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SOUTH SUMATRA PROVINCE (Indonesian : Provinsi Sumatera Selatan) is a province of Indonesia
Indonesia
. It is located in the southern part of Sumatra Island, east of the Bukit Barisan Mountains
Barisan Mountains
. It spans 91,592.43 km2 (35,364 sq mi) and had a population of 7,450,394 at the 2010 Census; the latest official estimate is 10,675,862 (as at May 2015). The capital of the province is Palembang .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Prehistoric era * 1.2 Srivijaya era * 1.3 Palembang Sultanate, Dutch, and World War II
World War II
* 1.4 After independence

* 2 Geography

* 3 Demographics

* 3.1 Religion
Religion

* 4 Administrative divisions * 5 Mining * 6 References * 7 External links

HISTORY

PREHISTORIC ERA

South Sumatra
Sumatra
has been settled by humans since the Palaeolithic
Palaeolithic
era. The evidence of those settlements is proven by some discoveries of Palaeolithic
Palaeolithic
tools in the riverbed of Saling and Kikim rivers in Bungamas Village, Lahat Regency . Seventy eight skeletons dating back to 3,000-14,000 years ago, presumably of Austronesian and Austromelanesoid race have been excavated from the site of Harimau Cave in Padang Bindu Village, Ogan Komering Ulu Regency . Relics of seven stone chambers believed to be about 2,500 years old were found near a coffee plantation in Kotaraya Lembak, Lahat Regency . Around 300 BC, the Deutero-Malay people arrived in this region and pushed the native people inland.

SRIVIJAYA ERA

Around 7th century AD, an ancient Buddhist
Buddhist
kingdom of Srivijaya was established in an area known today as Palembang. It once controlled a large part of what is now Indonesia, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Southern Thailand , effectively ruled the Malacca Strait , and controlled the trade in that region. In 1025, it was defeated by the Chola Empire (during the period of Emperor Rajendra Chola
Rajendra Chola
I) of southern India
India
. Srivijaya's capital eventually moved northward to Jambi. After its eventual fall in 14th century AD, some small kingdoms were established in South Sumatra. However, there was virtually a power vacuum in the region since there was no prominent power to hold the region except for the waning Majapahit Empire , itself centered in Java
Java
island. The vacuum allowed pirates to flourish in the region.

PALEMBANG SULTANATE, DUTCH, AND WORLD WAR II

In the 16th century AD, the Palembang Sultanate was established by Ki Gede Ing Suro , a politician who fled from Demak Sultanate . Clashes with the Dutch had occurred since the 17th century until the sultanate was abolished in 1825 when the Dutch gave a final blow to the final Sultan of Palembang, Sultan Ahmad Najamuddin . Southern Sumatra
Sumatra
was occupied by the Japanese in January 15, 1942 after the Battle of Palembang in World War II
World War II
.

AFTER INDEPENDENCE

After the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence
Proclamation of Indonesian Independence
, South Sumatra became a part of Sumatra
Sumatra
Province as a residency with Adnan Kapau Gani as the resident. On January 1, 1947, the Dutch tried to gain its sovereignty over South Sumatra
Sumatra
by invading Palembang. Since then, fighting ensued across South Sumatra
Sumatra
until Indonesia's independence was recognized by the Dutch on December 27, 1949. The area occupied by the Netherlands in South Sumatra
Sumatra
was incorporated into South Sumatra State under the United States of Indonesia
Indonesia
until the disbandment of the union and the founding of the republic. On September 12, 1950, South Sumatra
Sumatra
province was established with a territory much larger than it is today, as it encompassed several provinces that were eventually given autonomy: Lampung
Lampung
was carved from the southern part of the province in 1964, Bengkulu from the coastal western part of the province in 1967, and Bangka Belitung
Belitung
from the titular islands on December 4, 2000.

GEOGRAPHY

The province is located in the southeastern portion of the island of Sumatra
Sumatra
. The majority of its area consists of low-lying plains filled with plantations, forest, marshes and mangroves in coastal areas. The natural environment of South Sumatra
Sumatra
is hot and humid tropical rain forest. However, most of these forest has been cleared out to make way for oil palm plantation for palm oil production. The Bukit Barisan mountain range is located on the western edge of the province and forms the border with the neighbouring Bengkulu province. The mountains are the source of river systems that drain eastward to the Bangka Strait and South China Sea
South China Sea
. The largest among these rivers is Musi River , the longest river in Sumatra.

The administrative area of the province borders the provinces of Lampung
Lampung
to the south, Bengkulu to the west, and Jambi
Jambi
to the north. Off the east coast are the islands of Bangka and Belitung
Belitung
, which were split from South Sumatra
Sumatra
province to form the new province of Bangka- Belitung
Belitung
in 2000.

The climate of South Sumatra
Sumatra
is quite suitable for palm oil industries, including palm estate and rubber industries.

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1971 3,440,573 —

1980 4,629,801 +34.6%

1990 6,363,074 +37.4%

1995 7,207,545 +13.3%

2000 6,899,675 −4.3%

2010 7,450,394 +8.0%

2014 7,996,535 +7.3%

Source: Statistics Indonesia
Indonesia
2010

According to a 2015 estimate, South Sumatra
Sumatra
has a population of 10,675,862. Its population had tripled from 1971 to 2015, not counting the population lost due to the creation of Bangka Belitung
Belitung
province in 2000.

