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TIZIANO VECELLI or TIZIANO VECELLIO (pronounced ; c. 1488/1490 – 27 August 1576), known in English as TITIAN /ˈtɪʃən/ , was an Italian painter , the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school . He was born in Pieve di Cadore , near Belluno (in Veneto
Veneto
, Republic of Venice ). During his lifetime he was often called _da Cadore_, taken from the place of his birth.

Recognized by his contemporaries as "The Sun Amidst Small Stars" (recalling the famous final line of Dante\'s _Paradiso _), Titian
Titian
was one of the most versatile of Italian painters, equally adept with portraits, landscape backgrounds, and mythological and religious subjects. His painting methods, particularly in the application and use of color, would exercise a profound influence not only on painters of the Italian Renaissance, but on future generations of Western art .

During the course of his long life, Titian's artistic manner changed drastically, but he retained a lifelong interest in color. Although his mature works may not contain the vivid, luminous tints of his early pieces, their loose brushwork and subtlety of tone are without precedent in the history of Western painting
Western painting
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Biography

* 1.1 Early years * 1.2 Growth * 1.3 Maturity * 1.4 Final years * 1.5 Death

* 2 Printmaking * 3 Painting materials * 4 Family and workshop * 5 Present day * 6 Cultural depictions * 7 Gallery * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links

BIOGRAPHY

EARLY YEARS

It took Titian
Titian
two years (1516–1518) to complete his Assunta , whose dynamic three-tier composition and color scheme established him as the preeminent painter north of Rome.

The exact date of Titian's birth is uncertain. When he was an old man he claimed in a letter to Philip II, King of Spain , to have been born in 1474, but this seems most unlikely. Other writers contemporary to his old age give figures that would equate to birthdates between 1473 and after 1482. Most modern scholars believe a date nearer 1490 is more likely; the Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
's timeline supports c.1488, as does the Getty Research Institute , though his age at death being 99 had been accepted into the 20th century.

He was the son of Gregorio Vecelli and his wife Lucia. His father was superintendent of the castle of Pieve di Cadore and managed local mines for their owners. Gregorio was also a distinguished councilor and soldier. Many relatives, including Titian's grandfather, were notaries , and the family of four were well-established in the area, which was ruled by Venice.

At the age of about ten to twelve he and his brother Francesco (who perhaps followed later) were sent to an uncle in Venice to find an apprenticeship with a painter. The minor painter Sebastian Zuccato, whose sons became well-known mosaicists , and who may have been a family friend, arranged for the brothers to enter the studio of the elderly Gentile Bellini , from which they later transferred to that of his brother Giovanni Bellini
Giovanni Bellini
. At that time the Bellinis, especially Giovanni, were the leading artists in the city. There Titian
Titian
found a group of young men about his own age, among them Giovanni Palma da Serinalta, Lorenzo Lotto , Sebastiano Luciani , and Giorgio da Castelfranco, nicknamed Giorgione . Francesco Vecellio , his older brother, later became a painter of some note in Venice. _ A Man with a Quilted Sleeve _, an early portrait, c. 1509, National Gallery , London.

A fresco of Hercules
Hercules
on the Morosini Palace is said to have been one of Titian's earliest works. Others were the Bellini-esque so-called _Gypsy Madonna _ in Vienna, and the _Visitation of Mary and Elizabeth_ (from the convent of S. Andrea), now in the Accademia , Venice.

_ A Man with a Quilted Sleeve _ is an early portrait, painted around 1509 and described by Giorgio Vasari in 1568. Scholars long believed it depicted Ludovico Ariosto , but now think it is of Gerolamo Barbarigo . Rembrandt
Rembrandt
borrowed the composition for his self-portraits.

Titian
Titian
joined Giorgione as an assistant, but many contemporary critics already found his work more impressive—for example in exterior frescoes (now almost totally destroyed) that they did for the Fondaco dei Tedeschi (state-warehouse for the German merchants). Their relationship evidently contained a significant element of rivalry. Distinguishing between their work at this period remains a subject of scholarly controversy. A substantial number of attributions have moved from Giorgione to Titian
Titian
in the 20th century, with little traffic the other way. One of the earliest known Titian
Titian
works, _Christ Carrying the Cross _ in the Scuola Grande di San Rocco , depicting the _Ecce Homo _ scene, was long regarded as by Giorgione. Portrait of a Man in a Red Cap, Titian, c. 1510

The two young masters were likewise recognized as the leaders of their new school of _arte moderna_, which is characterized by paintings made more flexible, freed from symmetry and the remnants of hieratic conventions still found in the works of Giovanni Bellini.

