TIZIANO VECELLI or TIZIANO VECELLIO (pronounced ; c. 1488/1490 –
27 August 1576), known in English as TITIAN /ˈtɪʃən/ , was an
Italian painter , the most important member of the 16th-century
Venetian school . He was born in
Pieve di Cadore , near
Republic of Venice ). During his lifetime he was often
called _da Cadore_, taken from the place of his birth.
Recognized by his contemporaries as "The Sun Amidst Small Stars"
(recalling the famous final line of Dante\'s _Paradiso _),
one of the most versatile of Italian painters, equally adept with
portraits, landscape backgrounds, and mythological and religious
subjects. His painting methods, particularly in the application and
use of color, would exercise a profound influence not only on painters
of the Italian Renaissance, but on future generations of Western art .
During the course of his long life, Titian's artistic manner changed
drastically, but he retained a lifelong interest in color. Although
his mature works may not contain the vivid, luminous tints of his
early pieces, their loose brushwork and subtlety of tone are without
precedent in the history of
Western painting .
* 1 Biography
* 1.1 Early years
* 1.2 Growth
* 1.3 Maturity
* 1.4 Final years
* 1.5 Death
* 3 Painting materials
* 4 Family and workshop
* 5 Present day
* 6 Cultural depictions
* 7 Gallery
* 8 Notes
* 9 References
* 10 External links
Titian two years (1516–1518) to complete his Assunta ,
whose dynamic three-tier composition and color scheme established him
as the preeminent painter north of Rome.
The exact date of Titian's birth is uncertain. When he was an old man
he claimed in a letter to Philip II, King of Spain , to have been born
in 1474, but this seems most unlikely. Other writers contemporary to
his old age give figures that would equate to birthdates between 1473
and after 1482. Most modern scholars believe a date nearer 1490 is
more likely; the
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art 's timeline supports
c.1488, as does the
Getty Research Institute , though his age at
death being 99 had been accepted into the 20th century.
He was the son of Gregorio Vecelli and his wife Lucia. His father was
superintendent of the castle of
Pieve di Cadore and managed local
mines for their owners. Gregorio was also a distinguished councilor
and soldier. Many relatives, including Titian's grandfather, were
notaries , and the family of four were well-established in the area,
which was ruled by Venice.
At the age of about ten to twelve he and his brother Francesco (who
perhaps followed later) were sent to an uncle in Venice to find an
apprenticeship with a painter. The minor painter Sebastian Zuccato,
whose sons became well-known mosaicists , and who may have been a
family friend, arranged for the brothers to enter the studio of the
Gentile Bellini , from which they later transferred to that of
Giovanni Bellini . At that time the Bellinis, especially
Giovanni, were the leading artists in the city. There
Titian found a
group of young men about his own age, among them Giovanni Palma da
Lorenzo Lotto , Sebastiano Luciani , and Giorgio da
Francesco Vecellio , his older
brother, later became a painter of some note in Venice. _ A Man
with a Quilted Sleeve _, an early portrait, c. 1509, National Gallery
A fresco of
Hercules on the
Morosini Palace is said to have been one
of Titian's earliest works. Others were the Bellini-esque so-called
_Gypsy Madonna _ in Vienna, and the _Visitation of Mary and
Elizabeth_ (from the convent of S. Andrea), now in the Accademia ,
A Man with a Quilted Sleeve _ is an early portrait, painted around
1509 and described by
Giorgio Vasari in 1568. Scholars long believed
Ludovico Ariosto , but now think it is of Gerolamo
Rembrandt borrowed the composition for his
Giorgione as an assistant, but many contemporary
critics already found his work more impressive—for example in
exterior frescoes (now almost totally destroyed) that they did for the
Fondaco dei Tedeschi (state-warehouse for the German merchants). Their
relationship evidently contained a significant element of rivalry.
