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Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the
Italian region The regions of Italy ( it, regioni d'Italia) are the first-level constituent entity, constituent entities of the Italian Republic, constituting its second Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics, NUTS administrative level. There are 20 r ...

Italian region
of
Liguria it, Ligure , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Liguria
and the sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits. As of the 2011 Italian census, the
Province of Genoa The Province of Genoa (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional ...
, which in 2015 became the
Metropolitan City of Genoa The Metropolitan City of Genoa ( it, Città Metropolitana di Genova) is one of the fourteen Metropolitan cities of Italy The metropolitan cities of Italy (Italian: ''città metropolitane d'Italia'') are administrative divisions of Italy, operative ...
, had 855,834 resident persons. Over 1.5 million people live in the wider metropolitan area stretching along the
Italian Riviera Image:Map-of-liguria-map-en-wiki.gif, 300px, Liguria and the Italian Riviera The Italian Riviera or Ligurian Riviera ( it, Riviera ligure; lij, Rivêa lìgure) is the narrow coastal strip in Italy which lies between the Ligurian Sea and the mou ...
. On the
Gulf of Genoa 400px, Gulf of Genoa The Gulf of Genoa (''Golfo di Genova'') is the northernmost part of the Ligurian Sea. This Italian gulf is about wide from the city of Imperia in the west to La Spezia in the east. The largest city on its coast is Genoa, wh ...
in the
Ligurian Sea 300px, The Ligurian Sea The Ligurian Sea ( it, Mar Ligure; french: Mer Ligurienne; lij, Mâ Ligure) is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin ...
, Genoa has historically been one of the most important ports on the
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...
: it is currently the busiest in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Alps and List of islands of Italy, several islands surrounding it, whose ...

Italy
and in the Mediterranean Sea and twelfth-busiest in the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
. Genoa was the capital of one of the most powerful maritime republics for over seven centuries, from the 11th century to 1797. Particularly from the 12th century to the 15th century, the city played a leading role in the commercial trade in Europe, becoming one of the largest naval powers of the continent and considered among the wealthiest cities in the world. It was also nicknamed ''la Superba'' ("the proud one") by
Petrarch Francesco Petrarca (; 20 July 1304 – 18/19 July 1374), commonly as Petrarch (), was a scholar and poet of early , and one of the earliest . Petrarch's rediscovery of 's letters is often credited with initiating the 14th-century Italian a ...

Petrarch
due to its glories on the seas and impressive landmarks. The city has hosted massive shipyards and steelworks since the 19th century, and its solid financial sector dates back to the Middle Ages. The
Bank of Saint George The Bank of Saint George ( it, Casa delle compere e dei banchi di San Giorgio or informally as ''Ufficio di San Giorgio'' or ''Banco'') was a financial institution of the Republic of Genoa. It was founded in 1407 to consolidate the public debt, ...
, founded in 1407, is the oldest known state deposit bank in the world and has played an important role in the city's prosperity since the middle of the 15th century. The historical center, also known as old town, of Genoa is one of the largest and most-densely populated in Europe. Part of it was also inscribed on the World Heritage List (UNESCO) in 2006 as Genoa: Le Strade Nuove and the system of the Palazzi dei Rolli. Genoa's historical city centre is also known for its narrow lanes and streets that the locals call "caruggi". Genoa is also home to the
University of Genoa The University of Genoa, known also with the acronym UniGe ( it, Università di Genova), is one of the largest universities in Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country c ...
, which has a history going back to the 15th century, when it was known as Genuense Athenaeum. The city's rich cultural history in
art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use o ...
,
music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), (and its associated concepts , , and ...
and
cuisine A cuisine is a style of cooking Cooking or cookery is the art, science, and craft of using heat to Outline of food preparation, prepare food for consumption. Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the Earth, world, from grill ...
allowed it to become the 2004
European Capital of Culture A European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members ha ...

European Capital of Culture
. It is the birthplace of
Guglielmo Embriaco Guglielmo Embriaco (Latin ''Guillermus Embriacus'', Genoese ''Ghigærmo de ri Embrieghi'', English ''William the Drunkard''; born c. 1040), was a Genoa, Genoese merchant and military leader who came to the assistance of the Crusader States in the a ...
,
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
,
Andrea Doria Andrea Doria, Prince of Melfi (; lij, Drîa Döia ; 30 November 146625 November 1560) was a Genoese statesman, ' and admiral, playing a key role in the Republic of Genoa during his lifetime. As the ruler of Genoa, Doria reformed the Republic' ...

Andrea Doria
,
Niccolò Paganini Niccolò (or Nicolò) Paganini (; 27 October 178227 May 1840) was an Italian violinist and composer. He was the most celebrated violin virtuoso of his time, and left his mark as one of the pillars of modern violin technique. His 24 Caprices for ...
,
Giuseppe Mazzini Giuseppe Mazzini (, , ; 22 June 1805 – 10 March 1872) was an Italian politician, journalist, activist for the unification of Italy and spearhead of the Italian revolutionary movement. His efforts helped bring about the independent and unified ...

Giuseppe Mazzini
,
Renzo Piano Renzo Piano (; born 14 September 1937) is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Roma ...

Renzo Piano
and
Grimaldo Canella Grimaldo Canella (d. c. 1184) was the youngest son of Otto Canella and Consul Consul (abbrev. ''cos.''; Latin plural ''consules'') was the title of one of the two chief Roman magistrate, magistrates of the Roman Republic, and subsequently also a ...
, founder of the
House of Grimaldi The House of Grimaldi ( , also , , ) is associated with the history of the Republic of Genoa The Republic of Genoa ( lij, Repúbrica de Zêna ; it, Repubblica di Genova; la, Res Publica Ianuensis) was a medieval and early modern maritime r ...

House of Grimaldi
, among others. Genoa, which forms the southern corner of the Milan-Turin-Genoa industrial triangle of
Northwest Italy Northwest Italy ( it, Italia nord-occidentale or just ) is one of the five official statistical regions of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Nor ...
, is one of the country's major economic centers. A number of leading Italian companies are based in the city, including
Fincantieri Fincantieri S.p.A. () is an Italian shipbuilding Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and other Watercraft, floating vessels. It normally takes place in a specialized facility known as a shipyard. Shipbuilders, also called shipwrights, ...
,
Selex ES Selex ES was a subsidiary of Finmeccanica S.p.A., active in the electronics and information technology business, based in Italy and the United Kingdom, UK, and formed in January 2013, following Finmeccanica's decision to combine its existing SEL ...
,
Ansaldo Energia Ansaldo Energia S.p.A. is an Italian power engineering Power engineering, also called power systems engineering, is a subfield of electrical engineering that deals with the generation, transmission, distribution, and utilization of electri ...
,
Ansaldo STS Hitachi Rail STS (previously Ansaldo Signalling and Transportation Systems or Ansaldo STS) is an Italian transportation company owned by Hitachi () is a Japanese multinational corporation, multinational Conglomerate (company), conglomerate compa ...
,
Edoardo Raffinerie Garrone ERG S.p.A. is a publicly listed Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** ...
,
Piaggio Aerospace Piaggio Aerospace, formerly Piaggio Aero Industries, is a multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countr ...
,
Mediterranean Shipping Company Mediterranean Shipping Company S.A. (MSC) is a Swiss-Italian international shipping line. It has been the largest container shipping line since late 2021, after overtaking fellow 2M Alliance member Maersk (), also known simply as Maersk (), ...
and
Costa Cruises Costa Crociere S.p.A. (), operating as Costa Cruises ( it, Costa Crociere), is an Italian cruise line founded in 1854 and organized as a wholly owned subsidiary of Carnival Corporation & plc Carnival Corporation & plc is a British-American cr ...
.


Name

The city's modern name may derive from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
word meaning "knee" (''genu''; plural, ''genua'') but there are other theories. It could derive from the god
Janus In ancient Roman religion Religion in ancient Rome includes the ethnic religion of Ancient Rome that the ancient Romans, Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule ...

Janus
, because Genoa, like him, has two faces: a face that looks at the sea and another turned to the mountains. Or it could come from the Latin word ''ianua'', also related to the name of the God Janus, and meaning "door", or "passage." Besides that, it may refer to its geographical position at the centre of the Ligurian coastal arch. The Latin name, ''oppidum Genua'', is recorded by
Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder #REDIRECT Pliny the Elder#REDIRECT Pliny the Elder Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23/2479), called Pliny the Elder (), was a Roman author, a naturalist Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms, includi ...

Pliny the Elder
('' Nat. Hist.'' 3.48) as part of the
Augustean
Augustean
''
Regio IX Liguria it, Ligure , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Regio IX Liguria
''. Another theory traces the name to the
Etruscan__NOTOC__ Etruscan may refer to: Ancient civilisation *The Etruscan language, an extinct language in ancient Italy *Something derived from or related to the Etruscan civilization **Etruscan architecture **Etruscan art **Etruscan cities **Etruscan ...
word ''Kainua'' which means "New City", based on an inscription on a pottery sherd reading ''Kainua'', which suggests that the Latin name may be a corruption of an older Etruscan one with an original meaning of "new town".


History


Prehistory and Roman times

The city's area has been inhabited since the fifth or fourth millennium BC, making it one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. In the 5th century BC the first town, or
oppidum An ''oppidum'' (plural ''oppida'') is a large fortified Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of Homo sapiens, humanity. It was preceded by the Stone Age (Pal ...

oppidum
, was founded at the top of the hill today called Castello (Castle), which is now inside the medieval old town. Among the ancient inhabitants of the region were the
Ligures The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur; English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has e ...
, that gave the name to the modern
Liguria it, Ligure , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Liguria
. The "Genoese oppidum" had an alliance with
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...
through a ''foedus aequum'' (equal pact) in the course of the
Second Punic War The Second Punic War, which lasted from 218 to 201BC, was the second of three wars fought between Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side of the in what is now . Carthage was the most important trading ...

Second Punic War
. The
Carthaginians The Punics, Carthaginians or Western Phoenicians, were a group of peoples in the Western Mediterranean who traced their origins to the Phoenicians. In modern scholarship, the term 'Punic' – the Latin equivalent of the Greek-derived term 'Phoen ...
accordingly destroyed it in 209 BC. The town was rebuilt and, after the
Carthaginian Wars The Punic Wars were a series of three wars between 264 and 146BC fought by the states of Roman Republic, Rome and Ancient Carthage, Carthage. The First Punic War broke out in Sicily in 264BC as a result of Rome's expansionary attitude combined ...
ended in 146 BC, it received municipal rights. The original ''castrum'' then expanded towards the current areas of Santa Maria di Castello and the San Lorenzo promontory. Trade goods included skins, timber, and honey. Goods were moved to and from Genoa's hinterland, including major cities like
Tortona Tortona (; pms, Torton-a , ; lat, Dhertona) is a ''comune'' of Piemonte, in the Province of Alessandria, Italy. Tortona is sited on the right bank of the Scrivia between the plain of Spinetta Marengo, Marengo and the foothills of the Ligurian Ape ...

Tortona
and
Piacenza Piacenza (; egl, label=Piacentino dialect, Piacentino, Piaṡëinsa ; ) is a city and ''comune'' in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy, the capital of the province of Piacenza, eponymous province. The etymology is long-standing, tracing ...
. An amphitheater was also found there among other archaeological remains from the Roman period.


Middle Ages to early modern period


5th to 10th centuries

After the fall of the
Western Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire comprises the western provinces of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican ...

