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The Info List - Ultramarathon


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An ULTRAMARATHON, also called ULTRA DISTANCE or ULTRA RUNNING, is any footrace longer than the traditional marathon length of 42.195 kilometres (26.219 mi).

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview

* 2 IAU
IAU
World Best Performances

* 2.1 Men * 2.2 Women

* 3 IAU
IAU
World Championships

* 3.1 IAU 100 km World Championships

* 4 World or national-record holding or world-championship-winning ultramarathon runners

* 5 Ultramarathons by regions

* 5.1 Africa * 5.2 Asia * 5.3 Oceania, Australia, and New Zealand * 5.4 New Zealand * 5.5 Oceania * 5.6 Europe
Europe
* 5.7 Antarctica * 5.8 North America * 5.9 South America

* 6 International Trail
Trail
Running
Running
Association (ITRA) * 7 Born to Run * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links

OVERVIEW

There are two types of ultramarathon events: those that cover a specified distance, and events that take place during time (with the winner covering the most distance in that time). The most common distances are 50 kilometres (31.069 mi), 100 kilometres (62.137 mi), 50 miles (80.4672 km), and 100 miles (160.9344 km), although many races have other distances. The 100 kilometers is recognized as an official world record event by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF), the world governing body of track and field.

Other distances/times include double marathons, 24-hour races , and multiday races of 1,000 miles (1,600 km) or even longer. The format of these events and the courses vary, ranging from single or multiple loops (some as short as a 400-metre (1,300 ft) track), to point-to-point road or trail races, to cross-country rogaines . Many ultramarathons, especially trail challenges , have severe course obstacles, such as inclement weather, elevation change, or rugged terrain. Many of these races are run on dirt roads or mountain paths , though some are run on paved roads as well. Usually, there are aid stations every 20 to 35 kilometres (12 to 22 mi) apart, where runners can replenish food and drink supplies or take a short break. Timed events range from 6, 12, and 24 hours to 3, 6, and 10 days (known as multi-day events). Timed events are generally run on a track or a short road course, often one mile (1.6 km) or less.

The International Association of Ultrarunners
International Association of Ultrarunners
(IAU) organises the World Championships for various ultramarathon distances, including 50 kilometres (31 mi), 100 kilometres (62 mi), 24 hours, and ultra trail running , which are also recognized by the IAAF. Many countries around the world have their own ultrarunning organizations, often the national athletics federation of that country, or are sanctioned by such national athletics organizations. World records for distances, times, and ages are tracked by the IAU.

Racewalking
Racewalking
events are usually 50 km, although 100 km and 100 mile (160 km) "Centurion" races are also organized. Furthermore, the non-competitive International Marching League event Nijmegen Four Days March has a regulation distance of 4 × 50 km over three days for men aged 19–49.

IAU
IAU
WORLD BEST PERFORMANCES

MEN

EVENT RECORD ATHLETE DATE PLACE REF

50 km Road 2:43:38 Thompson Magawana (RSA) 12 April 1988 Claremont , South Africa

50 km Track 2:48:06 Jeff Norman (GBR) 7 June 1980 Timperley , United Kingdom

100 km Road 6:13:33 Takahiro Sunada (JPN) 21 June 1998 Yubetsu-Saroma-Tokoro , Japan

100 km Track 6:10:20 Donald Ritchie (ru) (GBR) 28 Oct 1978 London
London
, United Kingdom

100 miles Road 11:46:37 Yiannis Kouros (GRE) 7-8 Nov 1984 Queens, New York , USA

100 miles Track 11:28:03 Oleg Kharitonov (ru) (RUS) 20 Oct 2002 London
London
, United Kingdom

100 miles Indoor 12:56:13 Donald Ritchie (ru) (GBR) 3-4 Feb 1990 Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
, United Kingdom

6H Road 92.188 km Tomasz Chawawko (POL) 7 Mar 2004 Stein , Netherland

6H Track 97.200 km Donald Ritchie (ru) (GBR) 28 Oct 1978 London
London
, United Kingdom

6H Indoor 93.247 km Denis Zhalybin (ru) (RUS) 7-8 Feb 2003 Moscow
Moscow
, Russia

12H Road 162.543 km Yiannis Kouros (GRE) 7 Nov 1984 New York City
New York City
, USA

12H Track 163.600 km Zach Bitter (USA) 14 Dec 2013 Phoenix , USA

12H Indoor 146.296 km Ryoichi Sekiya (JPN) 11 Feb 2007 Lohja Citymarket , Finland