In 1507–1508 Giorgione was commissioned by the state to create frescoes on the re-erected Fondaco dei Tedeschi. Titian
Titian
and Morto da Feltre worked along with him, and some fragments of paintings remain, probably by Giorgione. Some of their work is known, in part, through the engravings of Fontana . After Giorgione's early death in 1510, Titian
Titian
continued to paint Giorgionesque subjects for some time, though his style developed its own features, including bold and expressive brushwork. _ Salome with the Head of John the Baptist _ c. 1515, ( Galleria Doria Pamphilj , Rome), or Judith ; this religious work also functions as an idealized portrait of a beauty, a genre developed by Titian, supposedly often using Venetian courtesans as models.

Titian's talent in fresco is shown in those he painted in 1511 at Padua
Padua
in the Carmelite church and in the Scuola del Santo, some of which have been preserved, among them the _Meeting at the Golden Gate_, and three scenes (_Miracoli di sant'Antonio_) from the life of St. Anthony of Padua
Padua
, The Miracle of the Jealous Husband, which depicts the _Murder of a Young Woman by Her Husband_, _A Child Testifying to Its Mother's Innocence_, and _The Saint Healing the Young Man with a Broken Limb_.

In 1512 Titian
Titian
returned to Venice from Padua; in 1513 he obtained a broker's patent, termed _La Sanseria_ or _Senseria_ (a privilege much coveted by rising or risen artists), in the Fondaco dei Tedeschi. He became superintendent of the government works, especially charged with completing the paintings left unfinished by Giovanni Bellini
Giovanni Bellini
in the hall of the great council in the ducal palace . He set up an atelier on the Grand Canal at S. Samuele, the precise site being now unknown. It was not until 1516, after the death of Giovanni Bellini, that he came into actual enjoyment of his patent. At the same time he entered an exclusive arrangement for painting. The patent yielded him a good annuity of 20 crowns and exempted him from certain taxes. In return he was bound to paint likenesses of the successive Doges of his time at the fixed price of eight crowns each. The actual number he painted was five.

GROWTH

During this period (1516–1530), which may be called the period of his mastery and maturity, the artist moved on from his early Giorgionesque style, undertook larger, more complex subjects, and for the first time attempted a monumental style. Giorgione died in 1510 and Giovanni Bellini
Giovanni Bellini
in 1516, leaving Titian
Titian
unrivaled in the Venetian School. For sixty years he was the undisputed master of Venetian painting. In 1516, he completed his famous masterpiece, the _Assumption of the Virgin _, for the high altar of the Basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari
Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari
, where it is still in situ. This extraordinary piece of colorism, executed on a grand scale rarely before seen in Italy, created a sensation. The Signoria took note and observed that Titian
Titian
was neglecting his work in the hall of the great council, but in 1516 he succeeded his master Giovanni Bellini
Giovanni Bellini
in receiving a pension from the Senate.

The pictorial structure of the _Assumption_—that of uniting in the same composition two or three scenes superimposed on different levels, earth and heaven, the temporal and the infinite—was continued in a series of works such as the retable of San Domenico at Ancona
Ancona
(1520), the retable of Brescia
Brescia
(1522), and the retable of San Niccolò (1523), in the Vatican Museums , each time attaining to a higher and more perfect conception. He finally reached a classic formula in the _ Pesaro Madonna _, better known as the Madonna di Ca' Pesaro (c. 1519–1526), also for the Frari church. This is perhaps his most studied work, whose patiently developed plan is set forth with supreme display of order and freedom, originality and style. Here Titian
Titian
gave a new conception of the traditional groups of donors and holy persons moving in aerial space, the plans and different degrees set in an architectural framework. _ Bacchus and Ariadne
Bacchus and Ariadne
_, c. 1520-1523.

