower'', ''Lister Tower'' and the ''Horse Tower''. The 36 most important sights of the city centre are connected with a red line, which is painted on the pavement. This so-called ''Red Thread'' marks out a walk that starts at the Tourist Information Office and ends on the Ernst-August-Square in front of the central station. There is also a guided sightseeing-bus tour through the city.


Society and culture


Religious life

Hanover is headquarters for several Protestant organizations, including the World Communion of Reformed Churches, the Evangelical Church in Germany, the Reformed Alliance, the United Evangelical Lutheran Church of Germany, and the Independent Evangelical-Lutheran Church. In 2015, 31.1% of the population were Protestant and 13.4% were Roman Catholic. The majority 55.5% were irreligious or other faith.


Museums and galleries

The Historisches Museum Hannover (Historic museum) describes the history of Hanover, from the medieval settlement "Honovere" to the city of today. The museum focuses on the period from 1714 to 1834 when Hanover had a strong relationship with the British royal house. With more than 4,000 members, the Kestnergesellschaft is the largest art society in Germany. The museum hosts exhibitions from classical modernist art to contemporary art. Emphasis is placed on film, video, contemporary music and architecture, room installments and presentations of contemporary paintings, sculptures and video art. The Kestner-Museum is located in the ''House of 5.000 windows''. The museum is named after August Kestner and exhibits 6,000 years of applied art in four areas: Ancient cultures, ancient Egypt, applied art and a valuable collection of historic coins. The KUBUS is a forum for contemporary art. It features mostly exhibitions and projects of artists from Hanover. The Kunstverein Hannover (Art Society Hanover) shows contemporary art and was established in 1832 as one of the first art societies in Germany. It is located in the ''Künstlerhaus'' (House of artists). There are around seven international exhibitions each year. The Landesmuseum Hannover is the largest museum in Hanover. The art gallery shows European art from the 11th to the 20th century, the nature department shows the zoology, geology, botanic, geology and a ''vivarium'' with fish, insects, reptiles and amphibians. The primeval department shows the primeval history of Lower Saxony, and the folklore department shows cultures from all over the world. The Sprengel Museum shows the art of the 20th century. It is one of the most notable art museums in Germany. The focus is put on the classical modernist art with the collection of ''Kurt Schwitters'', works of German expressionism, and French cubism, the cabinet of abstracts, the graphics and the department of photography and media. Furthermore, the museum shows the works of the French artist Niki de Saint-Phalle. The Theatre Museum shows an exhibition of the history of the theatre in Hanover from the 17th century up to now: opera, concert, drama and ballet. The museum also hosts several touring exhibitions during the year. The Wilhelm Busch Museum is the ''German Museum of Caricature and Critical Graphic Arts''. The collection of the works of Wilhelm Busch and the extensive collection of cartoons and critical graphics is unique in Germany. Furthermore, the museum hosts several exhibitions of national and international artists during the year. A cabinet of coins is the Münzkabinett der TUI-AG. The ''Polizeigeschichtliche Sammlung Niedersachsen'' is the largest police museum in Germany. Textiles from all over the world can be visited in the ''Museum for textile art''. The ''EXPOseeum'' is the museum of the world-exhibition "EXPO 2000 Hannover". Carpets and objects from the orient can be visited in the ''Oriental Carpet Museum''. The ''Museum for the visually impaired'' is a rarity in Germany, there is only one other of its kind in Berlin. The ''Museum of veterinary medicine'' is unique in Germany. The ''Museum for Energy History'' describes the 150 years old history of the application of energy. The ''Heimat-Museum Ahlem'' shows the history of the district of Ahlem. The ''Mahn- und Gedenkstätte Ahlem'' describes the history of the Jewish people in Hanover and the ''Stiftung Ahlers Pro Arte / Kestner Pro Arte'' shows modern art. Modern art is also the main topic of the ''Kunsthalle Faust'', the ''Nord/LB Art Gallery'' and of the ''Foro Artistico / Eisfabrik''. Some leading art events in Hanover are the ''Long Night of the Museums'' and the ''Zinnober Kunstvolkslauf'' which features all the galleries in Hanover. People who are interested in astronomy should visit the ''Observatory Geschwister Herschel'' on the Lindener Mountain or the small planetarium inside of the Bismarck School.