Distinguishing between their work at this period remains a subject of
scholarly controversy. A substantial number of attributions have moved
Titian in the 20th century, with little traffic the
other way. One of the earliest known
Titian works, _Christ Carrying
the Cross _ in the
Scuola Grande di San Rocco , depicting the _Ecce
Homo _ scene, was long regarded as by Giorgione. Portrait of a
Man in a Red Cap, Titian, c. 1510
The two young masters were likewise recognized as the leaders of
their new school of _arte moderna_, which is characterized by
paintings made more flexible, freed from symmetry and the remnants of
hieratic conventions still found in the works of Giovanni Bellini.
Giorgione was commissioned by the state to create
frescoes on the re-erected Fondaco dei Tedeschi.
Titian and Morto da
Feltre worked along with him, and some fragments of paintings remain,
probably by Giorgione. Some of their work is known, in part, through
the engravings of Fontana . After Giorgione's early death in 1510,
Titian continued to paint Giorgionesque subjects for some time, though
his style developed its own features, including bold and expressive
brushwork. _ Salome with the Head of John the Baptist _ c. 1515,
Galleria Doria Pamphilj , Rome), or Judith ; this religious work also
functions as an idealized portrait of a beauty, a genre developed by
Titian, supposedly often using Venetian courtesans as models.
Titian's talent in fresco is shown in those he painted in 1511 at
Padua in the Carmelite church and in the Scuola del Santo, some of
which have been preserved, among them the _Meeting at the Golden
Gate_, and three scenes (_Miracoli di sant'Antonio_) from the life of
St. Anthony of
Padua , The Miracle of the Jealous Husband, which
depicts the _Murder of a Young Woman by Her Husband_, _A Child
Testifying to Its Mother's Innocence_, and _The Saint Healing the
Young Man with a Broken Limb_.
Titian returned to Venice from Padua; in 1513 he obtained a
broker's patent, termed _La Sanseria_ or _Senseria_ (a privilege much
coveted by rising or risen artists), in the Fondaco dei Tedeschi. He
became superintendent of the government works, especially charged with
completing the paintings left unfinished by
Giovanni Bellini in the
hall of the great council in the ducal palace . He set up an atelier
on the Grand Canal at S. Samuele, the precise site being now unknown.
It was not until 1516, after the death of Giovanni Bellini, that he
came into actual enjoyment of his patent. At the same time he entered
an exclusive arrangement for painting. The patent yielded him a good
annuity of 20 crowns and exempted him from certain taxes. In return he
was bound to paint likenesses of the successive Doges of his time at
the fixed price of eight crowns each. The actual number he painted was
During this period (1516–1530), which may be called the period of
his mastery and maturity, the artist moved on from his early
Giorgionesque style, undertook larger, more complex subjects, and for
the first time attempted a monumental style.
Giorgione died in 1510
Giovanni Bellini in 1516, leaving
Titian unrivaled in the Venetian
School. For sixty years he was the undisputed master of Venetian
painting. In 1516, he completed his famous masterpiece, the
_Assumption of the Virgin _, for the high altar of the Basilica di
Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari
Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari , where it is still in situ. This
extraordinary piece of colorism, executed on a grand scale rarely
before seen in Italy, created a sensation. The
Signoria took note and
Titian was neglecting his work in the hall of the great
council, but in 1516 he succeeded his master
Giovanni Bellini in
receiving a pension from the Senate.
The pictorial structure of the _Assumption_—that of uniting in the
same composition two or three scenes superimposed on different levels,
earth and heaven, the temporal and the infinite—was continued in a
series of works such as the retable of San Domenico at
the retable of
Brescia (1522), and the retable of San Niccolò (1523),
Vatican Museums , each time attaining to a higher and more
perfect conception. He finally reached a classic formula in the
Pesaro Madonna _, better known as the Madonna di Ca' Pesaro (c.
1519–1526), also for the Frari church. This is perhaps his most
studied work, whose patiently developed plan is set forth with supreme
display of order and freedom, originality and style. Here
a new conception of the traditional groups of donors and holy persons
moving in aerial space, the plans and different degrees set in an
architectural framework. _
Bacchus and Ariadne
Bacchus and Ariadne _, c. 1520-1523.
