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Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (pronounced [titˈtsjaːno veˈtʃɛlljo]; c. 1488/1490[1] – 27 August 1576),[2] known in English as Titian
Titian
/ˈtɪʃən/, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school. He was born in Pieve di Cadore, near Belluno
Belluno
(in Veneto, Republic of Venice).[3] During his lifetime he was often called da Cadore, taken from the place of his birth. Recognized by his contemporaries as "The Sun Amidst Small Stars" (recalling the famous final line of Dante's Paradiso), Titian
Titian
was one of the most versatile of Italian painters, equally adept with portraits, landscape backgrounds, and mythological and religious subjects. His painting methods, particularly in the application and use of colour, would exercise a profound influence not only on painters of the Italian Renaissance, but on future generations of Western art.[4] His career was successful from the start, and he became sought after by patrons, initially from Venice and its possessions, then joined by the north Italian princes, and finally the Habsburgs and papacy. During the course of his long life, Titian's artistic manner changed drastically,[5] but he retained a lifelong interest in colour. Although his mature works may not contain the vivid, luminous tints of his early pieces, their loose brushwork and subtlety of tone are without precedent in the history of Western painting.

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early years 1.2 Growth 1.3 Maturity 1.4 Final years 1.5 Death

2 Printmaking 3 Painting materials 4 Family and workshop 5 Present day 6 Gallery 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Biography[edit] Early years[edit]

It took Titian
Titian
two years (1516–1518) to complete his Assunta, whose dynamic three-tier composition and colour scheme established him as the preeminent painter north of Rome.

The exact date of Titian's birth is uncertain. When he was an old man he claimed in a letter to Philip II, King of Spain, to have been born in 1474, but this seems most unlikely.[6] Other writers contemporary to his old age give figures that would equate to birthdates between 1473 and after 1482.[7] Most modern scholars believe a date between 1488 and 1490 is more likely,[8] though his age at death being 99 had been accepted into the 20th century.[9] He was the son of Gregorio Vecelli and his wife Lucia. His father was superintendent of the castle of Pieve di Cadore
Pieve di Cadore
and managed local mines for their owners.[10] Gregorio was also a distinguished councilor and soldier. Many relatives, including Titian's grandfather, were notaries, and the family were well-established in the area, which was ruled by Venice. At the age of about ten to twelve he and his brother Francesco (who perhaps followed later) were sent to an uncle in Venice to find an apprenticeship with a painter. The minor painter Sebastian Zuccato, whose sons became well-known mosaicists, and who may have been a family friend, arranged for the brothers to enter the studio of the elderly Gentile Bellini, from which they later transferred to that of his brother Giovanni Bellini.[10] At that time the Bellinis, especially Giovanni, were the leading artists in the city. There Titian
Titian
found a group of young men about his own age, among them Giovanni Palma da Serinalta, Lorenzo Lotto, Sebastiano Luciani, and Giorgio da Castelfranco, nicknamed Giorgione. Francesco Vecellio, his older brother, later became a painter of some note in Venice.

A Man with a Quilted Sleeve, an early portrait, c. 1509, National Gallery, London.

A fresco of Hercules
Hercules
on the Morosini Palace is said to have been one of Titian's earliest works. Others were the Bellini-esque so-called Gypsy Madonna in Vienna,[11] and the Visitation of Mary and Elizabeth (from the convent of S. Andrea), now in the Accademia, Venice. A Man with a Quilted Sleeve
A Man with a Quilted Sleeve
is an early portrait, painted around 1509 and described by Giorgio Vasari
Giorgio Vasari
in 1568. Scholars long believed it depicted Ludovico Ariosto, but now think it is of Gerolamo Barbarigo.[12] Rembrandt
Rembrandt
borrowed the composition for his self-portraits. Titian
Titian
joined Giorgione
Giorgione
as an assistant, but many contemporary critics already found his work more impressive—for example in exterior frescoes (now almost totally destroyed) that they did for the Fondaco dei Tedeschi (state-warehouse for the German merchants). Their relationship evidently contained a significant element of rivalry. Distinguishing between their work at this period remains a subject of scholarly controversy. A substantial number of attributions have moved from Giorgione
Giorgione
to Titian
Titian
in the 20th century, with little traffic the other way. One of the earliest known Titian
Titian
works, Christ Carrying the Cross in the Scuola Grande di San Rocco, depicting the Ecce Homo scene,[13] was long regarded as by Giorgione.[14]

Portrait of a Man in a Red Cap, Titian, c. 1510

The two young masters were likewise recognized as the leaders of their new school of arte moderna, which is characterized by paintings made more flexible, freed from symmetry and the remnants of hieratic conventions still found in the works of Giovanni Bellini. In 1507–1508 Giorgione
Giorgione
was commissioned by the state to create frescoes on the re-erected Fondaco dei Tedeschi. Titian
Titian
and Morto da Feltre worked along with him, and some fragments of paintings remain, probably by Giorgione. Some of their work is known, in part, through the engravings of Fontana. After Giorgione's early death in 1510, Titian
Titian
continued to paint Giorgionesque subjects for some time, though his style developed its own features, including bold and expressive brushwork.

