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The University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois
Illinois
or UIUC)[7][8] is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois. Founded in 1867 as a land-grant institution in the twin cities of Champaign and Urbana, it is the flagship campus of the University of Illinois system
University of Illinois system
and a founding member of the Big Ten Conference. The University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign is a member of the Association of American Universities
Association of American Universities
and is classified as a R1 Doctoral Research University under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, which denotes the highest research activity.[9] In fiscal year 2015, research expenditures at Illinois totaled $640 million.[10] The campus library system possesses the second-largest university library in the United States after Harvard University.[11] The university also hosts the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) and is home to the fastest supercomputer on a university campus.[12] The university contains 16 schools and colleges[13] and offers more than 150 undergraduate and over 100 graduate programs of study. The university holds 651 buildings on 6,370 acres (2,578 ha)[5] and its annual operating budget in 2016 was over $2 billion.[14] The University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign also operates a Research Park home to innovation centers for multinational corporations and publicly traded firms including Abbott, Caterpillar, Capital One, State Farm, and Yahoo, among others.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Illinois
Illinois
Industrial University 1.2 University of Illinois 1.3 University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign

2 Campus

2.1 Sustainability

3 Academics

3.1 Admissions 3.2 Distance learning 3.3 Rankings

4 Research

4.1 Research Park 4.2 National Center for Supercomputing Applications 4.3 Prairie Research Institute 4.4 Big Ten Academic Alliance 4.5 Accolades

5 Discoveries and innovation

5.1 Natural sciences 5.2 Computer
Computer
& applied sciences 5.3 Companies & entrepreneurship

6 Student life

6.1 Enrollment 6.2 Student organizations

6.2.1 Greek life 6.2.2 Student government

6.3 Residence halls 6.4 Libraries and museums 6.5 Recreation 6.6 Transportation

7 Athletics 8 Faculty and alumni 9 Philanthropy 10 Controversies

10.1 Chief Illiniwek 10.2 Clout scandal 10.3 Steven Salaita

11 See also 12 References 13 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of the University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign Illinois
Illinois
Industrial University[edit]

The original University Hall, which stood until 1938, when it was replaced by Gregory Hall and the Illini Union. Pieces were used in the erection of Hallene Gateway dedicated in 1998.[15]

The University of Illinois, originally named " Illinois
Illinois
Industrial University", was one of the 37 universities created under the first Morrill Land-Grant Act, which provided public land for the creation of agricultural and industrial colleges and universities across the United States. Among several cities, Urbana was selected in 1867 as the site for the new school.[16][17] From the beginning, President John Milton Gregory's desire to establish an institution firmly grounded in the liberal arts tradition was at odds with many state residents and lawmakers who wanted the university to offer classes based solely around "industrial education".[18] The university opened for classes on March 2, 1868, and had two faculty members and 77 students.[19]

John Milton Gregory, the university's first president

The Library, which opened with the school in 1868, started with 1,039 volumes. Subsequently, President Edmund J. James, in a speech to the Board of Trustees in 1912, proposed to create a research library. It is now one of the world's largest public academic collections.[17][20][21] In 1870, the Mumford House was constructed as a model farmhouse for the school's experimental farm. The Mumford House remains the oldest structure on campus.[22] The original University Hall (1871) was the fourth building built; it stood where the Illini Union
Illini Union
stands today.[23] University of Illinois[edit] In 1885, the Illinois
Illinois
Industrial University officially changed its name to the "University of Illinois", reflecting its agricultural, mechanical, and liberal arts curriculum.[18] During his presidency, Edmund J. James
Edmund J. James
(1904–1920) is credited for building the foundation for the large Chinese international student population on campus.[24][25][26][27] James established ties with China through the Chinese Minister to the United States Wu Ting-Fang.[27] In addition, during James's presidency, class rivalries and Bob Zuppke's winning football teams contributed to campus morale.[17]

Statue on campus titled "Alma Mater" by Lorado Taft

Alma Mater, a prominent statue on campus created by alumnus Lorado Taft, was unveiled on June 11, 1929. It was established from donations by the Alumni Fund and the classes of 1923–1929.[28] Like many Universities, the economic depression slowed construction and expansion on the campus. The university replaced the original university hall with Gregory Hall and the Illini Union. After World War II, the university experienced rapid growth. The enrollment doubled and the academic standing improved.[29] This period was also marked by large growth in the Graduate College and increased federal support of scientific and technological research. During the 1950s and 1960s the university experienced the turmoil common on many American campuses. Among these were the water fights of the fifties and sixties.[30] University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign[edit] By 1967, the University of Illinois system
University of Illinois system
consisted of a main campus in Champaign-Urbana
Champaign-Urbana
and two Chicago campuses, Chicago Circle (UICC) and Medical Center (UIMC), and people began using "Urbana–Champaign" or the reverse to refer to the main campus specifically. The university name officially changed to the "University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign" around 1982, using the reverse of the commonly used designation for the metropolitan area, "Champaign-Urbana". The name change established a separate identity for the main campus within the University of Illinois
Illinois
system, which today includes campuses in Springfield (UIS) and Chicago (UIC) (formed by the merger of UICC and UIMC). In 1998, the Hallene Gateway Plaza was dedicated. The Plaza features the original sandstone portal of University Hall, which was originally the fourth building on campus.[23] In recent years, state support has declined from 4.5% of the state's tax appropriations in 1980 to 2.28% in 2011, a nearly 50% decline.[31] As a result, the university's budget has shifted away from relying on state support with nearly 84% of the budget now coming from other sources.[32] On March 12, 2015, the Board of Trustees approved the creation of a medical school, being the first college created at Urbana–Champaign in over 60 years.[33][34][35] The Carle- Illinois
Illinois
College of Medicine is expected to begin classes in 2018.[36] Campus[edit]