Western Roman Empire
, the
Ostrogoths The Ostrogoths ( la, Ostrogothi, Austrogothi) were a Roman-era Germanic people Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient northern European tribes, first mention ...
occupied Genoa. After the
Gothic WarGothic War may refer to: *Gothic War (367–369), a war of Thervingi against the Eastern Roman Empire in which the Goths retreated to Montes Serrorum *Gothic War (376–382), Thervingi and Greuthungi against the Roman Empire *Gothic War (401–403), ...
, the
Byzantines
Byzantines
made it the seat of their
vicar A vicar (; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...
. When the
Lombards The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on ...
invaded Italy in 568, Bishop Honoratus of
Milan Milan (, , Milanese: ; it, Milano ) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the List of cities in Italy, second-most populous city proper in Italy after Rome. The city proper has a population of about 1.4 million, while its ...
fled and held his seat in Genoa. During this time and in the following century Genoa was little more than a small centre, slowly building its merchant fleet, which was to become the leading commercial carrier of the Western Mediterranean. In 934–35 the town was thoroughly sacked and burned by a Fatimid fleet under
Ya'qub ibn Ishaq al-TamimiYa'qub ibn Ishaq al-Tamimi () was a naval commander in Fatimid service who led a major raid against the Italian coasts, Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna and , also ''Saldigna'', ''Sardíngia'', ''Sardinna'', ''Sardinza''; ...
.


Rise of the Genoese Republic

Genoa started expanding during the
First Crusade The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a series of religious wars, or Crusades, initiated, supported and at times directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The objective was the recovery of the Holy Land from Muslim conqu ...
. At the time the city had a population of about 10,000. Twelve
galley A galley is a type of ship A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying goods or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research, and fis ...

galley
s, one ship and 1,200 soldiers from Genoa joined the crusade. The Genoese troops, led by noblemen de Insula and Avvocato, set sail in July 1097. The Genoese fleet transported and provided naval support to the crusaders, mainly during the
siege of Antioch The siege of Antioch took place during the First Crusade in 1097 and 1098, on the crusaders' way to Jerusalem through Syria (region), Syria. Two sieges took place in succession. The first siege, by the crusaders against the city held by the Se ...

siege of Antioch
in 1098, when the Genoese fleet blockaded the city while the troops provided support during the siege. In the siege of Jerusalem in 1099
Genoese crossbowmen The Genoese crossbowmen ( it, Balestrieri genovesi) was a famous military corps of the Middle Ages, which acted both in defence of the Republic of Genoa and as a mercenary force for other Italian city-states, Italian or European powers. Armed wi ...
led by
Guglielmo Embriaco Guglielmo Embriaco (Latin ''Guillermus Embriacus'', Genoese ''Ghigærmo de ri Embrieghi'', English ''William the Drunkard''; born c. 1040), was a Genoa, Genoese merchant and military leader who came to the assistance of the Crusader States in the a ...
acted as support units against the defenders of the city. The Republic's role as a maritime power in the Mediterranean region secured many favorable commercial treaties for Genoese merchants. They came to control a large portion of the trade of the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
,
Tripoli Tripoli (; ar, طرابلس, ; ber, ⵜⵔⵢⴱⵓⵍⵙ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals ...

Tripoli
(Libya), the
Principality of Antioch The Principality of Antioch was one of the crusader states The Crusader States, also known as Outremer, were four Roman Catholic realms in the Middle East that lasted from 1098 to 1291. These were created by the leaders of the through ...
,
Cilician Armenia The Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia ( Middle Armenian: , '), also known as Cilician Armenia ( hy, Կիլիկեան Հայաստան, '), Lesser Armenia, Little Armenia, or New Armenia and formerly known as the Armenian Principality of Cilicia ( hy, ...
, and Egypt. Although Genoa maintained free-trading rights in Egypt and Syria, it lost some of its territorial possessions after Saladin's campaigns in those areas in the late 12th century.


13th and 14th centuries

The commercial and cultural rivalry of Genoa and Venice was played out through the thirteenth century. Thanks to the
Republic of Venice The Republic of Venice ( it, Repubblica di Venezia; vec, Repùblega de Venèsia) or Venetian Republic ( it, Repubblica Veneta; vec, Repùblega Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima ( en, Most Serene Republic Most Serene Republic ( ...
major role in the
Fourth Crusade The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Roman Catholic Church, Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III. The stated intent of the expedition was to recapture the Islam, Muslim-controlled city of Jerusalem, by first defeating th ...
, meant that Venetian trading rights were enforced, and Venice gained control of a large portion of the commerce of the eastern Mediterranean. In order to regain control of the commerce, the Republic of Genoa allied with
Michael VIII Palaiologos Michael VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus ( el, Μιχαὴλ Δούκας Ἄγγελος Κομνηνὸς Παλαιολόγος, Mikhaēl Doukas Angelos Komnēnos Palaiologos; 1223 – 11 December 1282) reigned as the co-emperor of the Empire ...

Michael VIII Palaiologos
, emperor of
Nicaea Nicaea or Nicea (; el, Νίκαια, ''Níkaia'') was an ancient Greek city in northwestern Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and t ...

Nicaea
, who wanted to restore the Byzantine Empire by recapturing
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
. In March 1261 the treaty of the alliance was signed in
Nymphaeum A ''nymphaeum'' or ''nymphaion'' ( grc, νυμφαῖον), in ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th ...

Nymphaeum
. On July 25, 1261, Nicaean troops under
Alexios Strategopoulos Alexios Komnenos Strategopoulos ( gr, Ἀλέξιος Κομνηνὸς Στρατηγόπουλος) was a Byzantine aristocrat and general who rose to the rank of '' megas domestikos'' and ''Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 1 ...

Alexios Strategopoulos
recaptured Constantinople. As a result, the balance of favour tipped toward Genoa, which was granted free trade rights in the Nicene Empire. The islands of
Chios Chios (; el, Χίος, Khíos ) is the fifth largest of the Greece, Greek list of islands of Greece, islands, situated in the northern Aegean Sea. The island is separated from Turkey by the Chios Strait. Chios is notable for its exports of Mast ...

Chios
and
Lesbos Lesbos or Lesvos (, also ; el, Λέσβος, Lésvos ) is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea The Aegean Sea ; tr, Ege Denizi is an elongated embayment A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly con ...
became commercial stations of Genoa as well as the city of
Smyrna Smyrna ( ; grc, Σμύρνη, Smýrnē, or grc, Σμύρνα, Smýrna) was a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is ...
(Izmir). In the same century the Republic conquered many settlements in
Crimea Crimea; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural ...

Crimea
, known as Gazaria, where the Genoese colony of
Caffa uk, Феодосія, Теодосія crh, Kefe , official_name = () , settlement_type= , image_skyline = THEODOSIA 01.jpg , imagesize = 250px , image_caption = Genoese fortress of Caffa , image_shield = Fe ...
was established. The alliance with the restored Byzantine Empire increased the wealth and power of Genoa, and simultaneously decreased Venetian and Pisan commerce. The Byzantine Empire had granted the majority of free trading rights to Genoa. Around the 14th century, Genoa was also considered responsible for the creation of the
Jeans Jeans are a type of pants Trousers (British English), slacks, or pants are an item of clothing that might have originated in Central Asia, worn from the waist to the ankles, covering both legs separately (rather than with cloth extending ...

Jeans
. Genoa's jean fabric was a
fustian Fustian is a variety of heavy cloth woven from cotton, chiefly prepared for menswear. It is also used figuratively to refer to pompous, inflated or pretentious writing or speech, from at least the time of William Shakespeare, Shakespeare. This ...
textile of "medium quality and of reasonable cost", very similar to cotton
corduroy Image:Cord 1.jpg, Cotton and woolen corduroy Corduroy is a textile with a distinct pattern, a "cord" or wale. Modern corduroy is most commonly composed of tufting, tufted cords, sometimes exhibiting a channel (bare to the base fabric) between th ...
for which Genoa was famous, and was "used for work clothes in general". The Genoese navy equipped its sailors with jeans, as they needed a fabric which could be worn wet or dry. As a result of the Genoese support to the
Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous community and former kingdom in Spain * the Aragonese people, those originating from or living in the historical region of Aragon, in north-eastern Spain * the Aragone ...
rule in
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
, Genoa was granted free trading and export rights in the Kingdom. Genoese bankers also profited from loans to the new nobility of Sicily. While Corsica was formally annexed in 1347.


15th and 16th centuries

In the 15th century two of the earliest banks in the world were founded in Genoa: the
Bank of Saint George The Bank of Saint George ( it, Casa delle compere e dei banchi di San Giorgio or informally as ''Ufficio di San Giorgio'' or ''Banco'') was a financial institution of the Republic of Genoa. It was founded in 1407 to consolidate the public debt, ...
, founded in 1407, which was the oldest state deposit bank in the world at its closure in 1805 and the
Banca Carige Banca Carige Società per azioni, S.p.A., historically known as Cassa di Risparmio di Genova e Imperia (Ca.Ri.Ge.) is an List of Italian banks, Italian bank based in Genoa, with more than 500 bank branches in Italy. The predecessor of the bank, a ...
, founded in 1483 as a
mount of piety A mount of piety is an institutional pawnbroker run as a charitable organization, charity in Europe from Renaissance times until today. Similar institutions were established in the colonies of Catholic countries; the Mexican Nacional Monte de Pieda ...
, which still exists.
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
was born in Genoa  1451, and donated one-tenth of his income from the discovery of the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North America, North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World. Along with th ...

Americas
for
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
to the
Bank of Saint George The Bank of Saint George ( it, Casa delle compere e dei banchi di San Giorgio or informally as ''Ufficio di San Giorgio'' or ''Banco'') was a financial institution of the Republic of Genoa. It was founded in 1407 to consolidate the public debt, ...
in Genoa for the relief of taxation on foods. Under the ensuing economic recovery, many aristocratic Genoese families, such as the Balbi, Doria, Grimaldi, Pallavicini, and Serra, amassed tremendous fortunes. According to Felipe Fernandez-Armesto and others, the practices Genoa developed in the
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...

Mediterranean
(such as chattel slavery) were crucial in the exploration and exploitation of the New World. Thereafter, Genoa underwent something of a associate of the
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
, with Genoese bankers, in particular, financing many of the Spanish crown's foreign endeavors from their
counting house A counting house, or counting room, was traditionally an office in which the financial books of a business were kept. It was also the place that the business received appointments and correspondence relating to demands for payment. As the use of c ...
s in
Seville Seville (; es, Sevilla, Castilian Spanish , Andalusian Spanish (with yeísmo) ) is the capital and largest city of the Spain, Spanish autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville. It is situate ...

Seville
.
Fernand Braudel Fernand Braudel (; 24 August 1902 – 27 November 1985) was a French historian and a leader of the Annales School. His scholarship focused on three main projects: ''The Mediterranean'' (1923–49, then 1949–66), ''Civilization and Capitalism' ...
has even called the period 1557 to 1627 the "age of the Genoese", "of a rule that was so discreet and sophisticated that historians for a long time failed to notice it" (Braudel 1984 p. 157). The Genoese bankers provided the unwieldy
Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...

Habsburg
system with fluid credit and a dependably regular income. In return the less dependable shipments of American silver were rapidly transferred from Seville to Genoa, to provide capital for further ventures. Genoa's trade, however, remained closely dependent on control of Mediterranean sealanes, and the loss of
Chios Chios (; el, Χίος, Khíos ) is the fifth largest of the Greece, Greek list of islands of Greece, islands, situated in the northern Aegean Sea. The island is separated from Turkey by the Chios Strait. Chios is notable for its exports of Mast ...

Chios
to the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
(1566), struck a severe blow.


17th and 18th centuries

From the 17th century, the Genoese Republic started a period of slow decline, in May 1625 a French-Savoian army briefly laid siege to Genoa. Though it was eventually lifted with the aid of the Spanish, the French would later bombard the city in May 1684 for its support of Spain during the
War of the Reunions The War of the Reunions (1683–84) was a conflict involving France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a country primarily located in Western Europe, consisting of metropolitan France ...
. In-between, a plague killed as many as half of the inhabitants of Genoa in 1656–57. Genoa continued its slow decline well into the 18th century, losing its last
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...