Salome with the Head of John the Baptist c. 1515, (Galleria Doria Pamphilj, Rome), or Judith; this religious work also functions as an idealized portrait of a beauty, a genre developed by Titian, supposedly often using Venetian courtesans as models.

Titian's talent in fresco is shown in those he painted in 1511 at Padua
Padua
in the Carmelite church and in the Scuola del Santo, some of which have been preserved, among them the Meeting at the Golden Gate, and three scenes (Miracoli di sant'Antonio) from the life of St. Anthony of Padua, The Miracle of the Jealous Husband, which depicts the Murder of a Young Woman by Her Husband,[15] A Child Testifying to Its Mother's Innocence, and The Saint Healing the Young Man with a Broken Limb. In 1512 Titian
Titian
returned to Venice from Padua; in 1513 he obtained a broker's patent, termed La Sanseria or Senseria (a privilege much coveted by rising or risen artists), in the Fondaco dei Tedeschi. He became superintendent of the government works, especially charged with completing the paintings left unfinished by Giovanni Bellini
Giovanni Bellini
in the hall of the great council in the ducal palace. He set up an atelier on the Grand Canal at S. Samuele, the precise site being now unknown. It was not until 1516, after the death of Giovanni Bellini, that he came into actual enjoyment of his patent. At the same time he entered an exclusive arrangement for painting. The patent yielded him a good annuity of 20 crowns and exempted him from certain taxes. In return he was bound to paint likenesses of the successive Doges of his time at the fixed price of eight crowns each. The actual number he painted was five. Growth[edit] During this period (1516–1530), which may be called the period of his mastery and maturity, the artist moved on from his early Giorgionesque style, undertook larger, more complex subjects, and for the first time attempted a monumental style. Giorgione
Giorgione
died in 1510 and Giovanni Bellini
Giovanni Bellini
in 1516, leaving Titian
Titian
unrivaled in the Venetian School. For sixty years he was the undisputed master of Venetian painting. In 1516, he completed his famous masterpiece, the Assumption of the Virgin, for the high altar of the Basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, where it is still in situ. This extraordinary piece of colourism, executed on a grand scale rarely before seen in Italy, created a sensation.[16] The Signoria took note and observed that Titian
Titian
was neglecting his work in the hall of the great council, but in 1516 he succeeded his master Giovanni Bellini
Giovanni Bellini
in receiving a pension from the Senate.[17] The pictorial structure of the Assumption—that of uniting in the same composition two or three scenes superimposed on different levels, earth and heaven, the temporal and the infinite—was continued in a series of works such as the retable of San Domenico at Ancona
Ancona
(1520), the retable of Brescia
Brescia
(1522), and the retable of San Niccolò (1523), in the Vatican Museums, each time attaining to a higher and more perfect conception. He finally reached a classic formula in the Pesaro Madonna, better known as the Madonna di Ca' Pesaro (c. 1519–1526), also for the Frari church. This is perhaps his most studied work, whose patiently developed plan is set forth with supreme display of order and freedom, originality and style. Here Titian
Titian
gave a new conception of the traditional groups of donors and holy persons moving in aerial space, the plans and different degrees set in an architectural framework.[18]

Bacchus and Ariadne, c. 1520-1523.

Titian
Titian
was then at the height of his fame, and towards 1521, following the production of a figure of St. Sebastian for the papal legate in Brescia
Brescia
(of which there are numerous replicas), purchasers pressed for his work. To this period belongs a more extraordinary work, The Death of St. Peter Martyr (1530), formerly in the Dominican Church of San Zanipolo, and destroyed by an Austrian shell in 1867. Only copies and engravings of this proto- Baroque
Baroque
picture remain. It combined extreme violence and a landscape, mostly consisting of a great tree, that pressed into the scene and seems to accentuate the drama in a way that looks forward to the Baroque.[19] The artist simultaneously continued a series of small Madonnas, which he placed amid beautiful landscapes, in the manner of genre pictures or poetic pastorals. The Virgin with the Rabbit, in The Louvre, is the finished type of these pictures. Another work of the same period, also in the Louvre, is the Entombment. This was also the period of the three large and famous mythological scenes for the camerino of Alfonso d'Este in Ferrara, The Bacchanal of the Andrians
The Bacchanal of the Andrians
and the Worship of Venus in the Museo del Prado, and the Bacchus and Ariadne
Bacchus and Ariadne
(1520–23) in London,[20] "perhaps the most brilliant productions of the neo-pagan culture or "Alexandrianism" of the Renaissance, many times imitated but never surpassed even by Rubens himself."[21] Finally this was the period when Titian
Titian
composed the half-length figures and busts of young women, probably courtesans, such as Flora of the Uffizi, or Woman with a Mirror
Woman with a Mirror
in the Louvre
Louvre
(the scientific images of this painting are available, with explanations, on the website of the French Center for Research and Restoration of the Museums of France) Maturity[edit] Titian's skill with colour is exemplified by his Danaë, one of several mythological paintings, or "poesie" ("poems") as the painter called them. This painting was done for Alessandro Farnese, but a later variant was produced for Philip II, for whom Titian
Titian
painted many of his most important mythological paintings. Although Michelangelo adjudged this piece deficient from the point of view of drawing, Titian
Titian
and his studio produced several versions for other patrons. Another famous painting is Bacchus and Ariadne, depicting Theseus, whose ship is shown in the distance and who has just left Ariadne at Naxos, when Bacchus arrives, jumping from his chariot, drawn by two cheetahs, and falling immediately in love with Ariadne. Bacchus raised her to heaven. Her constellation is shown in the sky. The painting belongs to a series commissioned from Bellini, Titian, and Dosso Dossi, for the Camerino d'Alabastro
Camerino d'Alabastro
(Alabaster Room) in the Ducal Palace, Ferrara, by Alfonso I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, who in 1510 even tried to commission Michelangelo
Michelangelo
and Raphael.