Titian was now at the height of his fame, and towards 1521, following
the production of a figure of St. Sebastian for the papal legate in
Brescia (of which there are numerous replicas), purchasers pressed for
To this period belongs a more extraordinary work, _The Death of St.
Peter Martyr_ (1530), formerly in the Dominican Church of San Zanipolo
, and destroyed by an Austrian shell in 1867. Only copies and
engravings of this proto-
Baroque picture remain. It combined extreme
violence and a landscape, mostly consisting of a great tree, that
pressed into the scene and seems to accentuate the drama in a way that
looks forward to the Baroque.
The artist simultaneously continued a series of small Madonnas ,
which he placed amid beautiful landscapes, in the manner of genre
pictures or poetic pastorals. The _Virgin with the Rabbit_, in The
Louvre , is the finished type of these pictures. Another work of the
same period, also in the
Louvre , is the _Entombment_. This was also
the period of the three large and famous mythological scenes for the
_camerino _ of Alfonso d\'Este in
Ferrara , _The Andrians_ and the
_Worship of Venus_ in the
Museo del Prado
Museo del Prado , and the _Bacchus and
Ariadne _ (1520–23) in
London , "perhaps the most brilliant
productions of the neo-pagan culture or "Alexandrianism" of the
Renaissance , many times imitated but never surpassed even by Rubens
Finally this was the period when
Titian composed the half-length
figures and busts of young women, probably courtesans , such as _Flora
_ of the
Uffizi , or _
Woman with a Mirror _ in the
scientific images of this painting are available, with explanations,
on the website of the French Center for Research and Restoration of
the Museums of France)
Titian's unmatched handling of color is exemplified by his _
one of several mythological paintings, or "poesie" ("poems") as the
painter called them. This painting was done for Alessandro Farnese,
but a later variant was produced for Philip II, for whom Titian
painted many of his most important mythological paintings. Although
Michelangelo adjudged this piece deficient from the point of view of
Titian and his studio produced several versions for other
Another famous painting is _
Bacchus and Ariadne
Bacchus and Ariadne _, depicting Theseus
, whose ship is shown in the distance and who has just left Ariadne at
Naxos, when Bacchus arrives, jumping from his chariot, drawn by two
cheetahs, and falling immediately in love with Ariadne. Bacchus raised
her to heaven. Her constellation is shown in the sky. The painting
belongs to a series commissioned from Bellini, Titian, and Dosso
Dossi, for the Camerino d\'Alabastro (Alabaster Room) in the Ducal
Ferrara , by Alfonso I d\'Este, Duke of
Ferrara , who in 1510
even tried to commission
Raphael . _ Portrait of
Isabella of Portugal _ was painted by
Titian after her 1539 death,
using a mediocre painting as a reference.
During the next period (1530–1550),
Titian developed the style
introduced by his dramatic _Death of St. Peter Martyr_. In 1538, the
Venetian government, dissatisfied with Titian's neglect of his work
for the ducal palace, ordered him to refund the money he had received,
Il Pordenone , his rival of recent years, was installed in his
place. However, at the end of a year Pordenone died, and Titian, who
meanwhile applied himself diligently to painting in the hall the
_Battle of Cadore_, was reinstated.
This major battle scene was lost—with many other major works by
Venetian artists—in the 1577 fire that destroyed all the old
pictures in the great chambers of the Doge's Palace. It depicted in
life-size the moment when the Venetian general d\'Alviano attacked the
enemy, with horses and men crashing down into a stream. It was
Titian's most important attempt at a tumultuous and heroic scene of
movement to rival
Raphael 's _Battle of Constantine_, Michelangelo's
equally ill-fated _Battle of Cascina_, and
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci 's _The
Battle of Anghiari_ (these last two unfinished). There remains only a
poor, incomplete copy at the Uffizi, and a mediocre engraving by
Fontana. The _Speech of the Marquis del Vasto_ (Madrid, 1541) was also
partly destroyed by fire. But this period of the master's work is
still represented by the _Presentation of the Blessed Virgin_ (Venice,
1539), one of his most popular canvasses, and by the _Ecce Homo_
Vienna , 1541). Despite its loss, the painting had a great influence
on Bolognese art and Rubens, both in the handling of details and the
general effect of horses, soldiers, lictors, powerful stirrings of
crowds at the foot of a stairway, lit by torches with the flapping of
banners against the sky.
