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An ultramarathon, also called ultra distance or ultra running, is any footrace longer than the traditional marathon length of 42.195 kilometres (26.219 mi).

Contents

1 Overview 2 IAU
IAU
World Best Performances

2.1 Men 2.2 Women

3 IAU
IAU
World Championships

3.1 IAU
IAU
100 km World Championships

4 World or national-record holding or world-championship-winning ultramarathon runners 5 Ultramarathons by regions

5.1 Africa 5.2 Asia 5.3 Oceania, Australia, and New Zealand 5.4 New Zealand 5.5 Oceania 5.6 Europe 5.7 Antarctica 5.8 North America 5.9 South America

6 International Trail
Trail
Running
Running
Association (ITRA) 7 Born to Run 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

Overview[edit] There are two types of ultramarathon events: those that cover a specified distance, and events that take place during time (with the winner covering the most distance in that time). The most common distances are 50 kilometres (31.069 mi), 100 kilometres (62.137 mi), 50 miles (80.4672 km), and 100 miles (160.9344 km), although many races have other distances. The 100 kilometers is recognized as an official world record event by the International Association of Athletics Federations
International Association of Athletics Federations
(IAAF), the world governing body of track and field.[1] Other distances/times include double marathons, 24-hour races, and multiday races of 1,000 miles (1,600 km) or even longer. The format of these events and the courses vary, ranging from single or multiple loops (some as short as a 400-metre (1,300 ft) track),[2] to point-to-point road or trail races, to cross-country rogaines. Many ultramarathons, especially trail challenges, have severe course obstacles, such as inclement weather, elevation change, or rugged terrain. Many of these races are run on dirt roads or mountain paths, though some are run on paved roads as well. Usually, there are aid stations every 20 to 35 kilometres (12 to 22 mi) apart, where runners can replenish food and drink supplies or take a short break. Timed events range from 6, 12, and 24 hours to 3, 6, and 10 days (known as multi-day or "stage race" events). Timed events are generally run on a track or a short road course, often one mile (1.6 km) or less.[3] Considered to be a tougher event are self-supported ultramarathon stage races where each competitor has to carry all their supplies including food to survive the length of the race, typically a week. A good example of this is the Grand to Grand Ultra, America's first ever self-supported ultramarathon stage race. The International Association of Ultrarunners
International Association of Ultrarunners
(IAU) organises the World Championships for various ultramarathon distances, including 50 kilometres (31 mi), 100 kilometres (62 mi), 24 hours, and ultra trail running, which are also recognized by the IAAF. Many countries around the world have their own ultrarunning organizations, often the national athletics federation of that country, or are sanctioned by such national athletics organizations. World records for distances, times, and ages are tracked by the IAU. Racewalking
Racewalking
events are usually 50 km, although 100 km and 100 mile (160 km) "Centurion" races are also organized. Furthermore, the non-competitive International Marching League event Nijmegen Four Days March has a regulation distance of 4 × 50 km over three days for men aged 19–49.[4] IAU
IAU
World Best Performances[edit] Men[edit]

Length Venue Record Athlete Date Place Ref

50 km Road 2:43:38  Thompson Magawana (RSA) 12 April 1988 Claremont, South Africa [5]

50 km Track 2:48:06  Jeff Norman (GBR) 7 June 1980 Timperley, United Kingdom [5]

100 km Road 6:13:33  Takahiro Sunada (JPN) 21 June 1998 Yubetsu-Saroma-Tokoro, Japan [5]

100 km Track 6:10:20  Donald Ritchie (ru) (GBR) 28 Oct 1978 London, United Kingdom [5]

100 miles Road 11:46:37  Yiannis Kouros (GRE) 7-8 Nov 1984 Queens, New York, USA [5]

100 miles Track 11:28:03  Oleg Kharitonov (ru) (RUS) 20 Oct 2002 London, United Kingdom [5]

100 miles Indoor 12:56:13  Donald Ritchie (ru) (GBR) 3-4 Feb 1990 Milton Keynes, United Kingdom [5]

6H Road 92.188 km  Tomasz Chawawko (POL) 7 Mar 2004 Stein, Netherland [5]

6H Track 97.200 km  Donald Ritchie (ru) (GBR) 28 Oct 1978 London, United Kingdom [5]

6H Indoor 93.247 km  Denis Zhalybin (ru) (RUS) 7-8 Feb 2003 Moscow, Russia [5]

12H Road 162.543 km  Yiannis Kouros (GRE) 7 Nov 1984 New York City, USA [5]

12H Track 163.600 km  Zach Bitter (USA) 14 Dec 2013 Phoenix, USA [5]

12H Indoor 146.296 km  Ryoichi Sekiya (JPN) 11 Feb 2007 Lohja
Lohja
Citymarket, Finland [5]

24H Road 290.221 km  Yiannis Kouros (GRE) 2–3 May 1998 Basel, Switzerland [5]

24H Track 303.506 km  Yiannis Kouros (GRE) 4-5 Oct 1997 Adelaide, Australia [5]

