is the capital city
of Fukuoka Prefecture
, situated on the northern shore of the Japanese island of Kyushu
. It is the most populous city on the island, followed by Kitakyushu
. It is the largest city and metropolitan area west of Keihanshin
. The city was designated on April 1, 1972, by government ordinance
. Greater Fukuoka, with a population of 2.5 million people (2005 census), is part of the heavily industrialized Fukuoka–Kitakyushu
, Fukuoka is Japan's sixth largest city, having passed the population of Kobe
. In July 2011, Fukuoka surpassed the population of Kyoto
. Since the founding of Kyoto in 794, this marks the first time that a city west of the Kinki
region has a larger population than Kyoto. In ancient times, however, the area near Fukuoka, the Chikushi
region, was thought by some historians to have possibly been even more influential than the Yamato
Exchanges from the continent and the Northern Kyushu area date as far back as Old Stone Age
. It has been thought that waves of immigrants arrived in Northern Kyushu from mainland Asia. Several Kofun
Fukuoka was sometimes called the Port of , southeast from Fukuoka. Dazaifu was an administrative capital in 663 A.D., but a historian proposed that a prehistoric capital was in the area. Ancient texts, such as the Kojiki
, Kanyen (found in Dazaifu) and archaeology confirm this was a critical place in the founding of Japan. Some scholars
[The Truth of Descent from Heaven](_blank)
Yukio Yokota. Retrieved March 19, 2008.
claim that it was the first place outsiders and the Imperial Family set foot, but like many early Japan origin theories, it remains contested. Central Fukuoka is sometimes still referred as Hakata
which is the name of the central ward.
In 923, the Hakozaki-gū
in Fukuoka was transferred from Daibu-gū in , northeast from Dazaifu, the origin of Usa Shrine
and established as a branch of the Usa Shrine
at Fukuoka. In , south from Dazaifu, there are remains of a big ward office with a temple, because in ancient East Asia, an emperor must have three great ministries (, and ). In fact, there is a record in Chinese literature that a king of Japan sent a letter in 478 to ask the Chinese emperor's approval for employing three ministries. In addition, remains of the Korokan (, Government Guest House) were found in Fukuoka underneath a part of the ruins of Fukuoka Castle
Mongol invasions (1274–1281)
of the Mongol Empire
turned his attention towards Japan starting in 1268, exerting a new external pressure on Japan with which it had no experience. Kublai Khan first sent an envoy to Japan to make the Shogunate acknowledge Khan's suzerainty
. The Kamakura shogunate
repeatedly sent envoys thereafter, each time urging the Shogunate to accept their proposal, but to no avail.
In 1274, Kublai Khan mounted an invasion of the northern part of Kyushu with a fleet of 900 ships and 33,000 troops, including troops from Goryeo
on the Korean Peninsula
. This initial invasion was compromised by a combination of incompetence and severe storms. After the invasion attempt of 1274, Japanese samurai
built a stone barrier in length bordering the coast of Hakata Bay
in what is now the city of Fukuoka. The wall, 2–3 metres in height and having a base width of 3 metres, was constructed between 1276 and 1277, and was excavated in the 1930s.
Kublai sent another envoy to Japan in 1279. At that time, Hōjō Tokimune
of the Hōjō clan
(1251–1284) was the Eighth Regent. Not only did he decline the offer, but he beheaded the five Mongolian emissaries after summoning them to Kamakura
. Infuriated, Kublai organized another attack on Fukuoka Prefecture in 1281, mobilizing 140,000 soldiers and 4,000 ships. The Japanese defenders, numbering around 40,000, were no match for the Mongols and the invasion force made it as far as Dazaifu
, south of the city of Fukuoka. However, the Japanese were again aided by severe weather, this time by a typhoon
that struck a crushing blow to the Mongolian troops, thwarting the invasion.
It was this typhoon that came to be called the ''Kamikaze
'' (''Divine Wind''), and was the origin of the term Kamikaze
used to indicate suicide attacks
by military aviators of the Empire of Japan
naval vessels during World War II.