Green Street in Campustown

Main article: Campus of the University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign See also: Campustown (Champaign, Illinois) The main research and academic facilities are divided almost evenly between the twin cities of Urbana and Champaign, which form part of the Champaign–Urbana metropolitan area. The College of Agriculture, Consumer, and Environmental Sciences' research fields stretch south from Urbana and Champaign into Savoy and Champaign County. The university maintains formal gardens and a conference center in nearby Monticello at Allerton Park. Four main quads compose the center of the university and are arranged from north to south. The Beckman Quadrangle and the John Bardeen
John Bardeen
Quadrangle occupy the center of the Engineering Campus. Boneyard Creek
Boneyard Creek
flows through the John Bardeen Quadrangle, paralleling Green Street. The Beckman Quadrangle, named after Arnold Orville Beckman, is primarily composed of research units and laboratories, and features a large solar calendar consisting of an obelisk and several copper fountains. The Main Quadrangle and South Quadrangle follow immediately after the John Bardeen
John Bardeen
Quad. The former makes up a large part of the Liberal Arts and Sciences portion of the campus, while the latter comprises many of the buildings of the College of ACES spread across the campus map.[37] The campus is known for its landscape and architecture, as well as distinctive landmarks.[38] It was identified as one of 50 college or university "works of art" by T.A. Gaines in his book The Campus as a Work of Art.[39] The campus also has a number of buildings and sites on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
including Harker Hall, Astronomical Observatory, Louise Freer Hall, The Main Library, The Experimental Dairy Farm Historic District, and Morrow Plots. U of I's Willard Airport is one of the few airports owned by an educational institution.[40]

Panorama facing north on UIUC's Main Quad

Sustainability[edit] In October 2011, the Sustainable Endowments Institute
Sustainable Endowments Institute
gave the campus a grade of B for sustainability in its 2011 College Sustainability Report Card. Strengths noted in the report included the campus's adoption of LEED gold standards for all new construction and major renovations and its public accessibility to endowment investment information. The university makes a list of endowment holdings and its shareholder voting record available to the public. The weaknesses are areas such as student involvement and investment priorities. The Student Sustainability Committee is empowered to allocate funding from a clean energy technology fee and a sustainable campus environment fee,[41] while the university aims to optimize investment return but has not made any public statements about investigating or investing in renewable energy funds or community development loan funds. However, the biggest weakness of the university's sustainability is its shareholder engagement, as the university has not made any public statements about active ownership or a proxy voting policy.[42] Currently, the University of Illinois
Illinois
has 11 LEED certified buildings. Three of these are platinum certified (Business Instructional Facility, Lincoln Hall, and Bousfield Hall). Three are gold (National Petascale Computing Facility, Nugent Hall, Wassaja Hall). The rest are silver (Ikenberry Dining Hall, Evers Laboratory, Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory, Illinois
Illinois
Fire Service Institute, and Huff Hall).[43] In his remarks on the creation of the Office of Sustainability in September 2008, Chancellor Richard Herman stated, "I want this institution to be the leader in sustainability."[44] In February 2008, he signed the American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment, committing the University of Illinois
Illinois
to take steps "in pursuit of climate neutrality."[45] Academics[edit]