Titian
Titian
was now at the height of his fame, and towards 1521, following the production of a figure of St. Sebastian for the papal legate in Brescia
Brescia
(of which there are numerous replicas), purchasers pressed for his work.

To this period belongs a more extraordinary work, _The Death of St. Peter Martyr_ (1530), formerly in the Dominican Church of San Zanipolo , and destroyed by an Austrian shell in 1867. Only copies and engravings of this proto- Baroque
Baroque
picture remain. It combined extreme violence and a landscape, mostly consisting of a great tree, that pressed into the scene and seems to accentuate the drama in a way that looks forward to the Baroque.

The artist simultaneously continued a series of small Madonnas , which he placed amid beautiful landscapes, in the manner of genre pictures or poetic pastorals. The _Virgin with the Rabbit_, in The Louvre
Louvre
, is the finished type of these pictures. Another work of the same period, also in the Louvre
Louvre
, is the _Entombment_. This was also the period of the three large and famous mythological scenes for the _camerino _ of Alfonso d\'Este in Ferrara , _The Andrians_ and the _Worship of Venus_ in the Museo del Prado
Museo del Prado
, and the _Bacchus and Ariadne _ (1520–23) in London
London
, "perhaps the most brilliant productions of the neo-pagan culture or "Alexandrianism" of the Renaissance
Renaissance
, many times imitated but never surpassed even by Rubens himself."

Finally this was the period when Titian
Titian
composed the half-length figures and busts of young women, probably courtesans , such as _Flora _ of the Uffizi
Uffizi
, or _ Woman with a Mirror _ in the Louvre
Louvre
(the scientific images of this painting are available, with explanations, on the website of the French Center for Research and Restoration of the Museums of France)

MATURITY

Titian's unmatched handling of color is exemplified by his _ Danaë _, one of several mythological paintings, or "poesie" ("poems") as the painter called them. This painting was done for Alessandro Farnese, but a later variant was produced for Philip II, for whom Titian painted many of his most important mythological paintings. Although Michelangelo
Michelangelo
adjudged this piece deficient from the point of view of drawing, Titian
Titian
and his studio produced several versions for other patrons.

Another famous painting is _ Bacchus and Ariadne
Bacchus and Ariadne
_, depicting Theseus , whose ship is shown in the distance and who has just left Ariadne at Naxos, when Bacchus arrives, jumping from his chariot, drawn by two cheetahs, and falling immediately in love with Ariadne. Bacchus raised her to heaven. Her constellation is shown in the sky. The painting belongs to a series commissioned from Bellini, Titian, and Dosso Dossi, for the Camerino d\'Alabastro (Alabaster Room) in the Ducal Palace, Ferrara , by Alfonso I d\'Este, Duke of Ferrara , who in 1510 even tried to commission Michelangelo
Michelangelo
and Raphael
Raphael
. _ Portrait of Isabella of Portugal _ was painted by Titian
Titian
after her 1539 death, using a mediocre painting as a reference.

During the next period (1530–1550), Titian
Titian
developed the style introduced by his dramatic _Death of St. Peter Martyr_. In 1538, the Venetian government, dissatisfied with Titian's neglect of his work for the ducal palace, ordered him to refund the money he had received, and Il Pordenone
Il Pordenone
, his rival of recent years, was installed in his place. However, at the end of a year Pordenone died, and Titian, who meanwhile applied himself diligently to painting in the hall the _Battle of Cadore_, was reinstated.

This major battle scene was lost—with many other major works by Venetian artists—in the 1577 fire that destroyed all the old pictures in the great chambers of the Doge's Palace. It depicted in life-size the moment when the Venetian general d\'Alviano attacked the enemy, with horses and men crashing down into a stream. It was Titian's most important attempt at a tumultuous and heroic scene of movement to rival Raphael
Raphael
's _Battle of Constantine_, Michelangelo's equally ill-fated _Battle of Cascina_, and Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
's _The Battle of Anghiari_ (these last two unfinished). There remains only a poor, incomplete copy at the Uffizi, and a mediocre engraving by Fontana. The _Speech of the Marquis del Vasto_ (Madrid, 1541) was also partly destroyed by fire. But this period of the master's work is still represented by the _Presentation of the Blessed Virgin_ (Venice, 1539), one of his most popular canvasses, and by the _Ecce Homo_ ( Vienna
Vienna
, 1541). Despite its loss, the painting had a great influence on Bolognese art and Rubens, both in the handling of details and the general effect of horses, soldiers, lictors, powerful stirrings of crowds at the foot of a stairway, lit by torches with the flapping of banners against the sky.