Theatre, cabaret and musical

Around 40 theatres are located in Hanover. The ''Opera House'', the ''Schauspielhaus'' (Play House), the ''Ballhof eins'', the ''Ballhof zwei'' and the ''Cumberlandsche Galerie'' belong to the ''Lower Saxony State Theatre''. The Theater am Aegi is Hanover's principal theatre for musicals, shows and guest performances. The ''Neues Theater'' (New Theatre) is the boulevard theatre of Hanover. The ''Theater für Niedersachsen'' is another large theatre in Hanover, which also has an own musical company. Some of the most important musical productions are the rock musicals of the German rock musician Heinz Rudolph Kunze, which take place at the ''Garden-Theatre'' in the Great Garden. Some important theatre events are the ''Tanztheater International'', the ''Long Night of the Theatres'', the ''Festival Theaterformen'' and the ''International Competition for Choreographers''. Hanover's leading cabaret stage is the ''GOP Variety theatre'' which is located in the ''Georgs Palace''. Some other cabaret-stages are the ''Variety Marlene'', the ''Uhu-Theatre''. the theatre ''Die Hinterbühne'', the ''Rampenlich Variety'' and the revue-stage ''TAK''. The most important cabaret event is the ''Kleines Fest im Großen Garten'' (Little Festival in the Great Garden) which is the most successful cabaret festival in Germany. It features artists from around the world. Some other important events are the ''Calenberger Cabaret Weeks'', the ''Hanover Cabaret Festival'' and the ''Wintervariety''.


Music


Classical music

Hanover has two symphony orchestras: The Lower Saxon State Orchestra Hanover and the NDR Radiophilharmonie (North German Radio Philharmonic Orchestra). Two notable choirs have their homes in Hanover: the Mädchenchor Hannover (girls' choir) and the Knabenchor Hannover (boys' choir). There are two major international competitions for classical music in Hanover: * Hanover International Violin Competition (since 1991) * Classica Nova International Music Competition (1997) (Non profit association Classica Nova exists in Hanover with the aim of continuing the Classica Nova competition).


Popular music

The rock bands Scorpions (band), Scorpions and Fury in the Slaughterhouse are originally from Hanover. Acclaimed DJ Mousse T., Mousse T also has his main recording studio in the area. Rick J. Jordan, member of the band Scooter (band), Scooter was born here in 1968. Eurovision Song Contest winner of 2010, Lena Meyer-Landrut, Lena, is also from Hanover.