University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign

College/School

Year Founded

Agriculture, Consumer, and Environmental Sciences

1867

Fine and Applied Arts

1867

Engineering

1868

Medicine

1882

Library and Information Science

1893

Applied Health Sciences

1895

Law

1897

Education

1905

Liberal Arts and Sciences

1913

Gies College of Business

1915

Media

1927

Social Work

1944

Aviation

1946

Labor and Employment Relations

1946

Veterinary Medicine

1948

Carle- Illinois
Illinois
College of Medicine

2015

The University offers more than 150 undergraduate and 100 graduate and professional programs in over 15 academic units, among several online specializations such as Digital Marketing and an online MBA program launched in January 2016 (iMBA). In 2015, the University announced its expansion to include an engineering-based medical program, which would be the first new college created in Urbana–Champaign in over 60 years.[34][35] The university also offers Undergraduate students the opportunity for graduation honors. University Honors is an academic distinction awarded to the highest achieving students. To earn the distinction, students must have a cumulative grade point average of a 3.5/4.0 within the academic year of their graduation and rank within the top 3% of their graduating class. Their names are inscribed on a Bronze Tablet that hangs in the Main Library.[46] Several scholar opportunities include "James Scholars" where undergraduate students invited to pursue a specialized course of study for no less than two years of their undergraduate course work, "Chancellor's Scholars" where undergraduate students are invited to participate in the Campus Honors Program (only 125 members admitted per year), and "Senior 100 Honorary", which recognizes graduates for achievements in leadership, academics and campus involvement throughout their undergraduate education.[citation needed] The Leadership Certificate is a multi-semester structured program which aims to develop students' leadership skills through different kinds of curricula and programs.[47] Admissions[edit] Admission to UIUC is rated as "more selective" by U.S. News & World Report.[48] For fall 2014, UIUC received 35,822 freshmen applications; 21,150 were admitted (59.0%) and 6,937 enrolled.[49] For enrolled freshmen, the middle 50% range of SAT
SAT
scores were 590–690 for critical reading, 700–790 for math, and 600–690 for writing.[49] The middle 50% range of the ACT scores were 26–32 for composite, 26–33 for math, and 26–33 for English.[49] Of the 43% of incoming freshmen who submitted high school class rank, 59% were in the top tenth of their graduating class and 90% were in the top quarter.[49] For the freshmen who were admitted for the 2016 school year by November 2015, the middle 50% range of the ACT composite was 27–32.[50] The middle 50% range for the SAT
SAT
was 1320–1470. The middle 50% means that 25% of students are below the range and 25% of students are above the range.[50] Admissions differ between the different colleges/schools in UIUC. The School of Social Work has the lowest ranges with the middle 50% range of the ACT at 24–27, and the middle 50% range of the SAT
SAT
is 1150–1350 (out of 1600; for critical reading and math only). The middle 50% high school class rank is 74–90%.[50] The College of Education has the middle 50% range for the ACT and SAT
SAT
(no writing) at 25–29 and 1200–1350 respectively. The high school class rank is 77–93%.[50] For the College of Agricultural, Consumer & Environmental Sciences (ACES), the middle 50% range of the ACT is 25–30 and the middle 50% range of the SAT
SAT
is 1230–1390. The middle 50% high school class rank is 79–95%.[50] The College of Applied Health Sciences is similar with the middle 50% range of the ACT 25–30 and the middle 50% range of the SAT
SAT
1200–1350. The middle 50% high school class rank is 80–95%.[50] The College of Media has the middle 50% range for the ACT at 26–30, SAT
SAT
(no writing) at 1230–1400 and the high school rank at 80–92%.[50] The Division of General Studies is also in that range with a middle 50% range for the ACT at 25–30, middle 50% range for the SAT
SAT
(no writing) at 1300–1420, and a high school class rank of 79–94%.[50] The College of Fine and Applied Arts has the middle 50% range for the ACT at 25–30, the SAT
SAT
score (no writing) middle 50% range is 1200–1390, and a high school class rank of 72–94%.[50] The schools start to make a more significant increase with the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. The middle 50% range for the ACT is 27–32, the SAT
SAT
(no writing) is 1320–1450, and the high school class rank is 85–97%.[50] The middle 50% range for the ACT and SAT
SAT
(no writing) for the College of Business are 28–32, 1320–1440 and the high school class rank is 88–97%.[50] The most selective college is the College of Engineering. The middle 50% range for the ACT is 31–34, the SAT
SAT
(no writing) is 1400–1520, and the high school class rank is 92–99%.[50] Distance learning[edit] In addition to the university's Illinois
Illinois
Online platform, in 2015 the university entered into a partnership with the Silicon Valley educational technology company Coursera
Coursera
to offer a series of Masters Degrees. In August 2015, the Master of Business Administration (iMBA) program was launched through the platform.[51] On March 31, 2016, Coursera
Coursera
announced the launch of the Master of Computer
Computer
Science in Data Science from the University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign.[52] At the time, the University's computer-science graduate program was ranked fifth in the United States by U.S. News & World Report.[53] On March 29th, 2017, the University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign launched their Master’s in Accounting (iMSA) program, now called the Master of Science in Accountancy (iMSA) program. The iMSA program is lead through live sessions, headed by UIUC faculty.[54] Similar to the University's on-campus admission policies, the online Masters degrees offered by The University of Illinois
Illinois
through Coursera also have strict admission requirements. All applicants must hold a Bachelors degree, and have earned a 3.0 GPA or higher in the last two years of study. Additionally, all applicants must prove their proficiency in English.[55][56][57] Rankings[edit]

University rankings

National

ARWU[58] 26

Forbes[59] 72

U.S. News & World Report[60] 52

Washington Monthly[61] 33

Global

ARWU[62] 37

QS[63] 66

Times[64] 36

U.S. News & World Report[65] 47

In the 2018 U.S. News & World Report (USNWR) "America's Best Colleges" report, UIUC's undergraduate program was ranked tied for 52nd among national universities and tied for 14th among public universities.[66] The graduate program had over 40 disciplines ranked within the top 25 nationwide by USNWR, including 15 within the top five.[66] U.S. News & World Report ranked the undergraduate and graduate Accounting programs 2nd and 3rd respectively in the United States in their 2016 rankings.[66] The College of Business was ranked 47th nationally; the College of Engineering was ranked tied for 6th at the graduate level, with 9 disciplines ranked within the top ten.[66] Computer
Computer
Science was ranked 5th in the country; Chemistry and Physics were also ranked within the top ten at the graduate level.[66] The College of Education was ranked by USNWR at 24th overall, with 3 programs ranked within the top ten.[66] The Graduate School of Library and Information Science was ranked 1st in the nation, with six programs ranked within the top ten.[66] The university was also listed as a "Public Ivy" in The Public Ivies: America's Flagship Public Universities (2001) by Howard and Matthew Greene.[67] "Although there is no formal ranking process for HR/IR programs, employers and students acknowledge that the University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign is one of the top three programs" according to the School of Labor and Employment Relations website.[68] Kiplinger's Personal Finance
Kiplinger's Personal Finance
rated Illinois
Illinois
36th in its list of 100 Best Values in Public Colleges,[69] which "measures academic quality, cost and financial aid." The Princeton Review
The Princeton Review
ranked Illinois
Illinois
1st in its 2016 list of top party schools.[70] Internationally, the university was ranked 29th in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities
Academic Ranking of World Universities
(ARWU), with UIUC engineering ranked 4th;[71] it was also ranked 36th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, and 66th in the world by the QS World University Rankings. The University of Illinois’ online bachelor's degree in Earth, Society, & Environmental Sustainability was ranked 6th best by "Non Profit Colleges Online."[72]

Round Barns found on the University of Illinois
Illinois
Experimental Dairy Farm Historic District part of ACES

Research[edit]

The Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology
Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology
is the largest interdisciplinary facility on campus with 313,000 square feet (29,100 m2)