Portrait of Federico II Gonzaga, c. 1529

During the next period (1530–1550), Titian
Titian
developed the style introduced by his dramatic Death of St. Peter Martyr. In 1538, the Venetian government, dissatisfied with Titian's neglect of his work for the ducal palace, ordered him to refund the money he had received, and Il Pordenone, his rival of recent years, was installed in his place. However, at the end of a year Pordenone died, and Titian, who meanwhile applied himself diligently to painting in the hall the Battle of Cadore, was reinstated. This major battle scene was lost—with many other major works by Venetian artists—in the 1577 fire that destroyed all the old pictures in the great chambers of the Doge's Palace. It depicted in life-size the moment when the Venetian general d'Alviano attacked the enemy, with horses and men crashing down into a stream. It was Titian's most important attempt at a tumultuous and heroic scene of movement to rival Raphael's Battle of Constantine, Michelangelo's equally ill-fated Battle of Cascina, and Leonardo da Vinci's The Battle of Anghiari (these last two unfinished). There remains only a poor, incomplete copy at the Uffizi, and a mediocre engraving by Fontana. The Speech of the Marquis del Vasto (Madrid, 1541) was also partly destroyed by fire. But this period of the master's work is still represented by the Presentation of the Blessed Virgin (Venice, 1539), one of his most popular canvasses, and by the Ecce Homo (Vienna, 1541). Despite its loss, the painting had a great influence on Bolognese art and Rubens, both in the handling of details and the general effect of horses, soldiers, lictors, powerful stirrings of crowds at the foot of a stairway, lit by torches with the flapping of banners against the sky. Less successful were the pendentives of the cupola at Santa Maria della Salute (Death of Abel, Sacrifice of Abraham, David and Goliath). These violent scenes viewed in perspective from below were by their very nature in unfavorable situations. They were nevertheless much admired and imitated, Rubens among others applying this system to his forty ceilings (the sketches only remain) of the Jesuit church at Antwerp. At this time also, during his visit to Rome, the artist began a series of reclining Venuses: The Venus of Urbino
Venus of Urbino
of the Uffizi, Venus and Love at the same museum, Venus—and the Organ-Player, Madrid, which shows the influence of contact with ancient sculpture. Giorgione
Giorgione
had already dealt with the subject in his Dresden picture, finished by Titian, but here a purple drapery substituted for a landscape background changed, by its harmonious colouring, the whole meaning of the scene. From the beginning of his career Titian
Titian
was a masterful portrait-painter, in works like La Bella
La Bella
(Eleanora de Gonzaga, Duchess of Urbino, at the Pitti Palace). He painted the likenesses of princes, or Doges, cardinals or monks, and artists or writers. "...no other painter was so successful in extracting from each physiognomy so many traits at once characteristic and beautiful".[22] Among portrait-painters Titian
Titian
is compared to Rembrandt
Rembrandt
and Velázquez, with the interior life of the former, and the clearness, certainty, and obviousness of the latter.

Equestrian Portrait of Charles V, 1548, Museo del Prado.