Sport

Hannover 96 (nickname ''Die Roten'' or 'The Reds') is the top local Association football, football team that currently plays in the 2. Bundesliga. Home games are played at the HDI-Arena, which hosted matches in the 1974 FIFA World Cup, 1974 and 2006 FIFA World Cup, 2006 FIFA World Cup, World Cups and the UEFA Euro 1988, Euro 1988. Their reserve team Hannover 96 II plays in the fourth league. Their home games were played in the traditional Eilenriedestadium till they moved to the HDI Arena due to DFL directives. Arminia Hannover is another traditional soccer team in Hanover that has played in the first league for years and plays now in the Niedersachsen-West Liga (Lower Saxony League West). Home matches are played in the Rudolf-Kalweit-Stadium. The Hannover Indians are the local ice hockey team. They play in the third tier. Their home games are played at the traditional Eisstadion am Pferdeturm. The Hannover Scorpions played in Hanover in Germany's top league until 2013 when they sold their license and moved to
Langenhagen Langenhagen is a town in the Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German States of Germany, state of Lower Saxony. Its 534,049 (2020) inhabitants make it the List of cities in Germany by ...
. Hanover was one of the rugby union capitals in Germany. The first German rugby team was founded in Hanover in 1878. Hanover-based teams dominated the German rugby scene for a long time. DRC Hannover plays in the Rugby-Bundesliga, first division, and ''SV Odin von 1905'' as well as SG 78/08 Hannover play in the second division. The first German fencing club was founded in Hanover in 1862. Today there are three additional fencing clubs in Hanover. The Hannover Korbjäger are the city's top basketball team. They play their home games at the IGS Linden. Hanover is a centre for water sports. Thanks to the Maschsee lake, the rivers Ihme and Leine and to the Mittellandkanal channel, Hanover hosts sailing schools, yacht schools, waterski clubs, rowing clubs, canoe clubs and paddle clubs. The water polo team WASPO W98 plays in the first division. The Hannover Regents play in the third Bundesliga (baseball) division. The Hannover Grizzlies, Armina Spartans and Hannover Stampeders are the local American football teams. The Hannover Marathon is the biggest running event in Hanover with more than 11,000 participants and usually around 200.000 spectators. Some other important running events are the Gilde Stadtstaffel (relay), the Sport-Check Nachtlauf (night-running), the Herrenhäuser Team-Challenge, the Hannoversche Firmenlauf (company running) and the Silvesterlauf (sylvester running). Hanover also hosts an important international cycle race: The ''Nacht von Hannover'' (night of Hanover). The race takes place around the Market Hall. The lake Maschsee hosts the International Dragon Boat Races and the Canoe Polo-Tournament. Many regattas take place during the year. "Head of the river Leine" on the river Leine is one of the biggest rowing regattas in Hanover. One of Germany's most successful dragon boat teams, the All Sports Team Hannover, which has won since its foundation in year 2000 more than 100 medals on national and international competitions, is doing practising on the Maschsee in the heart of Hannover. The All Sports Team has received the award "Team of the Year 2013" in Lower Saxony. Some other important sport events are the Lower Saxony Beach Volleyball Tournament, the international horse show "German Classics" and the international ice hockey tournament Nations Cup.


Regular events

Hanover is one of the leading exhibition cities in the world. It hosts more than 60 international and national exhibitions every year. The most popular ones are the ''
CeBIT Number of CeBIT visitors 1986 - 2013 CeBIT was the largest and most internationally representative computer expo A trade fair (trade show, trade exhibition, or trade exposition) is an exhibition organized so that companies A company, ...
'', the ''Hanover Fair'', the ''Domotex'', the ''Ligna'', the ''IAA Nutzfahrzeuge'' and the ''Agritechnica''. Hanover also hosts a huge number of congresses and symposiums like the ''International Symposium on Society and Resource Management.'' Hanover is also host to the ''Schützenfest Hannover,'' the largest marksmen's fun fair in the world which takes place once a year from late June to early July. Founded in 1529, it consists of more than 260 rides and inns, five large beer tents and a large entertainment programme. The highlight of this fun fair is the ''Parade of the Marksmen'' with more than 12,000 participants from all over the world, including around 5,000 marksmen, 128 bands, and more than 70 wagons, carriages, and other festival vehicles. This makes it the longest procession in Europe. Around 2 million people visit this fun fair every year. The landmark of this fun fair is the biggest transportable Ferris wheel in the world, at about high. Hanover also hosts one of the two largest spring festivals in Europe, with around 180 rides and inns, 2 large beer tents, and around 1.5 million visitors each year. The Oktoberfest Hannover is the second largest Oktoberfest in the world with around 160 rides and inns, two large beer tents and around 1 million visitors each year. The ''Maschsee Festival'' takes place around the Maschsee Lake. Each year around 2 million visitors come to enjoy live music, comedy, cabaret, and much more. It is the largest Volksfest of its kind in Northern Germany. The Great Garden hosts every year the ''International Fireworks Competition'', and the ''International Festival Weeks Herrenhausen,'' with music and cabaret performances. The ''Carnival Procession'' is around long and consists of 3.000 participants, around 30 festival vehicles and around 20 bands and takes place every year. Other festivals include the Festival ''Feuer und Flamme'' (Fire and Flames), the ''Gartenfestival'' (Garden Festival), the ''Herbstfestival'' (Autumn Festival), the ''Harley Days'', the ''Steintor Festival'' (Steintor is a party area in the city centre) and the ''Lister-Meile-Festival'' (Lister Meile is a large pedestrian area). Hanover also hosts food-oriented festivals including the ''Wine Festival'' and the ''Gourmet Festival''. It also hosts some special markets. The ''Old Town Flea Market'' is said to be the oldest flea market in Germany and the ''Market for Art and Trade'' has a high reputation. Some other major markets include the ''Christmas Markets of the City of Hanover'' in the Old Town and city centre, and the Lister Meile.