Mediterranean
colony, the island fortress of
Tabarka Tabarka ( ar, طبرقة ') is a coastal town located in north-western Tunisia, close to the Algeria–Tunisia border, border with Algeria. Tabarka's history is a mosaic of Berber people, Berber, Punics, Punic, Hellenistic, Ancient Rome, Roman, C ...

Tabarka
, to the
Bey of Tunis "Bey" ( ota, بك “''Beik''”, chg, بك “''Bek''”, tk, beg, uz, bek, kz, бек, tt, bäk, sq, beu, bs, beg, fa, بیگ “''Beigh''” or “''Beg''”, tg, бе, ar, بيه “''Beyeh''”) is a Turkic languages, Turkic titl ...
in 1742. The Convention of Turin of 1742, in which
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States o ...

Austria
allied with the
Kingdom of Sardinia The Kingdom of Sardinia,The name of the state was originally Latin: , or when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica. In Italian it is , in French , in Sardinian , and in Piedmontese . also referred to as the Kingdom of Savoy-Sa ...
, caused some consternation in the Republic. Consequently, the Republic of Genoa signed a secret treaty with the Bourbon allies of
Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France; frm, Royaulme de France; french: link=yes, Royaume de France) is the historiographical name or Hyponymy and hypernymy, umbrella term given to various political entities of France in the Middle Ages ...
,
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
and
Kingdom of Naples The Kingdom of Naples ( la, Regnum Neapolitanum; it, Regno di Napoli; nap, Regno 'e Napule), also known as the Kingdom of Sicily, was a state that ruled the part of the Italian Peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Italian may refer ...

Kingdom of Naples
. On 26 June 1745, the Republic of Genoa declared war on the Kingdom of Sardinia. This decision would prove disastrous for Genoa, which later surrendered to the Austrians in September 1746 and was briefly occupied before a revolt liberated the city two months later. In a much weaker state, Genoa was forced to cede Corsica to the French in the 1768
Treaty of Versailles The Treaty of Versailles (french: Traité de Versailles; german: Versailler Vertrag, ) was the most important of the peace treaties A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or government ...
. The direct intervention of
Napoleon Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General o ...

Napoleon
(during the Campaigns of 1796) and his representatives in Genoa was the final act that led to the fall of the Republic in early June, who overthrew the old elites which had ruled the state for all of its history, giving birth to the
Ligurian Republic The Ligurian Republic ( it, Repubblica Ligure) was a French client republic A sister republic (french: république sœur) was a republic established by French armies or by local revolutionaries and assisted by the First French Republic during th ...
on June 14, 1797, under the watchful care of Napoleonic France. After Bonaparte's seizure of power in France, a more conservative constitution was enacted, but the Ligurian Republic's life was short—in 1805 it was annexed by France, becoming the ''
départements A department (, ) is an administrative division, administrative or political division in many countries. Departments are the first-level divisions of 11 countries, nine in the Americas and two in Africa. An additional 10 countries use department ...
'' of
Apennins Apennins was a department of the First French Empire The First French Empire, officially the French Republic (until 1809) then the French Empire (; ), was the empire ruled by Napoleon, Napoleon Bonaparte, who established French hegemony ove ...
, Gênes, and Montenotte. Following the fall of Napoleon, Genoa regained an ephemeral independence, with the name of the ''Repubblica genovese'', which lasted less than a year. However, the
Congress of Vienna The Congress of Vienna (, ) of 1814–1815 was an international diplomatic conference to reconstitute the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) w ...

Congress of Vienna
established the annexation of the whole territories of the former Genoese Republic to the
Kingdom of Sardinia The Kingdom of Sardinia,The name of the state was originally Latin: , or when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica. In Italian it is , in French , in Sardinian , and in Piedmontese . also referred to as the Kingdom of Savoy-Sa ...
, governed by the
House of Savoy The House of Savoy ( it, Casa Savoia) is a royal dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the uni ...
, contravening the principle of restoring the legitimate governments and monarchies of the old Republic.


Late modern and contemporary

In the 19th and the early 20th centuries, Genoa consolidated its role as a major seaport and an important steel and shipbuilding centre. In Genoa in 1853, Giovanni Ansaldo founded Gio. Ansaldo & C. whose shipyards would build some of the most beautiful ships in the world, such as ARA Garibaldi, SS Roma (1926), SS Roma, , SS Rex, SS Andrea Doria, SS Cristoforo Colombo, MS Gripsholm (1957), MS Gripsholm, SS Leonardo da Vinci, SS Michelangelo, and SS SeaBreeze. In 1854, the ferry company Costa Crociere was founded in Genoa and then the Lloyd Italiano maritime insurance company. In 1861 the Registro Italiano Navale Italian register of shipping was created, and in 1879 the Yacht Club Italiano. The owner :it:Raffaele Rubarrino, Raffaele Rubattino in 1881 was among the founders of the ferry company Navigazione Generale Italiana which then become the Italian Line. In 1870 was founded Banca di Genova which in 1895 changed its name to Credito Italiano and in 1998 became Unicredit. In 1874 the city was completely connected by railway lines to France and the rest of Italy: Turin-Genoa railway, Genoa-Turin, Genoa-Ventimiglia railway, Genoa-Ventimiglia, Pisa-La Spezia-Genoa railway, Genoa-Pisa. In 1884 :it:Rinaldo Piaggio, Rinaldo Piaggio founded Piaggio, Piaggio & C. that produced locomotives and railway carriages and in 1923 began aircraft production. The company as
Piaggio Aerospace Piaggio Aerospace, formerly Piaggio Aero Industries, is a multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countr ...
at present is owned by Mubadala Development Company and is based in Villanova d'Albenga. In 1898 the insurance company called Alleanza Assicurazioni was founded. The 27th G8 summit, that took place in July 2001, was hosted in the city of Genoa, however it was overshadowed by violent protests (Anti-globalization movement, Anti-globalisation movement), with one protester killed. In 2004, the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
designated Genoa as the
European Capital of Culture A European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members ha ...

European Capital of Culture
, along with the French city of Lille. In 2009 the Genoese actor and political activist Beppe Grillo founded the Five Star Movement. On 14 August 2018 the Ponte Morandi viaduct bridge for motor vehicles collapsed during a torrential downpour, leading to 43 deaths.


Flag

The flag of Genoa is a St. George's Cross, a red cross on a white field. The patron saint of Genoa was Saint Lawrence of Rome, Lawrence until at least 958, but the Genoese transferred their allegiance to Saint George (and Saint John the Baptist) at some point during the 11th or 12th century, most likely with the rising popularity of the military saint during the Crusades. Genoa also had a banner displaying a cross since at latest 1218, possibly as early as 1113. But the cross banner was not associated with the saint; indeed, the saint had his own flag, the ''vexillum beati Georgii'' (first mentioned 1198), a red flag showing George and the dragon. A depiction of this flag is shown in the Genoese annals under the year 1227. The Genoese flag with the red cross was used alongside this "Saint George's flag", from at least 1218, known as the ''insignia cruxata comunis Janue'' ("cross ensign of the commune of Genoa"). The saint's flag was the city's main war flag, but the cross flag was used alongside it in the 1240s. The Saint George, Saint George's flag (i.e. the flag depicting the saint) remained the main flag of Genoa at least until the 1280s. The flag now known as the "St. George's Cross" seems to have replaced it as Genoa's main flag at some point during the 14th century. The ''Book of Knowledge of All Kingdoms'' (c. 1385) shows it, inscribed with the word ''iustiçia'', and described as: There was also a historiographical tradition claiming that the flag of England was adopted from the Genoese flag during the Third Crusade in 1190, however, it cannot be substantiated as historical.


Geography

The city of Genoa covers an area of between the
Ligurian Sea 300px, The Ligurian Sea The Ligurian Sea ( it, Mar Ligure; french: Mer Ligurienne; lij, Mâ Ligure) is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin ...
and the Apennine Mountains. The city stretches along the coast for about from the neighbourhood of Voltri to Nervi, and for from the coast to the north along the valleys Val Polcevera, Polcevera and Bisagno (stream), Bisagno. The territory of Genoa is popularly divided into 5 main zones: the centre, the west, the east, the Polcevera and the Bisagno Valley. Although much of downtown is located at a low elevation, the territory surrounding it is mountainous with undeveloped land usually being in steep terrain. Genoa is adjacent to two popular Ligurian vacation spots: Camogli and Portofino. In the metropolitan area of Genoa lies Aveto Natural Regional Park.


Climate

Genoa has a humid subtropical climate (''Cfa'') in the Köppen climate classification, since only one summer month has less than of rainfall, preventing it from being classified as solely Mediterranean climate, Mediterranean, with a special note for the Genoa low. The average yearly temperature is around during the day and at night. In the coldest months: December, January and February, the average temperature is during the day and at night. In the warmest months – July and August – the average temperature is during the day and at night. The daily temperature range is limited, with an average range of about between high and low temperatures. Genoa also sees significant moderation from the sea, in stark contrast to areas behind the Ligurian mountains such as Parma, where summers are hotter and winters are quite cold. Annually, the average 2.9 of nights recorded temperatures of ≤ (mainly in January). The coldest temperature ever recorded was in February 2012; the highest temperature ever recorded during the day is in August 2015. Average annual number of days with temperatures of ≥ is about 8, average four days in July and August. Average annual temperature of the sea is , from in the period January–March to in August. In the period from June to October, the average sea temperature exceeds . Genoa is also a windy city, especially during winter when Tramontane, northern winds often bring cool air from the Po Valley (usually accompanied by lower temperatures, high pressure and clear skies). Another typical wind blows from Sirocco, southeast, mostly as a consequence of Atlantic disturbances and storms, bringing humid and warmer air from the sea. Snowfall is sporadic, but does occur almost every year, albeit big amounts in the city centre are rare. Genoa often receives heavy rainfall in early autumn from strong convection. Even so, the overall number of precipitation days is quite modest for the annual yield. Annual average relative humidity is 68%, ranging from 63% in February to 73% in May. Sunshine hours total above 2,200 per year, from an average 4 hours of sunshine duration per day in winter to average 9 hours in summer. This value is an average between the northern half of Europe and North Africa.


Government


Municipal government

The Municipal Council of Genoa is currently led by a Right-wing politics, right-wing majority, elected in June 2017. The mayor is Marco Bucci (politician), Marco Bucci, expression of a right-wing alliance composed by Forza Italia (2013), Forza Italia, Lega Nord, Brothers of Italy, Fratelli d'Italia and other minor lists. Genoa was traditionally considered a leftist city and Bucci is the first right-wing mayor since 1975.


Administrative subdivision

The city of Genoa is subdivided into nine municipi (administrative districts), as approved by the Municipal Council in 2007.


