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A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a
glyph The term glyph is used in typography Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language A language is a structured system o ...
added to a
letter Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, Object (philosophy ...
or to a basic glyph. The term derives from the
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
(, "distinguishing"), from (, "to distinguish"). The word ''diacritic'' is a
noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning. In many l ...

noun
, though it is sometimes used in an
attributive In grammar, an attributive expression is a word or phrase within a noun phrase A noun phrase, or nominal (phrase), is a phrase In syntax In linguistics, syntax () is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of S ...
sense, whereas ''diacritical'' is only an
adjective In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langu ...
. Some diacritics, such as the
acute Acute may refer to: Science and technology * Acute angle ** Acute triangle ** Acute, a leaf shape in the glossary of leaf morphology#acute, glossary of leaf morphology * Acute (medicine), a disease that it is of short duration and of recent onset. ...

acute
(◌́) and
grave A grave is a location where a dead body A cadaver or corpse is a dead human body that is used by medical students A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and award ...

grave
(◌̀), are often called ''accents''. Diacritics may appear above or below a letter or in some other position such as within the letter or between two letters. The main use of diacritics in
Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is an alphabetic An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequ ...

Latin script
is to change the sound-values of the letters to which they are added. Historically, English has used the diaeresis to indicate the correct pronunciation of ambiguous words, such as "coöperate", without which the letter sequence could be misinterpreted to be pronounced . Other examples are the acute and grave accents, which can indicate that a vowel is to be pronounced differently than normal in that position, for example not reduced to /ə/ or silent as in the case of the two uses of the letter e in the noun ''
résumé A résumé, sometimes spelled resume, called a CV in English outside North America, is a document created and used by a person to present their background, skills, and accomplishments. Résumés can be used for a variety of reasons, but most oft ...

résumé
'' (as opposed to the verb ''resume'') and the help sometimes provided in the pronunciation of some words such as ''doggèd'', ''learnèd'', ''blessèd'', and especially words pronounced differently than normal in poetry (for example ''movèd'' ''breathèd''). Most other words with diacritics in English are borrowings from languages such as
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of co ...

French
to better preserve the spelling, such as the diaeresis on and , the
acute Acute may refer to: Science and technology * Acute angle ** Acute triangle ** Acute, a leaf shape in the glossary of leaf morphology#acute, glossary of leaf morphology * Acute (medicine), a disease that it is of short duration and of recent onset. ...
from , the
circumflex The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin script, Latin and Greek alphabet, Greek scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and Transcription (linguistics), transcription schemes. It received its E ...
in the word , and the
cedilla A cedilla ( ; from Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (di ...

cedilla
in . All these diacritics, however, are frequently omitted in writing, and English is the only major modern
European language European, or Europeans, may refer to: In general * ''European'', an adjective referring to something of, from, or related to Europe ** Ethnic groups in Europe ** Demographics of Europe ** European cuisine, the cuisines of Europe and other Western ...

European language
that does not use diacritics in common. In
Latin-script alphabet A Latin-script alphabet (Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet) is an alphabet An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as ...
s in other languages, diacritics may distinguish between
homonym In linguistics, homonyms, broadly defined, are words which are homographs (words that share the same spelling, regardless of pronunciation) or homophones (words that share the same pronunciation, regardless of spelling), or both. For example, acc ...
s, such as the
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of co ...

French
("there") versus ("the"), which are both pronounced . In
Gaelic type Gaelic type (sometimes called Irish character, Irish type, or Gaelic script) is a family of Insular script Insular script was a medieval script system invented in Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ...
, a dot over a consonant indicates
lenition In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langua ...
of the consonant in question. In other , diacritics may perform other functions. Vowel pointing systems, namely the
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
harakat The Arabic script has numerous diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph added to a letter Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) ...
(  etc.) and the
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as one of the spoken languages of the Israelites and their longest-survivi ...
niqqud In Hebrew language, Hebrew orthography, niqqud or nikud ( or ) is a system of diacritical signs used to represent vowels or distinguish between alternative pronunciations of letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Several such diacritical systems were ...
(  etc.) systems, indicate vowels that are not conveyed by the basic alphabet. The Indic
virama Virama ( ्) is a Sanskrit phonological concept to suppress the inherent vowelAn inherent vowel is part of an abugida . ''May Shiva, Śiva protect those who take delight in the language of the gods.'' (Kalidasa) An abugida (, from Ge'ez lan ...
( ् etc.) and the Arabic
sukūn The Arabic script has numerous diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assem ...
(  ) mark the absence of vowels.
Cantillation mark Hebrew cantillation is the manner of Chant, chanting ritual readings from the Hebrew Bible (or ) in synagogue Jewish services, services. The chants are written and notated in accordance with the special signs or marks printed in the Masoretic T ...
s indicate
prosody Prosody may refer to: * Sanskrit prosody, Prosody (Sanskrit), the study of poetic meters and verse in Sanskrit and one of the six Vedangas, or limbs of Vedic studies * Prosody (Greek), the theory and practice of Greek versification * Prosody (Lati ...
. Other uses include the
Early Cyrillic The Early Cyrillic alphabet, also called classical Cyrillic or paleo-Cyrillic, is a writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a class ...
titlo Titlo is an extended diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on ...

titlo
stroke ( ◌҃ ) and the Hebrew
gershayim Gershayim ( he, גֵּרְשַׁיִם, without niqqud ), also occasionally grashayim. ( he, גְּרָשַׁיִם), is two distinct typographical File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on a composing stick using p ...
(  ), which, respectively, mark
abbreviation An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phrase; for example, the word ''abbrevi ...
s or
acronym An acronym is a word In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign langu ...
s, and Greek diacritical marks, which showed that letters of the alphabet were being used as
numerals A numeral is a figure, symbol, or group of figures or symbols denoting a number. It may refer to: * Numeral system used in mathematics * Numeral (linguistics), a part of speech denoting numbers (e.g. ''one'' and ''first'' in English) * Numerical di ...
. In
Vietnamese Vietnamese may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia ** A citizen of Vietnam. See Demographics of Vietnam. * Vietnamese people, or Kinh people, a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Vietnam ** Oversea ...

Vietnamese
and the
Hanyu Pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objecti ...

Hanyu Pinyin
official romanization system for Chinese, diacritics are used to mark the of the syllables in which the marked vowels occur. In
orthography An orthography is a set of conventions for writing Writing is a medium of human communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful divisions b ...
and
collation Collation is the assembly of written information into a standard order. Many systems of collation are based on numerical order or alphabetical order Alphabetical order is a system whereby character string In computer programming Comp ...
, a letter modified by a diacritic may be treated either as a new, distinct letter or as a letter–diacritic combination. This varies from language to language and may vary from case to case within a language. In some cases, letters are used as "in-line diacritics", with the same function as ancillary glyphs, in that they modify the sound of the letter preceding them, as in the case of the "h" in the English pronunciation of "sh" and "th". Such letter combinations are sometimes even collated as separate letters. For example, the spelling sch was traditionally often treated as a separate letter in German. Words with that spelling were listed after all other words spelled with s in card catalogs in the Vienna public libraries, for example (before digitization).


Types

Among the types of diacritic used in alphabets based on the
Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is an alphabetic An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequ ...

Latin script
are: * accents (so called because the acute, grave, and circumflex were originally used to indicate different types of
pitch accent A pitch-accent language is a language that has word accents in which one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a contrasting pitch Pitch may refer to: Acoustic frequency ...
s in the
polytonic transcription Greek orthographyThe orthography of the Greek language ultimately has its roots in the adoption of the Greek alphabet in the 9th century BC. Some time prior to that, one early form of Greek, Mycenaean language, Mycenaean, was written in Linear ...
of
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
) **◌́ –
acute Acute may refer to: Science and technology * Acute angle ** Acute triangle ** Acute, a leaf shape in the glossary of leaf morphology#acute, glossary of leaf morphology * Acute (medicine), a disease that it is of short duration and of recent onset. ...

acute
( la,
apex Apex may refer to: Arts and media Fictional entities * Apex (comics), a teenaged super villainess in the Marvel Universe * Ape-X, a super-intelligent ape in the Squadron Supreme universe *Apex, a genetically-engineered human population in the TV s ...
) ** ◌̀ –
grave A grave is a location where a dead body A cadaver or corpse is a dead human body that is used by medical students A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and award ...

grave
** ◌̂ –
circumflex The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin script, Latin and Greek alphabet, Greek scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and Transcription (linguistics), transcription schemes. It received its E ...