24H Indoor 257.576 km  Nikolai Safin (RUS) 27-28 Feb 1993 Podolsk, Russia [5]

48H Road 433.095 km  Yiannis Kouros (GRE) 2–3 May 1998 Basel, Switzerland [5]

48H Track 473.495 km  Yiannis Kouros (GRE) 3–5 May 1996 Surgeres, France [5]

48H Indoor 426.178 km  Tony Mangan (IRL) 16 Mar 2007 Brno, Czech Republic [5]

Women[edit]

Event Venue Record Athlete Date Place Ref

50 km Road 3:08:39  Frith Van Der Merwe (RSA) 25 March 1989 Claremont, South Africa [5]

50 km Track 3:18:52  Carolyn Hunter-Rowe (GBR) 3 March 1996 Barry, Wales United Kingdom [5]

50 Miles Road 5:38:41  Camille Herron (USA) 24 October 2015 Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin, USA [6]

50 Miles Track 5:48:12  Norimi Sakurai (JPN) 28 September 2003 San Giovanni Lupatoto, Italy [6]

100 km Road 6:33:11  Tomoe Abe (JPN) 25 June 2000 Yubetsu-Saroma-Tokoro, Japan [5]

100 km Track 7:14:06  Norimi Sakurai (JPN) 27 Sept 2003 San Giovanni Lupatoto, Italy [5]

100 miles Road 12:42:40  Camille Herron (USA) 11 Nov 2017 Vienna, IL, USA [5]

100 miles Track 13:45:49  Gina Slaby (USA) 10 Dec 2016 Phoenix, USA [7]

100 miles Indoor 14:43:40  Eleanor Robinson (GBR) 3-4 Feb 1990 Milton Keynes, United Kingdom [5]

6H Road 83.275 km  Nele Alder-Baerens (GER) 2 April 2016 Nuremberg, Germany [5]

6H Track 83.200 km  Norimi Sakurai (JPN) 27 Sept 2003 San Giovanni Lupatoto, Italy [5]

6H Indoor 80.600 km  Marina Bychkova (ru) (RUS) 7-8 Feb 2003 Moscow, Russia [5]

12H Road 144.840 km  Ann Trason (USA) 4 May 1991 Queens, New York, USA [5]

12H Track 149.130 km  Camille Herron (USA) 9-10 Dec 2017 Phoenix, Arizona, USA [5]

12H Indoor 135.799 km  Sumie Inagaki (JPN) 11 Feb 2007 Lohja
Lohja
Citymarket, Finland [5]

24H Road 259.991 km  Patrycja Bereznowska (pl) (POL) 1-2 July 2017 Belfast, UK [5]

24H Track 255.303 km   Mami Kudo
Mami Kudo
(Kudou, Kudoh) (JPN) 9-10 Dec 2011 Soochow, Taipei [5]

24H Indoor 240.631 km  Sumie Inagaki (JPN) 29-30 Jan 2011 Espoo, Finland [5]

48H Road 401.000 km  Patrycja Bereznowska (pl) (Poland) 26-28 Jan 2018 Athens, Greece [5]

48H Track 397.103 km  Sumie Inagaki (JPN) 21–23 May 2010 Surgeres, France [5]

48H Indoor 390.024 km  Traci Falbo (USA) 4-6 Aug 2014 Anchorage, USA [5]

IAU
IAU
World Championships[edit] There are four IAU
IAU
World Championships: the IAU
IAU
100 km World Championships, IAU
IAU
50 km World Championships, IAU
IAU
24 Hour World Championship, and the IAU
IAU
Trail
Trail
World Championship.[8] IAU
IAU
100 km World Championships[edit]

Year Location Champion (m) Champion (f)