Cityscape


Main sights

Notable to the city are the Palazzi dei Rolli, included in UNESCO World Heritage Site '' Genoa: Le Strade Nuove and the system of the Palazzi dei Rolli''. The world-famous Strade Nuove are Via Garibaldi (Genoa), via Garibaldi (Strada Nuova), Via Cairoli (Genoa), via Cairoli (Strada Nuovissima) and Via Balbi (Genoa), via Balbi (Strada Balbi). Among the most important palaces are the Palazzo Rosso, Palazzo Bianco, Palazzo Podestà o di Nicolosio Lomellino, Palazzo Reale (Genoa), Palazzo Reale, Palazzo Angelo Giovanni Spinola, Palazzo Pietro Spinola di San Luca and Palazzo Spinola di Pellicceria. Genoa's historic centre is articulated in a maze of squares and narrow ''caruggi'' (typical Genoese alleys). It joins a medieval dimension with following 16th century and Baroque architecture, Baroque interventions (the ancient Via Aurea, now Via Garibaldi (Genoa), Via Garibaldi). Near Via Garibaldi (Genoa), Via Garibaldi, through the public elevator Castelletto Levante, one can reach one of the most scenic places in the city, Castelletto (Genoa), Belvedere Castelletto. The centre of Genoa is connected to its upper part by ancient paths caught between tall palaces, called ''creuze''. Walking along these small paths one can reach magnificent places like the Santuario di Nostra Signora di Loreto. Very beautiful is the upper ring road so-called Circonvallazione a Monte that includes Corso Firenze, Corso Paganini, Corso Magenta, Via Solferino, and Corso Armellini. Saint Lawrence Cathedral, San Lorenzo cathedral has a splendid portal and the dome designed by Galeazzo Alessi. Inside is found the treasure of the Cathedral where among other objects there is also what is said to be the Holy Chalice. The symbols of the city are the Lighthouse of Genoa, Lanterna (the lighthouse) ( high), old and standing lighthouse visible in the distance from the sea (beyond ), and the monumental fountain of Piazza De Ferrari (Genoa), Piazza De Ferrari, recently restored, out-and-out core of the city's life. Near Piazza De Ferrari (Genoa), Piazza De Ferrari and Teatro Carlo Felice is the Mazzini Gallery, a typical nineteenth-century structure with many elegant shops and coffee bars. Another tourist destination is the ancient seaside district of Boccadasse (which means "the mouth of the donkey"), with its multicolour boats, set as a seal to Corso Italia (Genoa), Corso Italia, the promenade which runs along the Lido d'Albaro, and known for its ice-creams. After Boccadasse you can continue along the sea up to Sturla. Just out of the city centre, but still part of the of coast included in the municipality's territory, are Nervi, natural doorway to the Ligurian East Italian Riviera, Riviera, and Pegli, the point of access to the West Italian Riviera, Riviera. Nervi offers many attractions: the promenade overlooking the sea called ; parks covered with lush tropical vegetation; numerous villas and palaces open to the public that now house museums (like GAM-Galleria d'Arte Moderna, Raccolte Frugone Museum, Museo Giannettino Luxoro and Wolfsoniana). (see also ) The East Riviera of Genoa called Riviera di Levante is part of the
Italian Riviera Image:Map-of-liguria-map-en-wiki.gif, 300px, Liguria and the Italian Riviera The Italian Riviera or Ligurian Riviera ( it, Riviera ligure; lij, Rivêa lìgure) is the narrow coastal strip in Italy which lies between the Ligurian Sea and the mou ...
. East Riviera is full of interesting towns to visit, and then from Genoa to east are: Bogliasco, Pieve Ligure, Sori, Liguria, Sori, Recco, Camogli, Portofino, Santa Margherita Ligure, Rapallo, Zoagli, Chiavari, Lavagna and Sestri Levante. In the west, Pegli is the site of the famous Villa Durazzo-Pallavicini and Arenzano is a seaside town at the foot of the Parco naturale regionale del Beigua. The new Genoa based its rebirth upon the restoration of the green areas of the immediate inland parts, among them the Parco naturale regionale del Beigua, and upon the construction of facilities such as the Aquarium of Genoa in the Old Harbour – the biggest in Italy and one of the major in Europe – and its Marina (the tourist small port which holds hundreds of pleasure boats). All of these are inside the restored Expo Area, arranged in occasion of the Columbian Celebrations of 1992. Near the city are Camogli and San Fruttuoso abbey accessible by a daily ferry from the Old Harbour (Porto Antico) of Genoa. In the seabed in front of the San Fruttuoso abbey there is the Christ of the Abyss. From the Old Harbour one can reach by boat other famous seaside places around Genoa such as Portofino or a little more distant, Lerici and the Cinque Terre. The regained pride gave back to the city the consciousness of being capable of looking to the future without forgetting its past. The resumption of several flourishing hand-crafting activities, far-back absent from the ''caruggi'' of the old town, is a direct evidence of it. The restoration of many of Genoa's churches and palaces in the 1980s and the 1990s contributed to the city's rebirth. A notable example the Renaissance, Santa Maria Assunta, Genoa, Basilica of Santa Maria Assunta, sitting on the top of the hill of Carignano and visible from almost every part of the city. The total restoration of Doge's Palace, Genoa, Doge's Palace and of the Old Harbour, and the rebuilding of Teatro Carlo Felice, destroyed by bombing in the Second World War, were two more points of strength for the realisation of a new Genoa. Genoa could not renounce, especially as from the 1960s, to a great renewal, which as happened in several other metropolis, should necessarily get through the realisation of big public housing complexes, whose quality, utility and functionality has been and still is controversial for those residents living there. Concerning this, the most known cases are those of the so-called "Biscione", a development in the shape of a long snake, situated on the hills of the populous district of Marassi, and the one of the group of houses known as "Le Lavatrici" (the washing machines), in the district of Prà. Beyond a complete restyling of the area, the ancient port zone nearby the Mandraccio opening, in Porta Siberia, was enriched by Genoese architect
Renzo Piano Renzo Piano (; born 14 September 1937) is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Roma ...

Renzo Piano
with a large sphere made of metal and glass, installed in the port's waters, not far from the Aquarium of Genoa, and unveiled in 2001 in occasion of the G8 Summit held in Genoa. The sphere (called by the citizens "Piano's bubble" or "The Ball"), after hosting an exposition of fens from Genoa's Botanical Gardens, currently houses the reconstruction of a tropical environment, with several plants, little animals and butterflies. Piano also designed the subway stations and, in the hills area, the construction – in collaboration with UNESCO – of Punta Nave, base of the Renzo Piano Building Workshop. Nearby the Old Harbour is the so-called "Matitone (Genoa), Matitone", a skyscraper in shape of a pencil, that lays side by side with the group of the WTC towers, core of the San Benigno development, today base of part of the Municipality's administration and of several companies.


Churches

Genoa Cathedral, St. Lawrence Cathedral (Cattedrale di San Lorenzo) is the city's cathedral, built in a Gothic-Romanesque style. Other notable historical churches are the Commandery of the Order of Saint John, Saint John's Order called , San Matteo (Genoa), San Matteo, San Donato (Genoa), San Donato, Santa Maria di Castello, Sant'Agostino (Genoa), Sant'Agostino (deconsecrated since the 19th century, sometimes is used for theatrical representations), Santo Stefano (Genoa), Santo Stefano, Santi Vittore e Carlo, Genoa, Santi Vittore e Carlo, Basilica della Santissima Annunziata del Vastato, San Pietro in Banchi, Genoa, San Pietro in Banchi, Santa Maria delle Vigne, Nostra Signora della Consolazione e San Vincenzo martire (Genoa), Nostra Signora della Consolazione, San Siro (Genoa), San Siro, , Santa Maria Assunta, Genoa, Santa Maria Assunta di Carignano and Chiesa del Gesù e dei Santi Ambrogio e Andrea, Chiesa del Gesù. San Bartolomeo degli Armeni houses the Image of Edessa and San Pancrazio, Genoa, San Pancrazio after the World War II was entrusted to the ligurian delegation of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta. These churches and basilicas are built in Romanesque (San Donato, Santa Maria di Castello, Commenda di San Giovanni di Pré), Gothic (San Matteo, Santo Stefano, Sant'Agostino), Baroque (San Siro) or Renaissance (Santa Maria Assunta di Carignano, San Pietro in Banchi) appearance, or a mix of different styles (Nostra Signora della Consolazione, Santissima Annunziata del Vastato; this last has a Baroque interior and a Neoclassicist façade). Another well known Genoese church is the shrine of Francis of Paola, Saint Francis of Paola, notable for the outer courtyard overlooking the port and the memorial to all those who died at sea. This church is of artistic mention in that the tile depictions of the Stations of the Cross, Via Crucis Stations along the brick path to the church. Near Genoa is found the Shrine of Nostra Signora della Guardia, (the sanctuary is said to have inspired the writer Umberto Eco in making his novel The Name of the Rose). Another interesting church in the neighborhoods of Genoa is San Siro di Struppa. The city was the birthplace of several popes (Pope Innocent IV, Innocent IV, Pope Adrian V, Adrian V, Pope Innocent VIII, Innocent VIII, and Pope Benedict XV, Benedict XV) and various saints (Syrus of Genoa, Romulus of Genoa, Catherine of Genoa, and Virginia Centurione Bracelli). The Archbishop of Genoa Jacobus de Varagine wrote the Golden Legend. Also from Genoa were: Giovanni Paolo Oliva, the Superior General of the Society of Jesus; Girolamo Grimaldi-Cavalleroni, the Archbishop of Aix; Ausonio Franchi, priest, philosopher, and theologian; Cardinal Giuseppe Siri; and the priests Francesco Repetto, Giuseppe Dossetti, Gianni Baget Bozzo, and Don Andrea Gallo, Andrea Gallo. The present archbishop of Genoa, Cardinal Angelo Bagnasco, comes from a Genoese family but was born in Pontevico, near Brescia (see also Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Genoa, Archdiocese of Genoa).


Buildings and palaces

The main features of central Genoa include the Piazza De Ferrari (Genoa), Piazza De Ferrari, around which are the Teatro Carlo Felice, Opera and the Palazzo Ducale (Genoa), Palace of the Doges. The Palazzo di San Giorgio was the headquarters of the
Bank of Saint George The Bank of Saint George ( it, Casa delle compere e dei banchi di San Giorgio or informally as ''Ufficio di San Giorgio'' or ''Banco'') was a financial institution of the Republic of Genoa. It was founded in 1407 to consolidate the public debt, ...
and was the place where Marco Polo and Rustichello da Pisa composed The Travels of Marco Polo. Outside the city walls is Christopher Columbus House, where
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
is said to have lived as a child. The current building is an 18th-century reconstruction of the original which was destroyed by the French naval bombing of 1684. Via Garibaldi (Genoa), Strada Nuova (now Via Garibaldi), in the old city, was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2006. This district was designed in the mid-16th century to accommodate Mannerist palaces of the city's most eminent families. In Genoa there are 114 noble palaces (see also Rolli di Genova): among these 42 are inscribed on the World Heritage List. Among the Palazzi dei Rolli the most famous are Palazzo Rosso (Genoa), Palazzo Rosso (now a museum), Palazzo Bianco (Genoa), Palazzo Bianco, Palazzo Tursi, , , Palazzo Reale (Genoa), Palazzo Reale, Palazzo Angelo Giovanni Spinola, Palazzo Pietro Spinola di San Luca, Palazzo Spinola di Pellicceria, Palazzo Cicala. Palazzo Bianco and Palazzo Rosso are also known as Musei di Strada Nuova. The famous art college is also located on this street. The Genoese artistic renaissance begins with the construction of commissioned by
Andrea Doria Andrea Doria, Prince of Melfi (; lij, Drîa Döia ; 30 November 146625 November 1560) was a Genoese statesman, ' and admiral, playing a key role in the Republic of Genoa during his lifetime. As the ruler of Genoa, Doria reformed the Republic' ...

Andrea Doria
: the architects were Giovanni Angelo Montorsoli and Giovanni Ponzello, the interior was painted by Perino del Vaga and the garden fountain was realised by Taddeo Carlone. In 1548 Galeazzo Alessi, with the project of , designed a new prototype of Genoese palace that would be an inspiration to other architects working in Genoa as Bartolomeo Bianco, Pietro Antonio Corradi, Rocco Lurago, Giovan Battista Castello, and Bernardino Cantone. Peter Paul Rubens wrote Palazzi di Genova in 1622, a book dedicated to the palaces of Genoa. Scattered around the city are many villas, built between the fifteenth and the twentieth centuries. Among the best known are: , Villa Durazzo-Pallavicini, , , , Villa Giustiniani-Cambiaso, , , , , Villa Rosazza, , Villa delle Peschiere, , , and . As it regards the 19th century remember the architects Ignazio Gardella (senior), and Carlo Barabino which among other things, realises together with Giovanni Battista Resasco, the Monumental Cemetery of Staglieno. The cemetery is renowned for its statues and sepulchral monuments that preserve the mortal remains of notable personalities, including
Giuseppe Mazzini Giuseppe Mazzini (, , ; 22 June 1805 – 10 March 1872) was an Italian politician, journalist, activist for the unification of Italy and spearhead of the Italian revolutionary movement. His efforts helped bring about the independent and unified ...