The University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign is often regarded as a world-leading magnet for engineering and sciences (both applied and basic).[73] Having been classified into the category comprehensive doctoral with medical/veterinary and very high research activity,[74] by The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Illinois offers a wide range of disciplines in undergraduate and postgraduate programs. It is also listed as one of the Top 25 American Research Universities by The Center for Measuring University Performance.[75] Beside annual influx of grants and sponsored projects, the university manages an extensive modern research infrastructure.[76] The university has been a leader in computer based education and hosted the PLATO project, which was a precursor to the internet and resulted in the development of the plasma display. Illinois
Illinois
was a 2nd-generation ARPAnet
ARPAnet
site in 1971 and was the first institution to license the UNIX
UNIX
operating system from Bell Labs. Research Park[edit] Main article: Research Park at the University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana-Champaign Located in the southwest part of campus, Research Park opened its first building in 2001
2001
and has grown to encompass 13 buildings. Ninety companies have established roots in research park, employing over 1,400 people. Tenants of the Research Park facilities include prominent Fortune 500 companies Capital One, John Deere, State Farm, Caterpillar, and Yahoo, Inc. Companies also employ about 400 total student interns at any given time throughout the year. The complex is also a center for entrepreneurs, and has over 50 startup companies stationed at its EnterpriseWorks Incubator facility.[77] In 2011, Urbana, Illinois
Urbana, Illinois
was named number 11 on Popular Mechanics' "14 Best Startup Cities in America" list, in a large part due to the contributions of Research Park's programs.[78] The park has gained recognition from other notable publications, such as inc.com and Forbes magazine. For the 2011 fiscal year, Research Park produced an economic output of $169.5M for the state of Illinois.[79] National Center for Supercomputing Applications[edit] Main article: National Center for Supercomputing Applications The university hosts the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), which created Mosaic, the first graphical Web browser, the foundation upon which Mozilla Firefox
Firefox
and Microsoft Internet Explorer are based, the Apache HTTP server, and NCSA Telnet. The Parallel@ Illinois
Illinois
program hosts several programs in parallel computing, including the Universal Parallel Computing Research Center. The university contracted with Cray
Cray
to build the National Science Foundation-funded supercomputer Blue Waters[80][81][82] The system also boasts the largest public online storage system in the world with more than 25 petabytes of usable space.[83] The university celebrated January 12, 1997 as the "birthday" of HAL 9000, the fictional supercomputer from the novel and film 2001: A Space Odyssey; in both works, HAL credits "Urbana, Illinois" as his place of operational origin. Prairie Research Institute[edit] Main article: Prairie Research Institute

One of the research fields located on campus. Located off Florida Ave.

The Prairie Research Institute
Prairie Research Institute
is located on campus and is the home of the Illinois
Illinois
Natural History Survey, Illinois
Illinois
State Geological Survey, Illinois
Illinois
State Water Survey, Illinois
Illinois
Sustainable Technology Center, and the Illinois
Illinois
State Archeological Survey. Researchers at the Prairie Research Institute
Prairie Research Institute
are engaged in research in agriculture and forestry, biodiversity and ecosystem health, atmospheric resources, climate and associated natural hazards, cultural resources and history of human settlements, disease and public health, emerging pests, fisheries and wildlife, energy and industrial technology, mineral resources, pollution prevention and mitigation, and water resources. The Illinois
Illinois
Natural History Survey collections include crustaceans, reptiles and amphibians, birds, mammals, algae, fungi, and vascular plants, with the insect collection is among the largest in North America. The Illinois
Illinois
State Geological Survey houses the legislatively mandated Illinois
Illinois
Geological Samples Library, a repository for drill-hole samples in Illinois, as well as paleontological collections. ISAS serves as a repository for a large collection of Illinois
Illinois
archaeological artifacts. One of the major collections is from the Cahokia Mounds.[84] Big Ten Academic Alliance[edit] University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign is a participant in the Big Ten Academic Alliance. The Big Ten Academic Alliance
Big Ten Academic Alliance
(BTAA) is the academic consortium of the universities in the Big Ten Conference. Engaging in $10 billion in research in 2014–2015, BTAA universities provide powerful insight into important issues in medicine, technology, agriculture, and communities. Students at participating schools are also allowed "in-house" borrowing privileges at other schools' libraries.[85] The BTAA uses collective purchasing and licensing, and has saved member institutions $19 million to date.[86] Course sharing,[87] professional development programs,[88] study abroad and international collaborations,[89] and other initiatives are also part of the BTAA. Accolades[edit] In Bill Gates' February 24, 2004 talk as part of his Five Campus Tour (Harvard, MIT, Cornell, Carnegie-Mellon and Illinois)[90] titled "Software Breakthroughs: Solving the Toughest Problems in Computer Science," he mentioned that Microsoft
Microsoft
hires more graduates from the University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign than from any other university in the world.[91] Alumnus William M. Holt, a Senior Vice-President of Intel, also mentioned in a campus talk on September 27, 2007 entitled "R&D to Deliver Practical Results: Extending Moore's Law"[92] that Intel
Intel
hires more PhD graduates from the University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign than from any other university in the country. In 2007, the university-hosted research Institute for Condensed Matter Theory (ICMT) was launched, with the director Paul Goldbart
Paul Goldbart
and the chief scientist Anthony Leggett. ICMT is currently located at the Engineering Science Building on campus. The University Professional and Continuing Education Association (UPCEA), which recognizes excellence in both individual and institutional achievements, has awarded two awards to U of I.[93] Discoveries and innovation[edit]

NCSA Mosaic 3.0 for Windows.