These qualities show in the Portrait of Pope Paul III of Naples, or the sketch of the same Pope Paul III and his Grandsons, the Portrait of Pietro Aretino
Pietro Aretino
of the Pitti Palace, the Portrait of Isabella of Portugal (Madrid), and the series of Emperor Charles V of the same museum, the Charles V with a Greyhound (1533), and especially the Equestrian Portrait of Charles V
Equestrian Portrait of Charles V
(1548), an equestrian picture in a symphony of purples. This state portrait of Charles V (1548) at the Battle of Mühlberg
Battle of Mühlberg
established a new genre, that of the grand equestrian portrait. The composition is steeped both in the Roman tradition of equestrian sculpture and in the medieval representations of an ideal Christian knight, but the weary figure and face have a subtlety few such representations attempt. In 1532, after painting a portrait of the emperor Charles V in Bologna, he was made a Count Palatine and knight of the Golden Spur. His children were also made nobles of the Empire, which for a painter was an exceptional honor. As a matter of professional and worldly success his position from about this time is regarded as equal only to that of Raphael, Michelangelo
Michelangelo
and, at a later date, Rubens. In 1540 he received a pension from d'Avalos, marquis del Vasto, and an annuity of 200 crowns (which was afterwards doubled) from Charles V from the treasury of Milan. Another source of profit, for he was always aware of money, was a contract obtained in 1542 for supplying grain to Cadore, where he visited almost every year and where he was both generous and influential. Titian
Titian
had a favorite villa on the neighboring Manza Hill (in front of the church of Castello Roganzuolo) from which (it may be inferred) he made his chief observations of landscape form and effect. The so-called Titian's mill, constantly discernible in his studies, is at Collontola, near Belluno.[23] He visited Rome
Rome
in 1546 and obtained the freedom of the city—his immediate predecessor in that honor having been Michelangelo
Michelangelo
in 1537. He could at the same time have succeeded the painter Sebastiano del Piombo in his lucrative office as holder of the piombo or Papal seal, and he was prepared to take Holy Orders
Holy Orders
for the purpose; but the project lapsed through his being summoned away from Venice in 1547 to paint Charles V and others in Augsburg. He was there again in 1550, and executed the portrait of Philip II, which was sent to England and was useful in Philip's suit for the hand of Queen Mary. Final years[edit]

Venus and Organist and Little Dog, c. 1550.

During the last twenty-six years of his life (1550–1576), Titian worked mainly for Philip II and as a portrait-painter. He became more self-critical, an insatiable perfectionist, keeping some pictures in his studio for ten years—returning to them and retouching them, constantly adding new expressions at once more refined, concise, and subtle. He also finished many copies that his pupils made of his earlier works. This caused problems of attribution and priority among versions of his works—which were also widely copied and faked outside his studio during his lifetime and afterwards. For Philip II, he painted a series of large mythological paintings known as the "poesie", mostly from Ovid, which scholars regard as among his greatest works.[24] Thanks to the prudishness of Philip's successors, these were later mostly given as gifts, and only two remain in the Prado. Titian
Titian
was producing religious works for Philip at the same time. The "poesie" series contained the following works:

Danaë, sent to Philip in 1553.[25] Venus and Adonis, of which the earliest surviving version, delivered in 1554, is in the Prado, but several versions exist Perseus and Andromeda (Wallace Collection, now damaged) Diana and Actaeon Diana and Callisto, were despatched in 1559 The Rape of Europa (Boston, Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum), delivered in 1562 The Death of Actaeon, begun in 1559 but worked on for many years and never completed or delivered[26]

Another painting that apparently remained in his studio at his death, and has been much less well known until recent decades, is the powerful, even "repellent" Flaying of Marsyas (Kroměříž, Czech Republic).[27] Another violent masterpiece is Tarquin and Lucretia (Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum).[28]

The Rape of Europa c, 1560-1562, Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, is a bold diagonal composition that Rubens admired and copied. In contrast to the clarity of Titian's early works, it is almost baroque in its blurred lines, swirling colours, and vibrant brushstrokes.

For each problem he undertook, he furnished a new and more perfect formula. He never again equaled the emotion and tragedy of The Crowning with Thorns (Louvre); in the expression of the mysterious and the divine he never equaled the poetry of the Pilgrims of Emmaus; while in superb and heroic brilliancy he never again executed anything more grand than The Doge Grimani adoring Faith (Venice, Doge's Palace), or the Trinity, of Madrid. On the other hand, from the standpoint of flesh tints, his most moving pictures are those of his old age, such as the poesie and the Antiope of the Louvre. He even attempted problems of chiaroscuro in fantastic night effects (Martyrdom of St. Laurence, Church of the Jesuits, Venice; St. Jerome, Louvre; Crucifixion, Church of San Domenico, Ancona). Titian
Titian
had engaged his daughter Lavinia, the beautiful girl whom he loved deeply and painted various times, to Cornelio Sarcinelli of Serravalle. She had succeeded her aunt Orsa, then deceased, as the manager of the household, which, with the lordly income that Titian made by this time, placed her on a corresponding footing. The marriage took place in 1554. She died in childbirth in 1560. Titian
Titian
was at the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
towards 1555, of which there is a finished sketch in the Louvre. His friend Aretino died suddenly in 1556, and another close intimate, the sculptor and architect Jacopo Sansovino, in 1570. In September 1565 Titian
Titian
went to Cadore
Cadore
and designed the decorations for the church at Pieve, partly executed by his pupils. One of these is a Transfiguration, another an Annunciation (now in S. Salvatore, Venice), inscribed Titianus fecit, by way of protest (it is said) against the disparagement of some persons who caviled at the veteran's failing handicraft.

Pietà, c. 1576, his last painting.

