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The Channel Islands ( nrf, Îles d'la Manche; french: îles Anglo-Normandes or ''îles de la Manche'') are an
archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as ...

archipelago
in the
English Channel The English Channel,, "The Sleeve"; nrf, la Maunche, "The Sleeve" (Cotentinais Cotentinais is the dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two ...

English Channel
, off the French coast of
Normandy Normandy (; french: link=no, Normandie ; nrf, Normaundie; from Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, ...

Normandy
. They include two
Crown Dependencies#REDIRECT Crown Dependencies The Crown dependencies (french: Dépendances de la Couronne; gv, Croghaneyn-crooin) are three island territories off the coast of Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off t ...

Crown Dependencies
: the
Bailiwick of Jersey A bailiwick () is usually the area of jurisdiction of a bailiff, and once also applied to territories in which a privately appointed bailiff exercised the sheriff's functions under a royal or imperial writ. In English language, English the origina ...

Bailiwick of Jersey
, which is the largest of the islands; and the
Bailiwick of Guernsey The Bailiwick of Guernsey (french: Bailliage de Guernesey; Guernésiais Guernésiais, also known as ''Dgèrnésiais'', Guernsey French, and Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of the Norman language spoken in Guernsey. It is sometimes known ...

Bailiwick of Guernsey
, consisting of
Guernsey Guernsey (; Guernésiais Guernésiais, also known as ''Dgèrnésiais'', Guernsey French, and Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of the Norman language Norman or Norman French (', french: Normand, Guernésiais: ''Normand'', Jèrriais: ...

Guernsey
,
Alderney Alderney (; french: Aurigny ; Auregnais: ''Aoeur'gny'') is the northernmost of the inhabited Channel Islands. It is part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey, a British Crown Dependencies, Crown dependency. It is long and wide. The island's area ...

Alderney
,
Sark Sark (french: link=no, Sercq, ; : ' or ') is a part of the in the southwestern , off the coast of , . It is a royal , which forms part of the , with its own set of laws based on and its own parliament. It has a population of about 500. Sark ...

Sark
,
Herm Herm (: ''Haerme'', ultimately from ''arms'' "arm", due to the shape of the island, or Old French ''eremite'' "hermit") is one of the and part of the in the . It is located in the , north-west of France and south of England. It is long and ...

Herm
and some smaller islands. They are considered the remnants of the
Duchy of Normandy The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizati ...

Duchy of Normandy
and, although they are not part of the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shorth ...

United Kingdom
, the UK is responsible for the defence and international relations of the islands. The Crown dependencies are not members of the
Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations, generally known simply as the Commonwealth, is a political association of 54 member states, almost all of which are former territories A territory is an administrative division, usually an area that is under the ...

Commonwealth of Nations
, nor have they ever been in the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
. They have a total population of about , and the bailiwicks'
capitals Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter, an upper-case letter in any type of writing * Capital city, the area of a country, province, region, or state, regarded as enjoying primary status, usually but not always the seat of the governm ...
,
Saint Helier St. Helier (; Jèrriais (french: Jersiais, also known as the Jersey Language, Jersey French and Jersey Norman French in English) is a Romance languages, Romance language and the traditional language of the Jersey people. It is a form of ...
and
Saint Peter Port Saint Peter Port is the capital of Guernsey ) , song = , song_type = , image_map = , mapsize = 290px , map_alt = Location of Guernsey , map_caption = , image_map2 = Guernsey-Guernsey.png , mapsize2 = 290px , map_alt2 = Map of Guer ...
, have populations of 33,500 and 18,207, respectively. "Channel Islands" is a geographical term, not a political unit. The two
bailiwick A bailiwick () is usually the area of jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area a ...
s have been administered separately since the late 13th century. Each has its own independent laws, elections, and representative bodies (although in modern times, politicians from the islands' legislatures are in regular contact). Any institution common to both is the exception rather than the rule. The Bailiwick of Guernsey is divided into three jurisdictions – Guernsey, Alderney and Sark – each with its own
legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted with the Executive (government), executive and Judiciary, ...
. Although there are a few pan-island institutions (such as the Channel Islands office to the EU in Brussels, which is actually a joint venture between the bailiwicks), these tend to be established structurally as equal projects between Guernsey and Jersey. Otherwise, entities proclaiming membership of both Guernsey and Jersey might in fact be from one bailiwick only. For instance, the Channel Islands Securities Exchange is in Saint Peter Port and therefore is in Guernsey. The term "Channel Islands" began to be used around 1830, possibly first by the
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
as a collective name for the islands. The term refers only to the archipelago to the west of the
Cotentin Peninsula The Cotentin Peninsula (, ; nrf, Cotentîn ), also known as the Cherbourg Peninsula, is a peninsula in Normandy Normandy (; french: link=no, Normandie ; nrf, Normaundie; from Old French , plural of ''Normant'', originally from the word for "n ...

Cotentin Peninsula
. Other populated islands located in the English Channel, such as The Isle of Wight,
Hayling Island Hayling Island is an island off the south coast of England, in the borough of Havant (borough), Havant in the county of Hampshire, east of Portsmouth. History An Iron Age shrine in the north of Hayling Island was later developed into a Roman t ...
and
Portsea Island Portsea Island is a flat, low-lying island in area, just off the southern coast of England in the county of Hampshire, which contains the majority of the city of Portsmouth. Portsea Island has the third-largest population of all the isla ...
, are not regarded as "Channel Islands".


Geography

The two major islands are Jersey and Guernsey. They make up 99% of the population and 92% of the area.


List of islands


Names

The names of the larger islands in the archipelago in general have the ''-ey'' suffix, whilst those of the smaller ones have the ''
-hou ''-hou'' or ''hou'' is a place-name element found commonly in the Norman toponymyPlacenames in Normandy have a variety of origins. Some belong to the common heritage of the Langue d'oïl extension zone in northern France and Belgium; this is call ...
'' suffix. These are believed to be from the
Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skades ...
''ey'' (island) and ''holmr'' (islet).


The Chausey Islands

The
Chausey Chausey () is a group of small islands, islets and rocks off the coast of Normandy Normandy (; french: link=no, Normandie ; nrf, Normaundie; from Old French , plural of ''Normant'', originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavi ...

Chausey
Islands south of Jersey are not generally included in the geographical definition of the Channel Islands but are occasionally described in English as 'French Channel Islands' in view of their French jurisdiction. They were historically linked to the Duchy of Normandy, but they are part of the French territory along with continental Normandy, and not part of the
British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands in the North Atlantic off the north-western coast of continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

British Isles
or of the Channel Islands in a political sense. They are an incorporated part of the commune of Granville (
Manche Manche (, ) is a coastal in , on the , which is known as ''La Manche'', literally "the sleeve", in French. History Manche is one of the original 83 departments created during the on March 4, 1790. It was created from part of the province ...

Manche
). While they are popular with visitors from France, Channel Islanders can only visit them by private or charter boats as there are no direct transport links from the other islands. In official Jersey Standard French, the Channel Islands are called 'Îles de la Manche', while in France, the term 'Îles Anglo-normandes' (Anglo-Norman Isles) is used to refer to the British 'Channel Islands' in contrast to other islands in the Channel. Chausey is referred to as an 'Île normande' (as opposed to ''anglo-normande''). 'Îles Normandes' and 'Archipel Normand' have also, historically, been used in Channel Island French to refer to the islands as a whole.