Less successful were the pendentives of the cupola at Santa Maria
della Salute (_Death of Abel_, _Sacrifice of Abraham_, _David and
Goliath_). These violent scenes viewed in perspective from below were
by their very nature in unfavorable situations. They were nevertheless
much admired and imitated, Rubens among others applying this system to
his forty ceilings (the sketches only remain) of the Jesuit church at
At this time also, during his visit to
Rome , the artist began a
series of reclining Venuses: _The
Venus of Urbino _ of the Uffizi,
_Venus and Love_ at the same museum, _Venus—and the Organ-Player _,
Madrid, which shows the influence of contact with ancient sculpture.
Giorgione had already dealt with the subject in his Dresden picture,
finished by Titian, but here a purple drapery substituted for a
landscape background changed, by its harmonious coloring, the whole
meaning of the scene.
From the beginning of his career
Titian was a masterful
portrait-painter, in works like _La Bella_ (Eleanora de Gonzaga,
Duchess of Urbino, at the Pitti Palace). He painted the likenesses of
princes, or Doges, cardinals or monks, and artists or writers. "...no
other painter was so successful in extracting from each physiognomy so
many traits at once characteristic and beautiful". Among
Titian is compared to
Rembrandt and Velázquez ,
with the interior life of the former, and the clearness, certainty,
and obviousness of the latter. _ Equestrian Portrait of Charles V
Museo del Prado
Museo del Prado .
These qualities show in the _Portrait of Pope Paul III _ of
or the sketch of the same _
Pope Paul III and his Grandsons _, the
Portrait of Pietro Aretino _ of the Pitti Palace, the _Portrait of
Isabella of Portugal _ (Madrid), and the series of Emperor Charles V
of the same museum, the _Charles V with a Greyhound_ (1533), and
especially the _
Equestrian Portrait of Charles V _ (1548), an
equestrian picture in a symphony of purples. This state portrait of
Charles V (1548) at the
Battle of Mühlberg established a new genre,
that of the grand equestrian portrait. The composition is steeped both
in the Roman tradition of equestrian sculpture and in the medieval
representations of an ideal Christian knight, but the weary figure and
face have a subtlety few such representations attempt. In 1532, after
painting a portrait of the emperor Charles V in Bologna, he was made a
Count Palatine and knight of the Golden Spur . His children were also
made nobles of the Empire, which for a painter was an exceptional
As a matter of professional and worldly success his position from
about this time is regarded as equal only to that of
Michelangelo and, at a later date, Rubens. In 1540 he received a
pension from d'Avalos, marquis del Vasto, and an annuity of 200 crowns
(which was afterwards doubled) from Charles V from the treasury of
Milan . Another source of profit, for he was always aware of money,
was a contract obtained in 1542 for supplying grain to Cadore, where
he visited almost every year and where he was both generous and
Titian had a favorite villa on the neighboring Manza Hill (in front
of the church of
Castello Roganzuolo ) from which (it may be inferred)
he made his chief observations of landscape form and effect. The
so-called Titian's mill, constantly discernible in his studies, is at
Collontola, near Belluno.
Rome in 1546 and obtained the freedom of the city—his
immediate predecessor in that honor having been
Michelangelo in 1537.
He could at the same time have succeeded the painter Sebastiano del
Piombo in his lucrative office as holder of the piombo or Papal seal ,
and he was prepared to take
Holy Orders for the purpose; but the
project lapsed through his being summoned away from Venice in 1547 to
paint Charles V and others in
Augsburg . He was there again in 1550,
and executed the portrait of Philip II , which was sent to England and
was useful in Philip's suit for the hand of Queen Mary .