Giuseppe Mazzini
, Fabrizio De André, and Constance Lloyd (Oscar Wilde's wife). In the first half of the 19th century they are completed the and the . In 1901 realised the ''Silos Granari''. The city is rich in testimony of the Gothic Revival like Albertis Castle, , and Mackenzie Castle designed by the architect Gino Coppedè. Genoa is also rich of Art Nouveau works, among which: , , Hotel Bristol Palace, and . Works of Rationalist architecture of the first half of the 20th century are Terrazza Martini Tower, Torre Piacentini and Piazza della Vittoria where Arco della Vittoria, both designed by the architect Marcello Piacentini. Other architects who have changed the face of Genoa in the 20th century are: Ignazio Gardella, who realised the Piazza Rossetti and the residential complex so-called , , Aldo Rossi, , Franco Albini who designed the interiors of Palazzo Rosso, and . The Edoardo Chiossone Museum of Oriental Art, designed by Mario Labò, has one of the largest collections of Oriental art in Europe. Other notable architectural works include: the Old Harbour's new design with the Aquarium of Genoa, Aquarium, the and the by
Renzo Piano Renzo Piano (; born 14 September 1937) is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Roma ...

Renzo Piano
, the Palasport di Genova, the Matitone skyscraper, and the , by Jean Nouvel. Genoa was home to the Ponte Morandi by Riccardo Morandi, built in 1967, collapsed in 2018 and demolished February–June 2019.


Old harbour

The old harbour ("porto antico" in Italian) is the ancient part of the port of Genoa. The harbour gave access to outside communities creating a good geographical situation for the city.Shaw, C. (2012). Genoa. In A. Gamberini & I. Lazzarini (Eds.). ''The Italian Renaissance State''. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press The city is spread out geographically along a section of the Liguria coast, which makes trading by ship possible. Before the development of car, train, and airplane travel, the main outside access for the city was the sea, as the surrounding mountains made trade north by land more difficult than coastal trade. Trade routes have always connected Genoa on an international scale, with increasingly farther reach starting from trade along Europe's coastline before the medieval period to today's connection across continents. In its heyday the Genoese Navy was a prominent power in the Mediterranean. As the Genoa harbour was so important to the merchants for their own economic success, other nearby harbours and ports were seen as competition for a landing point for foreign traders. In the 16th century, the Genovese worked to destroy the local shipping competition, the Savona harbour. Taking matters into their own hands, the Genoa merchants and the politically powerful in Genoa attacked the harbour of Savona with stones. This action was taken to preserve the economic stability and wealth of the city during the rise in prominence of Savona. The Genovese would go as far as to war with other coastal, trading cities such as Venice, in order to protect the trade industry.
Renzo Piano Renzo Piano (; born 14 September 1937) is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Roma ...

Renzo Piano
redeveloped the area for public access, restoring the historical buildings (like the Cotton warehouses) and creating new landmarks like the Aquarium, the Bigo and recently the "Bolla" (the Sphere). The main touristic attractions of this area are the famous Aquarium and the Museum of the Sea (MuMA). In 2007 these attracted almost 1.7 million visitors.


Walls and fortresses

The city of Genoa during its long history at least since the 9th century had been protected by different line of defensive walls. Large portions of these walls remain today, and Genoa has more and longer walls than any other city in Italy. The main city walls are known as "Ninth century walls", "Barbarossa Walls" (12th century), "Fourteenth century walls", "Sixteenth century walls" and "New Walls" ("Mura Nuove" in Italian). The more imposing walls, built in the first half of the 17th century on the ridge of hills around the city, have a length of almost . Some fortresses stand along the perimeter of the "New Walls" or close them.


Parks

Genoa has of public parks in the city centre, such as Villetta Di Negro which is right in the heart of the town, overlooking the historical centre. Many bigger green spaces are situated outside the centre: in the east are the Parks of Nervi () overlooking the sea, in the west the beautiful gardens of Villa Durazzo-Pallavicini, Villa Durazzo Pallavicini and its Giardino botanico Clelia Durazzo Grimaldi (). The numerous villas and palaces of the city also have their own gardens, like Palazzo del Principe, Villa Doria, Palazzo Bianco (Genoa), Palazzo Bianco and Palazzo Tursi, Palazzo Nicolosio Lomellino, Albertis Castle, Villa Rosazza, Villa Croce, Villa Imperiale Cattaneo, Villa Bombrini, Villa Brignole Sale Duchessa di Galliera, Villa Serra and many more. The city is surrounded by natural parks such as Parco naturale regionale dell'Antola, Parco naturale regionale del Beigua, Aveto Natural Regional Park and the Ligurian Sea Cetacean Sanctuary (a marine protected area).


Aquarium of Genoa

The Aquarium of Genoa (in it, Acquario di Genova) is the largest aquarium in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Alps and List of islands of Italy, several islands surrounding it, whose ...

Italy
and among the largest in Europe. Built for Genoa Expo '92, it is an educational, scientific and cultural centre. Its mission is to educate and raise public awareness as regards conservation, management and responsible use of aquatic environments. It welcomes over 1.2 million visitors a year. Control of the entire environment, including the temperature, filtration and lighting of the tanks was provided by local Automation Supplier Orsi Automazione, acquired in 2001 by Siemens. The Aquarium of Genoa is co-ordinating the AquaRing EU project. It also provides scientific expertise and a great deal of content for AquaRing, including documents, images, academic content and interactive online courses, via its Online Resource Centre.


Demographics

At the beginning of 2011, there were 608,493 people residing in Genoa, of whom 47% were male and 53% were female. The city is characterised by rapid aging and a long history of demographic decline, that has shown a partial slowdown in the last decade. Genoa has the lowest birth rate and is the most aged of any large Italian city. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled only 14.12% of the population compared to pensioners who number 26.67%. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06% (minors) and 19.94% (pensioners). The median age of Genoa's residents is 47, compared to the Italian average of 42. The current birth rate of the city is only 7.49 births per 1,000 inhabitants, compared to the national average of 9.45.


Economy

The Genoa metropolitan area had a List of cities by GDP, GDP amounting to $30.1 billion in 2011, or $33,003 per capita. Ligurian agriculture has increased its specialisation pattern in high-quality products (flowers, Italian wine, wine, olive oil) and has thus managed to maintain the gross value-added per worker at a level much higher than the national average (the difference was about 42% in 1999). The value of flower production represents over 75% of the agriculture sector turnover, followed by animal farming (11.2%) and vegetable growing (6.4%). Steel, once a major industry during the booming 1950s and 1960s, phased out after the late 1980s crisis, as Italy moved away from the heavy industry to pursue more technologically advanced and less polluting productions. So the Ligurian industry has turned towards a widely diversified range of high-quality and high-tech products (food, shipbuilding (in Sestri Ponente and in metropolitan area – Sestri Levante), electrical engineering and electronics, petrochemicals, aerospace etc.). Nonetheless, the regions still maintains a flourishing shipbuilding sector (yacht construction and maintenance, cruise liner building, military shipyards). In the services sector, the gross value-added per worker in Liguria is 4% above the national average. This is due to the increasing diffusion of modern technologies, particularly in commerce and tourism. A good motorway network ( in 2000) makes communications with the border regions relatively easy. The main motorway is located along the coastline, connecting the main ports of Nice (in France), Savona, Genoa and La Spezia. The number of passenger cars per 1000 inhabitants (524 in 2001) is below the national average (584). On average, about 17 million tonnes of cargo are shipped from the main ports of the region and about 57 million tonnes enter the region. The Port of Genoa, with a trade volume of 58.6 million tonnes ranks first in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Alps and List of islands of Italy, several islands surrounding it, whose ...

Italy
, second in terms of twenty-foot equivalent units after the transshipment port of Gioia Tauro, with a trade volume of over 2 million TEUs. The main destinations for the cargo-passenger traffic are Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Barcelona, and the Canary Islands. Some companies based in Genoa include
Ansaldo STS Hitachi Rail STS (previously Ansaldo Signalling and Transportation Systems or Ansaldo STS) is an Italian transportation company owned by Hitachi () is a Japanese multinational corporation, multinational Conglomerate (company), conglomerate compa ...
,
Ansaldo Energia Ansaldo Energia S.p.A. is an Italian power engineering Power engineering, also called power systems engineering, is a subfield of electrical engineering that deals with the generation, transmission, distribution, and utilization of electri ...
,
Edoardo Raffinerie Garrone ERG S.p.A. is a publicly listed Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** ...
,
Piaggio Aerospace Piaggio Aerospace, formerly Piaggio Aero Industries, is a multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countr ...
, Registro Italiano Navale,
Banca Carige Banca Carige Società per azioni, S.p.A., historically known as Cassa di Risparmio di Genova e Imperia (Ca.Ri.Ge.) is an List of Italian banks, Italian bank based in Genoa, with more than 500 bank branches in Italy. The predecessor of the bank, a ...
, SLAM (clothing), SLAM, and
Costa Cruises Costa Crociere S.p.A. (), operating as Costa Cruises ( it, Costa Crociere), is an Italian cruise line founded in 1854 and organized as a wholly owned subsidiary of Carnival Corporation & plc Carnival Corporation & plc is a British-American cr ...
.


Education

The first organised forms of higher education in Genoa date back to the 13th century when private colleges were entitled to award degrees in Medicine, Philosophy, Theology, Law, Arts. Today the
University of Genoa The University of Genoa, known also with the acronym UniGe ( it, Università di Genova), is one of the largest universities in Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country c ...
, founded in the 15th century, is one of the largest in Italy, with 11 faculties, 51 departments and 14 libraries. In 2007–2008, the University had 41,000 students and 6,540 graduates. Genoa is also home to other Colleges, Academies or Museums: * The
University of Genoa The University of Genoa, known also with the acronym UniGe ( it, Università di Genova), is one of the largest universities in Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country c ...
* The CNR Area della Ricerca di Genova * The Accademia ligustica di belle arti * The Accademia Ligure di scienze e lettere * The Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia * The ISICT-istituto superiore di studi in tecnologie dell'informazione e della comunicazione * The Renzo Piano, Renzo Piano Building Workshop * The OBR Open Building Research * The Accademia Italiana della Marina Mercantile * The "
Niccolò Paganini Niccolò (or Nicolò) Paganini (; 27 October 178227 May 1840) was an Italian violinist and composer. He was the most celebrated violin virtuoso of his time, and left his mark as one of the pillars of modern violin technique. His 24 Caprices for ...
" Conservatory * The Italian Hydrography, Hydrographic Institute * The Deledda International School * The Deutsche Schule Genua * The Genoa Comics Academy * The International School in Genoa * The Russian Ballet College The Italian Institute of Technology was established in 2003 jointly by the Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (Italy), Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research and the Italian Minister of Economy and Finance, to promote excellence in basic and applied research. The main fields of research of the Institute are Neuroscience, Robotics, Nanotechnology, Drug discovery. The central research labs and headquarters are located in Morego, in the neighbourhood of Bolzaneto. Clemson University, based in South Carolina, United States has a villa in Genoa where architecture students and students in related fields can attend for a semester or year-long study program. Florida International University (FIU), based in Miami, Florida, United States also has a small campus in Genoa, with the
University of Genoa The University of Genoa, known also with the acronym UniGe ( it, Università di Genova), is one of the largest universities in Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country c ...
, which offers classes within the Florida International University School of Architecture, FIU School of Architecture.