24H Road 290.221 km Yiannis Kouros (GRE) 2–3 May 1998 Basel
Basel
, Switzerland

24H Track 303.506 km Yiannis Kouros (GRE) 4-5 Oct 1997 Adelaide
Adelaide
, Australia

24H Indoor 257.576 km Nikolai Safin (RUS) 27-28 Feb 1993 Podolsk
Podolsk
, Russia

48H Road 433.095 km Yiannis Kouros (GRE) 2–3 May 1998 Basel
Basel
, Switzerland

48H Track 473.495 km Yiannis Kouros (GRE) 3–5 May 1996 Surgeres , France

48H Indoor 426.178 km Tony Mangan
Tony Mangan
(IRL) 16 Mar 2007 Brno
Brno
, Czech Republic

WOMEN

EVENT RECORD ATHLETE DATE PLACE REF

50 km Road 3:08:39 Frith Van Der Merwe (RSA) 25 March 1989 Claremont , South Africa

50 km Track 3:18:52 Carolyn Hunter-Rowe (GBR) 3 March 1996 Barry , Wales United Kingdom

100 km Road 6:33:11 Tomoe Abe (JPN) 25 June 2000 Yubetsu-Saroma-Tokoro , Japan

100 km Track 7:14:06 Norimi Sakurai (JPN) 27 Sept 2003 San Giovanni Lupatoto
San Giovanni Lupatoto
, Italy

100 miles Road 13:47:41 Ann Trason (USA) 4 May 1991 Queens, New York , USA

100 miles Track 14:11:26 Pam Smith (USA) 14 Dec 2013 Phoenix , USA

100 miles Indoor 14:43:40 Eleanor Robinson (GBR) 3-4 Feb 1990 Milton Keynes
Milton Keynes
, United Kingdom

6H Road 82.838 km Ricarda Botzon (GER) 7 July 2001 Kiel
Kiel
, Germany

6H Track 83.200 km Norimi Sakurai (JPN) 27 Sept 2003 San Giovanni Lupatoto
San Giovanni Lupatoto
, Italy

6H Indoor 80.600 km Marina Bychkova (ru) (RUS) 7-8 Feb 2003 Moscow
Moscow
, Russia

12H Road 144.840 km Ann Trason (USA) 4 May 1991 Queens, New York , USA

12H Track 147.600 km Ann Trason (USA) 3-4 Aug 1991 Hayward , USA

12H Indoor 135.799 km Sumie Inagaki (JPN) 11 Feb 2007 Lohja Citymarket , Finland

24H Road 252.205 km Mami Kudo (JPN) 11–12 May 2013 Steenbergen , Netherlands

24H Track 255.303 km Mami Kudo (Kudou, Kudoh) (JPN) 9-10 Dec 2011 Soochow , Taipei

24H Indoor 240.631 km Sumie Inagaki (JPN) 29-30 Jan 2011 Espoo
Espoo
, Finland

48H Road 368.687 km Mami Kudo (Kudou, Kudoh) (JPN) 8-10 Apr 2011 Athens
Athens
, Greece

48H Track 397.103 km Sumie Inagaki (JPN) 21–23 May 2010 Surgeres , France

48H Indoor 390.024 km Traci Falbo (USA) 4-6 Aug 2014 Anchorage
Anchorage
, USA

IAU
IAU
WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS

There are four IAU
IAU
World Championships: the IAU
IAU
100 km World Championships , IAU 50 km World Championships , IAU
IAU
24 Hour World Championship , and the IAU
IAU
Trail
Trail
World Championship .

The IAU 24 Hour World Championship is held annually. Originally begun as a track event in 2001, it was rebooted as a road event in 2003. It also incorporates the IAU
IAU
24 Hour European Championship .

