SASKATCHEWAN (/səˈskætʃəwᵻn/ ( listen ) or /-ˌwɑːn/ ) is a
prairie and boreal province in western
Canada , the only province
without natural borders . It has an area of 651,900 square kilometres
(251,700 sq mi), nearly 10 percent of which (59,366 square kilometres
(22,900 sq mi)) is fresh water, composed mostly of rivers, reservoirs,
and the province's 100,000 lakes .
Saskatchewan is bordered on the west by
Alberta , on the north by the
Northwest Territories , on the east by
Manitoba , to the northeast by
Nunavut , and on the south by the U.S. states of
Montana and North
Dakota . As of December 2013, Saskatchewan's population was estimated
at 1,114,170. Residents primarily live in the southern prairie half
of the province, while the northern boreal half is mostly forested and
sparsely populated. Of the total population, roughly half live in the
province's largest city
Saskatoon , or the provincial capital Regina .
Other notable cities include Prince Albert ,
Moose Jaw ,
Swift Current ,
North Battleford , and the border city Lloydminster
(partially within Alberta).
Saskatchewan is a landlocked province with large distances to
moderating bodies of waters. As a result, its climate is extremely
continental , rendering severe winters throughout the province.
Southern areas have very warm or hot summers.
Midale and Yellow Grass
near the U.S. border are tied for the highest ever recorded
Canada with 45 °C (113 °F) observed at both
locations on July 5, 1937. In winter, temperatures below −45 °C
(−49 °F) are possible even in the south during extreme cold snaps.
Saskatchewan has been inhabited for thousands of years by various
indigenous groups , and first explored by Europeans in 1690 and
settled in 1774. It became a province in 1905, carved out from the
North-West Territories , which had until then included most of
Canadian Prairies . In the early 20th century the province became
known as a stronghold for Canadian social democracy; North America's
first social-democratic government was elected in 1944 . The
province's economy is based on agriculture , mining , and energy .
Saskatchewan's current premier is
Brad Wall and its
Vaughn Solomon Schofield .
In 1992, the federal and provincial governments signed a historic
land claim agreement with
First Nations in Saskatchewan . The First
Nations received compensation and were permitted to buy land on the
open market for the tribes; they have acquired about 3,079 square
kilometres (761,000 acres; 1,189 sq mi), now reserve lands. Some First
Nations have used their settlement to invest in urban areas, including
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Climate
* 3 History
* 3.1 20th century
* 4 Demographics
* 4.1 Municipalities
* 5 Economy
* 5.1 Provincial finances
* 6 Government and politics
* 6.1 Law enforcement
* 7 Education
* 8 Healthcare
* 9 Transportation
* 10 Arts and culture
* 11 Sports
* 12 Provincial symbols
* 12.1 Centennial celebrations
* 13 Climate
* 14 See also
* 15 References
* 16 Further reading
* 17 External links
Its name derived from the
Saskatchewan River . The river was known as
_kisiskāciwani-sīpiy_ ("swift flowing river") in the
Cree language .
Geography of Saskatchewan
As Saskatchewan's borders largely follow the geographic coordinates
of longitude and latitude , the province is roughly a quadrilateral ,
or a shape with four sides. However the 49th parallel boundary and the
60th northern border appear curved on globes and many maps.
Additionally, the eastern boundary of the province is partially
crooked rather than following a line of longitude, as correction lines
were devised by surveyors prior to the homestead program
(1880–1928). Topographic map of
Saskatchewan is part of the Western Provinces and is bounded on the
Alberta , on the north by the
Northwest Territories , on the
Nunavut , on the east by
Manitoba , and on the south by
the U.S. states of
North Dakota .
Saskatchewan has the
distinction of being the only Canadian province for which no borders
correspond to physical geographic features (i.e. they are all
parallels and meridians). Along with Alberta,
Saskatchewan is one of
only two land-locked provinces.
The overwhelming majority of Saskatchewan's population is located in
the southern third of the province, south of the 53rd parallel .
Saskatchewan contains two major natural regions: the Canadian Shield
in the north and the
Interior Plains in the south. Northern
Saskatchewan is mostly covered by boreal forest except for the Lake
Athabasca Sand Dunes , the largest active sand dunes in the world
north of 58°, and adjacent to the southern shore of
Lake Athabasca .
Saskatchewan contains another area with sand dunes known as
the "Great Sand Hills" covering over 300 square kilometres (120 sq
mi). The Cypress Hills , located in the southwestern corner of
Saskatchewan and Killdeer Badlands (
Grasslands National Park ), are
areas of the province that were unglaciated during the last glaciation
Wisconsin glaciation .
The province's highest point, at 1,392 metres (4,567 ft), is located
in the Cypress Hills less than 2 km from the provincial boundary with
Alberta. The lowest point is the shore of Lake Athabasca, at 213
metres (699 ft). The province has 14 major drainage basins made up of
various rivers and watersheds draining into the
Arctic Ocean , Hudson
Bay and the
Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico .
Köppen climate types of
Saskatchewan receives more hours of sunshine than any other Canadian
province. The province lies far from any significant body of water.
This fact, combined with its northerly latitude, gives it a warm
summer, corresponding to its humid continental climate (Köppen type
_Dfb_ ) in the central and most of the eastern parts of the province,
as well as the Cypress Hills; drying off to a semi-arid steppe climate
(Köppen type _BSk_) in the southwestern part of the province. Drought
can affect agricultural areas during long periods with little or no
precipitation at all. The northern parts of
Saskatchewan – from
La Ronge northward – have a subarctic climate (Köppen _Dfc_)
with a shorter summer season. Summers can get very hot, sometimes
above 38 °C (100 °F) during the day, and with humidity decreasing
from northeast to southwest. Warm southern winds blow from the plains
and intermontane regions of the Western
United States during much of
July and August, very cool or hot but changeable air masses often
occur during spring and in September. Winters are usually bitterly
cold, with frequent Arctic air descending from the north. with high
temperatures not breaking −17 °C (1 °F) for weeks at a time. Warm
chinook winds often blow from the west, bringing periods of mild
weather. Annual precipitation averages 30 to 45 centimetres (12 to 18
inches) across the province, with the bulk of rain falling in June,
July, and August.
Saskatchewan is one of the most tornado -active parts in
averaging roughly 12 to 18 tornadoes per year, some violent. In 2012,
33 tornadoes were reported in the province. The
Regina Cyclone took
place in June 1912 when 28 people died in an F4
Fujita scale tornado.
Severe and non-severe thunderstorm events occur in Saskatchewan,
usually from early spring to late summer. Hail, strong winds and
isolated tornadoes are a common occurrence.
The hottest temperature ever recorded anywhere in
Canada happened in
Saskatchewan. The temperature rose to 45 °C (113 °F) in
Yellow Grass . The coldest ever recorded in the province was −56.7
°C (−70.1 °F) in Prince Albert , which is north of Saskatoon.
AVERAGE DAILY MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURES FOR SELECTED CITIES IN
History of Saskatchewan
Henry Kelsey sees a
buffalo herd on the western plains.
Saskatchewan has been populated by various indigenous peoples of
North America , including members of the Sarcee ,
Niitsitapi , Atsina
Saulteaux , Assiniboine (Nakoda), Lakota and
Sioux . The
first known European to enter
Henry Kelsey in 1690,
who travelled up the
Saskatchewan River in hopes of trading fur with
the region's indigenous peoples. The first permanent European
settlement was a Hudson\'s Bay Company post at Cumberland House ,
founded in 1774 by
Samuel Hearne . In 1762 the south of the province
was part of the Spanish Louisiana until 1802. _ Part of Alberta
Saskatchewan were traded from the United States, which in return
received part of Rupert\'s Land , today part of
North Dakota and
Cree Pipe Stem Carrier_, a painting of a Plains
Cree warrior by
Paul Kane .
In 1803 the
Louisiana Purchase transferred from France to the United
States part of what is now
Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1818 it was
ceded to the
United Kingdom . Most of what is now Saskatchewan,
though, was part of Rupert\'s Land and controlled by the Hudson's Bay
Company, which claimed rights to all watersheds flowing into Hudson
Bay , including the
Saskatchewan River , Churchill , Assiniboine ,
Souris , and Qu\'Appelle River systems.
In the late 1850s and early 1860s, scientific expeditions led by John
Henry Youle Hind explored the prairie region of the
Canada acquired the Hudson's Bay Company's territories and
North-West Territories to administer the vast territory
British Columbia and
Manitoba . The Crown also entered into a
series of numbered treaties with the indigenous peoples of the area,
which serve as the basis of the relationship between
First Nations ,
as they are called today, and the Crown. Since the late twentieth
century, land losses and inequities as a result of those treaties have
been subject to negotiation for settlement between the First Nations
Saskatchewan and the federal government, in collaboration with
In 1885, post-Confederation Canada's first "naval battle" was fought
in Saskatchewan, when a steamship engaged the Métis at Batoche in the
North-West Rebellion .
A seminal event in the history of what was to become Western Canada
was the 1874 "March West" of the federal government's new North-West
Mounted Police . Despite poor equipment and lack of provisions, the
men on the march persevered and established a federal presence in the
In 1876, following their defeat of
United States Army forces at the
Battle of the Little Bighorn in
Montana Territory in the United
States, the Lakota Chief
Sitting Bull led several thousand of his
people to Wood Mountain. Survivors and descendants founded Wood
Mountain Reserve in 1914.