Waters

The very large tidal variation provides an environmentally rich inter-tidal zone around the islands, and some islands such as
Burhou Burhou (pronounced ''ber-ROO'') is a small island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can ...
, the
Écréhous The Écréhous (or in Jèrriais: ''Êcrého'') are a group of islands and rocks situated six miles (9.6 km) north-east of Jersey, and eight miles (12.8 km) from France. They form part of the Bailiwick of Jersey and are administratively pa ...
, and the
Minquiers The Minquiers (''Les Minquiers''; in Jèrriais (french: Jersiais, also known as the Jersey Language, Jersey French and Jersey Norman French in English) is a Romance languages, Romance language and the traditional language of the Jersey people. ...
have been designated
Ramsar sites This is the list of wetlands of international importance as defined by the Ramsar Convention The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat is an international treaty A treaty is a formal le ...
. The waters around the islands include the following: *
The Swinge The Swinge is the strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrowing, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. The surface water generally flows at the same elevation on both sides and through the strait in either ...
(between Alderney and Burhou) * The Little Swinge (between Burhou and Les Nannels) * La Déroute (between Jersey and Sark, and Jersey and the Cotentin) * Le Raz Blanchard, or Race of Alderney (between Alderney and the Cotentin) * The Great Russel (between Sark, Jéthou and Herm) * The
Little Russel Image:Herm Jethou over roofs Guernsey.jpg, A view from the rooftops of St Peter Port across the Little Russel to Herm and Jethou The Little Roussel, also known as the Petit Ruau or Little Russel, is a channel (geography), channel running between th ...
(between Guernsey, Herm and Jéthou) * Souachehouais (between Le Rigdon and L'Étacq, Jersey) * Le Gouliot (between Sark and Brecqhou) * La Percée (between Herm and Jéthou)


Highest point

The highest point in the islands is Les Platons in Jersey at 143 metres (469 ft) above sea level. The lowest point is the English Channel (sea level).


Climate


History


Prehistory

The earliest evidence of human occupation of the Channel Islands has been dated to 250,000 years ago when they were attached to the landmass of continental Europe. The islands became detached by
rising sea levels Tide gauge measurements show that the current global sea level rise began at the start of the 20th century. Between 1900 and 2017, the globally averaged sea level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average In colloquia ...

rising sea levels
in the Neolithic period. The numerous
dolmen A dolmen () is a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb A megalith is a large pre-historic stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. There are over 35,000 in Europe alone, l ...

dolmen
s and other archaeological sites extant and recorded in history demonstrate the existence of a population large enough and organised enough to undertake constructions of considerable size and sophistication, such as the burial mound at
La Hougue Bie La Hougue Bie is a historic site, with museum, in the Jersey Jersey ( , ; nrf, label= Jèrriais, Jèrri ), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (french: Bailliage de Jersey, links=no; Jèrriais: ''Bailliage dé Jèrri''), is an island and self- ...
in Jersey or the
statue menhir A statue menhir is a type of carved standing stone A megalith is a large pre-historic stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones. There are over 35,000 in Europe alone, located wid ...
s of Guernsey.


From the Iron Age

Hoards of
Armorica Armorica or Aremorica ( br, Arvorig, ) is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul between the Seine and the Loire that includes the Brittany Peninsula, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic Coast. Name ...

Armorica
n coins have been excavated, providing evidence of trade and contact in the
Iron Age The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory Prehistory, also known as pre-literary history, is the period of human history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's pa ...
period. Evidence for Roman settlement is sparse, although evidently the islands were visited by Roman officials and traders. The Roman name for the Channel Islands was ''I. Lenuri'' (Lenur Islands) and is included in the
Peutinger Table ' (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it ...

Peutinger Table
The traditional Latin names used for the islands (Caesarea for Jersey, Sarnia for Guernsey, Riduna for Alderney) derive (possibly mistakenly) from the
Antonine Itinerary The Antonine Itinerary ( la, Itinerarium Antonini Augusti,  "The Itinerary of the Emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of im ...
. Gallo-Roman culture was adopted to an unknown extent in the islands. In the sixth century, Christian missionaries visited the islands.
Samson of Dol Samson of Dol (also Samsun; born late 5th century) was a Christian religious figure, who is counted among the seven founder saints of Brittany with Pol Aurelian, Saint Tudwal, Tugdual or Tudwal, Brieuc, Saint Malo (saint), Malo, Saint Patern, ...
,
Helier Saint Helier (died 555) was a 6th-century ascetic hermit A hermit, or eremite (adjectival form In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as wel ...
,
Marculffile:Saint Marculphe et le Roi de France.jpg, Marcouf giving the cure to the king. Saint Marcouf (variously spelled ''Marcoult'', ''Marculf'', ''Marcoul'', ''Marcou''), Abbot of Nantus (Nanteuil-en-Cotentin) in the Cotentin, was born in the Saxon co ...
and
Magloire Magloire, better known as Saint Magloire of Dol, is a Brittany, Breton saint. Little reliable information is known of Magloire as the earliest written sources appeared three centuries after his death. These sources claim that he was a monk from ...

Magloire
are among saints associated with the islands. In the sixth century, they were already included in the
diocese of Coutances The Roman Catholic Diocese of Coutances (–Avranches) (Latin: ''Dioecesis Constantiensis (–Abrincensis)''; French language, French: ''Diocèse de Coutances (–Avranches)'') is a diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in France. Its Cathedral, mo ...
where they remained until the Reformation. There were probably some
Celtic Britons The Britons ( la, Pritani), also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons were the Celtic people The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C. ...
who settled on the Islands in the 5th and 6th centuries AD (the indigenous Celts of
Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of , it is the largest of the British Isles, the List of European islands by area, largest European island, and the List of i ...

Great Britain
, and the ancestors of the modern
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...
,
Cornish Cornish is the adjective and demonym associated with Cornwall, the most southwesterly part of the United Kingdom. It may refer to: * Cornish language, a Brittonic Southwestern Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, spoken in Cornwall ...
, and
Bretons The Bretons ( br, Bretoned, ) are a Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period ...
) who had emigrated from Great Britain in the face of invading
Anglo-Saxons The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Cultural identity is a part of a person's identity Identity may refer to: Social sciences * Identity (social science), personhood or group affiliation in psychology and sociology Group expression ...
. But there were not enough of them to leave any trace, and the islands continued to be ruled by the king of the Franks and its church remained part of the
diocese of Coutances The Roman Catholic Diocese of Coutances (–Avranches) (Latin: ''Dioecesis Constantiensis (–Abrincensis)''; French language, French: ''Diocèse de Coutances (–Avranches)'') is a diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in France. Its Cathedral, mo ...
. From the beginning of the ninth century,
Norse Norse is demonym for Norsemen, a medieval North Germanic ethnolinguistic group ancestral to modern Scandinavians, defined as speakers of Old Norse from about the 9th to the 13th centuries. Norse may also refer to: Culture and religion * Norse m ...

Norse
raiders Raider(s) may refer to: Sports teams Australia * Adelaide Raiders, a football (soccer) club in Adelaide, South Australia * Canberra Raiders, a National Rugby League team based in Canberra * Toowoomba Raiders FC, a football (soccer) club from Toow ...

raiders
appeared on the coasts. Norse settlement eventually succeeded initial attacks, and it is from this period that many place names of Norse origin appear, including the modern names of the islands.


From the Duchy of Normandy

In 933, the islands were granted to
William I Longsword William Longsword (french: Guillaume Longue-Épée, la, Willermus Longa Spata, on, Vilhjálmr Langaspjót; c. 893 – 17 December 942) was the second ruler of Normandy Normandy (; french: link=no, Normandie ; nrf, Normaundie; from Old Fre ...
by
Raoul
Raoul
King of Western Francia and annexed to the
Duchy of Normandy The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizati ...

Duchy of Normandy
. In 1066,
William II of Normandy William I (c. 1028Bates ''William the Conqueror'' p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first House of Normandy, Norman List of English monarchs, monarch of Engla ...

William II of Normandy
invaded and conquered England, becoming William I of England, also known as William the Conqueror. In the period 1204–1214,
King John of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg, Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen re ...

King John
lost the Angevin lands in northern France, including mainland Normandy, to
King Philip II of France
King Philip II of France
, but managed to retain control of the Channel Islands. In 1259, his successor,
Henry III of England Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272), also known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death in 1272. The son of John, King of England, King John and Isabella o ...