IAU
IAU
100 KM WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS

YEAR LOCATION CHAMPION (M) CHAMPION (F)

1987 Torhout Domingo Catalán (ESP) Agnes Eberle (SUI)

1988 Santander Domingo Catalán (ESP) Ann Trason (USA)

1989 Rambouillet
Rambouillet
Bruno Scelsi (FRA) Katherina Janicke (FRG)

1990 Duluth Roland Vuillemenot (fr) (FRA) Eleanor Adams (GBR)

1991 Faenza Valmir Nuñes (BRA) Eleanor Adams (GBR)

1992 Palamós Konstantin Santalov (ru) (RUS) Nurzia Bagmanova (ru) (RUS)

1993 Torhout Konstantin Santalov (ru) (RUS) Carolyn Hunter-Rowe (GBR)

1994 Yubetsu/Saroma/Tokoro Aleksey Volgin (ru) (RUS) Valentina Shatyeyeva (ru) (RUS)

1995 Winschoten
Winschoten
Valmir Nuñes (BRA) Ann Trason (USA)

1996 Moscow
Moscow
Konstantin Santalov (ru) (RUS) Valentina Shatyeyeva (ru) (RUS)

1997 Winschoten
Winschoten
Sergey Yanenko (UKR) Valentina Lyakhova (ru) (RUS)

1998 Shimanto Grigoriy Murzin (ru) (RUS) Carolyn Hunter-Rowe (GBR)

1999 Chavagnes-en-Paillers Simon Pride (GBR) Anna Balosáková (SVK)

2000 Winschoten
Winschoten
Pascal Fétizon (fr) (FRA) Edit Bérces (HUN)

2001 Cléder Yasufumi Mikami (JPN) Yelvira Kolpakova (ru) (RUS)

2002 Torhout Mario Fattore (it) (ITA) Tatyana Zhyrkova (ru) (RUS)

2003 Tainan
Tainan
Mario Fattore (it) (ITA) Monica Casiraghi (ITA)

2004 Winschoten
Winschoten
Mario Ardemagni (it) (ITA) Tatyana Zhyrkova (ru) (RUS)

2005 Yubetsu/Saroma/Tokoro Grigoriy Murzin (ru) (RUS) Hiroko Sho (JPN)

2006 Misari Yannick Djouadi (FRA) Elizabeth Hawker (GBR)

2007 Winschoten
Winschoten
Shinichi Watanabe (de) (JPN) Norimi Sakurai (JPN)

2008 Rome
Rome
Giorgio Calcaterra (ITA) Tatyana Zhyrkova (ru) (RUS)

2009 Torhout Yasukazu Miyazato (JPN) Kami Semick (fr) (USA)

2010 Gibraltar
Gibraltar
Shinji Nakadai (JPN) Ellie Greenwood (GBR)

2011 Winschoten
Winschoten
Giorgio Calcaterra (ITA) Marina Bychkova (ru) (RUS)

2012 Seregno Giorgio Calcaterra (ITA) Amy Sproston (USA)

2013 cancelled

2014 Doha
Doha
Max King (USA) Ellie Greenwood (GBR)

2015 Winschoten
Winschoten
Jonas Buud (SWE) Camille Herron (USA)

2016 Los Alcázares Hideaki Yamauchi (JPN) Kirstin Bull (AUS)

WORLD OR NATIONAL-RECORD HOLDING OR WORLD-CHAMPIONSHIP-WINNING ULTRAMARATHON RUNNERS

For reliable and updated information, see the IAU
IAU
(International Association of Ultrarunners) annual report of current world records on its newest "World's Best Performances" page in statistics.