Around 1560,[29] Titian
Titian
painted the oil on canvas, Madonna and Child with Saints Luke and Catherine of Alexandria, a derivative on the motif of Madonna and Child. It is suggested that members of Titian's Venice workshop probably painted the curtain and Luke, because of the lower quality of those parts.[30] He continued to accept commissions to the end of his life. Like many of his late works, Titian's last painting, the Pietà, is a dramatic, nocturnal scene of suffering. He apparently intended it for his own tomb chapel. He had selected, as his burial place, the chapel of the Crucifix in the Basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, the church of the Franciscan
Franciscan
Order. In payment for a grave, he offered the Franciscans a picture of the Pietà that represented himself and his son Orazio, with a sibyl, before the Savior. He nearly finished this work, but differences arose regarding it, and he settled on being interred in his native Pieve. Death[edit]

Tomb of Titian
Titian
in Venice

While the plague raged in Venice, Titian
Titian
died of a fever on 27 August 1576.[31] Depending on his unknown birthdate (see above), he was somewhere from his late eighties or even close to 100. Titian
Titian
was interred in the Frari (Basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari), as at first intended, and his Pietà was finished by Palma il Giovane. He lies near his own famous painting, the Madonna di Ca' Pesaro. No memorial marked his grave. Much later the Austrian rulers of Venice commissioned Antonio Canova
Antonio Canova
to sculpt the large monument still in the church. Very shortly after Titian's death, his son, assistant and sole heir Orazio also died of the plague, greatly complicating the settlement of his estate, as he had made no will.[32] Printmaking[edit] Titian
Titian
never attempted engraving, but he was very conscious of the importance of printmaking as a means to expand his reputation. In the period 1517–1520 he designed a number of woodcuts, including an enormous and impressive one of The Crossing of the Red Sea, and collaborated with Domenico Campagnola
Domenico Campagnola
and others, who produced additional prints based on his paintings and drawings. Much later he provided drawings based on his paintings to Cornelis Cort
Cornelis Cort
from the Netherlands who engraved them. Martino Rota
Martino Rota
followed Cort from about 1558 to 1568.[33] Painting materials[edit] Titian
Titian
employed an extensive array of pigments and it can be said that he availed himself of virtually all available pigments of his time.[34] Except for the common pigments of the Renaissance
Renaissance
period, such as ultramarine, vermilion, lead-tin yellow, ochres, and azurite, he also used the rare pigments realgar and orpiment.[35] Family and workshop[edit]

The Allegory of Age Governed by Prudence (c. 1565–1570) is thought to depict (from left) Titian, his son Orazio, and his nephew, Marco Vecellio.

Titian's wife, Cecilia, was a barber's daughter from his hometown village of Cadore. As a young woman she had been his housekeeper and mistress for some five years. Cecilia had already borne Titian
Titian
two fine sons, Pomponio and Orazio, when in 1525 she fell seriously ill. Titian, wishing to legitimize the children, married her. Cecilia recovered, the marriage was a happy one, and they had another daughter who died in infancy.[36] In August 1530 Cecilia died. Titian remarried, but little information is known about his second wife; she was possibly the mother of his daughter Lavinia.[37] Titian
Titian
had a fourth child, Emilia, the result of an affair, possibly with a housekeeper.[38] His favorite child was Orazio, who became his assistant. In August 1530 Titian
Titian
moved his two boys and infant daughter to a new home and convinced his sister Orsa to come from Cadore
Cadore
and take charge of the household. The mansion, difficult to find now, is in the Biri Grande, then a fashionable suburb, at the extreme end of Venice, on the sea, with beautiful gardens and a view towards Murano. In about 1526 he had become acquainted, and soon close friends, with Pietro Aretino, the influential and audacious figure who features so strangely in the chronicles of the time. Titian
Titian
sent a portrait of him to Gonzaga, duke of Mantua. Several other artists of the Vecelli family followed in the wake of Titian. Francesco Vecellio, his older brother, was introduced to painting by Titian
Titian
(it is said at the age of twelve, but chronology will hardly admit of this), and painted in the church of S. Vito in Cadore
Cadore
a picture of the titular saint armed. This was a noteworthy performance, of which Titian
Titian
(the usual story) became jealous; so Francesco was diverted from painting to soldiering, and afterwards to mercantile life.