Henry III of England
, by the Treaty of Paris, officially surrendered his claim and title to the Duchy of Normandy, while the King of France gave up claim to the Channel Islands, which was based upon his position as feudal overlord of the Duke of Normandy. Since then, the Channel Islands have been governed as possessions of
the Crown The Crown is the state (polity), state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their subdivisions (such as the Crown Dependencies, British Overseas Territories, overseas territories, Provinces and territorie ...

the Crown
and were never absorbed into the
Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or ...

Kingdom of England
and its successor kingdoms of Great Britain and the United Kingdom. The islands were invaded by the French in 1338, who held some territory until 1345.
Edward III of England Edward III (13 November 1312 – 21 June 1377), also known as Edward of Windsor before his accession, was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England (Latin Latin (, or , ) is ...

Edward III of England
granted a Charter in July 1341 to Jersey, Guernsey, Sark and Alderney, confirming their customs and laws to secure allegiance to the English Crown.
Owain Lawgoch Owain Lawgoch ( en, Owain of the Red Hand, french: Yvain de Galles), full name Owain ap Thomas ap Rhodri ( – July 1378), was a Wales, Welsh soldier who served in Spain, France, Alsace, and Switzerland. He led a Free Company fighting for the French ...
, a mercenary leader of a Free Company in the service of the French Crown, attacked Jersey and Guernsey in 1372, and in 1373
Bertrand du Guesclin Bertrand du Guesclin (c. 1320 – 13 July 1380), nicknamed "The Eagle of Brittany" or "The Black Dog of Brocéliande", was a Breton Breton most often refers to: *anything associated with Brittany Brittany (; french: link=no, Bretagne ; br ...

Bertrand du Guesclin
besieged Mont Orgueil. The young King
Richard II of England Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400), also known as Richard of Bordeaux, was King of England This list of kings and queens of the begins with , who initially ruled , one of the which later made up modern England. Al ...

Richard II of England
reconfirmed in 1378 the Charter rights granted by his grandfather, followed in 1394 with a second Charter granting, because of great loyalty shown to the Crown, exemption for ever, from English tolls, customs and duties. Jersey was occupied by the French in 1461 as part of an exchange of helping the Lancastrians fight against the Yorkists during
The War of the Roses The Wars of the Roses were a series of fifteenth-century English civil wars for control of the throne of England, fought between supporters of two rival cadet branches of the royal House of Plantagenet: the House of Lancaster, represented by a ...
. It was retaken by the Yorkists in 1468. In 1483 a
Papal bull A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Catholic Church. It is named after the leaden Seal (emblem), seal (''bulla (seal), bulla'') that was traditionally appended to the end in order to auth ...
decreed that the islands would be neutral during time of war. This privilege of neutrality enabled islanders to trade with both France and England and was respected until 1689 when it was abolished by
Order in Council An Order in Council is a type of legislation in many countries, especially the Commonwealth realm A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state that has Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state. Each realm functions as an independent state, ...
following the
Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution of November 1688 ( ga, An Réabhlóid Ghlórmhar; gd, Rèabhlaid Ghlòrmhor; cy, Chwyldro Gogoneddus), the invasion also known as the ''Glorieuze Overtocht'' or Glorious Crossing by the Dutch, was the deposition of ...
in Great Britain. Various attempts to transfer the islands from the diocese of Coutances (to Nantes (1400), Salisbury (1496), and Winchester (1499)) had little effect until an Order in Council of 1569 brought the islands formally into the
diocese of Winchester The Diocese of Winchester forms part of the Province of Canterbury The Province of Canterbury, or less formally the Southern Province, is one of two ecclesiastical provinces which constitute the Church of England The Church of England (C ...
. Control by the bishop of Winchester was ineffectual as the islands had turned overwhelmingly
Calvinist Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, A ...
and the episcopacy was not restored until 1620 in Jersey and 1663 in Guernsey. Sark in the 16th century was uninhabited until colonised from Jersey in the 1560s. The grant of
seigneur ''Seigneur'' (English: ''Seigneur''; ''Lord Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power (social and political), power over others, acting as a master, a chief, or a ruler. The appellation can also deno ...

seigneur
ship from
Elizabeth I of England Elizabeth I (7 September 153324 March 1603) was Queen regnant of England, Queen of England and Queen regnant of Ireland, Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death in 1603. Sometimes referred to as the Virgin Queen, Elizabeth was the last ...

Elizabeth I of England
in 1565 forms the basis of Sark's constitution today.


From the seventeenth century

During the
Wars of the Three Kingdoms The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, sometimes known as the British Civil Wars, were an intertwined series of conflicts that took place between 1639 and 1653 in the kingdoms of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country tha ...
, Jersey held out strongly for the Royalist cause, providing refuge for
Charles, Prince of Wales Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of ind ...

Charles, Prince of Wales
in 1646 and 1649–1650, while the more strongly
Presbyterian Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of ...
Guernsey more generally favoured the parliamentary cause (although
Castle Cornet Castle Cornet is a large island castle in Guernsey, and former tidal island, also known as Cornet Rock or Castle Rock. Its importance was as a defence not only of the island, but of the roadstead. In 1859 it became part of one of the breakwaters of ...

Castle Cornet
was held by Royalists and did not surrender until October 1651). The islands acquired commercial and political interests in the North American colonies. Islanders became involved with the
Newfoundland Newfoundland and Labrador (, ) is the easternmost provinces and territories of Canada, province of Canada, in the country's Atlantic Canada, Atlantic region. It is composed of the island of Newfoundland (island), Newfoundland and the continental ...
fisheries in the seventeenth century. In recognition for all the help given to him during his exile in Jersey in the 1640s, gave
George Carteret Vice Admiral Sir George Carteret, 1st Baronet (161018 January 1680 N.S.) was a royalist statesman in Jersey Jersey ( , ; nrf, label= Jèrriais, Jèrri ), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (french: Bailliage de Jersey, links=no; Jèrriai ...
, Bailiff and governor, a large grant of land in the American colonies, which he promptly named
New Jersey New Jersey is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic States, Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern United States, Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York (state), New York; on the ea ...
, now part of the United States of America.
Sir Edmund Andros Sir Edmund Andros (6 December 1637 – 24 February 1714) was an English colonial administrator in British America. He was the governor of the Dominion of New England during most of its three-year existence. At other times, Andros served a ...

Sir Edmund Andros
of Guernsey was an early colonial governor in North America, and head of the short-lived
Dominion of New England The Dominion of New England in America (1686–1689) was an administrative union of English colonies covering New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New ...
. In the late eighteenth century, the Islands were dubbed "the French Isles". Wealthy French émigrés fleeing the
Revolution In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, suc ...

Revolution
sought residency in the islands. Many of the town domiciles existing today were built in that time. In
Saint Peter Port Saint Peter Port is the capital of Guernsey ) , song = , song_type = , image_map = , mapsize = 290px , map_alt = Location of Guernsey , map_caption = , image_map2 = Guernsey-Guernsey.png , mapsize2 = 290px , map_alt2 = Map of Guer ...
, a large part of the harbour had been built by 1865.


20th century


World War II

The islands were the only part of the
British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands in the North Atlantic off the north-western coast of continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

British Isles
to be occupied by the
German Army The German Army () is the land component of the armed forces of Federal Republic of Germany, Germany. The present-day German Army was founded in 1955 as part of the newly formed West German ''Bundeswehr'' together with the German Navy, ''Marine' ...
during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. The
British Government The Government of the United Kingdom, domestically referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
demilitarised the islands in June 1940, and the lieutenant-governors were withdrawn on 21 June, leaving the insular administrations to continue government as best they could under impending military occupation. Before German troops landed, between 30 June and 4 July 1940, evacuation took place. Many young men had already left to join the Allied armed forces, as volunteers. 6,600 out of 50,000 left Jersey while 17,000 out of 42,000 left Guernsey. Thousands of children were evacuated with their schools to
England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east and the to the south. The country cover ...