* Yiannis Kouros , multi-day race legend, holder of numerous world records and world bests from 24 hours to 1,000 miles, course record holder of the Spartathlon since its inception in 1983 * Takahiro Sunada , current men's 100 KM ROAD world record holder (6:13:33, Saroma JP, 1998) * Tomoe Abe , current women's 100 KM ROAD world record holder (6:33:11, Saroma JP, 2000) * Ryōichi Sekiya , four time IAU
IAU
24-hour run World Championship winner, Asia record holder of 24-hour run (274.884 kilometres (170.805 mi)), two-time winner of Spartathlon * Shingo Inoue , 2010 winner of IAU
IAU
24-hour run World Championship (273.708 kilometres (170.074 mi)) * Mami Kudo , current women's 24H TRACK world record holder(255.303 kilometres (158.638 mi), Soochow TPE, 2011), current women's 48H ROAD world record holder(368.687 kilometres (229.091 mi), Athens
Athens
GRE, Apr 2011), 2013 female winner of IAU
IAU
24-hour run World Championship * Sumie Inagaki , current women's 24H INDOOR world record holder (240.631 kilometres (149.521 mi) Espoo
Espoo
FIN, Jan 2011), current women's 48H TRACK world record holder(397.103 kilometres (246.748 mi), Surgeres FRA, May 2010), two time female winner of IAU
IAU
24-hour run World Championship, two time female winner of Spartathlon * Norimi Sakurai , current women's 100 KM TRACK world record holder (7:14:06, Lupatotissima ITA, Sep 2003), current women's 6H TRACK world record holder (83.200 kilometres (51.698 mi), Lupatoto Verone ITA, Sept 2003), 2007 female winner of IAU
IAU
24-hour run World Championship * Suprabha Beckjord female and Wolfgang Schwerk male record holder 3100 mile Race * Edit Berces , 24 HOUR TREADMILL world record holder; holds several Hungarian records * Ted Corbitt , "father of American ultrarunning"; 1952 US Olympic team member; former American world record holder at various distances * Al Howie
Al Howie
, World Record Holder for the trans-Canada, 7295.5 kilometres in 72 days, 10 hours and 23 minutes. * Bruce Fordyce , nine time Comrades Marathon
Marathon
winner; African 100K record holder (6:25:07) * Serge Girard , trans-USA (4,597 km – 1997), trans-South America (5,235 km – 2001), trans-Africa (8,295 km – 2003/2004) and trans-Eurasia (19,097 km – 2005/2006) record holder * Wally Hayward , Multiple winner of Comrades Marathon, London
London
to Brighton, many other ultramarathons; set early world records * Bernd Heinrich , formerly held the US 100 MILE TRACK record holder (12:27:01), naturalist * Shaul Ladany , Israeli racewalker, world record holder in the 50-mile walk , former world champion in the 100-kilometer walk * Frith van der Merwe , set Comrades Marathon
Marathon
records for both directions * Stu Mittleman , US record holder for six-day race (578 miles) * Arthur F. H. Newton , 5 times Comrades Marathon
Marathon
winner * Ann Trason , fourteen time Western States Endurance Run winner and former female course record holder; formerly or currently holds numerous world records, including 100 MILE (13:47:41 1991), 50 MILE (5:40:18, 1991), and 12 HOURS (147.6k, 1991); AMERICAN 100K record holder (7:00:48) * Cliff Young , former winner Westfield Sydney to Melbourne; holds numerous world age records * Arun Bhardwaj , first Indian to compete in and win the George Archer 6 day race in South Africa, completed a 4,000+ km run from Kargil, India to Kanyakumari, India, in 61 days. * Camille Herron , first ultra athlete to win 2 World titles in the same year (2015- 50K and 100K); holds the World Best for 50 Miles (5:38:41)

ULTRAMARATHONS BY REGIONS

Ultra Marathons are run around the world with more than 70,000 people completing them every year.

AFRICA

Several ultra distance events are held in Africa.

* South Africa
South Africa
hosts a number of notable ultra marathon events.

* On paved surface: the world's oldest and largest ultramarathon, the 87 kilometres (54 mi) Comrades Marathon
Marathon
. Approximately 12,000 runners complete the Comrades each year, out of approximately 17000 who start, with 23,961 competing in 2000. * The 56-kilometre (35 mi) Two Oceans Marathon
Marathon
in Cape Town
Cape Town
in the southern autumn attracts approximately 11,000 runners. * The Washie 100 road race is the oldest one hundred miler road race in Africa. * Off road: The Salomon Sky Run is a grueling 100 kilometres (62 mi) self supported, unmarked trail race held in a particularly scenic part of the country.

* The Marathon
Marathon
des Sables is a 6-day stage race which covers 250 kilometres (160 mi) through the Sahara desert
Sahara desert
in Morocco
Morocco
. * The Sahara Race in Egypt, part of the 4 Deserts series, is held annually with about 150 competitors from 40 countries competing. Due to political instability, the ultramarathon of 250 kilometres (160 mi) has temporarily relocated to the Namib Desert . * The Grand Raid de la Réunion is held annually on Réunion in October, crossing the island over 163 kilometres (101 mi) with an altitude gain of 9,643 metres (31,637 ft). This race attracts 2,350 competitors, with 1,000 runners from overseas.

ASIA

Ultrarunning has become popular in Asia recently, and countries such as Japan
Japan
, Taiwan
Taiwan
, and South Korea
South Korea
have hosted IAU
IAU
World Championships.