Science

Genoa is the birthplace of Giovanni Battista Baliani and Vincentio Reinieri, of the geneticist Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, of the Nobel Prize astrophysicist Riccardo Giacconi and of the astronaut Franco Malerba. The city is home to the Erzelli Hi-Tech Park, to the Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, to the Istituto idrografico della Marina and annually hosts the Festival della Scienza. The city has an important tradition in the fields of the geology, paleontology, botany and naturalistic studies, among the most eminent personalities remember: Lorenzo Pareto, Luigi d'Albertis, Enrico Alberto d'Albertis, Giacomo Doria and Arturo Issel, we point the Orto Botanico dell'Università di Genova. Very important and renowned is the Istituto Giannina Gaslini. In 1846 the city hosted the eighth Meeting of Italian Scientists and in 1902 Luigi Carnera discovered an asteroid and called it "485 Genua", dedicating it to the Latin name of Genoa.


Erzelli science technology park

The western area of Genoa hosts the Erzelli, Erzelli GREAT Campus, an under construction science park, science technology park which houses the high-tech corporations Siemens, Ericsson, Esaote, and robotics laboratories of the Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Italian Institute of Technology (IIT). The Erzelli, Erzelli GREAT Campus science park is undergoing a process of enlargement, and in the future will host the new Faculty of Engineering of
University of Genoa The University of Genoa, known also with the acronym UniGe ( it, Università di Genova), is one of the largest universities in Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country c ...
. The project has been struggling in recent years with enterprises laying off their employees and no real growth.


Transport


Ports

Several cruise and ferry lines serve the passenger terminals in the old port, with a traffic of 3.2 million passengers in 2007. MSC Cruises chose Genoa as one of its main home ports, in competition with the Genoese company
Costa Cruises Costa Crociere S.p.A. (), operating as Costa Cruises ( it, Costa Crociere), is an Italian cruise line founded in 1854 and organized as a wholly owned subsidiary of Carnival Corporation & plc Carnival Corporation & plc is a British-American cr ...
, which moved its home port to Savona. The quays of the passenger terminals extend over an area of , with 5 equipped berths for cruise vessels and 13 for ferries, for an annual capacity of 4 million ferry passengers, 1.5 million cars and 250,000 trucks. The historical maritime station of Ponte dei Mille is today a technologically advanced cruise terminal, with facilities designed after the world's most modern airports, to ensure fast embarking and disembarking of latest generation ships carrying thousand passengers. A third cruise terminal is currently under construction in the redesigned area of Ponte Parodi, once a quay used for grain traffic. The Costa Concordia cruise ship, owned by Costa Cruises, was docked at the port before being dismantled.


Air transport

The Genoa Cristoforo Colombo Airport, Airport of Genoa (Italian: Aeroporto di Genova) also named Christopher Columbus Airport (Italian: Aeroporto Cristoforo Colombo) is built on an artificial peninsula, west of the city. The airport is currently operated by Aeroporto di Genova S.P.A., which has recently upgraded the airport complex, that now connects Genoa with several daily flights to Rome, Naples, Paris, London, Madrid and Munich. In 2008, 1,202,168 passengers travelled through the airport, with an increase of international destinations and charter flights.


Public transport

The main railway stations are Genova Brignole railway station, Genoa Brignole in the east and Genova Piazza Principe railway station, Genoa Principe in the west. Genoa Brignole is close to the business districts and the exhibition centre, while the Principe is close to the port, the university and the historical centre. From these two stations depart the main trains connecting Genoa to France, Turin, Milan and Rome. Genoa's third most important station is Genova Sampierdarena railway station, Genoa Sampierdarena, which serves the densely populated neighbourhood of Sampierdarena. 23 other local stations serve the other neighbourhoods on the 30-kilometre-long coast line from Nervi to Voltri and on the northern line through Bolzaneto and the Polcevera Valley. The municipal administration of Genoa plans to transform these urban railway lines to be part of the rapid transit system, which now consists of the ''Metropolitana di Genova'' (Genoa Metro), a light metro connecting Brin to the city centre. The metro line was extended to Brignole Station in December 2012. Trains currently pass through Corvetto station between De Ferrari and Brignole without stopping. A possible further extension towards the eastern, densely populated boroughs was planned, but the municipal administration intends to improve the public transport by investing in new tram lines instead of completing the extension of the light metro. The current stations of the metro line are Brin-Certosa, Dinegro, Principe, Darsena, San Giorgio, Sant'Agostino and De Ferrari, and the line is long. The city's hilly nature has influenced its public transport. The city is served by two funicular railways (the Zecca–Righi funicular, the Sant'Anna funicular), the Quezzi inclined elevator, the Principe–Granarolo rack railway, and ten public elevator, lifts. The city's metro, bus and Trolleybuses in Genoa, trolleybus network is operated by AMT (Genoa), AMT (Azienda Mobilità e Trasporti S.p.A.). The Drin Bus is a demand responsive transport service that connects the hilly, low-density areas of Genoa. The average time people spend commuting on public transit in Genova, for example to and from work, is 54 min on a weekday. 10% of public transit riders ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 12 min, while 13% of riders wait over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 4 km, while 2% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.


Culture


Visual arts

Genoese painters active in the 14th century include Barnaba da Modena and his local followers Nicolò da Voltri and at the same time, the sculptor Giovanni Pisano reached Genoa to make the monument for Margaret of Brabant, whose remains are today housed in the . In the 16th century along with the flourishing trade between the Republic of Genoa and Flanders also grew the cultural exchanges. The painters Lucas de Wael, Lucas and Cornelis de Wael lived in Genoa for a long time, where they played the role of a magnet for many Flemish painters like Jan Roos (painter), Jaan Roos, Giacomo Legi, Jan Matsys, Andries van Eertvelt and Vincent Malo. This creative environment also attracted the two most important Flemish painters, Rubens and Van Dyck, who along with Bernardo Strozzi. gave life to the Genoese Painting School of the 17th century. Much of the city's art is found in its churches and palaces, where there are numerous Renaissance, Baroque and Rococo frescos. They are rich in works of art the Genoa Cathedral, Cathedral, the Chiesa del Gesù e dei Santi Ambrogio e Andrea, Chiesa del Gesù where The Circumcision (Rubens), ''The Circumcision'' and the "''Miracles of St. Ignatius''" by Peter Paul Rubens, Rubens, the ''Assunzione della Vergine'' by Guido Reni. The San Donato (Genoa), Church of San Donato contains works of Barnaba da Modena, Nicolò da Voltri and Joos van Cleve, the Santo Stefano (Genoa), Church of Santo Stefano by Giulio Romano and the Santa Maria Assunta, Genoa, Church of Santa Maria Assunta the sculptures by Filippo Parodi and Pierre Puget, very interesting is the Santa Maria di Castello. But most of the works are kept in the Palaces like Palazzo Bianco where "Ecce Homo (Caravaggio), ''Ecce Homo''" by Caravaggio, "Susannah and the Elders (Veronese), ''Susannah and the Elders''" by Paolo Veronese, Veronese, and the ''Garden Party in Albaro'' by Alessandro Magnasco, Magnasco are kept, Palazzo Rosso with the by Anthony van Dyck, van Dyck, by Guercino and works of Albrecht Dürer, Dürer, Bernardo Strozzi, Mattia Preti, Paolo Veronese, Veronese; Palazzo Spinola di Pellicceria where the "''Portrait of Giovanni Carlo Doria on Horseback''" by Peter Paul Rubens, Rubens and by Antonello da Messina (see also Ecce Homo (Antonello da Messina), the series of Ecce Homo by Antonello da Messina) are kept, Palazzo Tursi with the Penitent Magdalene (Canova), Penitent Magdalene by Antonio Canova, Canova, and Palazzo Reale which contains works of Bernardo Strozzi, Strozzi, Giovanni Battista Gaulli, Gaulli, Tintoretto, Anthony van Dyck, van Dyck, Simon Vouet, Guercino. The most important Genoese painters are: Luca Cambiasi, Luca Cambiaso, Bernardo Castello, Bernardo and Valerio Castello, Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione, Domenico Piola, Domenico and Paolo Gerolamo Piola, Gregorio De Ferrari, Bernardo Strozzi, Giovanni Battista Gaulli and Alessandro Magnasco. Sculptors include Filippo Parodi, the wood sculptor Anton Maria Maragliano, Francesco Maria Schiaffino and Agostino Carlini who was member of the Royal Academy. The famous humanist author, architect, poet and philosopher Leon Battista Alberti was born in Genoa on 14 February 1404. Simonetta Vespucci, considered the most beautiful woman of her time, was also born in Genoa. She is portrayed in ''The Birth of Venus'' and Primavera (painting), Primavera by Sandro Botticelli and in Portrait of Simonetta Vespucci (Piero di Cosimo), ''Portrait of Simonetta Vespucci'' by Piero di Cosimo. Genoa is also famous for its numerous tapestries, which decorated the city's many salons. Whilst the patrician palaces and villas in the city were and still are austere and majestic, the interiors tended to be luxurious and elaborate, often full of tapestries, many of which were Flemish. Famous is the Genoese lace called with its name of Turkish origin ''macramè''. Very used in Genoa is the cobblestone called ''Risseu'' and a kind of azulejo called ''laggioni''. Genoa has been likened by many to a Mediterranean New York, perhaps for its high houses that in the Middle Ages were the equivalent of today's skyscrapers, perhaps for the sea route Genoa-New York which in past centuries has been travelled by millions of emigrants. The architect Renzo Picasso in his visionary designs reinforces this strange affinity between the two cities. In the Monumental Cemetery of Staglieno, you can admire some magnificent sculpture of the 19th century and early 20th century like Monteverde Angel by Giulio Monteverde, or works by artists such as Augusto Rivalta, Leonardo Bistolfi, Edoardo Alfieri, Santo Varni. Amongst the most notable Genoese painters of the 19th century and of the first half of the 20th century are Tammar Luxoro, Ernesto Rayper, Rubaldo Merello, and Antonio Giuseppe Santagata. The sculptor Francesco Messina also grew up in Genoa. In 1967 the Genoese historian, critic and curator Germano Celant coined the term Arte Povera. Enrico Accatino was another important art theorist and Emanuele Luzzati was the production designer and illustrator like Lorenzo Mongiardino, also a production designer and architect. Two other important artists are Emilio Scanavino and Vanessa Beecroft. The yearly International Cartoonists Exhibition was founded in 1972 in Rapallo, near Genoa. A notable figure is the illustrator and comics artist Giovan Battista Carpi.


Literature

"Anonymous of Genoa" was one of the first authors in Liguria and Italy who wrote verses in the Vernacular. It explained that in Genoa Marco Polo and Rustichello da Pisa, in the prisons of Palazzo San Giorgio, wrote The Travels of Marco Polo. The Golden Legend is a collection of hagiography, hagiographies written by the Archbishop of Genoa Jacobus de Voragine. To animate the Genoese literary environment of the 16th century were Gabriello Chiabrera and "Ansaldo Cebà", the latter best known for his correspondence with Sara Copia Sullam. The city has been the birthplace of the historian Caffaro di Rustico da Caschifellone, of the poet "Martin Piaggio", of the famous historian, philosopher and journalist
Giuseppe Mazzini Giuseppe Mazzini (, , ; 22 June 1805 – 10 March 1872) was an Italian politician, journalist, activist for the unification of Italy and spearhead of the Italian revolutionary movement. His efforts helped bring about the independent and unified ...