England
and
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
. The population of Sark largely remained where they were; but in
Alderney Alderney (; french: Aurigny ; Auregnais: ''Aoeur'gny'') is the northernmost of the inhabited Channel Islands. It is part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey, a British Crown Dependencies, Crown dependency. It is long and wide. The island's area ...

Alderney
, all but six people left. In Alderney, the occupying Germans built four camps in which over 700 people out of a total worker population of about 6,000 died. Due to the destruction of documents, it is impossible to state how many forced workers died in the other islands. Alderney had the only Nazi concentration camps on
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, ...

British
soil. The
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
blockade A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material Materiel or matériel (pronounced , from french: matériel, lit=equipment, hardware) refers to supplies, equipment, and weapons in military supply-chain management, and typically su ...
d the islands from time to time, particularly following the
Invasion of Normandy Operation Overlord was the codename for the Battle of Normandy, the Allied An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or sovereign state, states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, wh ...
in June 1944. There was considerable hunger and privation during the five years of German occupation, particularly in the final months when the population was close to starvation. Intense negotiations resulted in some humanitarian aid being sent via the
Red Cross The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international movement with approximately 97 million , members and staff worldwide, which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to ...

Red Cross
, leading to the arrival of
Red Cross parcel Red Cross parcel refers to packages containing mostly food, tobacco and personal hygiene items sent by the Red Cross, International Association of the Red Cross to Prisoner of war, prisoners of war during the World War I, First and World War II, S ...

Red Cross parcel
s in the supply ship SS Vega in December 1944. The German occupation of 1940–45 was harsh: over 2,000 Islanders were deported by the Germans,''The German Occupation of the Channel Islands'', Cruikshank, Oxford 1975 some Jews were sent to
concentration camps Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges. The term is especially used for the confinement "of enemy citizens in war War is an intense armed conflict between states ...
; partisan resistance and retribution, accusations of
collaboration Collaboration is the process of two or more people, entities or organizations working together to complete a task or achieve a goal. Collaboration is similar to cooperation. Most collaboration requires leadership Leadership is both a researc ...
, and slave labour also occurred. Many Spaniards, initially refugees from the
Spanish Civil War The Spanish Civil War ( es, Guerra Civil Española)) or The Revolution ( es, La Revolución) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War ( es, Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlism, Carlists, and The Rebellion ( es, La Rebelión) or Uprising ( ...

Spanish Civil War
, were brought to the islands to build
fortification A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and is also used to establish rule in a region during peacetime. The term is derived from Latin ''fortis'' ("strong") and ''facere'' ( ...

fortification
s. Later,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
ns and
Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of with both ...

Central Europe
ans continued the work. Many
land mine A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it. Such a device is typically detonated automatical ...
s were laid, with 65,718 land mines laid in Jersey alone. There was no
resistance movement A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability. It may seek to achieve its objectives t ...
in the Channel Islands on the scale of that in mainland France. This has been ascribed to a range of factors including the physical separation of the Islands, the density of troops (up to one German for every two Islanders), the small size of the Islands precluding any hiding places for
resistance Resistance may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Comics * Either of two similarly named but otherwise unrelated comic book series, both published by Wildstorm: ** ''Resistance'' (comics), based on the video game of the same title ** ''Th ...
groups, and the absence of the
Gestapo The (), abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phrase; for e ...

Gestapo
from the occupying forces. Moreover, much of the population of military age had joined the British Army already. The end of the occupation came after
VE-Day Victory in Europe Day is the day celebrating the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of German Instrument of Surrender, Germany's unconditional surrender of Wehrmacht, its armed forces on Tuesday, 8 May 1945, marking the end of World W ...
on 8 May 1945, Jersey and Guernsey being liberated on 9 May. The German garrison in Alderney was left until 16 May, and it was one of the last of the
Nazi German Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...
remnants to surrender. The first evacuees returned on the first sailing from Great Britain on 23 June, but the people of Alderney were unable to start returning until December 1945. Many of the evacuees who returned home had difficulty reconnecting with their families after five years of separation.


Post-1945

Following the liberation of 1945, reconstruction led to a transformation of the economies of the islands, attracting immigration and developing tourism. The legislatures were reformed and non-party governments embarked on social programmes, aided by the incomes from
offshore finance An offshore financial centre or OFC is defined as a "country or jurisdiction that provides financial services to nonresidents on a scale that is incommensurate with the size and the financing of its domestic economy." "Offshore" does not ref ...
, which grew rapidly from the 1960s. The islands decided not to join the
European Economic Community The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organization and Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece ...

European Economic Community
when the UK joined, and remain outside. Since the 1990s, declining profitability of agriculture and tourism has challenged the governments of the islands.


Flag gallery

File:Flag of Jersey.svg, Flag of
Jersey Jersey ( , ; nrf, label=Jèrriais, Jèrri ), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (french: Bailliage de Jersey, links=no; Jèrriais: ''Bailliage dé Jèrri''), is an island and self-governing Crown dependencies, Crown Dependency near the coas ...

Jersey
File:Flag of Guernsey.svg, Flag of
Guernsey Guernsey (; Guernésiais Guernésiais, also known as ''Dgèrnésiais'', Guernsey French, and Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of the Norman language Norman or Norman French (', french: Normand, Guernésiais: ''Normand'', Jèrriais: ...

Guernsey
File:Flag of Alderney.svg, Flag of
Alderney Alderney (; french: Aurigny ; Auregnais: ''Aoeur'gny'') is the northernmost of the inhabited Channel Islands. It is part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey, a British Crown Dependencies, Crown dependency. It is long and wide. The island's area ...

Alderney
File:Flag of Sark.svg, Flag of
Sark Sark (french: link=no, Sercq, ; : ' or ') is a part of the in the southwestern , off the coast of , . It is a royal , which forms part of the , with its own set of laws based on and its own parliament. It has a population of about 500. Sark ...

Sark
File:Flag of Herm.svg, Flag of
Herm Herm (: ''Haerme'', ultimately from ''arms'' "arm", due to the shape of the island, or Old French ''eremite'' "hermit") is one of the and part of the in the . It is located in the , north-west of France and south of England. It is long and ...

Herm
File:Flag of Brecqhou.svg, Flag of
Brecqhou Brecqhou (or Brechou; ) is one of the Channel Islands, located off the west coast of Sark where they are now geographically detached from each other. Brecqhou is politically part of both Sark and the Bailiwick of Guernsey. It has been established ...


Governance

The Channel Islands fall into two separate
self-governing __NOTOC__ Self-governance, self-government, or self-rule is the ability of a person or group to exercise all necessary functions of regulation Regulation is the management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends. In syste ...
bailiwick A bailiwick () is usually the area of jurisdiction Jurisdiction (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area a ...
s, the
Bailiwick of Guernsey The Bailiwick of Guernsey (french: Bailliage de Guernesey; Guernésiais Guernésiais, also known as ''Dgèrnésiais'', Guernsey French, and Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of the Norman language spoken in Guernsey. It is sometimes known ...

Bailiwick of Guernsey
and the
Bailiwick of Jersey A bailiwick () is usually the area of jurisdiction of a bailiff, and once also applied to territories in which a privately appointed bailiff exercised the sheriff's functions under a royal or imperial writ. In English language, English the origina ...

Bailiwick of Jersey
. Both are
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity and common culture * British English, ...

British
Crown dependencies#REDIRECT Crown Dependencies The Crown dependencies (french: Dépendances de la Couronne; gv, Croghaneyn-crooin) are three island territories off the coast of Great Britain Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off t ...

Crown dependencies
, and neither is a part of the United Kingdom. They have been parts of the
Duchy of Normandy The Duchy of Normandy grew out of the 911 Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizati ...