* Japan
Japan
had its first 100 km event in 1987 as Lake Saroma Ultramarathon
Ultramarathon
and hosted IAU
IAU
100 km World Championship in 1994 (Lake Saroma ), 1998 (River Shimanto ) and 2005 (Lake Saroma ). Japan
Japan
hosts more than 50 ultramarathon events throughout the year, among which are Trans Japan
Japan
Alps Race (TJAR) (415 kilometres (258 mi) with more than 26,000 metres (16 mi) cumulative altitude gain crossing Japan Alps, crossing Japan's mainland from Japan
Japan
Sea to Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
in 7 days), Hasetsune cup (71.5 kilometres (44.4 mi) in steep foggy mountains) and Ultra- Trail
Trail
Mt. Fuji (UTMF) (161 kilometres (100 mi) loop around World Heritage Mt. Fuji with cumulative altitude gain of about 9,000 metres (5.6 mi)). * South Korea's first ultramarathon was held in 2000. * The Gobi March in northwest China was China's first ultramarathon, first staged in 2003. The Gobi March is part of the 4 Deserts Race Series. * India's first ultra marathon, the Bangalore Ultra was held in 2007. Since 2010, Indian Himalayas have hosted La Ultra – The High, a 333 km course crossing Khardung La
Khardung La
, touted to be the world's highest motorable mountain pass. * Soochow International 24H Ultra- Marathon
Marathon
is held since 1999 in Taipei
Taipei
, and is an official IAU-registered event. * A night race called the Sundown Marathon
Marathon
has been held in Singapore annually since 2008, over a double marathon distance (84 km) up to 2010 and 100 km since then. * Nepal
Nepal
hosts several ultramarathon races, including the Annapurna 100, the Kanchenjunga Ultra Marathon
Marathon
Trail
Trail
Running
Running
Race and the Everest Ultra. * Northern Mongolia
Mongolia
hosts an annual 100 km summer race, Mongolia Sunrise to Sunset . * Malaysia's first ultra trail marathon was founded in November 2011 and is known as the TMBT (The Most Beautiful Thing) in Sabah at Mount Kinabalu, South East Asia's highest mountain. The event has a 55% drop out rate and is a 3-point qualifying race for Ultra Du Mont Blanc and a 2-point qualifying race for the 55 kilometer category of the event. This was followed by the Beaufort Ultra Marathon
Marathon
in Sabah organized in 2012 and a 60 kilometer endurance run under 35-39 degree Celsius morning and afternoon heat with a 60% finish rate amongst runners. First 100 miles ultra marathon road race, Putrajaya 100 Miles, was held on 22–23 November 2014. The first 200 km ultra will be held on 6–8 March 2015 in Titi, Selangor (TITI100). Other ultra races such as Back2Endurance, G5N, and Gunung Nuang Ultra were organized by the Malaysia Ultra Running * Indonesia
Indonesia
's first ultramarathon race, Mount Rinjani Ultra (52K), was held on August 2013 and Indonesia's first 100K over 215 km, from the hills of the Upper Galilee to the Jezreel Valley , and the Valley Circle race in the Jezreel valley; contains several distances, including 160 km and 200 km.

OCEANIA, AUSTRALIA, AND NEW ZEALAND

Australia
Australia
and New Zealand are hosts to some 100 organized ultramarathons each year. Additionally a handful of runners have run the entire length of New Zealand, a distance of around 2,200 kilometres (1,400 mi). The most recent runner's being Lisa Tamati and Andrew Hedgman who both completed the challenge separately in 2009 and 2010.

AUSTRALIA

In Australia, the Westfield Ultra Marathon
Marathon
was an annual race between Sydney and Melbourne
Melbourne
contested between 1983 and 1991. Greek runner Yiannis Kouros won the event five times during that period. Australia is also the home of one of the oldest six-day races in the world, the Cliff Young Australian 6-day race , held in Colac, Victoria
Colac, Victoria
. The race is held on a 400-meter circuit at the Memorial Square in the centre of Colac, and has seen many close races since its inception in 1984. The 20th Cliff Young Australian six-day race was held between 20 and 26 November 2005. During that event, Kouros beat his existing world record six-day track mark and set a new mark of 1,036.851 kilometres (644.269 mi). The Coast to Kosciuszko inaugurated in 2004, is a 246-kilometre (153 mi) marathon from the coast to the top of Mount Kosciuszko , Australia's highest mountain.