Transport


Rail

The city's central station, Hannover Hauptbahnhof, is a hub of the German high-speed Intercity-Express, ICE network. It is the starting point of the Hanover–Würzburg high-speed railway, Hanover-Würzburg high-speed rail line and also the central hub for the Hanover S-Bahn. It offers many international and national connections.


Air

Hanover and its area is served by Hannover-Langenhagen Airport, Hanover/Langenhagen International Airport (IATA code: HAJ; International Civil Aviation Organization airport code, ICAO code: EDDV)


Road

Hanover is also an important hub of Germany's
Autobahn The Autobahn (; German plural ) is the federal controlled-access highway system in Germany. The official German term is Bundesautobahn (abbreviated ''BAB''), which translates as "federal motorway". The literal meaning of the word ''Bundesautob ...

Autobahn
network; the junction of two major autobahns, the Bundesautobahn 2, A2 and Bundesautobahn 7, A7 is at ''Kreuz Hannover-Ost'', at the northeastern edge of the city. Local autobahns are Bundesautobahn 352, A 352 (a short cut between A7 [north] and A2 [west], also known as the ''airport autobahn'' because it passes ''Hanover Airport'') and the Bundesautobahn 37, A 37. The Schnellweg ''(en: limited-access road, expressway)'' system, a number of Bundesstraße roads, forms a structure loosely resembling a large Beltway, ring road together with A2 and A7. The roads are Bundesstraße 3, B 3, Bundesstraße 6, B 6 and Bundesstraße 65, B 65, called Westschnellweg (B6 on the northern part, B3 on the southern part), Messeschnellweg (B3, becomes A37 near Burgdorf, Hanover, Burgdorf, crosses A2, becomes B3 again, changes to B6 at ''Seelhorster Kreuz'', then passes the Hanover fairground as B6 and becomes A37 again before merging into A7) and Südschnellweg (starts out as B65, becomes B3/B6/B65 upon crossing ''Westschnellweg'', then becomes B65 again at ''Seelhorster Kreuz'').


Bus and light rail

Hanover has an extensive Stadtbahn and bus system, operated by üstra. The city uses designer buses and tramways, the TW 6000 and TW 2000 trams being examples.


Bicycle

Bicycle paths are very common in the city centre. At off-peak hours you are allowed to take your bike on a tram or bus.


Economy

Various industrial businesses are located in Hannover. The Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles Volkswagen Transporter (T4), Transporter (VWN) factory at Hannover-Stöcken is the biggest employer in the region and operates a large plant at the northern edge of town adjoining the Mittellandkanal and Motorway A2. Volkswagen shares a coal-burning power plant with a factory of German tire and automobile parts manufacturer Continental AG. Continental AG, founded in Hanover in 1871, is one of the city's major companies. Since 2008 a take-over has been in progress: the Schaeffler Group from Herzogenaurach (Bavaria) holds the majority of Continental's stock but were required due to the financial crisis to deposit the options as securities at banks. The audio equipment company Sennheiser and the travel group TUI AG are both based in Hanover. Hanover is home to many insurance companies including Talanx, VHV Group, and Concordia Insurance. The major global reinsurance company Hannover Re also has its headquarters east of the city centre.