Duchy of Normandy
since the tenth century, and
Queen Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy A constitutional mo ...

Queen Elizabeth II
is often referred to by her traditional and conventional title of
Duke of Normandy In the Middle Ages, the Duke of Normandy was the ruler of the Duchy of Normandy in north-western Kingdom of France, France. The duchy arose out of a grant of land to the Viking leader Rollo by the French king Charles the Simple, Charles III in 911 ...
. However, pursuant to the
Treaty of Paris (1259) The Treaty of Paris (also known as the Treaty of Albeville) was a treaty A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizatio ...
, she governs in her right as The Queen (the "Crown in right of Jersey", and the "Crown in right of the ''république'' of the Bailiwick of Guernsey"), and not as the Duke. This notwithstanding, it is a matter of local pride for monarchists to treat the situation otherwise: the
Loyal toast A dinner hosted by John Craig Eaton at the King Edward Hotel in Toronto in 1919; the Loyal Toast would have been given to King George V A loyal toast is a salute given to the head of state of the country in which a formal gathering is being given, ...
at formal dinners is to 'The Queen, our Duke', rather than to 'Her Majesty, The Queen' as in the UK. A bailiwick is a territory administered by a bailiff. Although the words derive from a common root ('bail' = 'to give charge of') there is a vast difference between the meanings of the word 'bailiff' in Great Britain and in the Channel Islands; a bailiff in Britain is a court-appointed private debt-collector authorised to collect judgment debts, in the Channel Islands, the
Bailiff A bailiff (from baillif, ''baillis'', ''bail'' "custody, charge, office"; , based on the adjectival form, baiulivus, of Latin ''bajulus'', carrier, manager) is a manager, overseer or custodian; a legal officer to whom some degree of authority ...
in each bailiwick is the civil head, presiding officer of the States, and also head of the
judiciary The judiciary (also known as the judicial system, judicature, judicial branch, judiciative branch, and court or judiciary system) is the system of court A court is any person or institution, often as a government A government i ...
, and thus the most important citizen in the bailiwick. In the early 21st century, the existence of governmental offices such as the bailiffs' with multiple roles straddling the different branches of government came under increased scrutiny for their apparent contravention of the doctrine of separation of powers—most notably in the Guernsey case of ''McGonnell -v- United Kingdom'' (2000) 30 EHRR 289. That case, following final judgement at the European Court of Human Rights, became part of the impetus for much recent constitutional change, particularly the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 (2005 c.4) in the UK, including the separation of the roles of the Lord Chancellor, the abolition of the House of Lords' judicial role, and its replacement by the
UK Supreme Court The Supreme Court (initialism An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical me ...
. The islands' bailiffs, however, still retain their historic roles. The systems of government in the islands date from
Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabitants of the early medieval Duchy of Normandy, descended from ...

Norman
times, which accounts for the names of the legislatures, the States, derived from the
Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabitants of the early medieval Duchy of Normandy, descended from ...
'États' or '
estates Estate or The Estate may refer to: Law * Estate (law), a term in common law for a person's property, entitlements and obligations * Estates of the realm, a broad social category in the histories of certain countries. ** The Estates, representative ...
' (i.e. the Crown, the Church, and the people). The States have evolved over the centuries into democratic parliaments. The UK Parliament has power to legislate for the islands, but Acts of Parliament do not extend to the islands automatically. Usually, an Act gives power to extend its application to the islands by an
Order in Council An Order in Council is a type of legislation in many countries, especially the Commonwealth realm A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state that has Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state. Each realm functions as an independent state, ...
, after consultation. For the most part the islands legislate for themselves. Each island has its own primary legislature, known as the
States of Guernsey The States of Guernsey (french: États de Guernesey) is the parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislature, legislative body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: Representation ...
and the
States of Jersey The States Assembly (french: Assemblée des États; Jèrriais: ) is the parliament of the Crown dependencies, British Crown dependency of Jersey. The origins of the legislature of Jersey lie in the system of self-government according to Norman l ...
, with Chief Pleas in Sark and the
States of Alderney The States of Alderney (French: ''États d'Aurigny'') is the parliament/council and the legislature of Alderney, part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey. The origin of the States is unknown, but has operated from the medieval period. The States of Ald ...
. The Channel Islands are not represented in the
UK Parliament The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom, supreme Legislature, legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and the British overseas territories. It alone possesses Parliamen ...

UK Parliament
. Laws passed by the States are given royal assent by The Queen in Council, to whom the islands' governments are responsible. The islands have never been part of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
, and thus were not a party to the 2016
referendum A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct Direct may refer to: Mathematics * Directed set In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number th ...
on the membership, but were part of the Customs Territory of the
European Community The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organization and Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece ...

European Community
by virtue of Protocol Three to the
Treaty on European Union The Treaty on European Union (2007) is one of the primary Treaties of the European Union, alongside the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) is one of two treaties formi ...
. In September 2010, a Channel Islands Brussels Office was set up jointly by the two Bailiwicks to develop the Channel Islands' influence with the EU, to advise the Channel Islands' governments on European matters, and to promote economic links with the EU. Both bailiwicks are members of the
British–Irish Council The British–Irish Council (BIC) is an intergovernmental organisation that aims to improve collaboration between its members in a number of areas including transport, the environment, and energy. Its membership comprises the Republic of Ireland ...
, and
Jèrriais (french: Jersiais, also known as the Jersey Language, Jersey French and Jersey Norman French in English) is a Romance languages, Romance language and the traditional language of the Jersey people. It is a form of the Norman language spoken in J ...
and
Guernésiais Guernésiais, also known as ''Dgèrnésiais'', Guernsey French, and Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of the Norman language spoken in Guernsey. It is sometimes known on the island simply as "patois". As one of the langues d'oïl, it has its ...
are recognised
regional language A regional language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed o ...
s of the islands. The legal courts are separate; separate courts of appeal have been in place since 1961. Among the legal heritage from Norman law is the
Clameur de haro Asselin objects to the burial of William the Conqueror in a church he claims was built on his unlawfully obtained land: "the ground upon which you are standing, was the site of my father's dwelling. This man, for whom you ask our prayers, took it ...
. The basis of the legal systems of both Bailiwicks is Norman customary law (
Coutume Old French law, referred to in French as ''l'Ancien Droit'', was the law of the Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french: link=no, Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern mon ...

Coutume
) rather than the English
Common Law In law, common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is the body of law created by judges and similar quasi-judicial tribunals by virtue of being stated in written opinions. ''Black's Law Dictionary'' is the most-us ...
, although elements of the latter have become established over time. Islanders are full British citizens, but were not classed as European citizens unless by descent from a UK national. Any British citizen who applies for a passport in Jersey or Guernsey receives a passport bearing the words "
British Islands The British Islands is a term within the law of the United Kingdom which since 1889 has referred collectively to the following four polities: * the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (formerly the United Kingdom of Great Br ...

British Islands
, Bailiwick of Jersey" or "British Islands, Bailiwick of Guernsey". Under the provisions of Protocol Three, Channel Islanders who do not have a close connection with the UK (no parent or grandparent from the UK, and have never been resident in the UK for a five-year period) did not automatically benefit from the EU provisions on free movement within the EU, and their passports received an endorsement to that effect. This affected only a minority of islanders. Under the UK
Interpretation Act 1978 The Interpretation Act 1978 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the Parliamentary sovereignty in the United Kingdom, supreme Legislature, legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown ...
, the Channel Islands are deemed to be part of the British Islands, not to be confused with the
British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands in the North Atlantic off the north-western coast of continental Europe Continental Europe or mainland Europe is the contiguous continent A continent is any of several large landmasse ...