Natural sciences[edit]

BCS theory – John Bardeen, in collaboration with Leon Cooper
Leon Cooper
and his doctoral student John Robert Schrieffer, proposed the standard theory of superconductivity known as the BCS theory (named for their initials). They shared the Nobel Prize in Physics
Nobel Prize in Physics
1972 for their discovery.[94] Sweet corn – John Laughnan produced corn with higher than normal levels of sugar while he was a professor at the university.[95]

Computer
Computer
& applied sciences[edit]

ILLIAC I
ILLIAC I
– ( Illinois
Illinois
Automatic Computer), a pioneering computer built in 1952 by the University of Illinois, was the first computer built and owned entirely by a US educational institution. Lejaren Hiller, in collaboration with Leonard Issacson, programmed the ILLIAC I computer at the University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign (where both composers were professors) to generate compositional material for his String Quartet No. 4.[96] ILLIAC Suite – is a 1957 composition for string quartet which is generally agreed to be the first score composed by an electronic computer.[97] LLVM
LLVM
– compiler infrastructure project (formerly Low Level Virtual Machine). Vikram Adve (professor) and Chris Lattner
Chris Lattner
started development as a research assistant and M.Sc. student.[98] Mosaic (web browser)
Mosaic (web browser)
– The first successful consumer web browser was developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA)[citation needed] at the University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign released in 1993.[99] PLATO – (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations)[100] was the first generalized computer assisted instruction system. Starting in 1960, it ran on the University of Illinois' ILLIAC I computer. By the late 1970s, it supported several thousand graphics terminals distributed worldwide, running on nearly a dozen different networked mainframe computers. Many modern concepts in multi-user computing were developed on PLATO, including forums, message boards, online testing, e-mail, chat rooms, picture languages, instant messaging, remote screen sharing, and multiplayer games.[101] Touchscreens & Plasma displays – developed by Donald Bitzer in the 1960s.[102] Talkomatic – (http://talko.cc/) is an online chat system[103] that facilitates real-time text communication among a small group of people. created by Doug Brown and David R. Woolley in 1973 on the PLATO System.[104] Synchronized Sound-on-film
Sound-on-film
Joseph Tykociński-Tykociner
Joseph Tykociński-Tykociner
publicly demonstrated for the first time a motion picture with a soundtrack optically recorded directly onto the film June 9, 1922.[105]

Companies & entrepreneurship[edit] UIUC alumni and faculty have founded numerous companies and organizations, some of which are shown below.[106][107][108]

Andreessen Horowitz, 2009, co-founder Marc Andreessen
Marc Andreessen
(B.S.) Advanced Micro Devices
Advanced Micro Devices
(AMD), 1969, co-founder Jerry Sanders (B.S). Arizona Diamondbacks, 1995, founder, Jerry Colangelo
Jerry Colangelo
(B.A.) Beckman Coulter, 1935, founder Arnold Orville Beckman
Arnold Orville Beckman
(B.S, M.S). BET, 1980, co-founder Robert L. Johnson (B.A.) Chicago Bears, 1920, founder George Halas Girls Who Code, 2012, founder Reshma Saujani
Reshma Saujani
(B.A.) Harlem Globetrotters, 1926, founder Abe Saperstein National Football League, 1920, co-founder George Halas Netscape, 1994, co-founder Marc Andreessen
Marc Andreessen
(B.S). Oracle, 1977, co-founders Larry Ellison
Larry Ellison
(drop out) and Bob Miner (B.S). PayPal
PayPal
(Confinity), 1998, co-founders Luke Nosek
Luke Nosek
(B.S) and Max Levchin (B.S). Playboy
Playboy
Enterprises, 1953, founder Hugh Hefner
Hugh Hefner
(B.A). Siebel Systems, 1993, co-founder Thomas Siebel
Thomas Siebel
(B.A, M.S, M.B.A). Tesla, 2003, co-founder Martin Eberhard
Martin Eberhard
(B.S,. M.S). W. W. Grainger, 1927, founder William Wallace Grainger (B.S.) Yelp, 2004, founders Jeremy Stoppelman
Jeremy Stoppelman
(B.S) and Russel Simmons (B.S). YouTube, 2005, co-founders Steve Chen
Steve Chen
(B.S) and Jawed Karim
Jawed Karim
(B.S).

Student life[edit] Enrollment[edit] As of spring 2018, the university had 45,813 students.[4] As of 2015, over 10,000 students were international students, and of them 5,295 were Mainland Chinese.[109] The university also recruits students from over 100 countries[110][111] among its 32,878[112] undergraduate students and 10,245[112] graduate and professional students.[111] The gender breakdown is 55% men, 45% women.[111] UIUC in 2014 enrolled 4,898 students from China, more than any other American university. They comprise the largest group of international students on the campus, followed by South Korea (1,268 in fall 2014) and India (1,167). Graduate enrollment of Chinese students at UIUC has grown from 649 in 2000 to 1,973 in 2014.[113] Student organizations[edit]

The Student Union Building called Illini Union

The University boasts over 1,000 active Registered Student Organizations (RSOs),[114] showcased at the start of each academic year during Illinois's "Quad Day." Registration and support is provided by the Student Programs & Activities Office, an administrative arm established in pursuit of the larger social, intellectual, and educative goals of the Illini Student Union. The Office's mission is to "enhance ... classroom education," "meet the needs and desires of the campus community," and "prepare students to be contributing and humane citizens."[115] Beyond student organizations, The Daily Illini
Daily Illini
is a student-run newspaper that has been published for the community of since 1871. The paper is published by Illini Media Company, a not-for-profit which also prints other publications, and operates WPGU
WPGU
107.1 FM, a student-run commercial radio station. The Varsity Men's Glee Club is an all-male choir at the University of Illinois
Illinois
that was founded in 1886.[116] The Varsity Men's Glee Club[117] is one of the oldest glee clubs in the United States as well as the oldest registered student organisation at the University of Illinois. Greek life[edit] Main article: List of social fraternities and sororities at UIUC There are 59 fraternities and 38 sororities on campus.[118] Of the approximately 30,366 undergraduates, 3,463 are members of sororities and 3,674 are members of fraternities.[119] The Greek system at the University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign has a system of self-government. While staff advisors and directors manage certain aspects of the Greek community, most of the day-to-day operations of the Greek community are governed by the Interfraternity Council and Panhellenic Council.[120] A smaller minority of fraternities and sororities fall under the jurisdiction of the Black Greek Council and United Greek Council; the Black Greek Council serves "historically black" Greek organizations while the United Greek council comprises other multicultural organizations.[121][122] Many of the fraternity and sorority houses on campus are on the National Register of Historic Places. Student government[edit]