1987 Torhout  Domingo Catalán (ESP)  Agnes Eberle (SUI)

1988 Santander  Domingo Catalán (ESP)  Ann Trason (USA)

1989 Rambouillet  Bruno Scelsi (FRA)  Katherina Janicke (FRG)

1990 Duluth  Roland Vuillemenot (fr) (FRA)  Eleanor Adams (GBR)

1991 Faenza  Valmir Nuñes (BRA)  Eleanor Adams (GBR)

1992 Palamós  Konstantin Santalov (ru) (RUS)  Nurzia Bagmanova (ru) (RUS)

1993 Torhout  Konstantin Santalov (ru) (RUS)  Carolyn Hunter-Rowe (GBR)

1994 Yubetsu/Saroma/Tokoro  Aleksey Volgin (ru) (RUS)  Valentina Shatyeyeva (ru) (RUS)

1995 Winschoten  Valmir Nuñes (BRA)  Ann Trason (USA)

1996 Moscow  Konstantin Santalov (ru) (RUS)  Valentina Shatyeyeva (ru) (RUS)

1997 Winschoten  Sergey Yanenko (UKR)  Valentina Lyakhova (ru) (RUS)

1998 Shimanto  Grigoriy Murzin (ru) (RUS)  Carolyn Hunter-Rowe (GBR)

1999 Chavagnes-en-Paillers  Simon Pride (GBR)  Anna Balosáková (SVK)

2000 Winschoten  Pascal Fétizon (fr) (FRA)  Edit Bérces (HUN)

2001 Cléder  Yasufumi Mikami (JPN)  Yelvira Kolpakova (ru) (RUS)

2002 Torhout  Mario Fattore (it) (ITA)  Tatyana Zhyrkova (ru) (RUS)

2003 Tainan  Mario Fattore (it) (ITA)  Monica Casiraghi (ITA)

2004 Winschoten  Mario Ardemagni (it) (ITA)  Tatyana Zhyrkova (ru) (RUS)

2005 Yubetsu/Saroma/Tokoro  Grigoriy Murzin (ru) (RUS)  Hiroko Sho (JPN)

2006 Misari  Yannick Djouadi (FRA)  Elizabeth Hawker (GBR)

2007 Winschoten  Shinichi Watanabe (de) (JPN)  Norimi Sakurai (JPN)

2008 Rome  Giorgio Calcaterra (ITA)  Tatyana Zhyrkova (ru) (RUS)

2009 Torhout  Yasukazu Miyazato (JPN)  Kami Semick (fr) (USA)

2010 Gibraltar  Shinji Nakadai (JPN)  Ellie Greenwood (GBR)

2011 Winschoten  Giorgio Calcaterra (ITA)  Marina Bychkova (ru) (RUS)

2012 Seregno  Giorgio Calcaterra (ITA)  Amy Sproston (USA)

2013 cancelled

2014 Doha  Max King (USA)  Ellie Greenwood (GBR)

2015 Winschoten  Jonas Buud (SWE)  Camille Herron (USA)

2016 Los Alcázares  Hideaki Yamauchi (JPN)  Kirstin Bull (AUS)

World or national-record holding or world-championship-winning ultramarathon runners[edit] For reliable and updated information, see the IAU
IAU
(International Association of Ultrarunners) annual report of current world records on its newest "World's Best Performances" page in statistics.

Yiannis Kouros, multi-day race legend, holder of numerous world records and world bests from 24 hours to 1,000 miles, course record holder of the Spartathlon
Spartathlon
since its inception in 1983[1][9] Takahiro Sunada, current men's 100 km Road world record holder (6:13:33, Saroma JP, 1998)[1][9] Tomoe Abe, current women's 100 km Road world record holder (6:33:11, Saroma JP, 2000)[1][9] Ryōichi Sekiya, four time IAU
IAU
24-hour run World Championship winner, Asia record holder of 24-hour run (274.884 kilometres (170.805 mi)),[9] two-time winner of Spartathlon
Spartathlon
[10] Shingo Inoue, 2010 winner of IAU
IAU
24-hour run World Championship (273.708 kilometres (170.074 mi))[9] Mami Kudo, current women's 24h Track world record holder(255.303 kilometres (158.638 mi), Soochow TPE, 2011),[11] current women's 48h Road world record holder(368.687 kilometres (229.091 mi), Athens
Athens
GRE, Apr 2011),[12] 2013 female winner of IAU
IAU
24-hour run World Championship[13] Sumie Inagaki, current women's 24h Indoor world record holder (240.631 kilometres (149.521 mi) Espoo
Espoo
FIN, Jan 2011),[9] current women's 48h Track world record holder(397.103 kilometres (246.748 mi), Surgeres
Surgeres
FRA, May 2010),[9] two time female winner of IAU
IAU
24-hour run World Championship, two time female winner of Spartathlon
Spartathlon
[10] Norimi Sakurai, current women's 100 km Track world record holder (7:14:06, Lupatotissima ITA, Sep 2003),[9] current women's 6H Track world record holder (83.200 kilometres (51.698 mi), Lupatoto Verone ITA, Sept 2003),[9] 2007 female winner of IAU
IAU
24-hour run World Championship[13] Suprabha Beckjord female and Wolfgang Schwerk male record holder 3100 mile Race [14] Edit Berces, 24 hour treadmill world record holder; holds several Hungarian records Ted Corbitt, "father of American ultrarunning"; 1952 US Olympic team member; former American world record holder at various distances Al Howie, World Record Holder for the trans-Canada, 7295.5 kilometres in 72 days, 10 hours and 23 minutes. Bruce Fordyce, nine time Comrades Marathon
Marathon
winner; African 100K record holder (6:25:07) Serge Girard, trans-USA (4,597 km – 1997), trans-South America (5,235 km – 2001), trans-Africa (8,295 km – 2003/2004) and trans-Eurasia (19,097 km – 2005/2006) record holder Wally Hayward, Multiple winner of Comrades Marathon, London
London
to Brighton, many other ultramarathons; set early world records Bernd Heinrich, formerly held the US 100 mile track record holder (12:27:01), naturalist Shaul Ladany, Israeli racewalker, world record holder in the 50-mile walk, former world champion in the 100-kilometer walk[15][16] Frith van der Merwe, set Comrades Marathon
Marathon
records for both directions Stu Mittleman, US record holder for six-day race (578 miles) Arthur F. H. Newton, 5 times Comrades Marathon
Marathon
winner Elena Nurgalieva
Elena Nurgalieva
and her sister Olesya Nurgalieva
Olesya Nurgalieva
have won a total of 10 Comrades Marathon
Marathon
titles between them; Elena holds the uphill course record (6:09:24) Ann Trason, fourteen time Western States Endurance Run
Western States Endurance Run
winner and former female course record holder; 2-time winner of the Comrades Marathon; formerly or currently holds numerous American and World Records; American 100k record holder (7:00:48) Cliff Young, former winner Westfield Sydney to Melbourne; holds numerous world age records[citation needed] Arun Bhardwaj, first Indian to compete in and win the George Archer 6 day race in South Africa, completed a 4,000+ km run from Kargil, India to Kanyakumari, India, in 61 days.[citation needed] Camille Herron, first ultra athlete to win 2 World titles in the same year (2015- 50K and 100K); 2017 Comrades Marathon
Marathon
Champion; holds the World Best for 50 Miles (5:38:41), 100 Mile Road and Trail
Trail
World Record (12:42:40), and 12 Hour World Record.