Formation of the modern city (1889)
Fukuoka was formerly the residence of the powerful ''daimyō
'' of Chikuzen Province
, and played an important part in the medieval history of Japan. The renowned temple of Tokugawa Ieyasu
in the district was destroyed by fire during the Boshin War
The modern city was formed on April 1, 1889, with the merger of the former cities of Hakata
and Fukuoka. Historically, Hakata was the port and merchant district, and was more associated with the area's culture and remains the main commercial area today. On the other hand, the Fukuoka area was home to many samurai, and its name has been used since Kuroda Nagamasa
, the first ''daimyō'' of Chikuzen Province, named it after his birthplace in Okayama Prefecture
and the "old Fukuoka" is the main shopping area, now called Tenjin.
When Hakata and Fukuoka decided to merge, a meeting was held to decide the name for the new city. Hakata was initially chosen, but a group of samurai crashed the meeting and forced those present to choose Fukuoka as the name for the merged city. However, Hakata is still used to refer to the Hakata area of the city and, most famously, to refer to the city's train station, Hakata Station
, and dialect
* 1903: Fukuoka Medical College, a campus associated with Kyoto Imperial University
, is founded. In 1911, the college is renamed Kyushu Imperial University
and established as a separate entity.
* 1910: Fukuoka streetcar service begins. (The service ran until 1979.)
* 1929: Flights commence along the Fukuoka-Osaka
* 1945: Fukuoka was firebombed on June 19
, with the attack destroying 21.5 percent of the city's urban area.
* 1947: First Fukuoka Marathon
* 1951: Fukuoka airport opens.
* 1953: Fukuoka Zoo
* 1975: The city absorbed the town of Sawara
* 1975: Sanyō Shinkansen
high-speed railway reaches Hakata station
* 1981: Subway commences service.
* 1988: Osaka's pro baseball team, the Nankai Hawks, was moved to Fukuoka and renamed the Fukuoka Daiei
Hawks (renamed the Fukuoka SoftBank Hawks
* 1989: Asian-Pacific Exposition is held.
* 1997: The 30th annual meeting of the Asian Development Bank
was held in Fukuoka.
* 2005: Fukuoka subway Nanakuma Line started operations.
* 2014: Selected as the National Strategic Zone for "global startups & job creation" by the Japanese government.
* 2020: City of Fukuoka was hardest-hit by COVID-19 pandemic
. As of October 2020, there have been 99 related deaths due to COVID-19 surges in Fukuoka prefecture
Fukuoka is bordered on three sides by mountains, surrounds Hakata Bay
and opens on the north to the Genkai Sea
. It is located from Tokyo.
The nearest overseas region is Busan
Metropolitan City in Gyeongsang-do, South Korea
, and the distance from Busan
is about 180km (112 miles). Fukuoka and Busan are sister cities.
Fukuoka has a humid subtropical climate
: ''Cfa''), hot and humid summers, and relatively mild winters. The city also sees on average about of precipitation per year, with a stretch of more intense precipitation between the months of June and September.
Along with much of the prefecture, Fukuoka City has a moderate climate with an annual average temperature of , average humidity of 70% and 1,811 annual daylight hours. Roughly 40% of the year is cloudy.
Winter temperatures rarely drop below and it rarely snows, though light rain does fall on most days if not as consistently as on the Sea of Japan
side of Honshu
. Spring is warm and sunnier, with cherry blossom
s appearing in late March or early April. The rainy season
(''tsuyu'') lasts for approximately six weeks through June and July, during which time the humidity is very high and temperatures hover between and . Summers are humid and hot, with temperatures peaking around . Autumn, often considered to be Fukuoka's best season, is mild and dry, though the typhoon
season runs between August and September.