circumflex
** ◌̌ –
caron A caron (), háček or haček ( or ; plural ''háčeks'' or ''háčky'') also known as a hachek, wedge, check, kvačica, strešica, mäkčeň, paukščiukas, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, or flying bird, is a diacritic A diacritic (al ...

caron
, wedge ** ◌̋ – ** ◌̏ – ** ◌̃ –
tilde The tilde (
in the American Heritage dictionary
), or , is a

tilde
* dots ** ◌̇ –
overdot When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the ''interpunct'' ( · ), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' ( ◌̇ ) and 'combining dot below' ( ◌̣ ) which may be combined with some Letter (alphabe ...
(Indic ) ** ◌̣ – an
underdot When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the ''interpunct'' ( · ), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' ( ◌̇ ) and 'combining dot below' ( ◌̣ ) which may be combined with some Letter (alphabe ...
is used in and in Hebrew, Indic and Arabic transcription ** ◌·◌ –
interpunct An interpunct, , also known as an interpoint, middle dot, middot and centered dot or centred dot, is a punctuation mark consisting of a vertically centered dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin alphabet, Latin script. (Word-separati ...

interpunct
**
tittle A tittle or superscript dot is a small distinguishing mark, such as a diacritic in the form of a dot on a lowercase ''i'' or ''j''. The tittle is an integral part of the glyph of ''i'' and ''j'', but dot (diacritic), diacritic dots can appear o ...
, the superscript dot of the modern
lowercase Letter case is the distinction between the letters Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or ...
Latin ''i'' and ''j'' ** ◌̈ – umlaut or diaeresis ** ◌ː –
triangular colon An alphabetic letter resembling the colon Colon commonly refers to: * Colon (punctuation) (:), a punctuation mark * Major part of large intestine, the final section of the digestive system Colon may also refer to: Places * Colon, Michigan, US * C ...

triangular colon
, used in the
IPA IPA commonly refers to: * India pale ale #REDIRECT India pale ale#REDIRECT India pale ale India pale ale (IPA) is a hoppy beer style within the broader category of pale ale. The style of pale ale which became known is India pale ale was widespr ...
to mark
long vowels In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langua ...
. * curves **◌̆ –
breve A breve (, less often , neuter form of the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the ...

breve
** ◌̑ –
inverted breve Inverted breve or arch is a diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled ...

inverted breve
** ◌͗ – sicilicus, a
palaeographic Palaeography (American and British English spelling differences#Simplification of ae and oe, UK) or paleography (American and British English spelling differences#Simplification of ae and oe, US; ultimately from grc-gre, , ''palaiós'', "old ...
diacritic similar to a caron or breve ** ◌̃ –
tilde The tilde (
in the American Heritage dictionary
), or , is a

tilde
** ◌҃ –
titlo Titlo is an extended diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on ...

titlo
* vertical stroke ** ◌̩ –
syllabicSyllabic may refer to: *Syllable, a unit of speech sound, considered the building block of words **Syllabic consonant, a consonant that forms the nucleus of a syllable *Syllabary, writing system using symbols for syllables *Abugida, writing system us ...
a subscript vertical stroke is used in
IPA IPA commonly refers to: * India pale ale #REDIRECT India pale ale#REDIRECT India pale ale India pale ale (IPA) is a hoppy beer style within the broader category of pale ale. The style of pale ale which became known is India pale ale was widespr ...
to mark syllabicity and in to mark a
schwa In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as t ...
* macron or horizontal line ** ◌̄ – macron ** ◌̱ – * overlays ** ◌⃓ –
vertical bar The vertical bar, , is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on a composing stick using pieces that are stored in the type case shown below it Typography is the ...
through the character ** ◌̷ –
slash Slash may refer to: * Slash (punctuation), the "/" character Arts and entertainment Fictional characters * Slash (Marvel Comics) * Slash (Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles), Slash (''Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles'') Music * Slash (musician), stage n ...
through the character ** ◌̵ –
crossbar Crossbar may refer to: Structures * Latch (hardware) A latch or catch (called sneck in Northern England and Scotland) is a type of mechanical fastener that joins two (or more) objects or surfaces while allowing for their regular separation. ...
through the character * ring ** ◌̊ – overring * superscript curls **◌̓ –
apostrophe The apostrophe ( or ) is a punctuation Punctuation (or sometimes interpunction) is the use of spacing, conventional signs (called punctuation marks), and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of wri ...

apostrophe
** ◌̒ – inverted apostrophe ** ◌̔ – reversed apostrophe ** ◌̉ –
hook above In typesetting, the hook above ( vi, dấu hỏi) is a diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph added to a letter or basic glyph. The term derives from the Ancient Greek ...

hook above
( vi, dấu hỏi) ** ◌̛ –
horn Horn most often refers to: *Horn (acoustic), a conical or bell shaped aperture used to guide sound ** Horn (instrument), collective name for tube-shaped wind musical instruments *Horn (anatomy), a pointed, bony projection on the head of various a ...
( vi, dấu móc) * subscript curls ** ◌̦ – undercomma ** ◌̧ –
cedilla A cedilla ( ; from Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (di ...

cedilla
** ◌̡ ◌̢ –
hook A hook is a tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use tool use by animals, simple tools, only human beings, whose use of stone tools dates ...

hook
, left or right, sometimes superscript ** ◌̨ –
ogonek The (; Polish: , "little tail", diminutive of ) is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in several European languages, and directly under a vowel in several Native American languages. It i ...

ogonek
* double marks (over or under two base characters) ** ◌͝◌ – double breve ** ◌͡◌ –
tie bar Tie has two principal meanings: * Tie (draw), a finish to a competition with identical results, particularly sports * Necktie, a long piece of cloth worn around the neck or shoulders Tie or TIE may also refer to: Engineering and technology * Ti ...
or top ligature ** ◌᷍◌ – double circumflex ** ◌͞◌ – longum ** ◌͠◌ – double tilde * double sub/superscript diacritics **◌̧ ̧ – double cedilla ** ◌̨ ̨ – double ogonek ** ◌̈ ̈ – double diaeresis ** ◌ͅͺ – double ypogegrammeni The tilde, dot, comma,
titlo Titlo is an extended diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on ...

titlo
, apostrophe, bar, and colon are sometimes diacritical marks, but also have other uses. Not all diacritics occur adjacent to the letter they modify. In the Wali language of Ghana, for example, an apostrophe indicates a change of vowel quality, but occurs at the beginning of the word, as in the dialects ''’Bulengee'' and ''’Dolimi''. Because of
vowel harmony In phonology Phonology is a branch of that studies how languages or dialects systematically organize their sounds (or constituent parts of signs, in sign languages). The term also refers to the sound or sign system of any particular lang ...
, all vowels in a word are affected, so the scope of the diacritic is the entire word. In
abugida An abugida (, from Ge'ez language, Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ), sometimes known as alphasyllabary, neosyllabary or pseudo-alphabet, is a segmental Writing systems#Segmental writing system, writing system in which consonant-vowel sequences are writt ...
scripts, like those used to write
Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, North India. Hindi has been described as a Standard la ...

Hindi
and
Thai Thai or THAI may refer to: * Of or from Thailand, a country in Southeast Asia ** Thai people, the dominant ethnic group of Thailand ** Thai language, a Tai-Kadai language spoken mainly in and around Thailand *** Thai script *** Thai (Unicode block) ...

Thai
, diacritics indicate vowels, and may occur above, below, before, after, or around the consonant letter they modify. The tittle (dot) on the letter ''i'' or the letter ''j'', of the Latin alphabet originated as a diacritic to clearly distinguish ''i'' from the minims (downstrokes) of adjacent letters. It first appeared in the 11th century in the sequence ''ii'' (as in ), then spread to ''i'' adjacent to ''m, n, u'', and finally to all lowercase ''i''s. The ''j'', originally a variant of ''i'', inherited the tittle. The shape of the diacritic developed from initially resembling today's acute accent to a long flourish by the 15th century. With the advent of
Roman type In Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is an alphabetic An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as ...
it was reduced to the round dot we have today. Languages from Eastern Europe tend to use diacritics on both consonants and vowels, whereas in Western Europe
digraph Digraph may refer to: * Digraph (orthography), a pair of characters used together to represent a single sound, such as "sh" in English * Orthographic ligature, the joining of two letters as a single glyph, such as "æ" * Digraph (computing), a grou ...
s are more typically used to change consonant sounds. Most languages in Western Europe use diacritics on vowels, aside from English where there are typically none (with some exceptions).