Ultramarathons by regions[edit] Ultra Marathons are run around the world with more than 70,000 people completing them every year.[citation needed] Africa[edit] Several ultra distance events are held in Africa.

South Africa
South Africa
hosts a number of notable ultra marathon events.

On paved surface: the world's oldest and largest ultramarathon, the 87 kilometres (54 mi) Comrades Marathon. Approximately 12,000 runners complete the Comrades each year, out of approximately 17000 who start, with 23,961 competing in 2000.[17] The 56-kilometre (35 mi) Two Oceans Marathon
Marathon
in Cape Town
Cape Town
in the southern autumn attracts approximately 11,000 runners. The Washie 100 road race is the oldest one hundred miler road race in Africa. Off road: The Salomon Sky Run is a grueling 100 kilometres (62 mi) self supported, unmarked trail race held in a particularly scenic part of the country.

The Marathon
Marathon
des Sables is a 6-day stage race which covers 250 kilometres (160 mi) through the Sahara desert
Sahara desert
in Morocco. The Sahara Race in Egypt, part of the 4 Deserts
4 Deserts
series, is held annually with about 150 competitors from 40 countries competing. Due to political instability, the ultramarathon of 250 kilometres (160 mi) has temporarily relocated to the Namib Desert. The Grand Raid de la Réunion
Grand Raid de la Réunion
is held annually on Réunion
Réunion
in October, crossing the island over 163 kilometres (101 mi) with an altitude gain of 9,643 metres (31,637 ft). This race attracts 2,350 competitors, with 1,000 runners from overseas.

Asia[edit] Ultrarunning has become popular in Asia recently, and countries such as Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea
South Korea
have hosted IAU
IAU
World Championships.

Japan
Japan
had its first 100 km event in 1987 as Lake Saroma Ultramarathon
Ultramarathon
and hosted IAU
IAU
100 km World Championship in 1994 (Lake Saroma), 1998 (River Shimanto) and 2005 (Lake Saroma).[18] Japan hosts more than 50 ultramarathon events throughout the year,[19] among which are Trans Japan
Japan
Alps Race (TJAR) (415 kilometres (258 mi) with more than 26,000 metres (16 mi) cumulative altitude gain crossing Japan
Japan
Alps, crossing Japan's mainland from Japan
Japan
Sea to Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
in 7 days),[20][21] Hasetsune cup (71.5 kilometres (44.4 mi) in steep foggy mountains)[22] and Ultra- Trail
Trail
Mt. Fuji (UTMF) (161 kilometres (100 mi) loop around World Heritage Mt. Fuji with cumulative altitude gain of about 9,000 metres (5.6 mi)).[23][24] South Korea's first ultramarathon was held in 2000. The Gobi March in northwest China was China's first ultramarathon, first staged in 2003. The Gobi March is part of the 4 Deserts
4 Deserts
Race Series.[25] India's first ultra marathon, the Bangalore Ultra was held in 2007.[26][27] Since 2010, Indian Himalayas have hosted La Ultra – The High, a 333 km course crossing Khardung La, touted to be the world's highest motorable mountain pass.[28] Soochow International 24H Ultra- Marathon
Marathon
is held since 1999 in Taipei, and is an official IAU-registered event. A night race called the Sundown Marathon
Marathon
has been held in Singapore annually since 2008, over a double marathon distance (84 km) up to 2010 and 100 km since then.[29] Nepal
Nepal
hosts several ultramarathon races,[30] including the Annapurna 100, the Kanchenjunga Ultra Marathon
Marathon
Trail
Trail
Running
Running
Race [31] and the Everest Ultra.[32] Northern Mongolia
Mongolia
hosts an annual 100 km summer race, Mongolia Sunrise to Sunset.[33] Malaysia's first ultra trail marathon was founded in November 2011 and is known as the TMBT (The Most Beautiful Thing) in Sabah at Mount Kinabalu, South East Asia's highest mountain. The event has a 55% drop out rate and is a 3-point qualifying race for Ultra Du Mont Blanc and a 2-point qualifying race for the 55 kilometer category of the event. This was followed by the Beaufort Ultra Marathon
Marathon
in Sabah organized in 2012 and a 60 kilometer endurance run under 35-39 degree Celsius morning and afternoon heat with a 60% finish rate amongst runners.[34] First 100 miles ultra marathon road race, Putrajaya 100 Miles, was held on 22–23 November 2014. The first 200 km ultra will be held on 6–8 March 2015 in Titi, Selangor (TITI100). Other ultra races such as Back2Endurance, G5N, and Gunung Nuang Ultra were organized by the Malaysia Ultra Running Indonesia's first ultramarathon race, Mount Rinjani Ultra (52K), was held on August 2013 and Indonesia's first 100K & 160K ultramarathon race, Bromo Tengger Semeru 100 Ultra, was held on November 2013. Tambora Challenge (320KM) held from 2015 In the Cebu, Philippines, Ultramarathons has gained quite a number of followers. An All-Women Ultra Marathon
Marathon
race covering a distance of 50 kilometers is held annually on the weekend of International Women's Day since 2012.[35] Clark Freeport Zone in the Philippines
Philippines
is the venue for two of the Philippines
Philippines
premier ultramarathon events. The Clark Miyamit Ultra, known as CM50 a 60K and 50Mile Trail
Trail
Ultramarathon
Ultramarathon
that takes runners to traverse from Clark to the Aeta Villages, lahar bed, mountain ranges near Mt. Pinatubo and the iconic Miyamit Falls. Cardimax - Clark Ultramarathon
Ultramarathon
is a road ultramarathon of 50K and 100K distance which brings and gathers ultramarathoners from aspiring ones to the most competitive elites. In Israel, two major ultramarathon races are commenced annually - Mount to Valley relay race; over 215 km, from the hills of the Upper Galilee
Upper Galilee
to the Jezreel Valley, and the Valley Circle race in the Jezreel valley; contains several distances, including 160 km and 200 km.