_ Venus and Organist and Little Dog ,_ c. 1550. _
one of the paintings from the
Danaë (Titian series) _, completed
between 1553 and 1556.
During the last twenty-six years of his life (1550–1576), Titian
worked mainly for Philip II and as a portrait-painter. He became more
self-critical, an insatiable perfectionist, keeping some pictures in
his studio for ten years—returning to them and retouching them,
constantly adding new expressions at once more refined, concise, and
subtle. He also finished many copies that his pupils made of his
earlier works. This caused problems of attribution and priority among
versions of his works—which were also widely copied and faked
outside his studio during his lifetime and afterwards.
For Philip II, he painted a series of large mythological paintings
known as the "poesie", mostly from
Ovid , which scholars regard as
among his greatest works. Thanks to the prudishness of Philip's
successors, these were later mostly given as gifts, and only two
remain in the Prado.
Titian was producing religious works for Philip
at the same time. The "poesie" series contained the following works:
Danaë _, sent to Philip in 1553.
* _Venus and Adonis _, of which the earliest surviving version,
delivered in 1554, is in the Prado, but several versions exist
* _Perseus and Andromeda _ (
Wallace Collection , now damaged)
* _Diana and Actaeon _
Diana and Callisto
Diana and Callisto _, were despatched in 1559
* _The Rape of Europa _ (Boston,
Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum ),
delivered in 1562
The Death of Actaeon _, begun in 1559 but worked on for many
years and never completed or delivered
Another painting that apparently remained in his studio at his death,
and has been much less well known until recent decades, is the
powerful, even "repellent" _
Flaying of Marsyas _ (
Kroměříž , Czech
Republic ). Another violent masterpiece is _Tarquin and Lucretia _
Fitzwilliam Museum ). _ The Rape of Europa_ c,
Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum , is a bold diagonal
composition that Rubens admired and copied. In contrast to the clarity
of Titian's early works, it is almost baroque in its blurred lines,
swirling colors, and vibrant brushstrokes.
For each problem he undertook, he furnished a new and more perfect
formula. He never again equaled the emotion and tragedy of _The
Crowning with Thorns _ (Louvre); in the expression of the mysterious
and the divine he never equaled the poetry of the _Pilgrims of
Emmaus_; while in superb and heroic brilliancy he never again executed
anything more grand than _The Doge Grimani adoring Faith_ (Venice,
Doge's Palace), or the _Trinity_, of Madrid. On the other hand, from
the standpoint of flesh tints, his most moving pictures are those of
his old age, such as the _poesie_ and the _Antiope_ of the Louvre. He
even attempted problems of chiaroscuro in fantastic night effects
(_Martyrdom of St. Laurence_, Church of the Jesuits, Venice; _St.
Jerome_, Louvre; Crucifixion , Church of San Domenico, Ancona).
Titian had engaged his daughter Lavinia, the beautiful girl whom he
loved deeply and painted various times, to Cornelio Sarcinelli of
Serravalle. She had succeeded her aunt Orsa, then deceased, as the
manager of the household, which, with the lordly income that Titian
made by this time, placed her on a corresponding footing. The marriage
took place in 1554. She died in childbirth in 1560.
Titian was at the
Council of Trent towards 1555, of which there is a
finished sketch in the Louvre. His friend Aretino died suddenly in
1556, and another close intimate, the sculptor and architect Jacopo
Sansovino , in 1570. In September 1565
Titian went to
designed the decorations for the church at Pieve, partly executed by
his pupils. One of these is a Transfiguration, another an
_Annunciation _ (now in S. Salvatore, Venice), inscribed _Titianus
fecit_, by way of protest (it is said) against the disparagement of
some persons who caviled at the veteran's failing handicraft. _
Pietà_ , c. 1576, his last painting.
Titian painted the oil on canvas, _Madonna and Child
with Saints Luke and Catherine of Alexandria _, a derivative on the
motif of Madonna and Child . It is suggested that members of Titian's
Venice workshop probably painted the curtain and Luke, because of the
lower quality of those parts.