Diacritics specific to non-Latin alphabets


Arabic

* (ئ ؤ إ أ and stand alone ء) : indicates a . * (ــًــٍــٌـ) () symbols: Serve a grammatical role in
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
. The sign ـً is most commonly written in combination with , e.g. . * (ــّـ) : Gemination (doubling) of consonants. * (ٱ) : Comes most commonly at the beginning of a word. Indicates a type of that is pronounced only when the letter is read at the beginning of the talk. * (آ) : A written replacement for a that is followed by an alif, i.e. (). Read as a glottal stop followed by a long , e.g. are written out respectively as . This writing rule does not apply when the alif that follows a is not a part of the stem of the word, e.g. is not written out as as the stem does not have an alif that follows its . * (ــٰـ) ''superscript '' (also "short" or "dagger alif": A replacement for an original alif that is dropped in the writing out of some rare words, e.g. is not written out with the original alif found in the word pronunciation, instead it is written out as . * (In Arabic: also called ): ** (ــَـ) (a) ** (ــِـ) (i) ** (ــُـ) (u) ** (ــْـ) (no vowel) * The or vowel points serve two purposes: ** They serve as a phonetic guide. They indicate the presence of short vowels (, , or ) or their absence (). ** At the last letter of a word, the vowel point reflects the
inflection In linguistic morphology Morphology, from the Greek and meaning "study of shape", may refer to: Disciplines * Morphology (archaeology), study of the shapes or forms of artifacts * Morphology (astronomy), study of the shape of astronomical ob ...
case or conjugation mood. *** For nouns, The is for the nominative, for the accusative, and for the genitive. *** For verbs, the is for the imperfective, for the perfective, and the is for verbs in the imperative or
jussive The jussive (abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phrase; for ex ...

jussive
moods. * Vowel points or should not be confused with consonant points or () – one, two or three dots written above or below a consonant to distinguish between letters of the same or similar
form Form is the shape A shape or figure is the form of an object or its external boundary, outline, or external Surface (mathematics), surface, as opposed to other properties such as color, Surface texture, texture, or material type. A plane shap ...
.


Greek

These diacritics are used in addition to the acute, grave, and circumflex accents and the diaeresis: * –
iota subscript The iota subscript is a diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph added to a letter Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A le ...
() * –
rough breathing In the polytonic orthography Greek orthographyThe orthography of the Greek language ultimately has its roots in the adoption of the Greek alphabet in the 9th century BC. Some time prior to that, one early form of Greek, Mycenaean language, My ...
( grc, δασὺ πνεῦμα, dasỳ pneûma, la, spīritus asper): aspiration * – smooth (or soft) breathing ( grc, ψιλὸν πνεῦμα, psilòn pneûma, la, spīritus lēnis): lack of aspiration


Hebrew

*
Niqqud In Hebrew language, Hebrew orthography, niqqud or nikud ( or ) is a system of diacritical signs used to represent vowels or distinguish between alternative pronunciations of letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Several such diacritical systems were ...
** –
Dagesh The dagesh () is a diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on a comp ...

Dagesh
** –
Mappiq The mappiq (, also ''mapiq'', ''mapik'', ''mappik'', lit. "causing to go out") is a diacritic A diacritic (also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or accent) is a glyph The term glyph is used in typography File:meta ...

Mappiq
** –
Rafe In Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites, Judeans and their ancest ...

Rafe
** –
Shin dot Shin (also spelled Šin (') or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, sign ...

Shin dot
(at top right corner) ** –
Sin dot Shin (also spelled Šin (') or Sheen) is the twenty-first letter Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, sign ...

Sin dot
(at top left corner) ** –
Shva Shva or, in Biblical Hebrew Biblical Hebrew ( ''Ivrit Miqra'it'' or ''Leshon ha-Miqra''), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew language, Hebrew, a language in the Canaanite languages, Canaanite branch of Semitic langu ...

Shva
** –
Kubutz Kubutz (modern he, קֻבּוּץ; , formerly , ''qibbûṣ'') and Shuruk ( he, שׁוּרוּק, ) are two Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew niqqud vowel signs that represent the sound . Kubutz is a short ''u'' and Shuruk is long ''u''. In a ...
** –
Holam Holam (modern he, חוֹלָם, , formerly , ') is a Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the la ...

Holam
** –
Kamatz Kamatz or qamatz (Modern he, קָמַץ, ; alternatively ''qāmeṣ'') is a Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it ...
** –
Patakh Pataḥ ( he, פַּתַח ', , Biblical Hebrew: ') is a Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by a horizontal line underneath a letter. In modern Hebrew, it indicates the phoneme which is close to the "a" sound in the English ...
** –
Segol Segol (modern he, סֶגּוֹל, ; formerly , ''səḡôl'') is a Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew niqqud vowel sign that is represented by three dots forming an upside down equilateral triangle "ֶ ". As such, it resembles an upside down therefo ...

Segol
** –
Tzeire Tzere (also spelled ''Tsere'', ''Tzeirei'', ''Zere'', ''Zeire'', ''Ṣērê''; modern he, צֵירֵי, , sometimes also written ; formerly , ''ṣērê'') is a Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by two horizontally-align ...
** –
Hiriq Hiriq ( he, חִירִיק '  ) is a Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as the language of th ...
*
Cantillation Cantillation is the ritual chanting of prayers and responses. It often specifically refers to Jewish Hebrew cantillation. Cantillation sometimes refers to diacritics used in texts that are to be chanted in liturgy. Cantillation includes: * Chant ...
marks do not generally render correctly; refer to Hebrew cantillation#Names and shapes of the ta'amim for a complete table together with instructions for how to maximize the possibility of viewing them in a web browser * Other ** – Geresh ** – Gershayim


Korean

The diacritics 〮 and 〯 , known as Bangjeom (), were used to mark pitch accents in Hangul for Middle Korean. They were written to the left of a syllable in vertical writing and above a syllable in horizontal writing.


Sanskrit and Indic


Syriac

* A dot above and a dot below a letter represent , transliterated as ''a'' or ''ă'', * Two diagonally-placed dots above a letter represent , transliterated as ''ā'' or ''â'' or ''å'', * Two horizontally-placed dots below a letter represent , transliterated as ''e'' or ''ĕ''; often pronounced and transliterated as ''i'' in the Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, East Syriac dialect, * Two diagonally-placed dots below a letter represent , transliterated as ''ē'', * A dot underneath the ''Beth'' represent a soft sound, transliterated as ''v'' * A tilde (~) placed under ''Gamel'' represent a sound, transliterated as ''j'' * The letter ''Waw'' with a dot below it represents , transliterated as ''ū'' or ''u'', * The letter ''Waw'' with a dot above it represents , transliterated as ''ō'' or ''o'', * The letter ''Yōḏ'' with a dot beneath it represents , transliterated as ''ī'' or ''i'', * A
tilde The tilde (
in the American Heritage dictionary
), or , is a

tilde
(~) under ''Kaph'' represent a sound, transliterated as ''ch'' or ''č'', * A semicircle under ''Peh'' represents an sound, transliterated as ''f'' or ''ph''. In addition to the above vowel marks, transliteration of Syriac sometimes includes ''ə'', ''e̊'' or superscript ''e'' (or often nothing at all) to represent an original Aramaic
schwa In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as t ...
that became lost later on at some point in the development of Syriac. Some transliteration schemes find its inclusion necessary for showing spirantization or for historical reasons.


Non-alphabetic scripts

Some non-alphabetic scripts also employ symbols that function essentially as diacritics. * Non-pure abjads (such as
Hebrew Hebrew (, , or ) is a Northwest Semitic languages, Northwest Semitic language of the Afroasiatic languages, Afroasiatic language family. Historically, it is regarded as one of the spoken languages of the Israelites and their longest-survivi ...
and Arabic script) and
abugida An abugida (, from Ge'ez language, Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ), sometimes known as alphasyllabary, neosyllabary or pseudo-alphabet, is a segmental Writing systems#Segmental writing system, writing system in which consonant-vowel sequences are writt ...
s use diacritics for denoting vowels. Hebrew and Arabic also indicate consonant doubling and change with diacritics; Hebrew and Devanagari use them for foreign sounds. Devanagari and related abugidas also use a diacritical mark called a ''
virama Virama ( ्) is a Sanskrit phonological concept to suppress the inherent vowelAn inherent vowel is part of an abugida . ''May Shiva, Śiva protect those who take delight in the language of the gods.'' (Kalidasa) An abugida (, from Ge'ez lan ...
'' to mark the absence of a vowel. In addition, Devanagari uses the moon-dot ''chandrabindu'' ( ँ ). * Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics use several types of diacritics, including the diacritics with alphabetic properties known as Medials and Finals. Although long vowels originally were indicated with a negative line through the Syllabic glyphs, making the glyph appear broken, in the modern forms, a dot above is used to indicate vowel length. In some of the styles, a ring above indicates a long vowel with a [j] off-glide. Another diacritic, the "inner ring" is placed at the glyph's head to modify [p] to [f] and [t] to [θ]. Medials such as the "w-dot" placed next to the Syllabics glyph indicates a [w] being placed between the syllable onset consonant and the nucleus vowel. Finals indicate the syllable coda consonant; some of the syllable coda consonants in word medial positions, such as with the "h-tick", indicate the fortification of the consonant in the syllable following it. * The Japanese ''hiragana'' and ''katakana'' syllabary, syllabaries use the dakuten, ''dakuten'' (◌゛) and ''handakuten'' (◌゜) (in Japanese: 濁点 and 半濁点) symbols, also known as ''nigori'' (濁 "muddying") or ''ten-ten'' (点々 "dot dot") and ''maru'' (丸 "circle"), to indicate voiced consonants or other phonetic changes. * Emoticons are commonly created with diacritic symbols, especially Japanese emoticons on popular imageboards.