List of largest employers in Hanover


Key figures

In 2012, the city generated a Gross domestic product, GDP of €29.5 billion, which is equivalent to €74,822 per employee. The Gross value added, gross value of production in 2012 was €26.4 billion, which is equivalent to €66,822 per employee. Around 300,000 employees were counted in 2014. Of these, 189,000 had their primary residence in Hanover, while 164,892 commute into the city every day. In 2014 the city was home to 34,198 businesses, of which 9,342 were registered in the German Trade Register and 24,856 counted as small businesses. Hence, more than half of the metropolitan area's businesses in the German Trade Register are located in Hanover (17,485 total).


Business development

Hannoverimpuls GMBH is a joint business development company from the city and Hanover Region, region of Hannover. The company was founded in 2003 and supports the start-up, growth and relocation of businesses in the Hannover Region. The focus is on thirteen sectors, which stand for sustainable economic growth: Automotive, Energy Solutions, Information and Communications Technology, Life sciences, Life Sciences, Optical technology, Optical Technologies, Creative Industries and Production engineering, Production Engineering. A range of programmes supports companies from the key industries in their Economic expansion, expansion plans in Hannover or abroad. Three regional centres specifically promote international economic relations with Russia, India and Turkey.


Education

The
Leibniz University Hannover The Leibniz University Hannover, long form in German Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover, is a public research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institut ...

Leibniz University Hannover
is the largest funded institution in Hanover for providing higher education to students from around the world. Below are the names of the universities and some of the important schools, including newly opened Hannover Medical School, Hannover Medical Research School in 2003 for attracting the students from biology background from around the world. There are several universities in Hanover: *
Leibniz University Hannover The Leibniz University Hannover, long form in German Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universität Hannover, is a public research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institut ...

Leibniz University Hannover
, host institution to the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics * Hochschule für Musik, Theater und Medien Hannover *
Hannover Medical School The Hannover Medical School (german: Medizinische Hochschule Hannover abbreviated MHH in German), founded in 1965, is a university medical centre in the city of Hanover Hanover (; german: Hannover ; nds, Hannober) is the capital and largest c ...
* University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover, School of Veterinary Medicine Hanover (''Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover'') * GISMA Business School, part of the for-profit education company Global University Systems. There is one University of Applied Science and Arts in Hanover: * Hochschule Hannover (the former Fachhochschule) The ''Schulbiologiezentrum Hannover'' maintains practical biology schools in four locations (Botanischer Schulgarten Burg, Freiluftschule Burg, Zooschule Hannover, and Botanischer Schulgarten Linden). The University of Veterinary Medicine Hanover also maintains its own botanical garden specializing in medicinal and poisonous plants, the Heil- und Giftpflanzengarten der Tierärztlichen Hochschule Hannover.