Australia
Australia
has seen a steep growth in Ultrarunning events and participants in recent years. Many new races have come into inception, covering a range of Ultramarathon
Ultramarathon
distances from 50 km right through to multi-day events. The cornerstone of Australian Ultra events being such races as; Ultra- Trail
Trail
Australia
Australia
100, Bogong To Hotham, Alpine Challenge, and the Cradle Mountain Run. The Australian Ultra Runners Association (AURA) has a comprehensive list and links of events and their respective results.

NEW ZEALAND

New Zealand's first ultramarathon called The Kepler Challenge was held on a 60 kilometres (37 mi) trail through Fiordland National Park , which has been running since 1988 and is one of the country's most popular races. New Zealand's Northburn 100 ultra mountain run is the first 100-mile (160 km) race through the Northburn Station. The world-famous Te Houtaewa Challenge has a 62 km race on ninety mile beach, Northland. The field of international and local runners have to contend with rising tides and soft beach sand and the March race dates often means the race is run in the cyclone season. In 2014 the ultramarathon was postponed because of Cyclone Lucy. In 2016 the race will be in its jubilee and the 25th anniversary will see many of its past runners compete for the honour of the ultimate challenge winner.

In November 2012, Kim Allan planned to run and/or walk 500 kilometres (310 mi) nonstop, without sleep, on the Sri Chinmoy
Sri Chinmoy
Peace Mile track at the Auckland Domain . Her aim was to beat ultrarunner Pam Reed 's record of 300 miles (480 km). According to her Facebook
Facebook
page, she only managed 385.8 kilometres (239.7 mi). She eventually passed the 500 kilometre mark at 86 hours, 11 minutes, and 9 seconds, breaking the 486 kilometres (302 mi) women's record.

In April 2013, a Feilding man, Perry Newburn, set a new New Zealand record by running 483 kilometres (300 mi) without sleep at Feilding's Manfield Park.

Ultramarathon
Ultramarathon
running in New Zealand has a national body: the New Zealand Ultrarunners Association.

OCEANIA

Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
has the Kokoda Challenge Race , an annual 96 km endurance race held in late August that runs the length of the historic Kokoda Track .

Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
also has the Great Kokoda Race, a multi-stage 96 km (3 day) race held in early July where competitors run or walk the length of the Kokoda Track .

EUROPE

In Europe, ultrarunning can trace its origins with early documentation of ultrarunners from Icelandic sagas , or the antique Greece
Greece
from where the idea of the Marathon
Marathon
, and the Spartathlon comes. The history of ultrarunners and walkers in the UK from the Victorian Era
Victorian Era
has also been documented. The IAU
IAU
hosts annual European Championships for the 50 km , 100 km and 24 hours . Also worth mentioning is the ultramarathon CajaMar Tenerife Bluetrail , the highest race in Spain
Spain
and second in Europe
Europe
, with the participation of several countries and great international repercussions.

There are over 300 ultramarathons held in Europe
Europe
each year.

ANTARCTICA

Due to logistics and environmental concerns there are only a handful of ultramarathons held in Antarctica, and travel costs can mean entrance fees as high as $14,000. Ultramarathons in Antarctica include: The Last Desert , part of the 4 Deserts Race Series, a multi-stage footrace, and the Antarctic Ice Marathon
Marathon
– a marathon and 100-kilometer race.

NORTH AMERICA

There are several hundred ultramarathons held annually in North America. One of the best known is the Western States Endurance Run , the world's oldest 100-mile trail run. The race began unofficially in 1974, when local horseman Gordy Ainsleigh's horse for the 100-mile Tevis Cup horse race came up lame. He decided to travel the course on foot, finishing in 23 hours and 47 minutes.

One of the first documented ultramarathons in North America was held in 1926, and at the time was part of the Central American Games
Central American Games
. Tomas Zafiro and Leoncio San Miguel, both Tarahumara
Tarahumara
Indians, ran 100 km from Pachuca to Mexico City in 9 hours and 37 minutes. At the time, the Mexican government petitioned to include a 100 km race in the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
; however, nothing came of these efforts. 100 Mile Footraces in the Contiguous United States, 2011

In 1928, sports agent C. C. Pyle organized the first of two editions of the 3,455-mile-long Bunion Derby (the first went along U.S. Route 66 from Los Angeles to Chicago before heading toward New York; the 1929 Derby reversed the route). Neither the race nor the accompanying vaudeville show was a financial success.