Diana and Actaeon, 1556–1559

Marco Vecellio, called Marco di Tiziano, Titian's nephew, born in 1545, was constantly with the master in his old age, and learned his methods of work. He has left some able productions in the ducal palace, the Meeting of Charles V. and Clement VII. in 1529; in S. Giacomo di Rialto, an Annunciation; in SS. Giovani e Paolo, Christ Fulminant. A son of Marco, named Tiziano (or Tizianello), painted early in the 17th century. From a different branch of the family came Fabrizio di Ettore, a painter who died in 1580. His brother Cesare, who also left some pictures, is well known by his book of engraved costumes, Abiti antichi e moderni. Tommaso Vecelli, also a painter, died in 1620. There was another relative, Girolamo Dante, who, being a scholar and assistant of Titian, was called Girolamo di Tiziano. Various pictures of his were touched up by the master, and are difficult to distinguish from originals. Few of the pupils and assistants of Titian
Titian
became well known in their own right; for some being his assistant was probably a lifetime career. Paris Bordone
Paris Bordone
and Bonifazio Veronese
Bonifazio Veronese
were his assistants during at some point in their careers. Giulio Clovio
Giulio Clovio
said Titian employed El Greco
El Greco
(or Dominikos Theotokopoulos) in his last years. Polidoro da Lanciano
Polidoro da Lanciano
is said to have been a follower or pupil of Titian. Other followers were Nadalino da Murano[39] and Damiano Mazza.[40] Present day[edit] Contemporary estimates attribute around 400 works to Titian, of which about 300 survive.[41] Two of Titian's works in private hands were put up for sale in 2008. One of these, Diana and Actaeon, was purchased by London's National Gallery
National Gallery
and the National Galleries of Scotland
National Galleries of Scotland
on 2 February 2009 for ₤50 million ($71 million).[42] The galleries had until 31 December 2008 to make the purchase before the work would be offered to private collectors, but the deadline was extended. The other painting, Diana and Callisto, was for sale for the same amount until 2012 before it was offered to private collectors. The sale created controversy with politicians who argued that the money could have been spent more wisely during a deepening recession. The Scottish Government
Scottish Government
offered ₤12.5 million and ₤10 million came from the National Heritage Memorial Fund. The rest of the money came from the National Gallery
National Gallery
and from private donations.[43] Gallery[edit]

Venus Anadyomene, c. 1520

The Aldobrandini Madonna, c 1530

Portrait of Clarissa Strozzi, 1542

Pope Paul III and His Grandsons, c 1546

Danaë, before 1550

Venus and Adonis, 1554

Perseus and Andromeda, c. 1554-56

The Death of Actaeon, 1559-1575

Diana and Callisto, 1556-59

Tarquin and Lucretia, 1571

The Entombment, c. 1572, Prado

Notes[edit]

^ See below; c. 1488/1490 is generally accepted despite claims in his lifetime that he was older, Getty Union Artist Name List and Metropolitan Museum of Art timeline, retrieved 11 February 2009 both use c. 1488. See discussion of the issue below and at When Was Titian Born?, which sets out the evidence, and supports 1477—an unusual view today. Gould (pp. 264–66) also sets out much of the evidence without coming to a conclusion. Charles Hope in Jaffé (p. 11) also discusses the issue, favoring a date "in or just before 1490" as opposed to the much earlier dates, as does Penny (p. 201) "probably in 1490 or a little earlier". The question has become caught up in the still controversial division of works between Giorgione
Giorgione
and the young Titian. ^ "Metropolitan Museum of Art timeline". Metmuseum.org. Retrieved 30 January 2011.  ^ Wolf, Norbert (2006). I, Titian. New York and London: Prestel. ISBN 9783791333847.  ^ Fossi, Gloria, Italian Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture from the Origins to the Present Day, p. 194. Giunti, 2000. ISBN 88-09-01771-4 ^ The contours in early works may be described as "crisp and clear", while of his late methods it was said that "he painted more with his fingers than his brushes." Dunkerton, Jill, et al., Dürer to Veronese: Sixteenth-Century Painting in the National Gallery, pp. 281–286. Yale University, National Gallery
National Gallery
Publications, 1999. ISBN 0-300-07220-1 ^ Cecil Gould, The Sixteenth Century Italian Schools, National Gallery Catalogues, p. 265, London, 1975, ISBN 0-947645-22-5 ^ "When Was Titian
Titian
Born?". Lafrusta.homestead.com. 4 November 2002. Retrieved 30 January 2011.  ^ Hale, 5-6; also see references above ^ Durant, Will (1953). The Renaissance. The Story of Civilization. 5. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 667.  ^ a b David Jaffé (ed), Titian, The National Gallery
National Gallery
Company/Yale, p. 11, London
London
2003, ISBN 1-85709-903-6 ^ Jaffé No. 1, pp. 74–75 image ^ "Portrait of Gerolamo (?) Barbarigo, about 1510, Titian". National Gallery. Retrieved 26 May 2013.  ^ Olga Mataev. "Ecce Homo". Abcgallery.com. Retrieved 30 January 2011.  ^ Charles Hope, in Jaffé, pp. 11–14 ^ "New findings in Titian's Fresco
Fresco
technique at the Scuola del Santo in Padua", The Art Bulletin, March 1999, Volume LXXXI Number 1, Author Sergio Rossetti Morosini ^ Charles Hope in Jaffé, p. 14 ^ Charles Hope, in Jaffé, p. 15 ^ Charles Hope in Jaffé, pp. 16–17 ^ Charles Hope, in Jaffé, p. 17 Engraving
Engraving
of the painting ^ Jaffé, pp. 100–111 ^   Louis Gillet (1913). "Titian". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 30 January 2011.  ^ "Titian", The Catholic Encyclopedia ^ R. F. Heath, Life of Titian, p. 5. ^ Penny, 204 ^ Museo del Prado, Catálogo de las pinturas, 1996, p. 402, Ministerio de Educación y Cultura, Madrid, ISBN 84-87317-53-7 ^ Penny, 249-50 ^ Giles Robertson, in: Jane Martineau (ed), The Genius of Venice, 1500-1600, pp. 231–3, 1983, Royal Academy of Arts, London ^ Robertson, pp. 229–230 ^ " Titian
Titian
Madonna and Child sells for record $16.9m". BBC News Online. 28 January 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2011.  ^ "Art and the Bible". Artbible.info. Retrieved 30 January 2011.  ^ Kennedy, Ian (2006). Titian. Taschen. p. 95. ISBN 9783822849125.  ^ Hale, 722-723 ^ Landau, 304–305, and in catalogue entries following. Much more detailed consideration is given at various points in: David Landau & Peter Parshall, The Renaissance
Renaissance
Print, Yale, 1996, ISBN 0-300-06883-2 ^ Jill Dunkerton and Marika Spring, with contributions from Rachel Billinge, Kamilla Kalinina, Rachel Morrison, Gabriella Macaro, David Peggie and Ashok Roy, Titian’s Painting Technique to c.1540, National Gallery
National Gallery
Technical Bulletin, volume 34, 2013, pp. 4-31. Catalog I and II. ^ Pigments used by Titian, ColourLex ^ Hale, 215 ^ Hale, 249 ^ Hale, 486 ^ [Le maraviglie dell'arte: ovvero Le vite degli illustri pittori], Volume 1, by Carlo Ridolfi, Giuseppe Vedova, page 288. ^ Ridolfi and Vedova, page 289. ^ Mark Hudson, Titian: The Last Days, Walker and Company, NY, 2000, p.10-11. ^ Carrell, Severin (2 February 2009). "Titian's Diana and Actaeon saved for the nation". The Guardian.  ^ Yahoo.com[dead link]