Notable people

* Hannah Arendt (1906–1975), American political theorist * Erdoğan Atalay (b. 1966), actor * Rudolf Augstein (1923–2002), journalist, founder of the weekly journal Der Spiegel * Hermann Bahlsen (1859–1919), businessman, inventor of the Leibniz-Keks * Marc Bator (b. 1972), journalist * Rudolf von Bennigsen (1824–1902), liberal politician * Klaus Bernbacher (b. 1931), conductor, music event manager, broadcasting manager and academic teacher * Gero von Boehm (b. 1954), director, journalist and television presenter * Emil Berliner (1851–1929), inventor of the phonograph * Walter Bruch (1908–1990), inventor of the PAL color television system * Wilhelm Busch (1832–1908), caricaturist, painter and poet * Champion Jack Dupree (1910–1992), American Born Blues Musician * Niki de Saint Phalle (1930–2002), sculptor, painter and film maker * George I of Great Britain, George I, King of Great Britain and Ireland, prince elector of Hanover * George II of Great Britain, George II, King of Great Britain and Ireland, prince elector of Hanover * George III, King of Great Britain and Ireland, prince elector of Hanover * Laurent Chappuzeau, eldest son of Samuel Chappuzeau, Horologer to the Elector of Hanover 1689–1701 * Johannes Dietwald (b. 1985), footballer * Gustav Fröhlich (1902–1987), actor and film director * Gerhard Glogowski (b. 1943), politician (SPD) * Georg Friedrich Grotefend (1775–1853), epigraphist and philologist * Conrad Wilhelm Hase, (1818–1902), architect, founder of the Hanover school of architecture * Fritz Haarmann (1870–1925), prolific serial killer and rapist * Hilal El-Helwe (b. 1994), German-Lebanese football player * Caroline Herschel and William Herschel (1738–1822), astronomers * Wyn Hoop (b. 1936), singer * Alfred Hugenberg (1865–1951), businessman and politician (DNVP) * Manfred Kohrs (b. 1957), tattooist, conceptual artist and Master of Economics * Georg Ludwig Friedrich Laves (1788–1864), architect * Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716), philosopher, mathematician, developed differential and integral calculus * Jan Martín (b. 1984), German-Israeli-Spanish basketball player * Georg Meissner (1829–1905), anatomist and physiologist * Per Mertesacker (b. 1984), footballer * Otto Fritz Meyerhof (1884–1951), recipient of the Nobel prize in medicine, 1922 * Lena Meyer-Landrut (b. 1991), winner of the Eurovision Song Contest 2010 * Reiner E. Moritz (b. 1938), film director and producer * Oliver Pocher (b. 1978), comedian and television presenter * Waldemar R. Röhrbein (1935–2014), historian, director of Historisches Museum Hannover * Dirk Rossmann (b. 1946), businessman * Dieter Roth (1930–1998), artist, print-maker, author, poet, world renowned composer * Scorpions (band) (formed in 1965), rock band * Gerhard Schröder (b. 1944), politician (SPD) (former Chancellor of Germany) * Helga Schuchardt (b. 1939), politician and engineer * Kurt Schumacher (1895–1952), politician, re-organiser of the SPD after World War II * Kurt Schwitters (1887–1948), artist * Alexander Moritz Simon (1837–1905) German-Jewish philanthropist, banker and American vice consul * Uli Stein (artist) (1954–2020), artist, cartoonist * Christian Wulff (b. 1959), politician (CDU), former President of Germany * Shlomo Zev Zweigenhaft (1915–2005), Chief Rabbi of Hannover and Lower Saxony


Twin towns – sister cities

Hanover is Sister city, twinned with: * Blantyre, Malawi (1968) * Bristol, England, United Kingdom (1947) * Hiroshima, Japan (1983) * Leipzig, Germany (1987) * Perpignan, France (1960) * Poznań, Poland (1979) * Rouen, France (1966)


See also

*
CeBIT Number of CeBIT visitors 1986 - 2013 CeBIT was the largest and most internationally representative computer expo A trade fair (trade show, trade exhibition, or trade exposition) is an exhibition organized so that companies A company, ...
(CeBIT Computer Messe) *
Expo 2000 Expo 2000 was a World Expo held in Hanover, Germany from Thursday 1 June to Tuesday 31 October 2000. It was located on the Hanover Fairground (Messegelände Hannover), which is the largest exhibition ground in the world. Initially some ...
*
Hanover Fair The Hannover Messe (HM; "Hanover Fair") is one of the world's largest trade fair A trade fair (trade show, trade exhibition, or trade exposition) is an exhibition organized so that companies A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal perso ...
(Hannover Messe) * Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region, Metropolitan region Hannover-Braunschweig-Göttingen-Wolfsburg *
Schützenfest Hannover A Schützenfest (, ''marksman, marksmen's festival'') is a traditional festival or fair featuring a target shooting competition in the cultures of culture of Germany, Germany, Culture of the Netherlands, the Netherlands and culture of Switzerlan ...


References


Bibliography


External links

*
Official website

Official website for tourism, holiday and leisure in Lower Saxony and Hanover
{{Authority control Hanover, Cities in Lower Saxony German state capitals Hanover Region Province of Hanover Members of the Hanseatic League Holocaust locations in Germany