Alphabetization or collation

Different languages use different rules to put diacritic characters in alphabetical order. French and Portuguese treat letters with diacritical marks the same as the underlying letter for purposes of ordering and dictionaries. The Scandinavian languages and the Finnish language, by contrast, treat the characters with diacritics ''å'', ''ä'', and ''ö'' as distinct letters of the alphabet, and sort them after ''z''. Usually ''ä'' (a-umlaut) and ''ö'' (o-umlaut) [used in Swedish and Finnish] are sorted as equivalent to ''æ'' (ash) and ''ø'' (o-slash) [used in Danish and Norwegian]. Also, ''aa'', when used as an alternative spelling to ''å'', is sorted as such. Other letters modified by diacritics are treated as variants of the underlying letter, with the exception that ''ü'' is frequently sorted as ''y''. Languages that treat accented letters as variants of the underlying letter usually alphabetize words with such symbols immediately after similar unmarked words. For instance, in German where two words differ only by an umlaut, the word without it is sorted first in German dictionaries (e.g. ''schon'' and then ''schön'', or ''fallen'' and then ''fällen''). However, when names are concerned (e.g. in phone books or in author catalogues in libraries), umlauts are often treated as combinations of the vowel with a suffixed ''e''; Austrian phone books now treat characters with umlauts as separate letters (immediately following the underlying vowel). In Spanish, the grapheme ''ñ'' is considered a new letter different from ''n'' and collated between ''n'' and ''o'', as it denotes a different sound from that of a plain ''n''. But the accented vowels ''á'', ''é'', ''í'', ''ó'', ''ú'' are not separated from the unaccented vowels ''a'', ''e'', ''i'', ''o'', ''u'', as the acute accent in Spanish only modifies stress (linguistics), stress within the word or denotes a distinction between
homonym In linguistics, homonyms, broadly defined, are words which are homographs (words that share the same spelling, regardless of pronunciation) or homophones (words that share the same pronunciation, regardless of spelling), or both. For example, acc ...
s, and does not modify the sound of a letter. For a comprehensive list of the collating orders in various languages, see Collating sequence.


Generation with computers

Modern computer technology was developed mostly in English-speaking countries, so data formats, keyboard layouts, etc. were developed with a bias favoring English, a language with an alphabet without diacritical marks. Efforts have been made to create internationalized domain names that further extend the English alphabet (e.g., "pokémon.com"). Depending on the keyboard layout, which differs amongst countries, it is more or less easy to enter letters with diacritics on computers and typewriters. Some have their own keys; some are created by first pressing the key with the Combining character, diacritic mark followed by the letter to place it on. Such a key is sometimes referred to as a dead key, as it produces no output of its own but modifies the output of the key pressed after it. In modern Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems, the keyboard layouts ''US International'' and ''UK International'' feature dead keys that allow one to type Latin letters with the acute, grave, circumflex, diaeresis, tilde, and cedilla found in Western European languages (specifically, those combinations found in the ISO Latin-1 character set) directly: + gives ''ë'', + gives ''õ'', etc. On Apple Macintosh computers, there are keyboard shortcuts for the most common diacritics; followed by a vowel places an acute accent, followed by a vowel gives an umlaut, gives a cedilla, etc. Diacritics can be Compose key, composed in most X Window System keyboard layouts, as well as other operating systems, such as Microsoft Windows, using additional software. On computers, the availability of code pages determines whether one can use certain diacritics. Unicode solves this problem by assigning every known character its own code; if this code is known, most modern computer systems provide a Unicode#Input methods, method to input it. With Unicode, it is also possible to combine Combining character, diacritical marks with most characters. However, as of 2019, very few fonts include the necessary support to correctly render character-plus-diacritic(s) for the Latin, Cyrillic and some other alphabets (exceptions includ
Andika
.


Languages with letters containing diacritics

The following languages have letters that contain diacritics that are considered independent letters distinct from those without diacritics.


Latin alphabets, Latin/Roman letters

; Baltic :* Latvian alphabet, Latvian has the following letters: ''ā, ē, ī, ū, č, ģ, ķ, ļ, ņ, š, ž'' :* Lithuanian alphabet, Lithuanian. In general usage, where letters appear with the caron (''č, š'' and ''ž''), they are considered as separate letters from ''c, s'' or ''z'' and collated separately; letters with the
ogonek The (; Polish: , "little tail", diminutive of ) is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in several European languages, and directly under a vowel in several Native American languages. It i ...

ogonek
(''ą, ę, į'' and ''ų''), the macron (''ū'') and the anunaasika, superdot (''ė'') are considered as separate letters as well, but not given a unique collation order. ;Celtic :* Welsh language, Welsh uses the
circumflex The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin script, Latin and Greek alphabet, Greek scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and Transcription (linguistics), transcription schemes. It received its E ...
, Diaeresis (diacritic), diaeresis,
acute Acute may refer to: Science and technology * Acute angle ** Acute triangle ** Acute, a leaf shape in the glossary of leaf morphology#acute, glossary of leaf morphology * Acute (medicine), a disease that it is of short duration and of recent onset. ...

acute
, and
grave A grave is a location where a dead body A cadaver or corpse is a dead human body that is used by medical students A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and award ...