British Isles
. For the purposes of the
British Nationality Act 1981 The British Nationality Act 1981 (c.61) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom concerning British nationality since 1 January 1983. History In the mid-1970s the British Government decided to update the nationality code, which had be ...
, the "British Islands" include the United Kingdom (Great Britain and Northern Ireland), the Channel Islands and the
Isle of Man ) , anthem = "O Land of Our Birth The "National Anthem of the Isle of Man" ( gv, Arrane Ashoonagh Vannin) was written and composed by William Henry Gill (1839–1923), with the Manx translation by John J. Kneen (1873–1939). It is often r ...

Isle of Man
, taken together, unless the context otherwise requires.


Economy

Tourism is still important. However, Jersey and Guernsey have, since the 1960s, become major
offshore financial centre An offshore financial centre (OFC) is defined as a "country or jurisdiction that provides financial services to nonresidents on a scale that is incommensurate with the size and the financing of its domestic economy." "Offshore" does not refer ...
s. Historically Guernsey's horticultural and greenhouse activities have been more significant than in Jersey, and Guernsey has maintained
light industry Light industry are industries that usually are less capital-intensive than heavy industry Heavy industry is an industry Industry may refer to: Economics * Industry (economics) In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy ...
as a higher proportion of its economy than Jersey. In Jersey, potatoes are an important export crop, shipped mostly to the UK. Jersey is heavily reliant on financial services, with 39.4% of Gross Value Added (GVA) in 2018 contributed by the sector. Rental income comes second at 15.1% with other business activities at 11.2%. Tourism 4.5% with agriculture contributing just 1.2% and manufacturing even lower at 1.1%. GVA has fluctuated between £4.5 and £5 billion for 20 years. Jersey has had a steadily rising population, increasing from below 90,000 in 2000 to over 105,000 in 2018 which combined with a flat GVA has resulted in GVA per head of population falling from £57,000 to £44,000 per person. Guernsey had a GDP of £3.2 billion in 2018 and with a stable population of around 66,000 has had a steadily rising GDP, and a GVA per head of population which in 2018 surpassed £52,000. Both bailiwicks issue their own banknotes and coins, which circulate freely in all the islands alongside UK coinage and Bank of England and Scottish banknotes.


Transport and communications


Post

Since 1969, Jersey and Guernsey have operated postal administrations independently of the UK's
Royal Mail Royal Mail Group plc is a British multinational and company, originally established in 1516 as a department of the English government. The company's subsidiary Royal Mail Group Limited operates the brands Royal Mail (letters and parcels) and (pa ...

Royal Mail
, with their own postage stamps, which can be used for postage only in their respective Bailiwicks. UK stamps are no longer valid, but mail to the islands, and to the
Isle of Man ) , anthem = "O Land of Our Birth The "National Anthem of the Isle of Man" ( gv, Arrane Ashoonagh Vannin) was written and composed by William Henry Gill (1839–1923), with the Manx translation by John J. Kneen (1873–1939). It is often r ...

Isle of Man
, is charged at UK inland rates. It was not until the early 1990s that the islands joined the UK's postcode system, Jersey postcodes using the initials JE and Guernsey GY.


Transport


Road

Each of the three largest islands has a distinct vehicle registration scheme: * Guernsey (GBG): a number of up to five digits; * Jersey (GBJ): ''J'' followed by up to six digits (''JSY'' vanity plates are also issued); * Alderney (GBA): ''AY'' followed by up to five digits (four digits are the most that have been used, as redundant numbers are re-issued). In
Sark Sark (french: link=no, Sercq, ; : ' or ') is a part of the in the southwestern , off the coast of , . It is a royal , which forms part of the , with its own set of laws based on and its own parliament. It has a population of about 500. Sark ...

Sark
, where most motor traffic is prohibited, the few vehicles – nearly all tractors – do not display plates. Bicycles display tax discs.


Sea

In the 1960s, names used for the cross-Channel ferries plying the mail route between the islands and
Weymouth Weymouth can refer to: Places ;In the United Kingdom *Weymouth, Dorset, England :*Weymouth and Melcombe Regis (UK Parliament constituency) :*Weymouth and Portland, the abolished local government district :*Weymouth Bay :*Weymouth Beach :*Weymouth ...
, Dorset, were taken from the popular Latin names for the islands: ''Caesarea'' (Jersey), ''Sarnia'' (Guernsey) and ''Riduna'' (Alderney). Fifty years later, the ferry route between the Channel Islands and the UK is operated by
Condor Ferries 260px, A Condor ferry passes La Corbière Condor Ferries is an operator of passenger and freight ferry services between The United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom ...
from both St Helier, Jersey and St Peter Port, Guernsey, using high-speed catamaran fast craft to
Poole Poole () is a large coastal town and seaport in Dorset Dorset (; Archaism, archaically: Dorsetshire) is a counties of England, county in South West England on the English Channel coast. The ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial coun ...
in the UK. A regular passenger ferry service on the Commodore Clipper goes from both Channel Island ports to
Portsmouth Portsmouth ( ) is a and island with status in the of , southern . It is the most densely populated city in the , with a population last recorded at 238,800. The city forms part of the , which also incorporates , , , , , and . Located mainly ...

Portsmouth
daily, and carries both passengers and freight. Ferry services to Normandy are operated by Manche Îles Express, and services between Jersey and
Saint-Malo Saint-Malo (, , ; Gallo language, Gallo: ''Saent-Malô''; ) is a historic French port in Ille-et-Vilaine, Brittany (administrative region), Brittany on the English Channel coast. The walled city had a long history of piracy, earning much wealth ...

Saint-Malo
are operated by Compagnie Corsaire and Condor Ferries. The Isle of Sark Shipping Company operates small ferries to Sark. On 20 August 2013, Huelin-Renouf, which had operated a "lift-on lift-off" container service for 80 years between the
Port of Southampton The Port of Southampton is a passenger and cargo port in the central part of the south coast of England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and ...
and the Port of
Jersey Jersey ( , ; nrf, label=Jèrriais, Jèrri ), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (french: Bailliage de Jersey, links=no; Jèrriais: ''Bailliage dé Jèrri''), is an island and self-governing Crown dependencies, Crown Dependency near the coas ...

Jersey
, ceased trading. Senator Alan Maclean, a Jersey politician, had previously tried to save the 90-odd jobs furnished by the company to no avail. On 20 September, it was announced that Channel Island Lines would continue this service, and would purchase the MV Huelin Dispatch from
Associated British Ports Associated British Ports Holdings Ltd owns and operates 21 ports in the United Kingdom, managing around 25 per cent of the UK's sea-borne trade. The company's activities cover transport, haulage and terminal operations, ship's agency, dredging an ...
who in turn had purchased them from the receiver in the bankruptcy. The new operator was to be funded by Rockayne Limited, a closely held association of Jersey businesspeople.


Air

There are three airports in the Channel Islands;
Alderney Airport Alderney Airport is the only airport An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports often have facilities to park and maintain aircraft, and a control tower. An airport consists of a l ...
,
Guernsey Airport Guernsey Airport is an international airport on the island of Guernsey and the largest airport in the Bailiwick of Guernsey. It is located in the Forest, Guernsey, Forest, a parish in Guernsey, southwest of St. Peter Port and features mostly f ...
and
Jersey Airport Jersey Airport is an international airport located in the parish of Saint Peter Saint Peter; he, שמעון בר יונה, Šimʿōn bar Yōnāh; ar, سِمعَان بُطرُس, translit=Simʿa̅n Buṭrus; grc-gre, Πέτρος, Petros ...
, which are directly connected to each other by services operated by
Blue Islands Blue Islands Limited is a British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies. ** Britishness, the British identity ...
and
Aurigny Aurigny Air Services Limited company, Limited (pronounced ), commonly known as Aurigny, is the flag carrier airline of the Bailiwick of Guernsey with its head office next to Guernsey Airport in the Channel Islands, and wholly owned by the State ...
.