Less successful were the pendentives of the cupola at Santa Maria della Salute (_Death of Abel_, _Sacrifice of Abraham_, _David and Goliath_). These violent scenes viewed in perspective from below were by their very nature in unfavorable situations. They were nevertheless much admired and imitated, Rubens among others applying this system to his forty ceilings (the sketches only remain) of the Jesuit church at Antwerp.

At this time also, during his visit to Rome
Rome
, the artist began a series of reclining Venuses: _The Venus of Urbino _ of the Uffizi, _Venus and Love_ at the same museum, _Venus—and the Organ-Player _, Madrid, which shows the influence of contact with ancient sculpture. Giorgione had already dealt with the subject in his Dresden picture, finished by Titian, but here a purple drapery substituted for a landscape background changed, by its harmonious coloring, the whole meaning of the scene.

From the beginning of his career Titian
Titian
was a masterful portrait-painter, in works like _La Bella_ (Eleanora de Gonzaga, Duchess of Urbino, at the Pitti Palace). He painted the likenesses of princes, or Doges, cardinals or monks, and artists or writers. "...no other painter was so successful in extracting from each physiognomy so many traits at once characteristic and beautiful". Among portrait-painters Titian
Titian
is compared to Rembrandt
Rembrandt
and Velázquez , with the interior life of the former, and the clearness, certainty, and obviousness of the latter. _ Equestrian Portrait of Charles V _, 1548, Museo del Prado
Museo del Prado
.

These qualities show in the _Portrait of Pope Paul III _ of Naples
Naples
, or the sketch of the same _ Pope Paul III and his Grandsons _, the _ Portrait of Pietro Aretino _ of the Pitti Palace, the _Portrait of Isabella of Portugal _ (Madrid), and the series of Emperor Charles V of the same museum, the _Charles V with a Greyhound_ (1533), and especially the _ Equestrian Portrait of Charles V _ (1548), an equestrian picture in a symphony of purples. This state portrait of Charles V (1548) at the Battle of Mühlberg established a new genre, that of the grand equestrian portrait. The composition is steeped both in the Roman tradition of equestrian sculpture and in the medieval representations of an ideal Christian knight, but the weary figure and face have a subtlety few such representations attempt. In 1532, after painting a portrait of the emperor Charles V in Bologna, he was made a Count Palatine and knight of the Golden Spur . His children were also made nobles of the Empire, which for a painter was an exceptional honor.

As a matter of professional and worldly success his position from about this time is regarded as equal only to that of Raphael
Raphael
, Michelangelo
Michelangelo
and, at a later date, Rubens. In 1540 he received a pension from d'Avalos, marquis del Vasto, and an annuity of 200 crowns (which was afterwards doubled) from Charles V from the treasury of Milan
Milan
. Another source of profit, for he was always aware of money, was a contract obtained in 1542 for supplying grain to Cadore, where he visited almost every year and where he was both generous and influential.

Titian
Titian
had a favorite villa on the neighboring Manza Hill (in front of the church of Castello Roganzuolo ) from which (it may be inferred) he made his chief observations of landscape form and effect. The so-called Titian's mill, constantly discernible in his studies, is at Collontola, near Belluno.

He visited Rome
Rome
in 1546 and obtained the freedom of the city—his immediate predecessor in that honor having been Michelangelo
Michelangelo
in 1537. He could at the same time have succeeded the painter Sebastiano del Piombo in his lucrative office as holder of the piombo or Papal seal , and he was prepared to take Holy Orders for the purpose; but the project lapsed through his being summoned away from Venice in 1547 to paint Charles V and others in Augsburg
Augsburg
. He was there again in 1550, and executed the portrait of Philip II , which was sent to England and was useful in Philip's suit for the hand of Queen Mary .