grave
on its seven vowels ''a, e, i, o, u, w, y'' (hence the composites â, ê, î, ô, û, ŵ, ŷ, ä, ë, ï, ö, ü, ẅ, ÿ, á, é, í, ó, ú, ẃ, ý, à, è, ì, ò, ù, ẁ, ỳ). :* Following spelling reforms since the 1970s, Scottish Gaelic uses graves only, which can be used on any vowel (''à, è, ì, ò, ù''). Formerly acute accents could be used on ''á, ó'' and ''é'', which were used to indicate a specific vowel quality. With the elimination of these accents, the new orthography relies on the reader having prior knowledge of pronunciation of a given word. :* Manx language, Manx uses the single diacritic ç combined with h to give the digraph (pronounced ) to mark the distinction between it and the digraph (pronounced or ). Other diacritics used in Manx included â, ê, ï, etc. to mark the distinction between two similarly spelled words but with slightly differing pronunciation. :* Irish language, Irish uses only acute accents to mark long vowels, following the 1948 spelling reform. :* Breton orthography, Breton does not have a single orthography (spelling system), but uses diacritics for a number of purposes. The diaeresis is used to mark that two vowels are pronounced separately and not as a diphthong/digraph. The circumflex is used to mark long vowels, but usually only when the vowel length is not predictable by phonology. Nasalization of vowels may be marked with a tilde, or following the vowel with the letter <ñ>. The plural suffix -où is used as a unified spelling to represent a suffix with a number of pronunciations in different dialects, and to distinguish this suffix from the digraph which is pronounced as . An apostrophe is used to distinguish c'h, pronounced as the digraph is used in other Celtic languages, from the French-influenced digraph ch, pronounced . ; Finno-Ugric :* Estonian alphabet, Estonian has a distinct letter ''õ'', which contains a tilde. Estonian "dotted vowels" ''ä'', ''ö'', ''ü'' are similar to German, but these are also distinct letters, not like German umlauted letters. All four have their own place in the alphabet, between ''w'' and ''x''. Carons in ''š'' or ''ž'' appear only in foreign proper names and loanwords. Also these are distinct letters, placed in the alphabet between ''s'' and ''t''. :* Finnish alphabet, Finnish uses dotted (umlauted) vowels (''ä'' and ''ö''). As in Swedish and Estonian, these are regarded as individual letters, rather than vowel + umlaut combinations (as happens in German). It also uses the characters ''å'', ''š'' and ''ž'' in foreign names and loanwords. In the Finnish and Swedish alphabets, ''å'', ''ä'' and ''ö'' collate as separate letters after ''z'', the others as variants of their base letter. :* Hungarian alphabet, Hungarian uses the umlaut, the acute and double acute accent (unique to Hungarian): (''ö, ü''), (''á, é, í, ó, ú'') and (''ő, ű''). The acute accent indicates the long form of a vowel (in case of ''i/í'', ''o/ó'', ''u/ú'') while the double acute performs the same function for ''ö'' and ''ü''. The acute accent can also indicate a different sound (more open, like in case of ''a/á'', ''e/é''). Both long and short forms of the vowels are listed separately in the Hungarian alphabet, but members of the pairs ''a/á, e/é, i/í, o/ó, ö/ő, u/ú'' and ''ü/ű'' are collated in dictionaries as the same letter. :* Livonian language, Livonian has the following letters: ''ā, ä, ǟ, ḑ, ē, ī, ļ, ņ, ō, ȯ, ȱ, õ, ȭ, ŗ, š, ț, ū, ž''. ; Germanic :* Faroese alphabet, Faroese uses acute accent, acutes and other special letters. All are considered separate letters and have their own place in the alphabet: ''á'', ''í'', ''ó'', ''ú'', ''ý'' and ''ø''. :* Icelandic orthography, Icelandic uses acutes and other special letters. All are considered separate letters, and have their own place in the alphabet: ''á'', ''é'', ''í'', ''ó'', ''ú'', ''ý'', and ''ö''. :* Danish alphabet, Danish and Norwegian language, Norwegian use additional characters like the o-slash ''ø'' and the a-overring ''å''. These letters come after ''z'' and ''æ'' in the order ''ø, å''. Historically, the ''å'' has developed from a ligature by writing a small superscript ''a'' over a lowercase ''a''; if an ''å'' character is unavailable, some Scandinavian languages allow the substitution of a doubled ''a''. The Scandinavian languages collate these letters after z, but have different
collation Collation is the assembly of written information into a standard order. Many systems of collation are based on numerical order or alphabetical order Alphabetical order is a system whereby character string In computer programming Comp ...
standards. :* Swedish alphabet, Swedish uses a-diaeresis (''ä'') and o-diaeresis (''ö'') in the place of ash (''æ'') and slashed o (''ø'') in addition to the a-overring (''å''). Historically, the diaeresis for the Swedish letters ''ä'' and ''ö'', like the German umlaut, developed from a small Gothic ''e'' written above the letters. These letters are collated after ''z'', in the order ''å, ä, ö''. ; Romance :* In Asturian language, Asturian, Galician language, Galician and Spanish alphabet, Spanish, the character ''ñ'' is a letter and collated between ''n'' and ''o''. :* Asturian language, Asturian uses Ḷ (lower case ḷ), and Voiceless glottal fricative, Ḥ (lower case Voiceless glottal fricative, ḥ) :* Leonese language, Leonese: could use ''ñ'' or ''List of Latin digraphs#N, nn''. :* Romanian alphabet, Romanian uses a
breve A breve (, less often , neuter form of the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the ...

breve
on the letter ''a'' (''ă'') to indicate the sound
schwa In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as t ...
, as well as a circumflex over the letters ''a'' (''â'') and ''i'' (''î'') for the sound . Romanian also writes a comma below the letters ''s'' (''ș'') and ''t'' (''ț'') to represent the sounds and , respectively. These characters are collated after their non-diacritic equivalent. ; Slavic :* The Bosnian alphabet, Bosnian, Croatian alphabet, Croatian, and Serbian language, Serbian Latin alphabets have the symbols ''č'', ''ć'', ''đ'', ''š'' and ''ž'', which are considered separate letters and are listed as such in dictionaries and other contexts in which words are listed according to alphabetical order. They also have one
digraph Digraph may refer to: * Digraph (orthography), a pair of characters used together to represent a single sound, such as "sh" in English * Orthographic ligature, the joining of two letters as a single glyph, such as "æ" * Digraph (computing), a grou ...
including a diacritic, ''dž'', which is also alphabetized independently, and follows ''d'' and precedes ''đ'' in the alphabetical order. The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet has no diacritics, instead it has a grapheme (
glyph The term glyph is used in typography Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language A language is a structured system o ...
) for every letter of its Latin counterpart (including Latin letters with diacritics and the digraphs dž, ''Lje, lj'' and ''Nj (digraph), nj''). :* The Czech alphabet uses the acute (á é í ó ú ý), caron (č ď ě ň ř š ť ž), and for one letter (ů) the ring. (Note that in ď and ť the caron is modified to look rather like an apostrophe.) :* Polish alphabet, Polish has the following letters: ''ą ć ę ł ń ó ś ź ż''. These are considered to be separate letters: each of them is placed in the alphabet immediately after its Latin counterpart (e.g. ''ą'' between ''a'' and ''b''), ''ź'' and ''ż'' are placed after ''z'' in that order. :* The Slovak alphabet uses the acute (á é í ó ú ý ĺ ŕ), caron (č ď ľ ň š ť ž dž), umlaut (ä) and circumflex accent (ô). All of those are considered separate letters and are placed directly after the original counterpart in the Slovak alphabet, alphabet.http://www.juls.savba.sk/ediela/psp2000/psp.pdf page 12, section I.2 :* The basic Slovenian alphabet has the symbols ''č'', ''š'', and ''ž'', which are considered separate letters and are listed as such in dictionaries and other contexts in which words are listed according to alphabetical order. Letters with a
caron A caron (), háček or haček ( or ; plural ''háčeks'' or ''háčky'') also known as a hachek, wedge, check, kvačica, strešica, mäkčeň, paukščiukas, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, or flying bird, is a diacritic A diacritic (al ...

caron
are placed right after the letters as written without the diacritic. The letter ''đ'' may be used in non-transliterated foreign words, particularly names, and is placed after ''č'' and before ''d''. ; Turkic :*Azerbaijani alphabet, Azerbaijani includes the distinct Turkish alphabet letters Ç, Ğ, Dotless I, I, İ, Ö, Ş and Ü. :* Crimean Tatar language, Crimean Tatar includes the distinct Turkish alphabet letters Ç, Ğ, Dotless I, I, İ, Ö, Ş and Ü. Unlike Turkish, Crimean Tatar also has the letter Ñ. :* Gagauz alphabet, Gagauz includes the distinct Turkish alphabet letters Ç, Ğ, Dotless I, I, İ, Ö and Ü. Unlike Turkish, Gagauz also has the letters Ä, Ê Ș and Ț. Ș and Ț are derived from the Romanian alphabet for the same sounds. Sometime the Turkish Ş may be used instead of Ș. :* Turkish alphabet, Turkish uses a ''G'' with a breve (''Ğ''), two letters with an umlaut (''Ö'' and ''Ü'', representing two rounded front vowels), two letters with a cedilla (''Ç'' and ''S-cedilla, Ş'', representing the affricate and the fricative ), and also possesses a dotted capital ''İ'' (and a dotless lowercase ''ı'' representing a high unrounded back vowel). In Turkish each of these are separate letters, rather than versions of other letters, where dotted capital ''İ'' and lower case ''i'' are the same letter, as are dotless capital ''I'' and lowercase ''ı''. Typeface, Typographically, ''Ç'' and ''Ş'' are sometimes rendered with a subdot, as in ''Ṣ''; when a hook is used, it tends to have more a comma shape than the usual cedilla. The new Azerbaijani, Crimean Tatar, and Gagauz alphabets are based on the Turkish alphabet and its same diacriticized letters, with some additions. :* Turkmen alphabet, Turkmen includes the distinct Turkish alphabet letters Ç, Ö, Ş and Ü. In addition, Turkmen uses A with diaeresis (''Ä'') to represent , N with caron (''Ň'') to represent the velar nasal , Y with acute (''Ý'') to represent the palatal approximant , and Z with caron (''Ž'') to represent . ; Other :*Albanian alphabet, Albanian has two special letters Ç and Ë upper and lowercase. They are placed next to the most similar letters in the alphabet, c and e correspondingly. :* Esperanto alphabet, Esperanto has the symbols ''ŭ'', ''ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ'' and ''ŝ'', which are included in the alphabet, and considered separate letters. :* Filipino alphabet, Filipino also has the character ''ñ'' as a letter and is collated between n and o. :* Hawaiian alphabet, Hawaiian uses the kahakō ( macron) over vowels, although there is some disagreement over considering them as individual letters. The kahakō over a vowel can completely change the meaning of a word that is spelled the same but without the kahakō. :*Kurdish alphabet, Kurdish uses the symbols Ç, Ê, Î, Ş and Û with other 26 standard Latin alphabet symbols. :*Lakota language, Lakota alphabet uses the
caron A caron (), háček or haček ( or ; plural ''háčeks'' or ''háčky'') also known as a hachek, wedge, check, kvačica, strešica, mäkčeň, paukščiukas, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, or flying bird, is a diacritic A diacritic (al ...