Giuseppe Mazzini
, of the writer Piero Jahier, of the poet Nobel Prize Eugenio Montale. The writer and translator Fernanda Pivano, the journalist "Vito Elio Petrucci" and the poet Edoardo Sanguineti, the literary critic Carlo Bo instead was born in Sestri Levante near Genoa. We have also remember the dialet poet , the dialect "poeta crepuscolare" Giambattista Vigo, and the symbolist . The city of Genoa has been an inspiration to many writers and poets among which: Dino Campana, , who wrote "The mouth of the wolf" and Giorgio Caproni. Between the alleys of the historical centre there is the Old Libreria Bozzi. The "Berio Civic Library" houses the precious manuscript entitled "The Durazzo Book of Hours". In the first half of the 20th century, the Mazzini Gallery's was a meeting place of many artists, writers and intellectuals among which Guido Gozzano, Salvatore Quasimodo, Camillo Sbarbaro, Francesco Messina, , Eugenio Montale. In the thirties of the 20th century was active in Genoa the Circoli magazine and after the World War II the "Il Gallo" magazine. Coveted and known from the 1960s to the 1980s was the Genoese literary lounge animated by the writer . Dutch writer Ilja Leonard Pfeijffer wrote "La Superba", a novel in which Genoa is prominently featured. This was followed by the autobiographical novel "Brieven uit Genua". Since 1995, all the months of June take place in Genoa the Genoa's International Poetry Festival, conceived by with the help of Massimo Bacigalupo.


Music

Genoa was a centre of Occitanie culture in
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Alps and List of islands of Italy, several islands surrounding it, whose ...

Italy
and for this reason it developed an important school of troubadours: Lanfranc Cigala, Jacme Grils, Bonifaci Calvo, Luchetto Gattilusio, Guillelma de Rosers, and Simon Doria. Genoa is the birthplace of the composer Simone Molinaro, violinist and composer
Niccolò Paganini Niccolò (or Nicolò) Paganini (; 27 October 178227 May 1840) was an Italian violinist and composer. He was the most celebrated violin virtuoso of his time, and left his mark as one of the pillars of modern violin technique. His 24 Caprices for ...
, violinist Camillo Sivori and composer Cesare Pugni. In addition, the famous violin maker Paolo de Barbieri. Paganini's violin, Il Cannone Guarnerius, is kept in Palazzo Tursi. The city is the site of the Niccolò Paganini Music Conservatory. Alessandro Stradella, a composer of the middle baroque, lived in Genoa and was assassinated in 1682. Felice Romani was a poet who wrote many librettos for the opera composers like Gaetano Donizetti and Vincenzo Bellini. Giovanni Ruffini was another poet known for writing the libretto of the opera ''Don Pasquale'' for its composer. In 1847, Goffredo Mameli and Michele Novaro composed "Il Canto degli Italiani". In 1857, debuted the work of Giuseppe Verdi entitled ''Simon Boccanegra'' inspired by the first Doge of Genoa, Simone Boccanegra. Genoa is also the birthplace of the condcuctor Fabio Luisi and of many opera singers like Giuseppe Taddei, Margherita Carosio, Luciana Serra, Ottavio Garaventa, Luisa Maragliano and Daniela Dessì. The Teatro Carlo Felice was built in 1828 in the city in the Piazza De Ferrari, and named for the monarch of the then
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(which included the present regions of Sardinia, Piedmont and
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). The theatre was the centre of music and social life in the 19th century. On various occasions in the history of the theatre, presentations have been conducted by Pietro Mascagni, Mascagni, Richard Strauss, Paul Hindemith, Hindemith and Igor Stravinsky, Stravinsky. Other Genoese theaters are the Politeama Genovese, Teatro Nazionale di Genova, Teatro Stabile in Genoa, Teatro della Tosse and Teatro Gustavo Modena. On the occasion of the
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
celebration in 1992, new musical life was given to the area around the old port, including the restoration of the house of Niccolò Paganini, Paganini and presentations of the ''trallalero'', the traditional singing of Genoese dock workers. The trallalero, traditional music in the Genoese dialect, is a polyphonic vocal music, performed by five men and several songs. The trallalero are ancient songs that have their roots in the Mediterranean tradition. Another aspect of the traditional Genoese music is the "Nostalgic Song". The principal authors and singers of the Nostalgic Song in Genoese dialect are who wrote the piece "Ma se ghe penso" (English: "But if I think about it"), a memory of Genoa by an emigrant to Argentina, , up to , , Buby Senarega, . The traditional Nostalgic Song will have a great influence on the so-called of singer-songwriters that in some cases will mix the nostalgic feeling with pop and jazz atmospheres. The singer Natalino Otto started the swing genre in Italy and his friend and colleague Pippo Barzizza was a composer, arranger, conductor and music director. Other musicians, composers and arrangers are Angelo Francesco Lavagnino, Gian Piero Reverberi, Gian Franco Reverberi, Oscar Prudente, Pivio and Aldo De Scalzi. Genoa in the second half of the 20th century was famous for an important school of Italian singer-songwriters, so-called , that includes Umberto Bindi, Luigi Tenco", "Gino Paoli", "Bruno Lauzi", "Fabrizio de André, Ivano Fossati, Angelo Branduardi" and Francesco Baccini. Nino Ferrer was also born in Genoa. In the 70s there were formed in Genoa numerous bands of Italian progressive rock like New Trolls, Picchio dal Pozzo, Latte e Miele, and Delirium. Today we point the band Buio Pesto and The Banshee (band), The Banshee band. Some songs about the city of Genoa are part of Italian popular culture, like "Via del Campo" and "La Città Vecchia" by Fabrizio de André, "Genova per noi" by Paolo Conte, "La Casa in Via del Campo" the song also sung by Amalia Rodrigues and "Piazza Alimonda" the song about the facts of 27th G8 summit, Genoa 2001 by Francesco Guccini. Fabrizio de André in 1984 released the album ''Crêuza de mä'', totally written in Genoese dialect. I Madrigalisti di Genova is a vocal and instrumental group formed in 1958 which specialised in medieval and Renaissance repertoire The city has numerous music festivals, among which are Concerts at San Fruttuoso abbey, Premio Paganini, I Concerti di San Torpete, International Music Festival Genova, We Love Jazz, Gezmatz Festival & Workshop, and Goa-Boa Festival. In the town of Santa Margherita Ligure the ancient abbey of Cervara is often the site of chamber music. Giovine Orchestra Genovese, one of the oldest concert societies in Italy, was founded in Genoa in 1912.


Cinema

Genoa has been the set for many films and especially for the genre called Poliziotteschi, Polizieschi. Notable directors born in Genoa include Pietro Germi and Giuliano Montaldo, the actors: Gilberto Govi, Vittorio Gassman, Paolo Villaggio, Alberto Lupo, the actresses: Lina Volonghi, Delia Boccardo, Rosanna Schiaffino, Eleonora Rossi Drago, Marcella Michelangeli and the pornographic actress Moana Pozzi. Before actor Bartolomeo Pagano's cinema career, he was a ''camallo'', which means stevedore, at the port of Genoa. His cinema career began with the film ''Cabiria'', one of the first and most famous kolossal. In 1985 were filmed in Genoa some scenes of ''Pirates (1986 film), Pirates'' by Roman Polanski, finished shooting they left in the Old Harbour the galleon Neptune (galleon), Neptune. Some films set in Genoa: * ''Agata and the Storm'' * ''Amore che vieni, amore che vai'', from the novel ''Un destino ridicolo'' * ''Attention! Bandits!'' * ''Behind Closed Shutters'' * ''The Blue-Eyed Bandit'' * ''Carlo Giuliani, Boy'' * ''The Case of the Bloody Iris'' * ''The Conspiracy in Genoa'' * ''Days and Clouds'' * ''Di che segno sei?'' * ''Diaz - Don't Clean Up This Blood'' * ''Father and Son (1994 film), Father and Son'' * ''General Della Rovere'' * ''Genova (2008 film), Genova'' * ''High Crime'' * ''In the Beginning There Was Underwear'' * ''The Magistrate (1959 film), The Magistrate'' * ''Mare Matto'' * ''Mark Shoots First'' * ''Mean Frank and Crazy Tony'' * ''Merciless Man'' * ''The Mouth of the Wolf (2009 film), The Mouth of the Wolf'' * ''Onde (film), Onde'' * ''The Police Serve the Citizens?'' * ''Processo contro ignoti'' * ''Scent of a Woman (1974 film), Scent of a Woman'' * ''Street Law (film), Street Law'' * ''Stregati'' * ''The Walls of Malapaga'' * ''The Yellow Rolls-Royce''


Language

The Genoese dialect (''Zeneize'') is the most important dialect of the Ligurian language (Romance), Ligurian language, and is commonly spoken in Genoa alongside Italian. Ligurian language (Romance), Ligurian is listed by Ethnologue as a language in its own right, of the Romance languages, Romance branch, the Ligurian (Romance language), Ligurian Romance language, and not to be confused with the ancient Ligurian language (ancient), Ligurian language. Like the languages of Lombardy, Piedmont, and surrounding regions, it is of Gallo-Italic languages, Gallo-Italic derivation.


Sports

There are two major football teams in Genoa: Genoa C.F.C. and U.C. Sampdoria; the former is the oldest football club operating in Italy (see History of Genoa C.F.C.). The football section of the club was founded in 1893 by James Richardson Spensley, an English doctor. Genoa C.F.C., Genoa 1893 has won Scudetto, 9 championships (between 1898 and 1924) and 1 Coppa Italia (1936–37). U.C. Sampdoria was founded in 1946 from the merger of two existing clubs, Andrea Doria (founded in 1895) and Sampierdarenese (founded in 1911). Sampdoria has won one Italian championship (1990–91 Serie A), 4 Coppa Italia, 1 UEFA Cup Winners' Cup (1989–90) and 1 Supercoppa Italiana. Both Genoa C.F.C. and U.C. Sampdoria play their home games in the Stadio Luigi Ferraris, Luigi Ferraris Stadium, which holds 36,536 spectators. Deeply felt is the derby called Derby della Lanterna. The international tennis tournament AON Open Challenger takes place in Genoa. In rugby union the city is represented by CUS Genova Rugby, which is the rugby union team of the
University of Genoa The University of Genoa, known also with the acronym UniGe ( it, Università di Genova), is one of the largest universities in Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country c ...
Sports Centre. CUS Genova had their peak in 1971–1973 when the team was runner-up of the Italian Serie A for three consecutive seasons and contested unsuccessfully the title to Petrarca Rugby. Amongst the CUS Genova players who represented Italy national rugby union team, Italy at international level the most relevant were Marco Bollesan and Agostino Puppo. In 1947 was founded the CUS Genova Hockey and in 1968 the basketball club Athletic Genova. The city hosted the FIFA World Cup in 1934 FIFA World Cup, 1934 and 1990 FIFA World Cup, 1990, in 1988 the 1988 European Karate Championships, European Karate Championships and in 1992 the 1992 European Athletics Indoor Championships, European Athletics Indoor Championships. In 2003 the indoor sporting arena, Vaillant Palace, was inaugurated. The city lends its name to a particular type of a sailing boat so-called Genoa (sail), Genoa sail, in 2007 the city hosts the Tall Ships' Races.