Oceania, Australia, and New Zealand[edit] Australia
Australia
and New Zealand are hosts to some 100 organized ultramarathons each year. Additionally a handful of runners have run the entire length of New Zealand, a distance of around 2,200 kilometres (1,400 mi).[36] The most recent runner's being Lisa Tamati and Andrew Hedgman who both completed the challenge separately in 2009 and 2010. Australia In Australia, the Westfield Ultra Marathon
Marathon
was an annual race between Sydney and Melbourne
Melbourne
contested between 1983 and 1991. Greek runner Yiannis Kouros
Yiannis Kouros
won the event five times during that period. Australia is also the home of one of the oldest six-day races in the world, the Cliff Young Australian 6-day race, held in Colac, Victoria. The race is held on a 400-meter circuit at the Memorial Square in the centre of Colac, and has seen many close races since its inception in 1984. The 20th Cliff Young Australian six-day race was held between 20 and 26 November 2005. During that event, Kouros beat his existing world record six-day track mark and set a new mark of 1,036.851 kilometres (644.269 mi). The Coast to Kosciuszko inaugurated in 2004, is a 246-kilometre (153 mi) marathon from the coast to the top of Mount Kosciuszko, Australia's highest mountain. Australia
Australia
has seen a steep growth in Ultrarunning events and participants in recent years. Many new races have come into inception, covering a range of Ultramarathon
Ultramarathon
distances from 50 km right through to multi-day events. The cornerstone of Australian Ultra events being such races as; Ultra- Trail
Trail
Australia
Australia
100, Bogong To Hotham, Alpine Challenge, and the Cradle Mountain Run.[37] The Australian Ultra Runners Association (AURA) has a comprehensive list and links of events and their respective results.[38] New Zealand[edit] New Zealand's first ultramarathon called The Kepler Challenge
Kepler Challenge
was held on a 60 kilometres (37 mi) trail through Fiordland National Park, which has been running since 1988 and is one of the country's most popular races. New Zealand's Northburn 100 ultra mountain run is the first 100-mile (160 km) race through the Northburn Station. The world-famous Te Houtaewa Challenge has a 62 km race on ninety mile beach, Northland. The field of international and local runners have to contend with rising tides and soft beach sand and the March race dates often means the race is run in the cyclone season. In 2014 the ultramarathon was postponed because of Cyclone Lucy. In 2016 the race will be in its jubilee and the 25th anniversary will see many of its past runners compete for the honour of the ultimate challenge winner. The Tarawera Ultramarathon
Ultramarathon
is currently one of the most competitive ultras in New Zealand and part of the Ultra- Trail
Trail
World Tour.[39] In November 2012, Kim Allan planned to run and/or walk 500 kilometres (310 mi) nonstop, without sleep, on the Sri Chinmoy
Sri Chinmoy
Peace Mile track at the Auckland Domain. Her aim was to beat ultrarunner Pam Reed's record of 300 miles (480 km).[40] According to her Facebook
Facebook
page, she only managed 385.8 kilometres (239.7 mi). She eventually passed the 500 kilometre mark at 86 hours, 11 minutes, and 9 seconds, breaking the 486 kilometres (302 mi) women's record.[41] In April 2013, a Feilding
Feilding
man, Perry Newburn, set a new New Zealand record by running 483 kilometres (300 mi) without sleep at Feilding's Manfield Park.[42] Ultramarathon
Ultramarathon
running in New Zealand has a national body: the New Zealand Ultrarunners Association. Oceania[edit] Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
has the Kokoda Challenge Race, an annual 96 km endurance race held in late August that runs the length of the historic Kokoda Track.[43] Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea
also has the Great Kokoda Race, a multi-stage 96 km (3 day) race held in early July where competitors run or walk the length of the Kokoda Track.[44] Europe[edit] In Europe, ultrarunning can trace its origins with early documentation of ultrarunners from Icelandic sagas[citation needed], or the antique Greece
Greece
from where the idea of the Marathon, and the Spartathlon
Spartathlon
comes. The history of ultrarunners and walkers in the UK from the Victorian Era has also been documented. The IAU
IAU
hosts annual European Championships for the 50 km, 100 km and 24 hours. The European Ultramarathon Cup is an annual cup event covering some of the biggest Ultramarathon
Ultramarathon
races in Europe.[45] Also worth mentioning is the ultramarathon CajaMar Tenerife Bluetrail, the highest race in Spain
Spain
and second in Europe,[46] with the participation of several countries and great international repercussions. There are over 300 ultramarathons held in Europe
Europe
each year,[citation needed] including the Harz Run in the Harz Mountains. Antarctica[edit] Due to logistics and environmental concerns there are only a handful of ultramarathons held in Antarctica, and travel costs can mean entrance fees as high as $14,000.[47] Ultramarathons in Antarctica include: The Last Desert, part of the 4 Deserts
4 Deserts
Race Series, a multi-stage footrace, and the Antarctic Ice Marathon
Marathon
– a marathon and 100-kilometer race. North America[edit] There are several hundred ultramarathons held annually in North America. One of the best known is the Western States Endurance Run, the world's oldest 100-mile trail run. The race began unofficially in 1974, when local horseman Gordy Ainsleigh's horse for the 100-mile Tevis Cup
Tevis Cup
horse race came up lame. He decided to travel the course on foot, finishing in 23 hours and 47 minutes.[citation needed] One of the first documented ultramarathons in North America was held in 1926, and at the time was part of the Central American Games. Tomas Zafiro and Leoncio San Miguel, both Tarahumara
Tarahumara
Indians, ran 100 km from Pachuca
Pachuca
to Mexico City in 9 hours and 37 minutes. At the time, the Mexican government petitioned to include a 100 km race in the 1928 Summer Olympics
1928 Summer Olympics
in Amsterdam[citation needed]; however, nothing came of these efforts. In 1928, sports agent C. C. Pyle
C. C. Pyle
organized the first of two editions of the 3,455-mile-long Bunion Derby (the first went along U.S. Route 66 from Los Angeles to Chicago before heading toward New York; the 1929 Derby reversed the route). Neither the race nor the accompanying vaudeville show was a financial success. Since 1997, runners have been competing in the Self-Transcendence 3100 Mile Race, which is billed as the longest official footrace in the world. They run 100 laps a day for up to 50 days around a single block in Queens, NY, for a total distance of 3,100 miles (5,000 km).[14] The Latest Trans-American Footrace (2015) winner was Robert HP Young ( Marathon
Marathon
Man UK) Winning in a time of 482 hours 10 minutes 00 seconds [48] In April 2006, the American Ultrarunning Hall of Fame was established by the American Ultrarunning Association (AUA). Candidates for the Hall of Fame are chosen from the 'modern era' of American ultras, beginning with the New York Road Runners
New York Road Runners
Club 30 Mile race held in 1958. The Inaugural inductees were Ted Corbitt, a former US Olympian, winner of the aforementioned race in 3:04:13, and co-founder of the Road Runners Club of America, and Sandra Kiddy, who began her ultra career at age 42 with a world record at 50 kilometers, 3:36:56, and who went on to set a number of US and world ultra records. South America[edit] There are a small number of ultramarathons in South America, but participation in the sport is increasing. The Brazil 135 Ultramarathon is a single-stage race of 135 miles ( 217 km) with a 60-hour cutoff, held in Brazil. This is a Badwater "sister race".[49] Several ultramarathons are held in Chile
Chile
and with both local and international participation.[50] Ultramarathons held in Chile
Chile
include:

Atacama Xtreme 50K, 80K and the first 100 Miles in Chile. One loop for each distance starting and finishing in San Pedro de Atacama
San Pedro de Atacama
at an avg. of 2,400 above sea level.[51] The Endurance Challenge, a 10K, 21K, 50K and 80K trail running race held in the Andes mountain range near Santiago. It is part of the global Endurance Challenge circuit. The race seeks to promote the sport, outdoor activity and the use of mountain trails, taking care to have the lowest impact possible on the environment. The Lican Ray-Villarrica Ultramarathon, a 70 km marathon that starts in Lican Ray, climbs Villarrica Volcano
Villarrica Volcano
and ends in downtown Villarrica. The Atacama Crossing, established in 2004, a 250 km (155 mile) ultramarathon which takes place in the Atacama desert, around San Pedro de Atacama, Chile,[52] and crosses through the driest place on earth. There are six stages in seven days, with almost four marathons run in the first four days, then a 74 km stretch, then a rest day and a final stage of 11 km. It is part of the 4 Deserts
4 Deserts
Series. The race covers rugged terrain, with a harsh climate and an altitude that averages 2500 m (8000 ft). The race uses the town of San Pedro de Atacama
San Pedro de Atacama
as its host town, and in 2012 the race began at its highest point of over 3,000m in the Arcoiris Valley.