caron
for the letters ''č'', ''ȟ'', ''ǧ'', ''š'', and ''ž''. It also uses the acute accent for stressed vowels á, é, í, ó, ú, áŋ, íŋ, úŋ. :*Malay language, Malay uses some diacritics such as ''á, ā, ç, í, ñ, ó, š, ú''. Uses of diacritics was continued until late 19th century except ''ā'' and ''ē''. :*Maltese alphabet, Maltese uses a C, G, and Z with a dot over them (Ċ, Ġ, Ż), and also has an H with an extra horizontal bar. For uppercase H, the extra bar is written slightly above the usual bar. For lowercase H, the extra bar is written crossing the vertical, like a ''t'', and not touching the lower part (Ħ, ħ). The above characters are considered separate letters. The letter 'c' without a dot has fallen out of use due to redundancy. 'Ċ' is pronounced like the English 'ch' and 'k' is used as a hard c as in 'cat'. 'Ż' is pronounced just like the English 'Z' as in 'Zebra', while 'Z' is used to make the sound of 'ts' in English (like 'tsunami' or 'maths'). 'Ġ' is used as a soft 'G' like in 'geometry', while the 'G' sounds like a hard 'G' like in 'log'. The digraph 'għ' (called ''għajn'' after the Arabic alphabet, Arabic letter name ''ʻayn'' for غ) is considered separate, and sometimes ordered after 'g', whilst in other volumes it is placed between 'n' and 'o' (the Latin letter 'o' originally evolved from the shape of Phoenician alphabet, Phoenician ''ʻayin'', which was traditionally collated after Phoenician ''nūn''). :* The romanization of Syriac uses the altered letters of. ''Ā, Č, Ḏ, Ē, Ë, Ġ, Ḥ, Ō, Š, Ṣ, Ṭ, Ū, Ž'' alongside the 26 standard Latin alphabet symbols. :*Vietnamese alphabet, Vietnamese uses the horn (diacritic), horn diacritic for the letters ''ơ'' and ''ư''; the
circumflex The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin script, Latin and Greek alphabet, Greek scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and Transcription (linguistics), transcription schemes. It received its E ...
for the letters ''â'', ''ê'', and ''ô''; the
breve A breve (, less often , neuter form of the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the ...

breve
for the letter ''ă''; and a bar through the letter ''đ''. Separately, it also has á, à, ả, ã and ạ, the five tones used for vowels besides the flat tone 'a'.


Cyrillic letters

:*Belarusian alphabet, Belarusian and Uzbek alphabet#Correspondence chart, Uzbek Cyrillic have a letter ''Short U (Cyrillic), ў''. :* Belarusian, Bulgarian language#Alphabet, Bulgarian, Russian and Ukrainian have the letter ''Short I, й''. :* Belarusian and Russian alphabet, Russian have the letter ''Yo (Cyrillic), ё''. In Russian, this letter is usually replaced by ''Ye (Cyrillic), е'', although it has a different pronunciation. The use of ''е'' instead of ''ё'' does not affect the pronunciation. ''Ё'' is always used in children's books and in dictionaries. A minimal pair is все (''vs'e'', "everybody" pl.) and всё (''vs'o'', "everything" n. sg.). In Belarusian the replacement by ''е'' is a mistake; in Russian, it is permissible to use either ''е'' or ''ё'' for ''ё'' but the former is more common in everyday writing (as opposed to instructional or juvenile writing). :* The Cyrillic script, Cyrillic Ukrainian alphabet has the letters ''ґ'', ''й'' and ''ї''. Ukrainian Latynka has many more. :* Macedonian language, Macedonian has the letters ''kje, ќ'' and ''gje, ѓ''. ;* In Bulgarian and Macedonian language, Macedonian the possessive pronoun ѝ (''ì'', "her") is spelled with a grave accent in order to distinguish it from the conjunction и (''i'', "and"). :* The acute accent " ́" above any vowel in Cyrillic alphabets is used in dictionaries, books for children and foreign learners to indicate the word stress, it also can be used for disambiguation of similarly spelled words with different lexical stresses.


Diacritics that do not produce new letters


English

English alphabet, English is one of the few European languages that does not have many words that contain diacritical marks. Instead, digraphs are the main way the Modern English alphabet adapts the Latin to its phonemes. Exceptions are unassimilated foreign loanwords, including borrowings from
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of co ...

French
and, increasingly, Spanish language, Spanish like jalapeño; however, the diacritic is also sometimes omitted from such words. Loanwords that frequently appear with the diacritic in English include ''café'', ''résumé'' or ''resumé'' (a usage that helps distinguish it from the verb ''resume''), ''soufflé'', and ''naïveté'' (see ''English terms with diacritical marks''). In older practice (and even among some orthographically conservative modern writers) one may see examples such as ''élite'', ''mêlée'' and ''rôle.'' English speakers and writers once used the diaeresis more often than now in words such as ''coöperation'' (from Fr. ''coopération''), ''zoölogy'' (from Grk. ''zoologia''), and ''seeër'' (now more commonly ''see-er ''or simply'' seer'') as a way of indicating that adjacent vowels belonged to separate syllables, but this practice has become far less common. ''The New Yorker'' magazine is a major publication that continues to use the diaeresis in place of a hyphen for clarity and economy of space. A few English words, out of context, can only be distinguished from others by a diacritic or modified letter, including exposé, lamé, maté, öre, øre, pâté, and rosé. The same is true of ''résumé,'' alternatively ' but nevertheless it is regularly spelled ''resume''. In a few words, diacritics that did not exist in the original have been added for disambiguation, as in maté (from Sp. and Port. ''mate''), saké (the standard Romanization of the Japanese has no accent mark), and Malé (from Dhivehi މާލެ), to clearly distinguish them from the English words "mate", "sake", and "male". The acute and grave accents are occasionally used in poetry and lyrics: the acute to indicate stress overtly where it might be ambiguous (''rébel'' vs. ''rebél'') or nonstandard for metrical reasons (''caléndar''), the grave to indicate that an ordinarily silent or elided syllable is pronounced (''warnèd,'' ''parlìament''). In certain personal names such as ''Renée'' and ''Zoe (name), Zoë'', often two spellings exist, and the preference will be known only to those close to the person themselves. Even when the name of a person is spelled with a diacritic, like Charlotte Brontë, this may be dropped in English language articles and even official documents such as passports either due to carelessness, the typist not knowing how to enter letters with diacritical marks, or for technical reasons—California, for example, does not allow names with diacritics, as the computer system cannot process such characters. They also appear in some worldwide company names and/or trademarks such as Nestlé or Citroën.


Other languages

The following languages have letter-diacritic combinations that are not considered independent letters. * Afrikaans uses a diaeresis to mark vowels that are pronounced separately and not as one would expect where they occur together, for example ''voel'' (to feel) as opposed to ''voël'' (bird). The circumflex is used in ''ê, î, ô'' and ''û'' generally to indicate long Close-mid vowel, close-mid, as opposed to Open-mid vowel, open-mid vowels, for example in the words ''wêreld'' (world) and ''môre'' (morning, tomorrow). The acute accent is used to add emphasis in the same way as underlining or writing in bold or italics in English, for example ''Dit is jóú boek'' (It is your book). The grave accent is used to distinguish between words that are different only in placement of the stress, for example ''appel'' (apple) and ''appèl'' (appeal) and in a few cases where it makes no difference to the pronunciation but distinguishes between homophones. The two most usual cases of the latter are in the sayings ''òf... òf'' (either... or) and ''nòg... nòg'' (neither... nor) to distinguish them from ''of'' (or) and ''nog'' (again, still). * Aymara language, Aymara uses a diacritical horn over ''p, q, t, k, ch''. * Catalan alphabet, Catalan has the following composite characters: ''à, ç, é, è, í, ï, ó, ò, ú, ü, l·l''. The acute and the grave indicate stress (linguistics), stress and vowel height, the cedilla marks the result of a historical Palatalization (sound change), palatalization, the diaeresis indicates either a hiatus (linguistics), hiatus, or that the letter ''u'' is pronounced when the graphemes ''gü, qü'' are followed by ''e'' or ''i'', the
interpunct An interpunct, , also known as an interpoint, middle dot, middot and centered dot or centred dot, is a punctuation mark consisting of a vertically centered dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin alphabet, Latin script. (Word-separati ...