Foellinger Auditorium

U of I has an extensive history of past student governments. Two years after the university opened in 1868, John Milton Gregory
John Milton Gregory
and a group of students created a constitution for a student government. Their governance expanded to the entire university in 1873, having a legislative, executive, and judicial branch. For a period of time, this government had the ability to discipline students. In 1883, however, due to a combination of events from Gregory's resignation to student-faculty infighting, the government formally dissolved itself via plebiscite.[123] It wasn't until 1934, when the Student Senate, the next university-wide student government, was created. A year before, future U of I Dean of Students, Fred H. Turner and the university's Senate Committee on Student Affairs gave increased power to the Student Council, an organization primarily known for organizing dances. A year after, the Student Council created a constitution and became the Student Senate, under the oversight of the Committee on Student Affairs. This Student Senate would last for 35 years.[124] The Student Senate changed its purpose and name in 1969, when it became the Undergraduate Student Association (UGSA). It no longer was a representational government, instead becoming a collective bargaining agency. It often worked with the Graduate Student Association to work on various projects[125] In 1967, Bruce A. Morrison
Bruce A. Morrison
and other U of I graduates founded the Graduate Student Association (GSA). GSA would last until 1978, when it merged with the UGSA to form the Champaign-Urbana
Champaign-Urbana
Student Association (CUSA).[126][127] CUSA lasted for only 2 years when it was replaced by the Student Government Association (SGA) in 1980. SGA lasted for 15 years until it became the Illinois
Illinois
Student Government (ISG) in 1995. ISG lasted until 2004.[127] The current university student government, created in 2004, is the Illinois
Illinois
Student Senate, a combined undergraduate and graduate student senate with 54 voting members. The student senators are elected by college and represent the students in the Urbana–Champaign Senate (which comprises both faculty and students), as well as on a variety of faculty and administrative committees, and are led by an internally elected executive board of a President, External Vice President, Internal Vice President, and Treasurer. As of 2012, the executive board is supported by an executive staff consisting of a Chief of Staff, Clerk of the Senate, Parliamentarian, Director of Communications, Intern Coordinator, and the Historian of the Senate.[128] Residence halls[edit] Main article: UIUC Residence Halls

Busey-Evans Residence Halls
Busey-Evans Residence Halls
is one of many buildings on the NRHP

University housing for undergraduates is provided through twenty-four residence halls in both Urbana and Champaign. Incoming freshmen are required to live in student housing (campus or certified) their first year on campus. Graduate housing is usually offered through two graduate residence halls, restricted to students who are sophomores or above, and through three university-owned apartment complexes. Some undergraduates choose to move into apartments or the Greek houses after their second year. There are a number of private dormitories around campus, as well as 15 private, certified residences that partner with the university to offer a variety of different housing options, including ones that are cooperatives, single-gender or religiously-affiliated.[129] The University is known for being one of the first universities to provide accommodations for students with disabilities.[130] Currently, most first-year students with disabilities will live in Nugent Hall, supported by the Beckwith Residential Support Services.[131] In 2015, the University of Illinois announced that they would be naming its newest residence hall after Carlos Montezuma
Carlos Montezuma
also known as Wassaja. Wassaja is the first Native American graduate and is believed to be one of the first Native Americans to receive a medical degree.[132] Libraries and museums[edit] See also: University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign University Library, Main Library (University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign), Spurlock Museum, Krannert Center for the Performing Arts, Grainger Engineering Library, and Krannert Art Museum

Krannert Museum of Art

The campus library system is one of the largest public academic collections in the world.[20] Among universities in North America, only the collections of Harvard are larger.[133] Currently, the University of Illinois' 20+ departmental libraries and divisions hold more than 24 million items, including more than 12 million print volumes.[20] As of 2012, it had also the largest "browsable" university library in the United States, with 5 million volumes directly accessible in stacks in a single location.[134] University of Illinois
Illinois
also has the largest public engineering library (Grainger Engineering Library) in the country.[135][20][136] In addition to the main library building, which houses nearly 10[quantify] subject-oriented libraries, the Isaac Funk Family Library on the South Quad serves the College of Agriculture, Consumer, and Environmental Sciences and the Grainger Engineering Library
Grainger Engineering Library
Information Center serves the College of Engineering on the John Bardeen
John Bardeen
Quad.

Main Library and home to Rare Book & Manuscript Library

Residence Hall Library System is one of three in the nation.[137][138] The Residence Hall Libraries were created in 1948 to serve the educational, recreational, and cultural information needs of first and second year undergraduate students residing in the residence halls, and the living-learning communities within the residence halls. The collection also serves University Housing staff as well as the larger campus community, including undergraduate and graduate students, and university faculty and staff.[139] The Rare Book & Manuscript Library (RBML) is one of the Special collections units within the University Library.[140] The RBML is one of the largest special collections repositories in the United States.[141][142][143][144] The University has several museums, galleries, and archives which include Krannert Art Museum, Sousa Archives and Center for American Music and Spurlock Museum. Gallery and exhibit locations include Krannert Center for the Performing Arts
Krannert Center for the Performing Arts
and at the School of Art and Design. Recreation[edit]