FINAL YEARS

_ Venus and Organist and Little Dog ,_ c. 1550. _ Danaë is one of the paintings from the Danaë (Titian series) _, completed between 1553 and 1556.

During the last twenty-six years of his life (1550–1576), Titian worked mainly for Philip II and as a portrait-painter. He became more self-critical, an insatiable perfectionist, keeping some pictures in his studio for ten years—returning to them and retouching them, constantly adding new expressions at once more refined, concise, and subtle. He also finished many copies that his pupils made of his earlier works. This caused problems of attribution and priority among versions of his works—which were also widely copied and faked outside his studio during his lifetime and afterwards.

For Philip II, he painted a series of large mythological paintings known as the "poesie", mostly from Ovid
Ovid
, which scholars regard as among his greatest works. Thanks to the prudishness of Philip's successors, these were later mostly given as gifts, and only two remain in the Prado. Titian
Titian
was producing religious works for Philip at the same time. The "poesie" series contained the following works:

* _ Danaë _, sent to Philip in 1553. * _Venus and Adonis _, of which the earliest surviving version, delivered in 1554, is in the Prado, but several versions exist * _Perseus and Andromeda _ ( Wallace Collection , now damaged) * _Diana and Actaeon _ * _ Diana and Callisto
Diana and Callisto
_, were despatched in 1559 * _The Rape of Europa _ (Boston, Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum ), delivered in 1562 * _ The Death of Actaeon _, begun in 1559 but worked on for many years and never completed or delivered

Another painting that apparently remained in his studio at his death, and has been much less well known until recent decades, is the powerful, even "repellent" _ Flaying of Marsyas _ ( Kroměříž , Czech Republic ). Another violent masterpiece is _Tarquin and Lucretia _ ( Cambridge
Cambridge
, Fitzwilliam Museum ). _ The Rape of Europa_ c, 1560-1562, Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum , is a bold diagonal composition that Rubens admired and copied. In contrast to the clarity of Titian's early works, it is almost baroque in its blurred lines, swirling colors, and vibrant brushstrokes.

For each problem he undertook, he furnished a new and more perfect formula. He never again equaled the emotion and tragedy of _The Crowning with Thorns _ (Louvre); in the expression of the mysterious and the divine he never equaled the poetry of the _Pilgrims of Emmaus_; while in superb and heroic brilliancy he never again executed anything more grand than _The Doge Grimani adoring Faith_ (Venice, Doge's Palace), or the _Trinity_, of Madrid. On the other hand, from the standpoint of flesh tints, his most moving pictures are those of his old age, such as the _poesie_ and the _Antiope_ of the Louvre. He even attempted problems of chiaroscuro in fantastic night effects (_Martyrdom of St. Laurence_, Church of the Jesuits, Venice; _St. Jerome_, Louvre; Crucifixion , Church of San Domenico, Ancona).

Titian
Titian
had engaged his daughter Lavinia, the beautiful girl whom he loved deeply and painted various times, to Cornelio Sarcinelli of Serravalle. She had succeeded her aunt Orsa, then deceased, as the manager of the household, which, with the lordly income that Titian made by this time, placed her on a corresponding footing. The marriage took place in 1554. She died in childbirth in 1560.

Titian
Titian
was at the Council of Trent towards 1555, of which there is a finished sketch in the Louvre. His friend Aretino died suddenly in 1556, and another close intimate, the sculptor and architect Jacopo Sansovino , in 1570. In September 1565 Titian
Titian
went to Cadore and designed the decorations for the church at Pieve, partly executed by his pupils. One of these is a Transfiguration, another an _Annunciation _ (now in S. Salvatore, Venice), inscribed _Titianus fecit_, by way of protest (it is said) against the disparagement of some persons who caviled at the veteran's failing handicraft. _ Pietà_ , c. 1576, his last painting.

Around 1560, Titian
Titian
painted the oil on canvas, _Madonna and Child with Saints Luke and Catherine of Alexandria _, a derivative on the motif of Madonna and Child . It is suggested that members of Titian's Venice workshop probably painted the curtain and Luke, because of the lower quality of those parts.