Rail

Historically there have been railway networks on Jersey, Guernsey, and Alderney, but all of the lines on Jersey and Guernsey have been closed and dismantled. Today there are three working railways in the Channel Islands, of which the
Alderney Railway The Alderney Railway on Alderney Alderney (; french: Aurigny ; Auregnais: ''Aoeur'gny'') is the northernmost of the inhabited Channel Islands The Channel Islands ( nrf, Îles d'la Manche; french: îles Anglo-Normandes or ''îles d ...

Alderney Railway
is the only one providing a regular timetabled passenger service. The other two are a gauge miniature railway, also on Alderney, and the heritage steam railway operated on Jersey as part of the
Pallot Heritage Steam Museum The Pallot Heritage Steam Museum is a mechanical heritage museum located in Rue De Bechet in the Trinity, Jersey, Parish of Trinity on the island of Jersey. Museum origins Lyndon Pallot (known as Don) amassed a large collection of Jersey's mech ...
.


Media

The Channel Islands are served by a number of local radio services - BBC Radio Jersey and , and Island FM - as well as regional television news opt-outs from BBC Channel Islands and
ITV Channel Television ITV Channel Television, previously Channel Television, is a British television station which has served as the ITV (TV network), ITV contractor for the Channel Islands since 1962. It is based in Jersey and broadcasts regional programme for in ...
. On 1 August 2021, DAB+ digital radio became available for the first time, introducing new stations like the local Bailiwick Radio and Soleil Radio, and UK-wide services like
Capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
,
Heart The heart is a cardiac muscle, muscular Organ (biology), organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. The pumped blood carries oxygen and nutrients to the body, while carrying metabolic waste ...
, and
Times Radio Times Radio is a British digital radio station owned by News UK. It is jointly operated by Wireless Group (which News UK acquired in 2016), ''The Times'' and ''The Sunday Times''. History The launch of Times Radio was first announced on 28 Janua ...
. There are two broadcast transmitters serving Jersey - at Frémont Point and Les Platons - as well as one at Les Touillets in Guernsey and a relay in Alderney. There are several local newspapers including the
Guernsey Press The ''Guernsey Press and Star'', more commonly known as the ''Guernsey Press'' is the only daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often t ...
and the
Jersey Evening Post The ''Jersey Evening Post'' (''JEP'') is a Local news, local newspaper published six days a week in the Jersey, Bailiwick of Jersey. It was printed in broadsheet format for 87 years, though it is now of Compact (newspaper), compact (Tabloid (paper ...
and magazines.


Telephone

Jersey always operated its own telephone services independently of Britain's national system, Guernsey established its own telephone service in 1968. Both islands still form part of the British telephone numbering plan, but
Ofcom The Office of Communications ( cy, Y Swyddfa Gyfathrebiadau), commonly known as Ofcom, is the government-approved regulatory and competition authority for the broadcasting, telecommunication Telecommunication is the transmission of inform ...
on the mainlines does not have responsibility for telecommunications regulatory and licensing issues on the islands. It is responsible for wireless telegraphy licensing throughout the islands, and by agreement, for broadcasting regulation in the two large islands only. Submarine cables connect the various islands and provide connectivity with England and France.


Internet

Modern broadband speeds are available in all the islands, including full-fibre (
FTTH Fiber to the ''x'' (FTTX; also spelled "fibre") or fiber in the loop is a generic term for any broadband In telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over wire, radio, Opt ...

FTTH
) in Jersey (offering speeds of up to 1Gbps on all broadband connections) and
VDSL Very high-speed digital subscriber line (VDSL) and very high-speed digital subscriber line 2 (VDSL2) are digital subscriber line Digital subscriber line (DSL; originally digital subscriber loop) is a family of technologies that are used to tran ...
and some business fibre connectivity in Guernsey. Providers include
Sure Sure may refer to: * Seemingly unrelated regressions * Series of Unsurprising Results in Economics (SURE), an economics academic journal * Sure, as probability, see certainty * Sure (brand), a brand of antiperspirant deodorant * Sure (company), a ...
and JT. The two Bailiwicks each have their own internet domain, .GG (Guernsey, Alderney, Sark) and .JE (Jersey), which are managed by channelisles.net.


Culture

The
Norman language Norman or Norman French (', french: Normand, Guernésiais Guernésiais, also known as ''Dgèrnésiais'', Guernsey French, and Guernsey Norman French, is the variety of the Norman language spoken in Guernsey. It is sometimes known on the island ...
predominated in the islands until the nineteenth century, when increasing influence from English-speaking settlers and easier transport links led to Anglicisation. There are four main dialects/languages of Norman in the islands,
Auregnais Auregnais, Aoeur'gnaeux, or Aurignais was the Norman dialect of the Channel Island The Channel Islands ( nrf, Îles d'la Manche; french: îles Anglo-Normandes or ''îles de la Manche'') are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes ...
(Alderney, extinct in late twentieth century), Dgèrnésiais (Guernsey),
Jèrriais (french: Jersiais, also known as the Jersey Language, Jersey French and Jersey Norman French in English) is a Romance languages, Romance language and the traditional language of the Jersey people. It is a form of the Norman language spoken in J ...
(Jersey) and
Sercquiais , also known as Sarkese or Sark-French (), is the Norman language, Norman dialect of the Channel Islands, Channel Island of Sark (Bailiwick of Guernsey). Sarkese is in fact a descendant of the 16th century Jèrriais used by the original colonist ...
(Sark, an offshoot of Jèrriais).
Victor Hugo Victor-Marie Hugo (; 26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, essayist, playwright, and dramatist of the Romantic movement Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellect ...

Victor Hugo
spent many years in exile, first in Jersey and then in Guernsey, where he finished ''
Les Misérables ''Les Misérables'' (, ) is a 19th-century French literature, French historical fiction, historical novel by Victor Hugo, first published in 1862, that is considered one of the greatest novels of the 19th century. In the English-speaking world, ...

Les Misérables
''. Guernsey is the setting of Hugo's later novel ''Les Travailleurs de la Mer'' (''
Toilers of the Sea ''Toilers of the Sea'' (french: Les Travailleurs de la mer) is a novel by Victor Hugo Victor-Marie Hugo (; 7 Ventôse year X 6 February 1802– 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romanticism, Romantic movement. ...
''). A "Guernsey-man" also makes an appearance in chapter 91 of
Herman Melville Herman Melville (Name change, born Melvill; August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, and poet of the American Renaissance (literature), American Renaissance period. Among his best-known works are ...

Herman Melville
's ''
Moby-Dick ''Moby-Dick; or, The Whale'' is an 1851 novel by American writer Herman Melville Herman Melville (Name change, born Melvill; August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, and poet of the American ...
''. The annual "
Muratti The Muratti is an annual men's football (soccer), football competition, inaugurated in 1905, between teams representing the Channel Islands of Alderney, Guernsey and Jersey. The larger islands of Guernsey and Jersey dominate the competition, with A ...
", the inter-island
football Football is a family of team sport A team is a [group (disambiguation), group of individuals (human or non-human) working together to achieve their goal. As defined by Professor Leigh Thompson (academic), Leigh Thompson of the Kellogg Sch ...
match, is considered the sporting event of the year, although, due to broadcast coverage, it no longer attracts the crowds of spectators, travelling between the islands, that it did during the twentieth century. Cricket is popular in the Channel Islands. The Jersey cricket team and the Guernsey cricket team are both associate members of the International Cricket Council. The teams have played each other in the inter-insular match since 1957. In 2001 and 2002, the Channel Islands entered a team into the
MCCA Knockout Trophy The Minor Counties Cricket Association Knockout Cup was started in 1983 as a knockout one-day competition for the Minor counties of English cricket, Minor Counties in English cricket. At first it was known as the ''English Industrial Estates Cup'', ...
, the one-day tournament of the minor counties of English and Welsh cricket. Channel Island sportsmen and women compete in the
Commonwealth Games The Commonwealth Games, often referred to as the ''Friendly Games'', is an international multi-sport event A multi-sport event is an organized sporting Sporting may refer to: *Sport, recreational games and play *Sporting (neighborhood), in ...
for their respective islands and the islands have also been enthusiastic supporters of the
Island Games The Island Games (currently known as the NatWest International Island Games for sponsorship reasons) are biannual international multi-sports events organised by the International Island Games Association (IIGA). Competitor teams each represent di ...
. Shooting is a popular sport, in which islanders have won Commonwealth medals. Guernsey's traditional colour for sporting and other purposes is green and Jersey's is red. The main islanders have traditional animal nicknames: * Guernsey: ''les ânes'' ("
donkey The donkey or ass is a domestic animal This page gives a list of domestic animals, also including a list of domestication of animals, animals which are or may be currently undergoing the process of domestication and animals that have an exten ...
s" in French and Norman): the steepness of St Peter Port streets required beasts of burden, but Guernsey people also claim it is a symbol of their strength of characterwhich Jersey people traditionally interpret as stubbornness. * Jersey: ''les crapauds'' ("
toad Toad is a common name for certain frog A frog is any member of a diverse and largely Carnivore, carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order (biology), order Anura (literally ''without tail'' in Ancient Greek) ...