Campus Recreation Center East

The campus has two main recreation facilities, the Activities and Recreation Center (ARC) and the Campus Recreation Center East (CRCE). Originally known as the Intramural Physical Education Building (IMPE) and opened in 1971, IMPE was renovated in 2006 and reopened in August 2008 as the ARC.[145] The renovations expanded the facility, adding 103,433 square feet to the existing structure and costing $54.9M. This facility is touted by the university as "one of the country's largest on-campus recreation centers." CRCE was originally known as the Satellite Recreation Center, and was opened in 1989. The facility was renovated in 2005 to expand the space and update equipment, officially reopening in March 2005 as CRCE.[146] Transportation[edit] The bus system that operates throughout the campus and community is operated by the Champaign-Urbana
Champaign-Urbana
Mass Transit District. The MTD receives a student-approved transportation fee from the university, which provides unlimited access for university students. In addition, the university pays for universal access for all its faculty and staff. Six daily Amtrak
Amtrak
trains connect Champaign-Urbana
Champaign-Urbana
with Chicago and Carbondale (IL). The City of New Orleans train also serves Memphis, Jackson, Mississippi, and New Orleans. Willard Airport, opened in 1954 and is named for former University of Illinois
Illinois
president Arthur Cutts Willard. The airport is located in Savoy. Willard Airport is home to University research projects and the University's Institute of Aviation, along with flights from American Airlines and United Airlines. Athletics[edit] Main article: Illinois
Illinois
Fighting Illini

Primarily used as Athletics logo (2014–17), became the campus-wide logo in 2017[147]

U of I's Division of Intercollegiate Athletics fields teams for ten men's and eleven women's varsity sports. The university participates in the NCAA's Division I. The university's athletic teams are known as the Fighting Illini. The university operates a number of athletic facilities, including Memorial Stadium for football, the State Farm Center for men's and women's basketball, and the Atkins Tennis Center for men's and women's tennis. The men's NCAA basketball team had a dream run in the 2005 season, with Bruce Weber's Fighting Illini
Fighting Illini
tying the record for most victories in a season. Their run ended 37–2 with a loss to the North Carolina Tar Heels in the national championship game. Illinois
Illinois
is a member of the Big Ten Conference. Notable among a number of songs commonly played and sung at various events such as commencement and convocation, and athletic games are: Illinois Loyalty, the school song, Oskee Wow Wow, the fight song, and Hail to the Orange, the alma mater.

Memorial Stadium with the State Farm Center
State Farm Center
in the background

On October 15, 1910, the Illinois
Illinois
football team defeated the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Maroons with a score of 3–0 in a game that Illinois
Illinois
claims was the first homecoming game, though several other schools claim to have held the first homecoming as well.[148][149] On November 10, 2007, the unranked Illinois
Illinois
football team defeated the No. 1 ranked Ohio State
Ohio State
football team in Ohio Stadium, the first time that the Illini beat a No. 1 ranked team on the road. The University of Illinois
Illinois
Ice Arena is home to the university's club college ice hockey team competing at the ACHA Division I level and is also available for recreational use through the Division of Campus Recreation. It was built in 1931 and designed by Chicago architecture firm Holabird and Root, the same firm that designed the University of Illinois
Illinois
Memorial Stadium and Chicago's Soldier Field. It is located on Armory Drive across from the Armory. The structure features 4 rows of bleacher seating in an elevated balcony that runs the length of the ice rink on either side. These bleachers provide seating for roughly 1,200 fans, with standing room and bench seating available underneath. Because of this set-up the team benches are actually directly underneath the stands.[150] Chief Illiniwek, or 'The Chief', was the university's official athletic symbol from 1926 until February 21, 2007. Use of the Chief garnered criticism for the university from Native Americans and allies as a misappropriation and inaccurate portrayal of indigenous culture. The university officials announced the end of the Chief Illiniwek
Chief Illiniwek
era on February 16, 2007. In 2015, the university began Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
broadcasts of its American football
American football
games as a service to its Chinese international students.[109] Faculty and alumni[edit] Main article: List of University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign people

Hallene Gateway dedicated in 1998 by donations from the Alumni Alan M. and Phyllis Welsh Hallene[23]