Since 1997, runners have been competing in the Self-Transcendence 3100 Mile Race , which is billed as the longest official footrace in the world. They run 100 laps a day for up to 50 days around a single block in Queens, NY, for a total distance of 3,100 miles (5,000 km). The Latest Trans-American Footrace (2015) winner was Robert HP Young ( Marathon
Marathon
Man UK) Winning in a time of 482 hours 10 minutes 00 seconds

In April 2006, the American Ultrarunning Hall of Fame was established by the American Ultrarunning Association (AUA). Candidates for the Hall of Fame are chosen from the 'modern era' of American ultras, beginning with the New York Road Runners
New York Road Runners
Club 30 Mile race held in 1958. The Inaugural inductees were Ted Corbitt , a former US Olympian, winner of the aforementioned race in 3:04:13, and co-founder of the Road Runners Club of America , and Sandra Kiddy , who began her ultra career at age 42 with a world record at 50 kilometers, 3:36:56, and who went on to set a number of US and world ultra records.

SOUTH AMERICA

There are a small number of ultramarathons in South America, but participation in the sport is increasing. The Brazil 135 Ultramarathon is a single-stage race of 135 miles ( 217 km) with a 60-hour cutoff, held in Brazil. This is a Badwater "sister race". Several ultramarathons are held in Chile
Chile
and with both local and international participation. Ultramarathons held in Chile
Chile
include:

* Atacama Xtreme 50K, 80K and the first 100 Miles in Chile. One loop for each distance starting and finishing in San Pedro de Atacama
San Pedro de Atacama
at an avg. of 2,400 above sea level. * The Endurance Challenge, a 10K, 21K, 50K and 80K trail running race held in the Andes mountain range near Santiago
Santiago
. It is part of the global Endurance Challenge circuit. The race seeks to promote the sport, outdoor activity and the use of mountain trails, taking care to have the lowest impact possible on the environment. * The Lican Ray -Villarrica Ultramarathon, a 70 km marathon that starts in Lican Ray , climbs Villarrica Volcano and ends in downtown Villarrica. * The Atacama Crossing, established in 2004, a 250 km (155 mile) ultramarathon which takes place in the Atacama desert
Atacama desert
, around San Pedro de Atacama , Chile
Chile
and crosses through the driest place on earth. There are six stages in seven days, with almost four marathons run in the first four days, then a 74 km stretch, then a rest day and a final stage of 11 km. It is part of the 4 Deserts Series. The race covers rugged terrain, with a harsh climate and an altitude that averages 2500 m (8000 ft). The race uses the town of San Pedro de Atacama as its host town, and in 2012 the race began at its highest point of over 3,000m in the Arcoiris Valley.

View from the Atacama Crossing 2011.

* The Patagonian International Marathon, organized by NIGSA, takes place in Torres del Paine National Park , southern Chilean Patagonia . The event features four race distances: an ultramarathon (63 km), marathon (42 km), half marathon (21 km) and a 10K. Each distance has a different starting point, but everyone finishes in the same place. The event has the secondary goal of promoting the conservation of Chilean Patagonia and contributing to the sustainable development of the region through the planting of trees in the Torres del Paine National Park through the "Corre y Reforesta" (Run and Reforest) campaign run by the organization "Reforestemos Patagonia" (Let's Reforest Patagonia) * The Rapa Nui GrandTrail, an 80k ultramarathon that takes place on Easter Island , Valparaíso Region , Chile
Chile
. This exotic trail, far out in the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
, takes in the famous Moai
Moai
statues of the island.

INTERNATIONAL TRAIL RUNNING ASSOCIATION (ITRA)

Many ultramarathon organizers are members of the International Trail Running
Running
Association (ITRA), an organization which promotes values, diversity, health and safety during races, as well as working to further the development of trail running and helps to coordinate between the national and international bodies with an interest in the sport. ITRA also evaluates of the difficulty of specific ultramarathon routes according to a number of criteria, such as the distance, the cumulative elevation gain, and the number of loops and stages. ITRA maintains a calendar of ultramarathon events.

BORN TO RUN

In 2009, Christopher McDougall 's book Born to Run was released. It contained both anthropological and scientific information, and is about a society of ultramarathoners. It was not the first book written specifically about ultramarathons, but McDougall included controversial conclusions about humanity\'s roots in long distance running that attracted attention to the sport. It became a national bestseller and a Forbes
Forbes
and Washington Post
Washington Post
book of the year.

SEE ALSO

* 7in7on7 * Fell running * Trail running * Skyrunning * Micah True * List of ultramarathons

REFERENCES

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