He continued to accept commissions to the end of his life. Like many of his late works, Titian's last painting, the _Pietà_ , is a dramatic, nocturnal scene of suffering. He apparently intended it for his own tomb chapel. He had selected, as his burial place, the chapel of the Crucifix in the Basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, the church of the Franciscan
Franciscan
Order. In payment for a grave, he offered the Franciscans a picture of the Pietà that represented himself and his son Orazio, with a sibyl , before the Savior. He nearly finished this work, but differences arose regarding it, and he settled on being interred in his native Pieve.

DEATH

Tomb of Titian
Titian
in Venice

While the plague raged in Venice, Titian
Titian
died of a fever on 27 August 1576. Depending on his unknown birthdate (see above), he was somewhere from his late eighties or even close to 100. Titian
Titian
was interred in the Frari (Basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari
Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari
), as at first intended, and his _Pietà_ was finished by Palma il Giovane . He lies near his own famous painting, the _Madonna di Ca' Pesaro._ No memorial marked his grave. Much later the Austrian rulers of Venice commissioned Antonio Canova
Antonio Canova
to sculpt a large monument.

Immediately after Titian's death, his son and assistant Orazio died of the plague. His opulent mansion was plundered by thieves during the epidemic.

PRINTMAKING

Titian
Titian
never attempted engraving , but he was very conscious of the importance of printmaking as a means to expand his reputation. In the period 1517–1520 he designed a number of woodcuts , including an enormous and impressive one of _The Crossing of the Red Sea_, and collaborated with Domenico Campagnola and others, who produced additional prints based on his paintings and drawings. Much later he provided drawings based on his paintings to Cornelis Cort from the Netherlands who engraved them. Martino Rota
Martino Rota
followed Cort from about 1558 to 1568.

PAINTING MATERIALS

Titian
Titian
employed an extensive array of pigments and it can be said that he availed himself of virtually all available pigments of his time. Except for the common pigments of the Renaissance
Renaissance
period, such as ultramarine , vermilion , lead-tin yellow , ochres , and azurite , he also used the rare pigments realgar and orpiment .

FAMILY AND WORKSHOP

_ The Allegory of Age Governed by Prudence _ (c. 1565–1570) is thought to depict (from left) Titian, his son Orazio, and his nephew, Marco Vecellio .

Titian's wife, Cecilia, was a barber's daughter from his hometown village of Cadore . As a young woman she had been his housekeeper and mistress for some five years. Cecilia had already borne Titian
Titian
two fine sons, Pomponio and Orazio, when in 1525 she fell seriously ill. Titian, wishing to legitimize the children, married her. Cecilia recovered, the marriage was a happy one, and they had another daughter who died in infancy. In August 1530 Cecilia died. Titian
Titian
remarried, but little information is known about his second wife; she was possibly the mother of his daughter Lavinia. Titian
Titian
had a fourth child, Emilia, the result of an affair, possibly with a housekeeper. His favorite child was Orazio , who became his assistant.

In August 1530 Titian
Titian
moved his two boys and infant daughter to a new home and convinced his sister Orsa to come from Cadore and take charge of the household. The mansion, difficult to find now, is in the Biri Grande, then a fashionable suburb, at the extreme end of Venice, on the sea, with beautiful gardens and a view towards Murano
Murano
. In about 1526 he had become acquainted, and soon close friends, with Pietro Aretino , the influential and audacious figure who features so strangely in the chronicles of the time. Titian
Titian
sent a portrait of him to Gonzaga, duke of Mantua
Mantua
.

Several other artists of the Vecelli family followed in the wake of Titian. Francesco Vecellio , his older brother, was introduced to painting by Titian
Titian
(it is said at the age of twelve, but chronology will hardly admit of this), and painted in the church of S. Vito in Cadore a picture of the titular saint armed. This was a noteworthy performance, of which Titian
Titian
(the usual story) became jealous; so Francesco was diverted from painting to soldiering, and afterwards to mercantile life. _ Diana and Actaeon_ , 1556–1559

Marco Vecellio , called Marco di Tiziano, Titian's nephew, born in 1545, was constantly with the master in his old age, and learned his methods of work. He has left some able productions in the ducal palace, the _Meeting of Charles V. and Clement VII . in 1529_; in S. Giacomo di Rialto, an _Annunciation_; in SS. Giovani e Paolo, _Christ Fulminant_. A son of Marco, named Tiziano (or Tizianello), painted early in the 17th century.