toad
s" in French and Jèrriais): Jersey has toads and snakes, which Guernsey lacks. * Sark: ''les corbins'' ("
crow A crow is a bird of the genus ''Corvus'', or more broadly a synonym for all of ''Corvus''. The word "crow" is used as part of the common name of species including: * ''Corvus albus'' – pied crow (Central African coasts to southern Africa) * ''Co ...

crow
s" in
Sercquiais , also known as Sarkese or Sark-French (), is the Norman language, Norman dialect of the Channel Islands, Channel Island of Sark (Bailiwick of Guernsey). Sarkese is in fact a descendant of the 16th century Jèrriais used by the original colonist ...
, Dgèrnésiais and
Jèrriais (french: Jersiais, also known as the Jersey Language, Jersey French and Jersey Norman French in English) is a Romance languages, Romance language and the traditional language of the Jersey people. It is a form of the Norman language spoken in J ...
, ''les corbeaux'' in French): crows could be seen from the sea on the island's coast. * Alderney: ''les lapins'' ("
rabbit Rabbits, also known as bunnies or bunny rabbits, are small s in the (along with the ) of the (along with the ). ''Oryctolagus cuniculus'' includes the species and its descendants, the world's of . ''Sylvilagus'' includes 13 wild rabbit ...

rabbit
s" in French and
Auregnais Auregnais, Aoeur'gnaeux, or Aurignais was the Norman dialect of the Channel Island The Channel Islands ( nrf, Îles d'la Manche; french: îles Anglo-Normandes or ''îles de la Manche'') are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes ...
): the island is noted for its
warren A warren is a network of wild rodent Rodents (from Latin , 'to gnaw') are mammals of the Order (biology), order Rodentia (), which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws. About ...
s.


Religion

Christianity was brought to the islands around the sixth century; according to tradition, Jersey was evangelised by St
Helier Saint Helier (died 555) was a 6th-century ascetic hermit A hermit, or eremite (adjectival form In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as wel ...
, Guernsey by St
Samson of Dol Samson of Dol (also Samsun; born late 5th century) was a Christian religious figure, who is counted among the seven founder saints of Brittany with Pol Aurelian, Saint Tudwal, Tugdual or Tudwal, Brieuc, Saint Malo (saint), Malo, Saint Patern, ...
, and the smaller islands were occupied at various times by monastic communities representing strands of
Celtic Christianity Celtic Christianity ( kw, Kristoneth; cy, Cristnogaeth; gd, Crìosdaidheachd; gv, Credjue Creestee/Creestiaght; ga, Críostaíocht/Críostúlacht; br, Kristeniezh) is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrah ...
. At the
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in ...

Reformation
, the previously
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...

Roman Catholic
islands converted to
Calvinism Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Refor ...
under the influence of an influx of French-language pamphlets published in
Geneva Geneva ( ; french: Genève ; frp, Genèva ; german: link=no, Genf ; it, Ginevra ; rm, Genevra) is the List of cities in Switzerland, second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of Romandy, the French-spea ...

Geneva
.
Anglicanism Anglicanism is a Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia * ...
was imposed in the seventeenth century, but the Non-Conformist local tendency returned with a strong adoption of
Methodism Methodism, also called the Methodist movement, is a group of historically related denominations Denomination may refer to: * Religious denomination, such as a: ** Christian denomination ** Jewish denomination ** Islamic denomination ** Hindu d ...
. In the late twentieth century, a strong Roman Catholic presence re-emerged with the arrival of numerous Portuguese workers (both from mainland
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who ...

Portugal
and the island of
Madeira Madeira ( , , ), officially the Autonomous Region of Madeira ( pt, Região Autónoma da Madeira), is one of the two autonomous regions An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, su ...

Madeira
). Their numbers have been reinforced by recent migrants from Poland and elsewhere in Eastern Europe. Today,
Evangelical Evangelicalism (), evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide trans-denominational movement within Protestant Christianity that maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salv ...
churches have been established. Services are held in a number of languages. According to 2015 statistics, 39% of the population was non-religious.


Other islands in the English Channel

A number of islands in the English Channel are part of France. Among these are Bréhat,
Île de Batz The Île de Batz ( br, Enez Vaz) is an island off Roscoff in Brittany, France. Administratively, it is a Communes of France, commune in the Finistère Departments of France, department of Brittany (administrative region), Brittany in north-western ...

Île de Batz
,
Chausey Chausey () is a group of small islands, islets and rocks off the coast of Normandy Normandy (; french: link=no, Normandie ; nrf, Normaundie; from Old French , plural of ''Normant'', originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavi ...

Chausey
,
Tatihou Tatihou is an islet of Normandy Normandy (; french: link=no, Normandie ; nrf, Normaundie; from Old French , plural of ''Normant'', originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is a geographical and cultural regi ...

Tatihou
and the
Îles Saint-Marcouf Îles Saint-Marcouf comprise two small uninhabited islands off the coast of Normandy, France. They lie in the Baie de la Seine region of the English Channel and are east of the coast of the Cotentin peninsula at Ravenoville and from the island of ...
. The
Isle of Wight The Isle of Wight () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), Wi ...

Isle of Wight
, which is part of England, lies just off the coast of Great Britain, between the Channel and the
Solent The Solent ( ) is a strait between the Isle of Wight and Great Britain. It is about long and varies in width between , although the Hurst Spit which projects into the Solent narrows the sea crossing between Hurst Castle and Colwell Bay to j ...

Solent
.


See also

*
German occupation of the Channel Islands The German occupation of the Channel Islands lasted for most of World War II, from 30 June 1940 until liberation on 9 May 1945. The Bailiwick of Jersey and Bailiwick of Guernsey are two British Crown dependencies in the English Channel, near the ...
* List of churches, chapels and meeting halls in the Channel Islands * Places named after the Channel Islands


Notes


References


Bibliography

*
Encyclopædia Britannica The (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia") is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia which is now published exclusively as an online encyclopedia, online encyclopaedia. It was formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., a ...
Vol. 5 (1951), Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., Chicago – London – Toronto * – Republished * Hamlin, John F. "No 'Safe Haven': Military Aviation in the Channel Islands 1939–1945" ''Air Enthusiast'', No. 83, September/October 1999, pp. 6–15 * *


External links

*
States of Alderney

States of Guernsey

States of Jersey

Government of Sark
{{authority control British Isles English-speaking countries and territories French-speaking countries and territories Special territories of the European Union
Channel Islands The Channel Islands ( nrf, Îles d'la Manche; french: îles Anglo-Normandes or ''îles de la Manche'') are an archipelago in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. They include two Crown Dependencies: the Jersey, Bailiwick of ...