He continued to accept commissions to the end of his life. Like many
of his late works, Titian's last painting, the _Pietà_ , is a
dramatic, nocturnal scene of suffering. He apparently intended it for
his own tomb chapel. He had selected, as his burial place, the chapel
of the Crucifix in the Basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, the
church of the
Franciscan Order. In payment for a grave, he offered the
Franciscans a picture of the Pietà that represented himself and his
son Orazio, with a sibyl , before the Savior. He nearly finished this
work, but differences arose regarding it, and he settled on being
interred in his native Pieve.
Titian in Venice
While the plague raged in Venice,
Titian died of a fever on 27 August
1576. Depending on his unknown birthdate (see above), he was
somewhere from his late eighties or even close to 100.
interred in the Frari (Basilica di
Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari
Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari ),
as at first intended, and his _Pietà_ was finished by Palma il
Giovane . He lies near his own famous painting, the _Madonna di Ca'
Pesaro._ No memorial marked his grave. Much later the Austrian rulers
of Venice commissioned
Antonio Canova to sculpt a large monument.
Immediately after Titian's death, his son and assistant Orazio died
of the plague. His opulent mansion was plundered by thieves during the
Titian never attempted engraving , but he was very conscious of the
importance of printmaking as a means to expand his reputation. In the
period 1517–1520 he designed a number of woodcuts , including an
enormous and impressive one of _The Crossing of the Red Sea_, and
Domenico Campagnola and others, who produced
additional prints based on his paintings and drawings. Much later he
provided drawings based on his paintings to
Cornelis Cort from the
Netherlands who engraved them.
Martino Rota followed Cort from about
1558 to 1568.
Titian employed an extensive array of pigments and it can be said
that he availed himself of virtually all available pigments of his
time. Except for the common pigments of the
Renaissance period, such
as ultramarine , vermilion , lead-tin yellow , ochres , and azurite ,
he also used the rare pigments realgar and orpiment .
FAMILY AND WORKSHOP
_ The Allegory of Age Governed by Prudence _ (c. 1565–1570) is
thought to depict (from left) Titian, his son Orazio, and his nephew,
Marco Vecellio .
Titian's wife, Cecilia, was a barber's daughter from his hometown
Cadore . As a young woman she had been his housekeeper and
mistress for some five years. Cecilia had already borne
fine sons, Pomponio and Orazio, when in 1525 she fell seriously ill.
Titian, wishing to legitimize the children, married her. Cecilia
recovered, the marriage was a happy one, and they had another daughter
who died in infancy. In August 1530 Cecilia died.
but little information is known about his second wife; she was
possibly the mother of his daughter Lavinia.
Titian had a fourth
child, Emilia, the result of an affair, possibly with a housekeeper.
His favorite child was Orazio , who became his assistant.
In August 1530
Titian moved his two boys and infant daughter to a new
home and convinced his sister Orsa to come from
Cadore and take charge
of the household. The mansion, difficult to find now, is in the Biri
Grande, then a fashionable suburb, at the extreme end of Venice, on
the sea, with beautiful gardens and a view towards
Murano . In about
1526 he had become acquainted, and soon close friends, with Pietro
Aretino , the influential and audacious figure who features so
strangely in the chronicles of the time.
Titian sent a portrait of him
to Gonzaga, duke of
Several other artists of the Vecelli family followed in the wake of
Francesco Vecellio , his older brother, was introduced to
Titian (it is said at the age of twelve, but chronology
will hardly admit of this), and painted in the church of S. Vito in
Cadore a picture of the titular saint armed. This was a noteworthy
performance, of which
Titian (the usual story) became jealous; so
Francesco was diverted from painting to soldiering, and afterwards to
mercantile life. _ Diana and Actaeon_ , 1556–1559
Marco Vecellio , called Marco di Tiziano, Titian's nephew, born in
1545, was constantly with the master in his old age, and learned his
methods of work. He has left some able productions in the ducal
palace, the _Meeting of Charles V. and Clement VII . in 1529_; in S.