Fukuoka is not as seismically active as many other parts of Japan, but does experience occasional earthquakes. The most powerful recent earthquake registered a lower 6 of maximum 7 of the Japanese intensity scale
and hit at 10:53 am local time on March 20, 2005, killing one person and injuring more than 400. The epicentre of the earthquake was in the Genkai Sea along a yet-undiscovered extension of the Kego fault that runs through the centre of Fukuoka. Genkai island, a part of Nishi-ku
, was the most severely damaged by the earthquake and almost all island residents were forced to evacuate. Aftershock
s continued intermittently throughout the following weeks as construction crews worked to rebuild damaged buildings throughout the city. Traditional Japanese houses, particularly in the areas of Daimyo and Imaizumi, were the most heavily damaged and many were marked for demolition, along with several apartment buildings. Insurance payments for damages were estimated at approximately 15.8 billion yen.
A similar quake, with an intensity of 5+, also occurred one month later on April 20, 2005.
Fukuoka's major Kego fault runs northwest to southeast, roughly parallel to Nishitetsu's Ōmuta
train line, and was previously thought to be long. It is estimated to produce earthquakes as strong as magnitude
7 at the focus approximately once every 15,000 years. If the focus were located at a depth of , this would translate to an earthquake of a lower-6 magnitude (similar to the March 20, 2005 earthquake) in downtown Fukuoka if it were the epicenter. The probability
of an earthquake along the known length of the Kego fault occurring within 30 years was estimated at 0.4% prior to the March 20, 2005 earthquake, but this probability has been revised upwards since. Including the new extension out into the Genkai Sea
, the Kego fault is now thought to be long.
Following reports that the city has only prepared for earthquakes up to a magnitude of 6.5, several strong aftershocks renewed fears that the quakes might cause the portion of the Kego fault that lies under the city to become active again, leading to an earthquake as big as, or bigger than, the March 20 quake.
Fukuoka has 7 wards
, the city had an estimated population of 1,581,527 and a population density of . The total area is . Fukuoka is Japan's youngest major city and has Japan's fastest growing population. Between December 2012 and December 2017, the proportion of foreign-born residents increased faster than any other major city in Japan, including Tokyo.
There were 171 homeless residents counted in 2018's annual survey, down from a high of 969 in 2009.
Fukuoka is the economic center of the Kyushu region, with an economy largely focused on the service sector. It is also the largest startup city in Japan, and is the only economic zone for startups. They have various services for startups like startup visa, tax reduction, and free business consultations. Fukuoka has the highest business-opening rate in Japan. Large companies headquartered in the city include Iwataya
and Kyushu Electric Power
. Fukuoka is also the home of many small firms playing a supportive role in the logistics, IT, and high-tech manufacturing sectors. Most of the region's heavy manufacturing takes place in the nearby city of Kitakyushu
The GDP in Greater Fukuoka, Fukuoka Metropolitan Employment Area
, was US$101.6 billion in 2010. Fukuoka is the primary economic center of the Fukuoka-Kitakyushu metropolitan area
, which is the 4th largest economy in Japan. As of 2014, the area's PPP
-adjusted GDP is estimated to be larger than those of metropolitan areas such as Melbourne
, Kuala Lumpur, Lima
, Vienna, Barcelona
Several regional broadcasters are based in the city, including Fukuoka Broadcasting Corporation
, Kyushu Asahi Broadcasting
, Love FM
, RKB Mainichi Broadcasting
, and Television Nishinippon Corporation
The port of Hakata and Fukuoka Airport
also make the city a key regional transportation hub. Fukuoka houses the headquarters of Kyushu Railway Company
(JR Kyushu) and Nishi-Nippon Railroad
. Air Next
, a subsidiary of All Nippon Airways
, is headquartered in Hakata-ku
; prior to its dissolution, Harlequin Air
was also headquartered in Hakata-ku.
Fukuoka has its own stock exchange
, founded in 1949. It is one of six in Japan.
Fukuoka is one of the more affordable cities in Japan. Compared to New York City, rents are ~80% lower, restaurants are ~50% cheaper, and groceries are ~5% more expensive.