interpunct
(·) distinguishes the different values of ''ll/l·l''. * Some orthographies of Cornish language, Cornish such as Kernowek Standard and Unified Cornish use diacritics, while others such as Kernewek Kemmyn and the Standard Written Form do not (or only use them optionally in teaching materials). * Dutch alphabet, Dutch uses the diaeresis. For example, in ''ruïne'' it means that the ''u'' and the ''i'' are separately pronounced in their usual way, and not in the way that the combination ''ui'' is normally pronounced. Thus it works as a separation sign and not as an indication for an alternative version of the ''i''. Diacritics can be used for emphasis (''érg koud'' for ''very'' cold) or for disambiguation between a number of words that are spelled the same when context doesn't indicate the correct meaning (''één appel'' = one apple, ''een appel'' = an apple; ''vóórkomen'' = to occur, ''voorkómen'' = to prevent). Grave and acute accents are used on a very small number of words, mostly loanwords. The ç also appears in some loanwords. * Faroese alphabet, Faroese. Non-Faroese accented letters are not added to the Faroese alphabet. These include ''é'', ''ö'', ''ü'', ''å'' and recently also letters like ''š'', ''ł'', and ''ć''. * Filipino alphabet, Filipino has the following composite characters: ''á, à, â, é, è, ê, í, ì, î, ó, ò, ô, ú, ù, û''. The actual use of diacritics for Filipino is, however, uncommon, meant only to distinguish between
homonym In linguistics, homonyms, broadly defined, are words which are homographs (words that share the same spelling, regardless of pronunciation) or homophones (words that share the same pronunciation, regardless of spelling), or both. For example, acc ...
s with different stresses and meanings that either occur near each other in a text or to aid the reader in ascertaining its otherwise ambiguous meaning. The letter eñe is due to the Spanish alphabet and too, is considered a separate letter. The diacritics appears in Spanish language in the Philippines, Spanish List of loanwords in Tagalog#Spanish, loanwords and Filipino name, names if Spanish orthography is observed. * Finnish alphabet, Finnish. Carons in ''š'' and ''ž'' appear only in foreign proper names and loanwords, but may be substituted with ''sh'' or ''zh'' if and only if it is technically impossible to produce accented letters in the medium. Contrary to Estonian, ''š'' and ''ž'' are not considered distinct letters in Finnish. * French alphabet, French uses five diacritics. The grave (''accent grave'') marks the sound when over an e, as in ''père'' ("father") or is used to distinguish words that are otherwise homographs such as ''a''/''à'' ("has"/"to") or ''ou''/''où'' ("or"/"where"). The
acute Acute may refer to: Science and technology * Acute angle ** Acute triangle ** Acute, a leaf shape in the glossary of leaf morphology#acute, glossary of leaf morphology * Acute (medicine), a disease that it is of short duration and of recent onset. ...

acute
(''accent aigu'') is only used in "é", modifying the "e" to make the sound , as in ''étoile'' ("star"). The
circumflex The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin script, Latin and Greek alphabet, Greek scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and Transcription (linguistics), transcription schemes. It received its E ...
(''accent circonflexe'') generally denotes that an S once followed the vowel in Old French or Latin, as in ''fête'' ("party"), the Old French being ''feste'' and the Latin being ''festum''. Whether the circumflex modifies the vowel's pronunciation depends on the dialect and the vowel. The
cedilla A cedilla ( ; from Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (di ...

cedilla
(''cédille'') indicates that a normally hard "c" (before the vowels "a", "o", and "u") is to be pronounced , as in ''ça'' ("that"). The Diaeresis (diacritic), diaeresis (''tréma'') indicates that two adjacent vowels that would normally be pronounced as one are to be pronounced separately, as in ''Noël'' ("Christmas"). * Galician language, Galician vowels can bear an acute (''á, é, í, ó, ú'') to indicate stress or difference between two otherwise same written words (''é'', 'is' vs. ''e'', 'and'), but the diaeresis (''trema'') is only used with ''ï'' and ''ü'' to show two separate vowel sounds in pronunciation. Only in foreign words may Galician use other diacritics such as ''ç'' (common during the Middle Ages), ''ê'', or ''à''. * German alphabet, German uses the three umlauted characters ''ä'', ''ö'' and ''ü''. These diacritics indicate vowel changes. For instance, the word ''Ofen'' "oven" has the plural ''Öfen'' . The mark originated as a superscript ''e''; a handwritten blackletter ''e'' resembles two parallel vertical lines, like a diaeresis. Due to this history, "ä", "ö" and "ü" can be written as "ae", "oe" and "ue" respectively, if the umlaut letters are not available. * Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew has many various diacritic marks known as ''
niqqud In Hebrew language, Hebrew orthography, niqqud or nikud ( or ) is a system of diacritical signs used to represent vowels or distinguish between alternative pronunciations of letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Several such diacritical systems were ...
'' that are used above and below script to represent vowels. These must be distinguished from Hebrew cantillation, cantillation, which are keys to pronunciation and syntax. * The International Phonetic Alphabet uses diacritic symbols and characters to indicate phonetic features or secondary articulations. * Irish alphabet, Irish uses the acute to indicate that a vowel is vowel length, long: ''á'', ''é'', ''í'', ''ó'', ''ú''. It is known as ''síneadh fada'' "long sign" or simply ''fada'' "long" in Irish. In the older
Gaelic type Gaelic type (sometimes called Irish character, Irish type, or Gaelic script) is a family of Insular script Insular script was a medieval script system invented in Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ...
, overdots are used to indicate
lenition In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langua ...
of a consonant: ''ḃ'', ''ċ'', ''ḋ'', ''ḟ'', ''ġ'', ''ṁ'', ''ṗ'', ''ṡ'', ''ṫ''. * Italian alphabet, Italian mainly has the
acute Acute may refer to: Science and technology * Acute angle ** Acute triangle ** Acute, a leaf shape in the glossary of leaf morphology#acute, glossary of leaf morphology * Acute (medicine), a disease that it is of short duration and of recent onset. ...

acute
and the
grave A grave is a location where a dead body A cadaver or corpse is a dead human body that is used by medical students A medical school is a tertiary educational institution, or part of such an institution, that teaches medicine, and award ...

grave
(''à'', ''è''/''é'', ''ì'', ''ò''/''ó'', ''ù''), typically to indicate a stressed syllable that would not be stressed under the normal rules of pronunciation but sometimes also to distinguish between words that are otherwise spelled the same way (e.g. "e", and; "è", is). Despite its rare use, Italian orthography allows the circumflex (î) too, in two cases: it can be found in old literary context (roughly up to 19th century) to signal a Syncope (phonetics), syncope (fêro→fecero, they did), or in modern Italian to signal the contraction of ″-ii″ due to the plural ending -i whereas the root ends with another -i; e.g., Grammatical number, s. demonio, plural, p. demonii→demonî; in this case the circumflex also signals that the word intended is not demoni, plural of "demone" by shifting the accent (demònî, "devils"; dèmoni, "demons"). * Lithuanian alphabet, Lithuanian uses the Acute accent, acute, Grave accent, grave and
tilde The tilde (
in the American Heritage dictionary
), or , is a

tilde
in dictionaries to indicate stress types in the language's
pitch accent A pitch-accent language is a language that has word accents in which one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a contrasting pitch Pitch may refer to: Acoustic frequency ...
system. * Maltese alphabet, Maltese also uses the grave on its vowels to indicate stress at the end of a word with two syllables or more:– lowercase letters: à, è, ì, ò, ù ; capital letters: À, È, Ì, Ò, Ù * Māori language, Māori makes use of macrons to mark long vowels. * Occitan alphabet, Occitan has the following composite characters: ''á, à, ç, é, è, í, ï, ó, ò, ú, ü, n·h, s·h''. The acute and the grave indicate stress (linguistics), stress and vowel height, the cedilla marks the result of a historical Palatalization (sound change), palatalization, the diaeresis indicates either a hiatus (linguistics), hiatus, or that the letter ''u'' is pronounced when the graphemes ''gü, qü'' are followed by ''e'' or ''i'', and the
interpunct An interpunct, , also known as an interpoint, middle dot, middot and centered dot or centred dot, is a punctuation mark consisting of a vertically centered dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin alphabet, Latin script. (Word-separati ...