Giacomo di Rialto, an _Annunciation_; in SS. Giovani e Paolo, _Christ
Fulminant_. A son of Marco, named Tiziano (or Tizianello), painted
early in the 17th century.
From a different branch of the family came Fabrizio di Ettore , a
painter who died in 1580. His brother Cesare, who also left some
pictures, is well known by his book of engraved costumes, _Abiti
antichi e moderni_. Tommaso Vecelli , also a painter, died in 1620.
There was another relative, Girolamo Dante, who, being a scholar and
assistant of Titian, was called
Girolamo di Tiziano . Various pictures
of his were touched up by the master, and are difficult to distinguish
Few of the pupils and assistants of
Titian became well known in their
own right; for some being his assistant was probably a lifetime
Paris Bordone and
Bonifazio Veronese were his assistants
during at some point in their careers.
Giulio Clovio said Titian
El Greco (or Dominikos Theotokopoulos) in his last years.
Polidoro da Lanciano is said to have been a follower or pupil of
Titian. Other followers were Nadalino da
Damiano Mazza .
Contemporary estimates attribute around 400 works to Titian, of which
about 300 survive. Two of Titian's works in private hands were put up
for sale in 2008. One of these works, _Diana and Actaeon_ , was
purchased by London's
National Gallery and the National Galleries of
Scotland on 2 February 2009 for ₤50 million ($71 million). The
galleries had until 31 December 2008 to make the purchase before the
work would be offered to private collectors, but the deadline was
extended. The other painting, _Diana and Callisto_, was up for sale
for the same amount until 2012 before it was offered to private
collectors. The sale created controversy with politicians who argued
that the money could have been spent more wisely during a deepening
recession. The Scottish government offered ₤12.5 million and ₤10
million came from the National Heritage Memorial Fund. The rest of the
money came from the National Galleries in
London and from private
In 2011, _Madonna and Child with Saints Luke and Catherine of
Alexandria _ was put up for auction at Sotheby\'s and sold on 28
January 2011 for $16.9 million.
Titian was portrayed by Greek -Cypriot actor
Sotiris Moustakas in _El
Greco _, a 2007 film by
Yannis Smaragdis .
_Violante _, c. 1515.
Andrea Gritti _, the
Doge of Venice from 1523 to 1538.
_Federico II Gonzaga,_ c. 1525.
Portrait of Philip II , c. 1554.
The Death of Actaeon _, 1559-1575. In Titian's later works, the
forms lose their solidity and melt into the lush texture of shady,
shimmering colors and unsettling atmospheric effects. In addition to
Titian was said to put paint on with his fingers
toward the completion of a painting.
Flaying of Marsyas _, little known until recent decades
Kroměříž Archdiocesan Museum,
Czech Republic ), c. 1570-1576.
_Christ_ - (fragment) 1553, oil on canvas , 68x62cm, Prado Museum
Religion saved by Spain, 1572-1575, Prado Museum, Madrid, Spain.
Portrait of Jacopo Sannazaro
* ^ See below; c. 1488/1490 is generally accepted despite claims in
his lifetime that he was older, Getty Union Artist Name List and
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art timeline, retrieved 11 February 2009 both
use c. 1488. See discussion of the issue below and at When Was Titian
Born?, which sets out the evidence, and supports 1477—an unusual
view today. Gould (pp. 264–66) also sets out much of the evidence
without coming to a conclusion. Charles Hope in Jaffé (p. 11) also
discusses the issue, favoring a date "in or just before 1490" as
opposed to the much earlier dates, as does Penny (p. 201) "probably in
1490 or a little earlier". The question has become caught up in the
still controversial division of works between
Giorgione and the young
* ^ "
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art timeline". Metmuseum.org. Retrieved
30 January 2011.
* ^ Wolf, Norbert (2006). _I, Titian_. New York and London:
Prestel. ISBN 9783791333847 .