From a different branch of the family came Fabrizio di Ettore , a painter who died in 1580. His brother Cesare, who also left some pictures, is well known by his book of engraved costumes, _Abiti antichi e moderni_. Tommaso Vecelli , also a painter, died in 1620. There was another relative, Girolamo Dante, who, being a scholar and assistant of Titian, was called Girolamo di Tiziano . Various pictures of his were touched up by the master, and are difficult to distinguish from originals.

Few of the pupils and assistants of Titian
Titian
became well known in their own right; for some being his assistant was probably a lifetime career. Paris Bordone and Bonifazio Veronese were his assistants during at some point in their careers. Giulio Clovio
Giulio Clovio
said Titian employed El Greco
El Greco
(or Dominikos Theotokopoulos) in his last years. Polidoro da Lanciano is said to have been a follower or pupil of Titian. Other followers were Nadalino da Murano
Murano
and Damiano Mazza .

PRESENT DAY

Contemporary estimates attribute around 400 works to Titian, of which about 300 survive. Two of Titian's works in private hands were put up for sale in 2008. One of these works, _Diana and Actaeon_ , was purchased by London's National Gallery
National Gallery
and the National Galleries of Scotland on 2 February 2009 for ₤50 million ($71 million). The galleries had until 31 December 2008 to make the purchase before the work would be offered to private collectors, but the deadline was extended. The other painting, _Diana and Callisto_, was up for sale for the same amount until 2012 before it was offered to private collectors. The sale created controversy with politicians who argued that the money could have been spent more wisely during a deepening recession. The Scottish government offered ₤12.5 million and ₤10 million came from the National Heritage Memorial Fund. The rest of the money came from the National Galleries in London
London
and from private donations.

In 2011, _Madonna and Child with Saints Luke and Catherine of Alexandria _ was put up for auction at Sotheby\'s and sold on 28 January 2011 for $16.9 million.

CULTURAL DEPICTIONS

Titian
Titian
was portrayed by Greek -Cypriot actor Sotiris Moustakas in _El Greco _, a 2007 film by Yannis Smaragdis .

GALLERY

*

_Violante _, c. 1515. *

_Doge Andrea Gritti
Andrea Gritti
_, the Doge of Venice from 1523 to 1538. *

_Federico II Gonzaga,_ c. 1525. *

Portrait of Philip II , c. 1554. *

_ The Death of Actaeon _, 1559-1575. In Titian's later works, the forms lose their solidity and melt into the lush texture of shady, shimmering colors and unsettling atmospheric effects. In addition to energetic brushwork, Titian
Titian
was said to put paint on with his fingers toward the completion of a painting. *

_ Flaying of Marsyas _, little known until recent decades ( Kroměříž Archdiocesan Museum, Czech Republic
Czech Republic
), c. 1570-1576. *

_Christ_ - (fragment) 1553, oil on canvas , 68x62cm, Prado Museum Madrid
Madrid
. *