View from the Atacama Crossing 2011.

The Patagonian International Marathon, organized by NIGSA, takes place in Torres del Paine National Park, southern Chilean Patagonia. The event features four race distances: an ultramarathon (63 km), marathon (42 km), half marathon (21 km) and a 10K. Each distance has a different starting point, but everyone finishes in the same place. The event has the secondary goal of promoting the conservation of Chilean Patagonia
Chilean Patagonia
and contributing to the sustainable development of the region through the planting of trees in the Torres del Paine National Park through the "Corre y Reforesta" (Run and Reforest) campaign[53] run by the organization "Reforestemos Patagonia" (Let's Reforest Patagonia)[54] The Rapa Nui GrandTrail, an 80k ultramarathon that takes place on Easter Island, Valparaíso Region, Chile. This exotic trail, far out in the Pacific Ocean, takes in the famous Moai
Moai
statues of the island.[55]

International Trail
Trail
Running
Running
Association (ITRA)[edit] Many ultramarathon organizers are members of the International Trail Running
Running
Association (ITRA), an organization which promotes values, diversity, health and safety during races, as well as working to further the development of trail running and helps to coordinate between the national and international bodies with an interest in the sport. ITRA also evaluates of the difficulty of specific ultramarathon routes according to a number of criteria, such as the distance, the cumulative elevation gain, and the number of loops and stages. ITRA maintains a calendar of ultramarathon events. Born to Run[edit] In 2009, Christopher McDougall's book Born to Run
Born to Run
was released. It contained both anthropological and scientific information, and is about a society of ultramarathoners. It was not the first book written specifically about ultramarathons, but McDougall included controversial conclusions about humanity's roots in long distance running that attracted attention to the sport. It became a national bestseller and a Forbes
Forbes
and Washington Post
Washington Post
book of the year. See also[edit]

7in7on7 Fell running Trail
Trail
running Skyrunning Micah True List of ultramarathons

References[edit]