* ^ Fossi, Gloria, _Italian Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture
from the Origins to the Present Day_, p. 194. Giunti, 2000. ISBN
* ^ The contours in early works may be described as "crisp and
clear", while of his late methods it was said that "he painted more
with his fingers than his brushes." Dunkerton, Jill, et al., _Dürer
to Veronese: Sixteenth-Century Painting in the National Gallery_, pp.
281–286. Yale University,
National Gallery Publications, 1999. ISBN
Cecil Gould , The Sixteenth Century Italian Schools, National
Gallery Catalogues, p. 265, London, 1975, ISBN 0-947645-22-5
* ^ "When Was
Titian Born?". Lafrusta.homestead.com. 4 November
2002. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
* ^ See references above
* ^ Durant, Will (1953). _The Renaissance_. The Story of
Civilization . 5. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 667.
* ^ _A_ _B_ David Jaffé (ed), Titian, The National Gallery
Company/Yale, p. 11,
London 2003, ISBN 1-85709-903-6
* ^ Jaffé No. 1, pp. 74–75 image
* ^ "Portrait of Gerolamo (?) Barbarigo, about 1510, Titian".
National Gallery . Retrieved 26 May 2013.
* ^ Olga Mataev. "Ecce Homo". Abcgallery.com. Retrieved 30 January
* ^ Charles Hope, in Jaffé, pp. 11–14
* ^ "New findings in Titian's
Fresco technique at the Scuola del
Santo in Padua", _
The Art Bulletin _, March 1999, Volume LXXXI Number
1, Author Sergio Rossetti
* ^ Charles Hope in Jaffé, p. 14
* ^ Charles Hope, in Jaffé, p. 15
* ^ Charles Hope in Jaffé, pp. 16–17
* ^ Charles Hope, in Jaffé, p. 17
Engraving of the painting
* ^ Jaffé, pp. 100–111
* ^ _
Louis Gillet (1913). "Titian". In Herbermann, Charles.
Catholic Encyclopedia _. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved
30 January 2011.
* ^ Jennifer Fletcher in Jaffé, p. 36
* ^ "Titian", _The Catholic Encyclopedia_
* ^ R. F. Heath, _Life of Titian_, p. 5.
* ^ Penny, 204
* ^ _Museo del Prado, Catálogo de las pinturas_, 1996, p. 402,
Ministerio de Educación y Cultura, Madrid, ISBN 84-87317-53-7
* ^ Penny, 249-50
* ^ Giles Robertson, in: Jane Martineau (ed), _The Genius of
Venice, 1500-1600_, pp. 231–3, 1983, Royal Academy of Arts, London
* ^ Robertson, pp. 229–230
* ^ _A_ _B_ "
Titian Madonna and Child sells for record $16.9m".
BBC News Online _. 28 January 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
* ^ "Art and the Bible". Artbible.info. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
* ^ Kennedy, Ian (2006). _Titian_. Taschen. p. 95. ISBN
* ^ Landau, 304–305, and in catalogue entries following. Much
more detailed consideration is given at various points in: David
* Gould, Cecil , _The Sixteenth Century Italian Schools_, National
London 1975, ISBN 0-947645-22-5
* Jaffé, David (ed), _Titian_, The
National Gallery Company/Yale,
London 2003, ISBN 1-85709-903-6
* Landau, David, in Jane Martineau (ed), _The Genius of Venice,
1500–1600_, 1983, Royal Academy of Arts, London.
* Penny, Nicholas ,
National Gallery Catalogues (new series): _The
Sixteenth Century Italian Paintings, Volume II, Venice 1540–1600_,
National Gallery Publications Ltd, ISBN 1-85709-913-3
* Ridolfi, Carlo (1594–1658); _The Life of Titian_, translated by
Julia Conaway Bondanella and Peter E. Bondanella, Penn State Press,
1996, ISBN 0-271-01627-2 , ISBN 978-0-271-01627-6 Google Books
Wikiquote has quotations related to: TITIAN _
Wikimedia Commons has media