Fukuoka was selected as one of Newsweek
's 10 "Most Dynamic Cities" in its July 2006 issue. It was chosen for its central Asian location, increasing tourism and trade, and a large increase in volume at its sea and airport. Fukuoka has a diverse culture and a wide range of cultural attractions.
In its July/August 2008 issue, ''Monocle
'' selected Fukuoka as number 17 of the "Top 25 liveable cities". It was chosen for excellent shopping, outstanding food, good transport links, good museums, "a feeling of openness in its sea air", green spaces and because it is friendly, safe, clean and close to the rest of East Asia. The same survey in 2018 ranked Fukuoka at number 22.
Fukuoka hosts more than 2 million foreign visitors annually, with the majority coming from neighboring South Korea, Taiwan and China. From the early 2010s Hakata became the beneficiary of significant growth in cruise ship tourism; particularly with visitors from China. After expansion and redevelopment of the Hakata Port international passenger ship terminal, the number of cruise ship port calls in 2016 is expected to exceed 400.
Nearly ten thousand international students attend universities in or near the Fukuoka prefecture each year. Nearly 200 international conferences are held each year in Fukuoka.
Sky Dream Fukuoka
, in Fukuoka's western ward, was one of the world's largest Ferris wheel
s at a height of 120 meters. It was closed in September 2009. The surrounding shopping center, Marinoa City Fukuoka, still attracts millions of visitors each year. Other shopping centers that attract tourists include Canal City, JR Hakata City, and Hakata Riverain.
Fukuoka Castle, located adjacent to Ohori Park in Maizuru Park, features the remaining stone walls and ramparts left after a devastating fire during the upheaval of the Meiji Restoration
. It has now been preserved along with some reconstructed prefabricate concrete towers constructed during the 1950s and 1960s, when there was a trend across Japan to rebuild damaged castles as tourist attractions. Ōhori Park
is also the location of one of Fukuoka City's major art galleries
There are many temples with long histories including Tōchō-ji
, Hakozaki Shrine
, Kashii shrine
, and Jōten-ji
The Marine Park Uminonakamichi is located on a narrow cape on the northern side of the Bay of Hakata. The park has an amusement park, petting zoo, gardens, beaches, a hotel, and a large marine aquarium which opened in 1989.
For tourists from other parts of Japan, local foods such as mentaiko
, Hakata ramen
are associated with Fukuoka. Yatai
(street stalls) serving ramen can be found in Tenjin and Nakasu
is near the beach in Seaside Momochi, a development built for the 1989 Asia-Pacific Exhibition. The older symbol of the city, Hakata Port Tower
is next to the international ferry terminal and is free to enter.
Itoshima, to the west of Fukuoka city, has recently become a very popular tourist destination. There are many beaches along the coast, notably Futamigaura beach, where there is a famous Shinto shrine in the ocean, and Keya beach, which hosts the annual Sunset Live festival every September. Inland, there is the Shingon Buddhist temple called Raizan Sennyoji, where there are many Buddhist statues and stunning autumn foliage.
The Buddhist Nanzoin temple
is located in Sasaguri
, just east of Fukuoka. It is claimed to be the largest statue of a reclining Buddha
in the world.
There is a newly opened Kyushu National Museum
in nearby Dazaifu
* Fukuoka Art Museum
– In Ohori Park; contains a wide selection of contemporary and other art from around the world, including works by Mark Rothko
, Roy Lichtenstein
, and Salvador Dalí
* Fukuoka Asian Art Museum – contains art from various countries of Asia.
*Fukuoka City Museum
– displays a broad range of items from the region's history, including a spectacular gold seal.
* Fukuoka Oriental Ceramics Museum
* Fukuoka Prefectural Museum of Art
* (元寇史料館, Museum of the Mongol Invasion) – In (East Park); displays Japanese and Mongolian arms and armor from the 13th century as well as paintings on historical subjects. Open on weekends.