^ a b c d "– 100 Kilometres Records". Iaaf.org. Retrieved 2013-10-05.  ^ If the loop is less than 1 kilometre (0.62 mi), run direction changes every 2–4 (sometimes 6) hours ^ "Ultra Running". Iaaf.org. Retrieved 2016-11-23.  ^ "Vierdaagse - Distance & Rewards". 4daagse.nl. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 23 November 2016.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak " IAU
IAU
World Best Performances" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-10-05.  ^ a b "Deutsche Ultramarathon
Ultramarathon
Statistics". Retrieved 2017-12-05.  ^ "Sunkist and Sunshine at Desert Solstice: Pam Smith's Report". Irunfar.com. 2013-12-23. Retrieved 2016-11-23.  ^ " IAU
IAU
Championships" (PDF). Iau-ultramarathon.org. Retrieved 2016-11-23.  ^ a b c d e f g h i " IAU
IAU
50km Women & Men" (PDF). Iau-ultramarathon.org. 2014-05-14. Retrieved 2016-11-23.  ^ a b "Αποτελέσματα". Spartathlon.gr. Retrieved 2016-11-23.  ^ [1] ^ " IAU
IAU
World Best Performances" (PDF). Iau-ultramarathon.org. Retrieved 2016-11-23.  ^ a b " IAU
IAU
Homepage" (PDF). Iau-ultramarathon.org. Retrieved 2016-11-23.  ^ a b "srichinmoyraces.org / About the 3100 Mile Race". Retrieved 2013-01-16.  ^ " Shaul Ladany
Shaul Ladany
Bio, Stats, and Results Olympics at". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 24 February 2013.  ^ "Shaul Ladany". Jewishsports.net. Retrieved 24 February 2013.  ^ [2] ^ " IAU
IAU
World Cup 100 Kilometres" (PDF). Iau-ultramarathon.org. Retrieved 2016-11-23.  ^ "2016 - 2017 Japan
Japan
Ultramarathon
Ultramarathon
Calendar". Marathons.ahotu.com. Retrieved 2016-11-23.  ^ NHK team, 激走! 日本アルプス大縦断 密着、トランスジャパンアルプスレース富山~静岡415km, 26 Apr 2013, ISBN 978-4087815276 ^ "日本一過酷な山岳レース「トランスジャパンアルプスレース(TJAR)」に密着したノンフィクション書籍『激走! 日本アルプス大縦断』(NHKスペシャル取材班・著)が、集英社より4月26日(金)に発売! 株式会社 集英社 プレスリリース配信代行サービス『ドリームニュース』". Dreamnews.jp. Retrieved 2016-11-23.  ^ RUNTRAIL editors, RUN+TRAIL vol.2 トレイルランレースをはじめよう ハセツネ/UTMF完走法 (SAN-EI MOOK),22 Aug 2012, ISBN 978-4779615627 ^ "2013 Ultra- Trail
Trail
Mount Fuji Preview". Irunfar.com. 2013-04-24. Retrieved 2016-11-23.  ^ "Ultra- Trail
Trail
Mt. Fuji
Mt. Fuji
(UTMF) The Japan
Japan
Times Online". Info.japantimes.co.jp. Retrieved 2016-11-23.  ^ "The Gobi March". 4 Deserts
4 Deserts
Official Website.  ^ "The Bangalore Ultra". The Bangalore Ultra. Retrieved 28 April 2013.  ^ "Big response for the Bangalore Marathon". The Hindu. 14 December 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2013.  ^ "Why La Ultra The High is the Cruelest Marathon". Forbes
Forbes
India. 18 February 2013.  ^ "Sundown Marathon". HiVelocity. Retrieved 28 April 2013.  ^ " Nepal
Nepal
events". Trail
Trail
Running
Running
Nepal.  ^ "Annapurna 100". annapurna100.com. Retrieved 2013-10-05.  ^ "Everest Ultra". Everest Ultra. 30 March 2013. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2013.  ^ " Mongolia
Mongolia
Sunrise to Sunset". Ms2s.org. Retrieved 2013-10-05.  ^ "Sabah Adventure Races". Sabahadventurechallenge.com. Retrieved 2013-10-05.  ^ "AWUM". Facebook. Retrieved 2016-11-23.  ^ "Endurance Sport". Endurance Sport. Retrieved 2016-11-23.  ^ [3] ^ [4] ^ "The Tarawera Ultramarathon
Ultramarathon
102km is part of the global Ultra-Trail ® World Tour".  ^ Satherley, Dan (7 November 2012). "Two feet, 500km and no sleep for charity". 3 News NZ.  ^ "Ultra-distance runner breaks record - National - NZ Herald News". Nzherald.co.nz. 2013-12-22. Retrieved 2016-11-23.  ^ " Feilding
Feilding
father breaks NZ running record". 3 News NZ. 5 April 2013.  ^ "Kokoda Challenge". Kokoda Trekking. Retrieved 24 June 2011.  ^ "The Great Kokoda Race". Twisted Explorer. Archived from the original on 13 September 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014.  ^ 25 years of ECU ^ Tenerife Bluetrail, la carrera más alta de España ^ "Antarctic Ice Marathon
Marathon
2013". Icemarathon.com. 7 March 2013. Archived from the original on 1 October 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2013.  ^ "Results : RAUSA Results" (PDF). Raceacrossusa.org. Retrieved 2016-11-23.  ^ [5] ^ "Ultramarathoner Atlas Vivo de Chile". Livingatlaschile.com. 2015-06-16. Retrieved 2016-11-23.  ^ "A running battle". Toronto Star, September 26, 2016. pages E1 and E5. ^ [6] ^ "Corre y reforesta la Patagonia chilena con la maratón de Torres del Paine". Eldefinido.cl. Retrieved 2016-11-23.  ^ [7] ^ "RAPA NUI GRAND TRAIL 80K 2013". ACTIVE.com. 2013-10-27. Retrieved 2016-11-23. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ultramarathon.

TheUltraMarathon.com Ultrarunning Images & Information by Robert Orcutt ULTRAmarathonRunning.com Global ultramarathon calendar RunUltra.co.uk Global ultramarathon calendar with runner reviews http://www.ultrunr.com/ Ken Sayer's Ultra running site Patagonian International Marathon
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Trail
running Mountain running Skyrunning Snowshoe running

Federations

IAAF (athletics) IAU
IAU
(ultra running) ITRA (trail running) WMRA (mountain running) ISF (skyrunning) WSSF (snowshoe running)

World championships

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IAAF World Championships in Athletics
(athletics) IAAF World Cross Country Championships
IAAF World Cross Country Championships
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Trail
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Skyrunning
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Track and field Road running Racewalking Racerunning Cross country running Multi-day race Ultramarathon Wheelchair racing Backward running

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50 m 55 m 60 m 80 m 100 m 110 m 200 m (low) 300 m 400 m

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Combined

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Road

Running

5 km 10 km 15 km 10 mi 20 km Half marathon 25 km 30 km Marathon Ekiden Ultramarathon

Walking

10 km 20 km 50 km 50 mi 100 km

Current Olympic events shown in italics

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Racing

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running

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racing Cycle speedway Keirin

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