22 alumni and faculty members of the University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign have won a Pulitzer Prize.[151] As of 2017, the University of Illinois
Illinois
at Urbana–Champaign alumni, faculty, and researchers include 30 Nobel laureates (including 11 alumni). In particular, John Bardeen
John Bardeen
is the only person to have won two Nobel prizes in physics, having done so in 1956 and 1972 while on faculty at the university. In 2003, two faculty members won Nobel prizes in different disciplines: Paul C. Lauterbur
Paul C. Lauterbur
for physiology or medicine, and Anthony Leggett
Anthony Leggett
for physics. Fazlur Rahman Khan, considered to be the preeminent structural engineer of the 20th century,[152] is an alumnus. Khan had been responsible for the engineering design of many major architectural projects, such as the 100-story John Hancock Center, and the 110-story Willis Tower
Willis Tower
(formerly known as Sears Tower).[153] Richard Hamming, known for the Hamming code
Hamming code
and Hamming distance, is also an alumnus. The alumni of the university have created companies and products such as Netscape
Netscape
Communications (formerly Mosaic) (Marc Andreessen), AMD (Jerry Sanders), PayPal
PayPal
(Max Levchin), Playboy
Playboy
(Hugh Hefner), National Football League (George Halas), Siebel Systems (Thomas Siebel), Mortal Kombat (Ed Boon), CDW (Michael Krasny), YouTube
YouTube
( Steve Chen
Steve Chen
and Jawed Karim), THX
THX
(Tomlinson Holman), Andreessen Horowitz
Andreessen Horowitz
(Marc Andreessen), Oracle ( Larry Ellison
Larry Ellison
and Bob Miner), Lotus (Ray Ozzie), Yelp!
Yelp!
(Jeremy Stoppelman and Russel Simmons), Safari (Dave Hyatt), Firefox
Firefox
(Joe Hewitt), W. W. Grainger (William Wallace Grainger), Delta Air Lines (C. E. Woolman), Beckman Instruments
Beckman Instruments
(Arnold Beckman), BET
BET
(Robert L. Johnson), and Tesla Motors
Tesla Motors
(Martin Eberhard). Alumni and faculty have invented the LED
LED
and the quantum well laser (Nick Holonyak, B.S. 1950, M.S. 1951, Ph.D. 1954), DSL
DSL
(John Cioffi, B.S. 1978), JavaScript
JavaScript
(Brendan Eich, M.S. 1986), the integrated circuit (Jack Kilby, B.S. 1947), the transistor (John Bardeen, faculty, 1951–1991), the pH meter (Arnold Beckman, B.S. 1922, M.S. 1923), MRI
MRI
(Paul C. Lauterbur), the plasma screen (Donald Bitzer, B.S. 1955, M.S. 1956, Ph.D. 1960), color plasma display (Larry F. Weber B.S. 1968 M.S. 1971 Ph.D. 1975), the training methodology called PdEI and the coin counter ( James P. Liautaud
James P. Liautaud
B.S. 1963), and are responsible for the structural design of such buildings as the Willis Tower, the John Hancock Center, and the Burj Khalifa.[154] Alumni have also led several companies, including BitTorrent (Eric Klinker), Renaissance Technologies
Renaissance Technologies
(Robert Mercer), Ticketmaster, McDonald's, Goldman Sachs, BP, Kodak, Shell, General Motors, Playboy and AT&T. Alumni have founded many organizations, including the Susan G. Komen for the Cure and Project Gutenberg, and have served in a wide variety of government and public interest roles. Rafael Correa, President of The Republic of Ecuador
Ecuador
since January 2006 secured his M.S. and PhD degrees from the University's Economics Department in 1999 and 2001 respectively.[155] Nathan C. Ricker attended U of I and in 1873 was the first person to graduate in the United States with a degree in Architecture. Mary L. Page, the first woman to obtain a degree in architecture, also graduated from U of I.[156] Disability rights activist and co-organizer of the 504 Sit-in, Kitty Cone, attended during the 1960s, but left 6 hours short of her degree to continue her activism in New York.[157] In sports, baseball pitcher Ken Holtzman was a two-time All Star major leaguer, and threw two no-hitters in his career.[158] Philanthropy[edit] Over the last twenty years state funding for the university has fallen from 44.5% to 16.4%. Private philanthropy increasingly supplements revenue from tuition and state funding, currently providing about 19% of the annual budget.[32] Notable among significant donors, alumnus entrepreneur Thomas M. Siebel has committed nearly $150 million to the university including $36 million to build the Thomas M. Siebel Center for Computer
Computer
Science and the Grainger Foundation founded by alumnus W. W. Grainger has contributed nearly $200 million to the university over the last half-century. Controversies[edit] Chief Illiniwek[edit] Main article: Chief Illiniwek Chief Illiniwek, also referred to as "The Chief," was until 2007 the official symbol of the University of Illinois
Illinois
in university intercollegiate athletic programs. The Chief was typically portrayed by a student dressed in Sioux regalia. Several groups protested that the use of a Native American figure and indigenous customs in such a manner was inappropriate and promoted ethnic stereotypes. In August 2005 the National Collegiate Athletic Association
National Collegiate Athletic Association
expressed disapproval of the university's use of a "hostile or abusive" image.[159] While initially proposing a consensus approach to the decision about the Chief, the board in 2007 decided that the Chief, its name, image and regalia should be officially retired. Nevertheless, the controversy continues on campus with some students unofficially maintaining the Chief. Complaints continue that indigenous students feel insulted when images of the Chief continue to be present on campus.[160] Clout scandal[edit] Main article: University of Illinois
Illinois
clout scandal A series of investigative reports by the Chicago Tribune
Chicago Tribune
noted that between 2005 and 2009 university trustees, president, chancellor, and other administrators pressured admissions officials into admitting under-qualified but politically well-connected applicants into the university.[161][162] Although University officials initially denied,[163] then downplayed the existence of a "clout list",[164] the university later announced it would form a panel of internal and external representatives to review the past admissions process and determine possible changes.[165] The Chicago Tribune
Chicago Tribune
took the University to court for summary judgment on its Illinois
Illinois
Freedom of Information Act request for University admission records, which was granted[166] in March 2011. The University appealed, and a number of organizations, including the Electronic Privacy Information Center, filed "friend of the court" briefs[167] on behalf of both parties. Steven Salaita[edit] Main article: Steven Salaita controversy The Steven Salaita controversy was the result of a decision by University of Illinois
Illinois
Urbana–Champaign Chancellor Phyllis M. Wise to withdraw an offer of a tenured faculty position to English professor Steven Salaita because of a series of controversial tweets he had made in regards to Israel, Zionism and anti-Semitism.[168][169] Wise’s action prompted a national debate about academic freedom.[170][171][172] From the beginning the decision was supported by Wise and by the University's board of trustees.[173][174][175][176][177][178][179] Salaita quickly fought the decision declaring infringement on his academic freedom and insisted the university reinstate its offer rather than search for a financial settlement.[180][181][182][183] This began a long process of litigation. In August 2015, Chancellor Phyllis Wise resigned her role after accusations came forth she was hiding emails that involved the rescinding of Salaita's job offer.[184] These emails included conversations regarding the Salaita Controversy. Shortly after Wise's resignation, 41 department heads, chairs and directors published an open letter calling "Acting Chancellor Barbara Wilson and President Timothy Killeen should call for the reinstatement of Steven Salaita at the September 2015 board meeting.[185][186][187][188][189][190] The Salaita case received national attention on academic freedom for faculty.[191][192][193][194][195][196][197] See also[edit]

Illinois
Illinois
portal University portal

Illini 4000 for Cancer
Illini 4000 for Cancer
– Cross-country charity bike ride based out of the University of Illinois

References[edit]

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Athletics website  "Illinois, University of". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.   "Illinois, University of". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. 

Coordinates: 40°6′38″N 88°13′42″W / 40.11056°N 88.22833°W / 40.11056; -88.22833

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