References[edit]

Gould, Cecil, The Sixteenth Century Italian Schools, National Gallery Catalogues, London
London
1975, ISBN 0-947645-22-5 Hale, Sheila, Titian, His Life, 2012, Harper Press, ISBN 978-0-00717582-6 Jaffé, David (ed), Titian, The National Gallery
National Gallery
Company/Yale, London 2003, ISBN 1-85709-903-6 Landau, David, in Jane Martineau (ed), The Genius of Venice, 1500–1600, 1983, Royal Academy of Arts, London. Penny, Nicholas, National Gallery
National Gallery
Catalogues (new series): The Sixteenth Century Italian Paintings, Volume II, Venice 1540–1600, 2008, National Gallery
National Gallery
Publications Ltd, ISBN 1-85709-913-3 Ridolfi, Carlo (1594–1658); The Life of Titian, translated by Julia Conaway Bondanella and Peter E. Bondanella, Penn State Press, 1996, ISBN 0-271-01627-2, ISBN 978-0-271-01627-6 Google Books

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Titian

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Titian.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
article Titian.

Titian
Titian
at Encyclopædia Britannica 139 Painting(s) by or after Titian
Titian
at the Art UK
Art UK
site A closer Look at the Madonna of the Rabbit multimedia feature, Musée du Louvre
Louvre
official site (English version) The Titian
Titian
Foundation Images of 168 paintings by the artist. Titian's paintings Tiziano Vecellio at Web Gallery of Art Christies' sale blurb for the recently restored 'Mother and Child' Bell, Malcolm The early work of Titian, at Internet Archive Titian
Titian
at Panopticon Virtual Art Gallery How to Paint Like Titian
Titian
James Fenton essay on Titian
Titian
from The New York Review of Books Tiziano Vecellio - one of the greatest artists of all time Interactive high resolution scientific imagery of Titian's Portrait of a Woman with a Mirror
Woman with a Mirror
from the C2RMF Titian: general resources, his paintings, and pigments used, ColourLex

v t e

Titian

List of works

Portraits

Jacopo Pesaro being presented by Pope Alexander VI to Saint Peter (1503–06) A Man with a Quilted Sleeve
A Man with a Quilted Sleeve
(c. 1509) La Schiavona
La Schiavona
(1510–12) Of a Man (1512) Vincenzo Mosti (c. 1520) Young Woman in a Black Dress
Young Woman in a Black Dress
(c. 1520) Man with a Glove
Man with a Glove
(c. 1520) Laura Dianti (c. 1520–25) Federico II Gonzaga (c. 1529) Charles V with a Dog (1533) Ippolito de' Medici (1533) Giacomo Doria (1533–35) Isabella d'Este (1534–36) La Bella
La Bella
(c. 1536) Girl in a Fur
Girl in a Fur
(1536-38) A Young Englishman (1540–45) Clarissa Strozzi (1542) The Vendramin Family (1543–47) Pietro Aretino
Pietro Aretino
(1545) Lavinia Vecellio (c. 1545) Pope Paul III (1545–46) Pope Paul III and His Grandsons
Pope Paul III and His Grandsons
(1545–46) Equestrian Portrait of Charles V
Equestrian Portrait of Charles V
(1548) Charles V (seated) (1548) Isabella of Portugal (1548) Philip II in Armour
Philip II in Armour
(1550) Christina of Denmark (1555–56) Jacopo Strada (1567–68)