The province has no clear ethnic dominance, though the indigenous Musi -speaking Malays have a plurality, followed by the Javanese , most of whom recent migrants from Java
Java
as part of the government-sanctioned transmigration project created to balance the population, especially from the highly overpopulated Java
Java
island; as a result, Javanese is also widely spoken and understood, especially in area with high population of transmigrant, for example Belitang. Forming the next largest group is the other Malayan -speaking populations as well as the Komering, a distinct Malayo-Polynesian people related to the native Lampungese from neighboring Lampung
Lampung
. Minangkabau , Chinese , and Sundanese also form minorities in the province.

RELIGION

RELIGION IN SOUTH SUMATRA (2010 CENSUS)

religion

percent

Islam
Islam
  96.89%

Christianity   1.54%

Buddhism   0.80%

Hinduism   0.53%

other, not stated or not asked   0.23%

Confucianism   0.01%

The people of the province, as with other parts of Sumatra
Sumatra
with the exception of Bangka Belitung
Belitung
and North Sumatra
Sumatra
provinces, overwhelmingly follow the Shafi\'i school of law of Sunni Islam
Islam
. The religion is mainly adopted by the ethnic Malays, Javanese, Minangkabau, and Sundanese, though with a slightly different flavor: the ethnic Malays and Minangkabau follow a modernist principle with little indigenous syncretism equivalent to the "mainstream" branch followed by the other Muslim-majority countries, while the migrants from Java
Java
follow a traditionalist interpretation highly accented with pre- Islam
Islam
beliefs.

Other minority religions are also practiced; the Chinese primarily follow Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
and Christianity
Christianity
.

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

The capital of South Sumatra
Sumatra
province is Palembang . As at 2010 this province was divided into eleven regencies (kabupaten) and four autonomous cities (kota), listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census and according to the latest (January 2014) estimates.

NAME AREA (KM2) Population Census 2010 Population Estimate 2014 CAPITAL HDI 2014 Estimates

Lubuk Linggau City 419.80 201,217 216,064 Lubuklinggau
Lubuklinggau
0.728 (High)

Pagar Alam City 570.16 126,363 135,431 Pagaralam 0.647 (Medium)

Palembang City 374.03 1,452,840 1,561,959 Palembang 0.760 (High)

Prabumulih City 421.62 161,814 173,857 Prabumulih 0.722 (High)

Banyuasin Regency 12,142.73 749,107 805,096 Pangkalan Balai 0.632 (Medium)

East Ogan Komering Ulu Regency (Ogan Komering Ulu Timur) 3,410.15 609,715 654,696 Martapura 0.667 (Medium)

Empat Lawang Regency 2,556.44 220,694 237,389 Tebing Tinggi 0.631 (Medium)

Lahat Regency 4,076.06 370,146 397,094 Lahat 0.645 (Medium)

Muara Enim Regency 8,587.941 717,7171 769,2111 Muara Enim 0.650 (Medium)

Musi Banyuasin Regency 14,477.00 562,584 602,615 Sekayu 0.649 (Medium)

Musi Rawas Regency 12,134.572 524,9192 564,0302 Muara Beliti 0.631 (Medium)

North Musi Rawas Regency (Musi Rawas Utara) 2 2 2 Rupit 0.613 (Medium)

Ogan Ilir Regency 2,513.09 380,861 408,826 Indralaya 0.644 (Medium)

Ogan Komering Ilir Regency 17,058.32 726,659 780,695 Kayuagung 0.638 (Medium)

Ogan Komering Ulu Regency 2,772.56 323,420 347,799 Baturaja 0.662 (Medium)

Penukal Abab Lematang Ilir Regency 1 1 1 Talang Ubi 0.598 (Low)

South Ogan Komering Ulu Regency (Ogan Komering Ulu Selatan) 5,493.94 318,345 341,770 Muara Dua 0.619 (Medium)

* Note: 1 Penukal Abab Lematang Ilir Regency used to be a part of Muara Enim Regency and is still counted as part of it for statistical purposes. * Note: 2 North Musi Rawas Regency used to be a part of Musi Rawas Regency and is still counted as part of it for statistical purposes.

MINING

The coal deposits of South Sumatra
Sumatra
amount to 22.24 billion tons or 48.45 percent of the total national reserves. The province also has 4.18 trillion standard cubic feet of natural gas and 757.4 standard cubic feet of natural oil.

REFERENCES

* ^ Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion
Religion
in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003. * ^ "Sensus Penduduk 2010 Provinsi Sumatera Selatan Menurut Agama Yang dianut" . sp2010.bps.go.id (in Indonesian). 2010. * ^ http://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2014/10/prehistoric-mother-and-child-burial.html * ^ http://www.antaranews.com/en/news/76911/prehistoric-artifacts-found-in-s-sumatra * ^ Early kingdoms of the Indonesian archipelago and the Malay Peninsula by Paul Michel Munoz p.161 * ^ Cengage Advantage Books: The Earth and Its Peoples by Richard Bulliet, Pamela Crossley, Daniel Headrick, Steven Hirsch, Lyman Johnson p.182 * ^ http://www.dutcheastindies.webs.com/palembang.html * ^ Sejarah Sumatera Selatan * ^ "Population by Region and Religion
Religion
in Indonesia". BPS . 2010. * ^ Indeks-Pembangunan-Manusia-2014 * ^ Indian investor to build railroad track in S Sumatra

EXTERNAL LINKS

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