* Hakata Machiya Folk Museum – Dedicated to displaying the traditional ways of life, speech, and culture of the Fukuoka region.
The Fukuoka Asian Culture Prize
was established to honor the outstanding work of individuals or organizations in Asia.
Fukuoka is home to many festivals (matsuri
) that are held throughout the year. Of these, the most famous are ''Hakata Dontaku
'' and ''Hakata Gion Yamakasa
, held for two weeks each July,
[Hakata Gion Yamakasa Festival](_blank)
. Japan National Tourist Organization. Retrieved March 19, 2008.
is Fukuoka's oldest festival with a history of over 700 years. The festival dates back to 1241 when a priest called Shioichu Kokushi saved Hakata from a terrible plague by being carried around the city on a movable shrine and throwing water.
Cogito Kyushu Networks. Retrieved March 19, 2008.
WebJapan. Retrieved March 19, 2008.
Teams of men (no women, except small girls, are allowed), representing different districts in the city, commemorate the priest's route by racing against the clock around a set course carrying on their shoulders floats weighing several thousand pounds. Participants all wear ''shimekomi'' (called ''fundoshi
'' in other parts of Japan), which are traditional loincloths.
Each day of the two-week festival is marked by special events and practice runs, culminating in the official race that takes place the last morning before dawn. Tens of thousands line the streets to cheer on the teams. During the festival, men can be seen walking around many parts of Fukuoka in long ''happi
'' coats bearing the distinctive mark of their team affiliation and traditional ''geta
'' sandals. The costumes are worn with pride and are considered appropriate wear for even formal occasions, such as weddings and cocktail parties, during the festival.
File:Yamagasa uniform 1.png|The uniform used during the ceremonies and preparation.
File:Yamagasa uniform 2.png|The uniform used during the competition.
is held in Fukuoka City on May 3 and 4. Boasting over 800 years of history, Dontaku is attended by more than 2 million people, making it the festival with the highest attendance during Japan's Golden Week
holidays. During the festival, stages are erected throughout downtown for traditional performances and a parade of floats is held. The full name is ''Hakata Dontaku Minato Matsuri''.
[Hakata Dontaku Minato Matsuri](_blank)
. Fukuoka Chamber of Commerce and Industry. Retrieved March 19, 2008.
The festival was stopped for seven years during the Meiji era
. Since it was restarted in the 12th year of the Meiji era it has been known as ''Hakata Dontaku''.
Notable musical names in J-pop
include Ayumi Hamasaki
(allegedly Japan's richest woman), singer-songwriter Ringo Shiina
, hugely popular singer-songwriter duo Chage & Aska
, singer-songwriter Eri Nobuchika
, Masamune Kusano
. During the 1970s, local musicians prided themselves on their origins and dubbed their sound, Mentai Rock
6th generation member Reina Tanaka
was also born here in 1989 along with 9th generation member Erina Ikuta in 1997.
songwriter and singer Juan Luis Guerra
pays homage to the city in his bachata
song ''Bachata en Fukuoka
have their own Theater at Nishitetsu Hall
Member Kawashiri Ren is natural from Fukuoka, he was born there in March 2th, 1997 and grew up in the city.
Fukuoka is served by Fukuoka Airport
, the San'yō Shinkansen
and the Kyushu Shinkansen
high-speed rail line and other JR Kyushu
trains at Hakata Station
and by ferry. JR Kyushu and a Korean company operate hydrofoil
ferries (named ''Beetle
'' and ''Kobee
'') between Hakata and Busan
, South Korea. The city has three subway
lines: the Kūkō Line
, the Hakozaki Line
, and the newest one, Subway Nanakuma Line
, opened on February 2, 2005. A private railway line, run by Nishitetsu
is also heavily used and connects the downtown area of Tenjin to the city of Ōmuta
Fukuoka is the home of the Fukuoka SoftBank Hawks
, one of Japan's top professional baseball
teams. Threatened with bankruptcy and forced by its creditors to restructure, former owner Daiei
sold the Hawks to Softbank Capital
Fukuoka is home to a professional football
team, Avispa Fukuoka
Annual sporting events include:
* The All Japan Judo Category Championships
are held in early April.