Self portraits

Self-Portrait (1546–47) Self-Portrait (c. 1560)

Secular

Pastoral Concert
Pastoral Concert
(c. 1509 – also attributed to Giorgione) Dresden Venus (with Giorgione, c. 1510) Miracle of the Jealous Husband
Miracle of the Jealous Husband
(1511) The Three Ages of Man (c. 1512–14) Sacred and Profane Love
Sacred and Profane Love
(c. 1514) The Feast of the Gods
The Feast of the Gods
(1514) Lucretia and her Husband
Lucretia and her Husband
(1515) The Bravo (c. 1515) Flora (c. 1515) Salome (c. 1515) Vanity (c. 1515) Violante (c. 1515) Woman with a Mirror
Woman with a Mirror
(c. 1515) The Worship of Venus
The Worship of Venus
(1518–19) Venus Anadyomene (c. 1520) Bacchus and Ariadne
Bacchus and Ariadne
(1520–23) The Bacchanal of the Andrians
The Bacchanal of the Andrians
(1523–26) Eleven Caesars
Eleven Caesars
(1536-40) Venus of Urbino
Venus of Urbino
(1538) Alfonso d'Avalos Addressing his Troops
Alfonso d'Avalos Addressing his Troops
(1540) Venus and Musician
Venus and Musician
(1540s on, series) The Punishment of Tythus
The Punishment of Tythus
(1549) Danaë (series) (1543–65) Venus and Adonis (several versions) Pardo Venus
Pardo Venus
(1551) Venus with a Mirror
Venus with a Mirror
(1555) Perseus and Andromeda (1554-56) Diana and Actaeon (1556–59) Diana and Callisto
Diana and Callisto
(1556–59) The Death of Actaeon
The Death of Actaeon
(c. 1559–75) The Rape of Europa (c. 1560–62) Venus Blindfolding Cupid
Venus Blindfolding Cupid
(c. 1565) Allegory of Prudence
Allegory of Prudence
(c. 1565–70) Tarquin and Lucretia
Tarquin and Lucretia
(comp. 1571) Flaying of Marsyas (1570–76)

Religious

Christ Carrying the Cross (c. 1505 – also attributed to Giorgione) Bache Madonna
Bache Madonna
(c. 1508) St. Mark Enthroned
St. Mark Enthroned
(c. 1510) The Gypsy Madonna
The Gypsy Madonna
(c. 1510) Balbi Holy Conversation
Balbi Holy Conversation
(c. 1513) Noli me tangere (c. 1514) Madonna of the Cherries
Madonna of the Cherries
(1515) The Tribute Money (c. 1516) Assumption of the Virgin (1516–18) Pesaro Madonna
Pesaro Madonna
(1519–26) Gozzi Altarpiece
Gozzi Altarpiece
(1520) Malchiostro Annunciation
Malchiostro Annunciation
(c. 1520) The Entombment of Christ (c. 1520) Averoldi Polyptych
Averoldi Polyptych
(1520–22) The Aldobrandini Madonna
The Aldobrandini Madonna
(1530) The Madonna of the Rabbit
The Madonna of the Rabbit
(1530) Penitent Magdalene (1533) The Presentation of the Virgin at the Temple (1534-38) Saint John the Baptist (1540) The Crowning with Thorns (1542–43) The Fall of Man (c. 1550) Saint Jerome in Penitence (1552) The Martyrdom of Saint Lawrence (c. 1548–59) La Gloria (1554) Mater Dolorosa (c. 1555) Saint Jerome in Penitence (1575) Crucifixion (1558) The Entombment (1559) St Margaret and the Dragon (c. 1559) Annunciation (1559–64) Madonna and Child with Saints Luke and Catherine of Alexandria
Madonna and Child with Saints Luke and Catherine of Alexandria
(c. 1560) Penitent Magdalene (1565) Saint Sebastian (c. 1575) The Crowning with Thorns (1576) Pietà (1576)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 109266837 LCCN: n79074519 ISNI: 0000 0001 0787 9191 GND: 118622994 SELIBR: 97122 SUDOC: 027336530 BNF: cb11940043z (data) ULAN: 500031075 NLA: 36049955 NDL: 00458841 NKC: jn20010525038 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV04619 BNE: XX848989 KulturNav: 44d8a621-b96f-4d9e-8e5b-75c75480f317 RKD: 77

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