interpunct
(·) distinguishes the different values of ''nh/n·h'' and ''sh/s·h'' (i.e., that the letters are supposed to be pronounced separately, not combined into "ny" and "sh"). * Portuguese alphabet, Portuguese has the following composite characters: ''à, á, â, ã, ç, é, ê, í, ó, ô, õ, ú''. The acute and the circumflex indicate stress and vowel height, the grave indicates crasis, the tilde represents nasalization, and the cedilla marks the result of a historical lenition. * Acutes are also used in Slavic language dictionaries and textbooks to indicate lexical stress, placed over the vowel of the stressed syllable. This can also serve to disambiguate meaning (e.g., in Russian писа́ть (''pisáť'') means "to write", but пи́сать (''písať'') means "to piss"), or "бо́льшая часть" (the biggest part) vs "больша́я часть" (the big part). * Spanish alphabet, Spanish uses the acute and the diaeresis. The acute is used on a vowel in a stressed syllable in words with irregular stress patterns. It can also be used to "break up" a diphthong as in ''tío'' (pronounced , rather than as it would be without the accent). Moreover, the acute can be used to distinguish words that otherwise are spelled alike, such as ''si'' ("if") and ''sí'' ("yes"), and also to distinguish interrogative and exclamatory pronouns from homophones with a different grammatical function, such as ''donde/¿dónde?'' ("where"/"where?") or ''como/¿cómo?'' ("as"/"how?"). The acute may also be used to avoid typographical ambiguity, as in ''1 ó 2'' ("1 or 2"; without the acute this might be interpreted as "1 0 2". The diaeresis is used only over ''u'' (''ü'') for it to be pronounced in the combinations ''gue'' and ''gui,'' where ''u'' is normally silent, for example ''ambigüedad.'' In poetry, the diaeresis may be used on ''i'' and ''u'' as a way to force a hiatus. As foreshadowed above, in nasal ''ñ'' the
tilde The tilde (
in the American Heritage dictionary
), or , is a

tilde
(squiggle) is not considered a diacritic sign at all, but a composite part of a distinct glyph, with its own chapter in the dictionary: a glyph that denotes the 15th letter of the Spanish alphabet. * Swedish alphabet, Swedish uses the
acute Acute may refer to: Science and technology * Acute angle ** Acute triangle ** Acute, a leaf shape in the glossary of leaf morphology#acute, glossary of leaf morphology * Acute (medicine), a disease that it is of short duration and of recent onset. ...

acute
to show non-standard stress, for example in (café) and (résumé). This occasionally helps resolve ambiguities, such as ''ide'' (hibernation) versus ''idé'' (idea). In these words, the acute is not optional. Some proper names use non-standard diacritics, such as Carolina Klüft and Staël von Holstein. For foreign loanwords the original accents are strongly recommended, unless the word has been infused into the language, in which case they are optional. Hence ''crème fraîche'' but ''ampere''. Swedish also has the letters ''å'', ''ä'', and ''ö'', but these are considered distinct letters, not ''a'' and ''o'' with diacritics. * Tamil alphabet, Tamil does not have any diacritics in itself, but uses the Arabic numerals 2, 3 and 4 as diacritics to represent aspirated, voiced, and voiced-aspirated consonants when Tamil script is used to write long passages in Sanskrit. * Thai alphabet, Thai has its Thai script#Diacritics, own system of diacritics derived from Indian numerals, which denote different tone (linguistics), tones. * Vietnamese alphabet, Vietnamese uses the acute (''dấu sắc''), the grave (''dấu huyền''), the tilde (''dấu ngã''), the underdot (''dấu nặng'') and the hoi (''dấu hỏi'') on vowels as Tone (linguistics), tone indicators. * Welsh alphabet, Welsh uses the circumflex, diaeresis, acute, and grave on its seven vowels ''a, e, i, o, u, w, y''. The most common is the circumflex (which it calls ''to bach'', meaning "little roof", or ''acen grom'' "crooked accent", or ''hirnod'' "long sign") to denote a long vowel, usually to disambiguate it from a similar word with a short vowel. The rarer grave accent has the opposite effect, shortening vowel sounds that would usually be pronounced long. The acute accent and diaeresis are also occasionally used, to denote stress and vowel separation respectively. The ''w''-circumflex and the ''y''-circumflex are among the most commonly accented characters in Welsh, but unusual in languages generally, and were until recently very hard to obtain in word-processed and HTML documents.


Transliteration

Several languages that are not written with the Roman alphabet are transliteration, transliterated, or romanized, using diacritics. Examples: * Arabic has several Arabic romanization#Comparison table, romanisations, depending on the type of the application, region, intended audience, country, etc. many of them extensively use diacritics, e.g., some methods use an underdot for rendering emphatic consonants (ṣ, ṭ, ḍ, ẓ, ḥ). The macron is often used to render long vowels. š is often used for , ġ for . * Chinese language, Chinese has several Romanization of Chinese, romanizations that use the umlaut, but only on ''u'' (''ü''). In Pinyin#Usage, Hanyu Pinyin, the four Tone (linguistics), tones of Standard Chinese, Mandarin Chinese are denoted by the macron (first tone), acute (second tone), caron (third tone) and grave (fourth tone) diacritics. Example: ''ā, á, ǎ, à''. * Romanized Japanese language, Japanese (Rōmaji) occasionally uses macrons to mark long vowels. The Hepburn romanization system uses Macron (diacritic), macrons to mark long vowels, and the Kunrei-shiki romanization, Kunrei-shiki and Nihon-shiki systems use a
circumflex The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin script, Latin and Greek alphabet, Greek scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and Transcription (linguistics), transcription schemes. It received its E ...
. * Sanskrit, as well as many of its descendants, like
Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, North India. Hindi has been described as a Standard la ...

Hindi
and Bengali language, Bengali, uses a lossless transliteration, romanization system, International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, IAST. This includes several letters with diacritical markings, such as the macron (ā, ī, ū), over- and underdots (ṛ, ḥ, ṃ, ṇ, ṣ, ṭ, ḍ) as well as a few others (ś, ñ).


Limits


Orthographic

Possibly the greatest number of combining diacritics ''required'' to compose a valid character in any Unicode language is 8, for the "well-known grapheme cluster in Tibetan and Ranjana scripts",ཧྐྵྨླྺྼྻྂ, or HAKṢHMALAWARAYAṀ. It is U+0F67 U+0F90 U+0FB5 U+0FA8 U+0FB3 U+0FBA U+0FBC U+0FBB U+0F82, or:
TIBETAN LETTER HA + TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER KA + TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER SSA + TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER MA + TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER LA + TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER FIXED-FORM WA + TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER FIXED-FORM RA + TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER FIXED-FORM YA + TIBETAN SIGN NYI ZLA NAA DA.


Unorthographic/ornamental

Some users have explored the limits of rendering in web browsers and other software by "decorating" words with multiple nonsensical diacritics per character. The result is called "Zalgo text". The composed bogus characters and words can be copied and pasted normally via the system clipboard.


Example: c̳̻͚̻̩̻͉̯̄̏͑̋͆̎͐ͬ͑͌́͢h̵͔͈͍͇̪̯͇̞͖͇̜͉̪̪̤̙ͧͣ̓̐̓ͤ͋͒ͥ͑̆͒̓͋̑́͞ǎ̡̮̤̤̬͚̝͙̞͎̇ͧ͆͊ͅo̴̲̺͓̖͖͉̜̟̗̮̳͉̻͉̫̯̫̍̋̿̒͌̃̂͊̏̈̏̿ͧ́ͬ̌ͥ̇̓̀͢͜s̵̵̘̹̜̝̘̺̙̻̠̱͚̤͓͚̠͙̝͕͆̿̽ͥ̃͠͡


See also

* Latin-script alphabets * Alt code * :Letters with diacritics * Collating sequence * Combining character * Compose key * English terms with diacritical marks * Heavy metal umlaut * ISO/IEC 8859 8-bit extended-Latin-alphabet European character encodings * Latin alphabet * List of Latin letters * List of precomposed Latin characters in Unicode * List of U.S. cities with diacritics * Romanization * wikt:Appendix:English words with diacritics


References


External links


Context of Diacritics , A research project

Diacritics Project

Unicode


* [http://www.elisanet.fi/mlang/strip.html Notes on the use of the diacritics, by Markus Lång]
Entering International Characters (in Linux, KDE)

Standard Character Set for Macintosh
PDF at Adobe.com {{Typography terms Diacritics, * Punctuation Typography