Religion saved by Spain, 1572-1575, Prado Museum, Madrid, Spain. *

Portrait of Jacopo Sannazaro

NOTES

* ^ See below; c. 1488/1490 is generally accepted despite claims in his lifetime that he was older, Getty Union Artist Name List and Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
timeline, retrieved 11 February 2009 both use c. 1488. See discussion of the issue below and at When Was Titian Born?, which sets out the evidence, and supports 1477—an unusual view today. Gould (pp. 264–66) also sets out much of the evidence without coming to a conclusion. Charles Hope in Jaffé (p. 11) also discusses the issue, favoring a date "in or just before 1490" as opposed to the much earlier dates, as does Penny (p. 201) "probably in 1490 or a little earlier". The question has become caught up in the still controversial division of works between Giorgione and the young Titian. * ^ " Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
timeline". Metmuseum.org. Retrieved 30 January 2011. * ^ Wolf, Norbert (2006). _I, Titian_. New York and London: Prestel. ISBN 9783791333847 . * ^ Fossi, Gloria, _Italian Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture from the Origins to the Present Day_, p. 194. Giunti, 2000. ISBN 88-09-01771-4 * ^ The contours in early works may be described as "crisp and clear", while of his late methods it was said that "he painted more with his fingers than his brushes." Dunkerton, Jill, et al., _Dürer to Veronese: Sixteenth-Century Painting in the National Gallery_, pp. 281–286. Yale University, National Gallery
National Gallery
Publications, 1999. ISBN 0-300-07220-1 * ^ Cecil Gould , The Sixteenth Century Italian Schools, National Gallery Catalogues, p. 265, London, 1975, ISBN 0-947645-22-5 * ^ "When Was Titian
Titian
Born?". Lafrusta.homestead.com. 4 November 2002. Retrieved 30 January 2011. * ^ See references above * ^ Durant, Will (1953). _The Renaissance_. The Story of Civilization . 5. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 667. * ^ _A_ _B_ David Jaffé (ed), Titian, The National Gallery Company/Yale, p. 11, London
London
2003, ISBN 1-85709-903-6 * ^ Jaffé No. 1, pp. 74–75 image * ^ "Portrait of Gerolamo (?) Barbarigo, about 1510, Titian". National Gallery
National Gallery
. Retrieved 26 May 2013. * ^ Olga Mataev. "Ecce Homo". Abcgallery.com. Retrieved 30 January 2011. * ^ Charles Hope, in Jaffé, pp. 11–14 * ^ "New findings in Titian's Fresco
Fresco
technique at the Scuola del Santo in Padua", _ The Art Bulletin _, March 1999, Volume LXXXI Number 1, Author Sergio Rossetti Morosini * ^ Charles Hope in Jaffé, p. 14 * ^ Charles Hope, in Jaffé, p. 15 * ^ Charles Hope in Jaffé, pp. 16–17 * ^ Charles Hope, in Jaffé, p. 17 Engraving
Engraving
of the painting * ^ Jaffé, pp. 100–111 * ^ _ Louis Gillet (1913). "Titian". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
_. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 30 January 2011. * ^ Jennifer Fletcher in Jaffé, p. 36 * ^ "Titian", _The Catholic Encyclopedia_ * ^ R. F. Heath, _Life of Titian_, p. 5. * ^ Penny, 204 * ^ _Museo del Prado, Catálogo de las pinturas_, 1996, p. 402, Ministerio de Educación y Cultura, Madrid, ISBN 84-87317-53-7 * ^ Penny, 249-50 * ^ Giles Robertson, in: Jane Martineau (ed), _The Genius of Venice, 1500-1600_, pp. 231–3, 1983, Royal Academy of Arts, London * ^ Robertson, pp. 229–230 * ^ _A_ _B_ " Titian
Titian
Madonna and Child sells for record $16.9m". _ BBC News Online _. 28 January 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2011. * ^ "Art and the Bible". Artbible.info. Retrieved 30 January 2011. * ^ Kennedy, Ian (2006). _Titian_. Taschen. p. 95. ISBN 9783822849125 . * ^ Landau, 304–305, and in catalogue entries following. Much more detailed consideration is given at various points in: David Landau ">

REFERENCES

* Gould, Cecil , _The Sixteenth Century Italian Schools_, National Gallery Catalogues, London
London
1975, ISBN 0-947645-22-5 * Jaffé, David (ed), _Titian_, The National Gallery
National Gallery
Company/Yale, London
London
2003, ISBN 1-85709-903-6 * Landau, David, in Jane Martineau (ed), _The Genius of Venice, 1500–1600_, 1983, Royal Academy of Arts, London. * Penny, Nicholas , National Gallery
National Gallery
Catalogues (new series): _The Sixteenth Century Italian Paintings, Volume II, Venice 1540–1600_, 2008, National Gallery
National Gallery
Publications Ltd, ISBN 1-85709-913-3 * Ridolfi, Carlo (1594–1658); _The Life of Titian_, translated by Julia Conaway Bondanella and Peter E. Bondanella, Penn State Press, 1996, ISBN 0-271-01627-2 , ISBN 978-0-271-01627-6 Google Books

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