Cuisine

Popular sauces of Genoese cuisine include Pesto sauce, garlic sauce called Agliata, "Walnut Sauce" called , Green sauce, , Anchovy paste, Pasta d'acciughe and the meat sauce called tócco, not to be confused with the Genovese sauce, that in spite of the name is typical of the Neapolitan cuisine. The Genoese tradition includes many varieties of pasta as Trenette, Corzetti, Trofie, , Croxetti, gnocchi and also: Farinata, and Cuculli. Key ingredient of Genoese cuisine is the Prescinsêua used among other things to prepare the and the Barbagiuai and still , , and the which means "Focaccia with cheese" that is even being considered for
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
Protected geographical indication, PGI status. Other key ingredients are many varieties of fish as Sardines, Anchovies (see also and ), Garfish, Swordfish, Tuna, Octopus, Squid, Mussels, the ''Stoccafisso'' which means Stockfish (see also ), the Musciame and Gianchetti. Other elements of Genoese cuisine include the ''Ligurian Olive Oil'', the cheeses like Brös, , Santo Stefano d'Aveto, San Stè cheese, , the sausages like Testa in cassetta, and the which is the style of Genoa salami. Fresh pasta (usually trofie' , trenette) and "gnocchi" with pesto sauce are probably the most iconic among Genoese dishes. Pesto sauce is prepared with fresh Genovese basil, pine nuts, grated parmesan and pecorino mixed, garlic and olive oil pounded together. Liguria wine such as Pigato, , , Rossese di Dolceacqua and are popular. Dishes of Genoese tradition include the Tripe cooked in various recipes like Sbira, the Polpettone di melanzane, the ''Tomaxelle'', the , the Bagnun, the fish-consisting ''Ciuppin'' (the precursor to San Francisco's Cioppino), the Buridda, the and the . Two sophisticated recipes of Genoese cuisine are: the Cappon magro and the (a song by Fabrizio De André is titled A Çimma'' and is dedicated to this Genoese recipe). Originating in Genoa is ''Pandolce'' that gave rise to Genoa cake. The city lands its name to a special paste used to prepare cakes and pastries called Genoise and to the Pain de Gênes. In Genoa there are many food markets in typical nineteenth-century iron structures as Mercato del Ferro, Mercato Dinegro, Mercato di Via Prè, Mercato di piazza Sarzano, Mercato del Carmine, Mercato della Foce, Mercato Romagnosi. The instead is in masonry and has a circular structure.


People

Genoa has left an extraordinary impression on many noted personalities. Friedrich Nietzsche loved Genoa and wrote some of his works there. Sigmund Freud and Ezra Pound lived near Genoa in Rapallo. Anton Chekhov said that Genoa "is the most beautiful city in the world," and Richard Wagner wrote: "I have never seen anything like this Genoa! it is something indescribably beautiful". Among the personalities of the 19th and 20th centuries who wrote about Genoa were Heinrich Heine, Osip Mandelstam, Aleksandr Ivanovich Herzen, Mary Shelley, Oscar Wilde, John Ruskin Charles Dickens, Mark Twain, Joseph Conrad, Vicente Blasco Ibáñez, Gustave Flaubert, Alexandre Dumas, Louis Énault, Valery Larbaud, Albert Camus, Paul Valéry, Francis Scott Fitzgerald, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Paul Klee. Giuseppe Verdi, Giacomo Puccini, and Pietro Mascagni. Verdi in his work, ''Simon Boccanegra'', is inspired by the medieval history of the city. The poets Dino Campana, Camillo Sbarbaro and Giorgio Caproni have made Genoa a recurring element of their poetic work. Famous Genoese include Sinibaldo and Ottobuono Fieschi (Popes Innocent IV and Adrian V), Giovanni Battista Cybo (Pope Innocent VIII) and Giacomo della Chiesa (Pope Benedict XV), navigators
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
, Antonio de Noli, Enrico Alberto d'Albertis, Enrico de Candia (Henry, Count of Malta) and
Andrea Doria Andrea Doria, Prince of Melfi (; lij, Drîa Döia ; 30 November 146625 November 1560) was a Genoese statesman, ' and admiral, playing a key role in the Republic of Genoa during his lifetime. As the ruler of Genoa, Doria reformed the Republic' ...

Andrea Doria
, composers
Niccolò Paganini Niccolò (or Nicolò) Paganini (; 27 October 178227 May 1840) was an Italian violinist and composer. He was the most celebrated violin virtuoso of his time, and left his mark as one of the pillars of modern violin technique. His 24 Caprices for ...
and Michele Novaro, Italian patriots
Giuseppe Mazzini Giuseppe Mazzini (, , ; 22 June 1805 – 10 March 1872) was an Italian politician, journalist, activist for the unification of Italy and spearhead of the Italian revolutionary movement. His efforts helped bring about the independent and unified ...

Giuseppe Mazzini
, Goffredo Mameli and Nino Bixio, writer and translator Fernanda Pivano, poet Edoardo Sanguineti, Communist politician Palmiro Togliatti, architect
Renzo Piano Renzo Piano (; born 14 September 1937) is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Roma ...

Renzo Piano
, art curator and critic Germano Celant, Physics 2002 Nobel Prize winner Riccardo Giacconi, Literature 1975 Nobel Prize winner Eugenio Montale, the court painter Giovanni Maria delle Piane (Il Mulinaretto) from the Delle Piane family, artists Vanessa Beecroft, Enrico Accatino, comedians Gilberto Govi, Paolo Villaggio, Beppe Grillo, Luca Bizzarri, Paolo Kessisoglu and Maurizio Crozza; singer-songwriters Fabrizio de André, Ivano Fossati, Umberto Bindi, Bruno Lauzi and Francesco Baccini, while Luigi Tenco and Gino Paoli are also known as Genoese singer-songwriters, although they are respectively from Cassine, Piedmont, Cassine and Monfalcone; actor Vittorio Gassman, and actress Moana Pozzi, Giorgio Parodi who conceived the motorcycle company Moto Guzzi with Carlo Guzzi and Giovanni Ravelli. Some reports say the navigator and explorer Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot) was also from Genoa, others say he was from Savona. Roman Catholic saint, Saints from Genoa include Romulus of Genoa, Romulus, Syrus of Genoa, Syrus, Catherine of Genoa. Among the latest generations, musicians like Andrea Bacchetti, Giulio Plotino, Sergio Ciomei, Lorenzo Cavasanti, Stefano Bagliano and Fabrizio Cipriani, as well as academics and authors like Michele Giugliano and Roberto Dillon, help in keeping the name of the city on the international spotlight in different fields among the arts, technology and culture.


Museums

* Accademia Ligustica di Belle Arti * Albertis Castle * Doge's Palace, Genoa * Edoardo Chiossone Museum of Oriental Art * Galata - Museo del mare * Villa Saluzzo Serra, Galleria d'arte moderna (GAM) * Lighthouse of Genoa * Mackenzie Castle * Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova * Diocesan Museum (Genoa), Museo diocesano * Museo di Santa Maria di Castello * * Museum of Contemporary Art Villa Croce * * * * Palazzo Bianco * Palazzo Reale (Genoa), Palazzo Reale * Palazzo Rosso (Genoa), Palazzo Rosso * Palazzi dei Rolli * Palazzo Spinola di Pellicceria * Villa Grimaldi Fassio, Raccolte Frugone * Villa Durazzo-Pallavicini *


Promenades

Corso Italia (Genoa), Corso Italia runs for in the quartiere of Albaro, linking two neighbourhoods of Foce and Boccadasse. The promenade, which was built in 1908, overlooks the sea, towards the promontory of Portofino. The main landmarks are the small lighthouse of Punta Vagno, the San Giuliano Abbey, and the Lido of Albaro. , promenade overlooking the sea and long, Nervi. Promenade of the upper ring road, so-called "Circonvallazione a Monte" that includes: Corso Firenze, Corso Paganini, Corso Magenta, Via Solferino, Corso Armellini. Walks can be made from the centre of Genoa following one of the many ancient paths between tall palaces and the "Creuze" to reach the higher areas of the city where there are magnificent places like Castelletto (Genoa), Belvedere Castelletto, the "Righi's district", the "Santuario di Nostra Signora di Loreto", the "Santuario della Madonnetta", the "Santuario di San Francesco da Paola". Monte Fasce gives a complete view of the city. To reach the hinterland of the
Province of Genoa The Province of Genoa (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional ...
one can use the Genoa – Casella, Liguria, Casella Old Railway, of railway between the Genoese mountains.


International relations


Twin towns – sister cities

Genoa is Sister city, twinned with: *Columbus, Ohio, Columbus, United States *Marseille, France *Murcia, Spain *Odessa, Ukraine *Rijeka, Croatia *Ryazan, Russia


Cooperation agreements

As of 2013, Genoa had bilateral agreements with: *Acqui Terme, Italy *Athens, Greece *Azuchi, Shiga, Azuchi, Japan *Barcelona, Spain *Belém, Brazil *Bogotá, Colombia *Buenos Aires, Argentina *Capo di Ponte, Italy *Castelsardo, Italy *Constanța, Romania *Cremona, Italy *Dalian, China *Deva, Romania, Deva, Romania *Guayaquil, Ecuador *Havana, Cuba *Kaolack, Senegal *Kyiv, Ukraine *Latakia, Syria *Lille, France *Lyon, France *Mantua, Italy *El Mina, Lebanon *Moscow, Russia *Nice, France *Ovada, Italy *La Paz, Bolivia *Pizzo Calabro, Italy *Pointe-Noire, Congo *Polokwane, South Africa *Saint Petersburg, Russia *Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic *Siena, Italy *Sousse, Tunisia *Sumqayıt, Azerbaijan *Turin, Italy *Tursi, Italy *Valparaíso, Chile *Varna, Bulgaria, Varna, Bulgaria *Yekaterinburg, Russia


Consulates

*Albania *Austria *Belgium *Bangladesh *Brazil *Chile *Colombia *Costa Rica *Cyprus🇨🇾 *Czech Republic *Denmark *Dominican Republic *Ecuador *El Salvador *Estonia *Finland *France *Germany *Greece *Guinea *Haiti *Hungary *Kazakhstan *Latvia *Lithuania *Luxembourg *Malta *Monaco *Netherlands *Norway *Panama *Peru *Poland *Portugal *Republic of the Congo *Romania *Russia *San Marino *Senegal *South Africa *South Korea *Spain *Sweden *Switzerland *Thailand *Tunisia *Turkey *Uganda *List of diplomats of Great Britain to the Republic of Genoa, United Kingdom *United States *Uruguay


Notable people


See also

* List of tallest buildings in Genoa


References


Bibliography

* Gino Benvenuti. ''Le repubbliche marinare. Amalfi, Pisa, Genova e Venezia''. Netwon Compton, Rome, 1989. * Steven A. Epstein; ''Genoa & the Genoese, 958–1528'' University of North Carolina Press, 1996
online edition
* Steven A. Epstein; "Labour and Port Life in Medieval Genoa." ''Mediterranean Historical Review''. 3 (1988): 114–40. * Steven A. Epstein; "Business Cycles and the Sense of Time in Medieval Genoa." Business History Review 62 (1988): 238–60. * Face Richard. "Secular History in Twelfth-Century Italy: Caffaro of Genoa." ''Journal of Medieval History'' 6 (1980): 169–84. * Hughes Diane Owen. "Kinsmen and Neighbors in Medieval Genoa." In ''The Medieval City,'' edited by Harry A. Miskimin, David Herlihy, and Adam L. Udovitch, 1977, 3–28. * Hughes Diane Owen. "Urban Growth and Family Structure in Medieval Genoa." ''Past and Present'' 66 (1975): 3–28. * Lopez Robert S. "Genoa." In ''Dictionary of the Middle Ages,'' pp. 383–87. 1982. * Vitale Vito. ''Breviario della storia di Genova.'' Vols. 1–2. Genoa, 1955. * Giuseppe Felloni – Guido Laura "''Genova e la storia della finanza: una serie di primati ?" "Genoa and the history of finance: a series of firsts ?"'' 9 November 2004, (www.giuseppefelloni.it) * Van Doosselaere, Quentin, ''Commercial Agreements and Social Dynamics in Medieval Genoa'' (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009). * Гавриленко О. А., Сівальньов О. М., Цибулькін В. В. Генуезька спадщина на теренах України; етнодержавознавчий вимір. — Харків: Точка, 2017.— 260 с. —


External links


Official Site
* https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1211 {{Authority control Companies based in Genoa Genoa, Coastal towns in Liguria Italian Riviera Mediterranean port cities and towns in Italy Metropolitan City of Genoa Roman towns and cities in Italy Capitals of former nations World Heritage Sites in Italy