* The Kyushu ekiden
, beginning in Nagasaki
and ending in Fukuoka, the world's longest relay race
, held in October. (Defunct)
* The November tournament
of professional Sumo
is held at the Fukuoka Kokusai Center
* Fukuoka International Open Marathon Championships
, with start/finish at Heiwadai Athletic Stadium, held on the 1st Sunday of December.
Fukuoka has hosted the following sporting events:
* 1983 Asian Volleyball Championship for Women
* 1995 Summer Universiade
* 1997 Pan Pacific Swimming Championships
* 1998 Women's Volleyball World Championship
* 1999 Asian Basketball Championship
* 2001 World Aquatics Championships
* 2006 IAAF World Cross Country Championships
* Fukuoka International Women's Judo
Championships from 1983 to 2006.
* 2013-14 Grand Prix of Figure Skating Final
Sports teams and facilities
Fukuoka City operates all public elementary and junior high schools, while the prefecture operates the high schools.
** – merged with Kyushu University in October 2003
* Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Junior college
(福岡工業大学短期大学部|Fukuoka Kōgyō Daigaku Tanki Daigakubu)
* Sophia Fukuoka Junior and Senior High School
Fukuoka has nine sister cities
The city established the Asian Pacific City Summit in 1994. It consists of 26 Asia-Pacific cities. The Asian Pacific Children's Convention
was established in Fukuoka in 1988.
* Jirō Akagawa
* Aska (singer)
(Chage and Aska
* Sonny Chiba
(actor, singer, film producer, film director, and martial artist
* Kaibara Ekken
* Noriko Fukuda
* Kenji Hamada
* Ayumi Hamasaki
* Angela Harry
(model and actress)
* Kiyoshi Hikawa
* Kōki Hirota
(politician: 32nd Prime Minister of Japan
* Yōsuke Ideguchi
(Footballer for Leeds United
* Elaiza Ikeda
(model and actress)
* Erina Ikuta
(J-pop singer and member of Morning Musume
* Tomo Inouye
* Ryo Ishibashi
* Sui Ishida
* Gakuryū Ishii
* Ai Kawashima
* Yoshinori Kobayashi
* Masamune Kusano
(vocalist of Spitz
* Yumeno Kyūsaku
* Kento Miyahara
* Ryutaro Nakahara
(DJ, musician, composer, arranger)
* Kenzo Nakamura
* Katsuhiko Nakajima
* Ai Nonaka
* Yukari Oshima
* Victoria Principal
* Noriko Sakai
(singer and actress)
* Nao Sakuma
with Birmingham Royal Ballet
* Kensuke Sasaki
* Kōji Seto
* Ringo Shiina
(J-pop singer born in Saitama Prefecture
and raised in Fukuoka)
* Polkadot Stingray
* Keita Tachibana
(J-pop singer and member of W-inds
* Akitomo Takeno
* Dan Takuma
* Reina Tanaka
(J-pop singer and a member of Morning Musume
* Ryoko Tani
* Rintaro Tokunaga
* Misa Uehara
* Ren Kawashiri
(J-pop idol singer and dancer, member of JO1
* Ryutaro Umeno
(baseball player for the Hanshin Tigers
* Masaaki Yuasa
* Takumi Iroha
(Japanese professional wrestler
*2006 Fukuoka mayoral election
*List of Places of Scenic Beauty of Japan (Fukuoka)
*List of Historic Sites of Japan (Fukuoka)
Fukuoka City official websiteFukuoka Convention & Visitors BureauOfficial Tourism Site of Fukuoka CityFukuoka Now
Category:Cities in Fukuoka Prefecture
Category:Port settlements in Japan
Category:Populated coastal places in Japan
Category:Cities designated by government ordinance of Japan