European-Canadian settlement of the province started to take off as
Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway was built in the early 1880s, and the
Canadian government divided up the land by the Dominion Land Survey
and gave free land to any willing settlers. The Battle of Batoche
North-West Mounted Police set up several posts and forts across
Fort Walsh in the Cypress Hills, and Wood
Mountain Post in south-central
Saskatchewan near the United States
Many Métis people, who had not been signatories to a treaty, had
moved to the
Southbranch Settlement and Prince Albert district north
Saskatoon following the
Red River Rebellion in Manitoba
in 1870. In the early 1880s, the Canadian government refused to hear
the Métis' grievances, which stemmed from land-use issues. Finally,
in 1885, the Métis, led by
Louis Riel , staged the North-West
Rebellion and declared a provisional government. They were defeated by
a Canadian militia brought to the
Canadian prairies by the new
Canadian Pacific Railway. Riel, who surrendered and was convicted of
treason in a packed Regina courtroom, was hanged on November 16, 1885.
Since then, the government has recognized the Métis as an aboriginal
people with status rights and provided them with various benefits.
As more settlers came to the prairies on the railway, the population
grew. On September 1, 1905,
Saskatchewan became a province, with
inauguration day held September 4. The
Dominion Lands Act permitted
settlers to acquire one quarter of a square mile of land to homestead
and offered an additional quarter upon establishing a homestead.
Immigration peaked in 1910, and in spite of the initial difficulties
of frontier life – distance from towns, sod homes, and backbreaking
labour – new settlers established a European-Canadian style of
prosperous agrarian society . Bennett buggies , automobiles
pulled by horses, were used during the Great Depression by farmers too
impoverished to purchase gasoline.
In 1913, the
Saskatchewan Stock Growers Association was established
as Saskatchewan's first ranchers' organization. At its founding
convention in 1913, the members established three goals: to watch over
legislation; to forward the interests of the stock growers in every
honourable and legitimate way; and to suggest to parliament
legislation to meet changing conditions and requirements. Its farming
Saskatchewan Grain Growers Association , was the
dominant political force in the province until the 1920s; it had close
ties with the governing Liberal party.
In the late 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan , imported from the United States
and Ontario, gained brief popularity in nativist circles in
Saskatchewan and Alberta. The Klan, briefly allied with the provincial
Conservative party because of their mutual dislike for
G. "Jimmy" Gardiner and his Liberals (who ferociously fought the
Klan), enjoyed about two years of prominence. It declined and
disappeared, subject to widespread political and media opposition,
plus internal scandals involving the use of the organization's funds.
In 1970, the first annual
Canadian Western Agribition was held in
Regina. This farm-industry trade show, with its strong emphasis on
livestock, is rated as one of the five top livestock shows in North
America, along with those in Houston , Denver , Louisville and Toronto
The province celebrated the 75th anniversary of its establishment in
Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon , presiding over the
official ceremonies. In 2005, 25 years later, her sister, Queen
Elizabeth II , attended the events held to mark Saskatchewan's
Since the late 20th century,
First Nations have become more
politically active in seeking justice for past inequities, especially
related to government taking of indigenous lands. The federal and
provincial governments have negotiated on numerous land claims, and
developed a program of "Treaty Land Entitlement", enabling First
Nations to buy land to be taken into reserves with money from
settlements of claims.
"In 1992, the federal and provincial governments signed an historic
land claim agreement with
Saskatchewan First Nations. Under the
First Nations received money to buy land on the open
market. As a result, about 761,000 acres have been turned into reserve
land and many
First Nations continue to invest their settlement
dollars in urban areas", including Saskatoon. The money from such
settlements has enabled
First Nations to invest in businesses and
other economic infrastructure.
Demographics of Saskatchewan
According to the
Canada 2011 Census , the largest ethnic group in
Saskatchewan is German (28.6%), followed by English (24.9%), Scottish
(18.9%), Canadian (18.8%), Irish (15.5%), Ukrainian (13.5%), French
Fransaskois ) (12.2%),
First Nations (12.1%), Norwegian (6.9%), and
Polish (5.8%). Saskatchewan's population since 1901
% change Ten-year
% change Rank among
The largest denominations by number of adherents according to the
2001 census were the
Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church with 286,815 (30%); the
United Church of
Canada with 187,450 (20%); and the Evangelical
Lutheran Church in
Canada with 78,520 (8%). 148,535 (15.4%) responded
List of communities in Saskatchewan Saskatoon
skyline and the South
TEN LARGEST MUNICIPALITIES BY POPULATION
This list does not include
Lloydminster , which has a total
population of 31,410 but straddles the Alberta–
As of 2016, 11,765 people lived on the
Saskatchewan side, which would
make it Saskatchewan's 8th largest municipality. All of the listed
communities are considered cities by the province; municipalities in
the province with a population of 5,000 or more can receive official
Fields of canola and flax on the
Historically, Saskatchewan's economy was primarily associated with
agriculture . However, increasing diversification has resulted in
agriculture, forestry , fishing , and hunting only making up 6.8% of
the province's GDP.
Saskatchewan grows a large portion of Canada's
Wheat is the most familiar crop and the one most often
associated with the province (there are sheafs of wheat depicted on
the coat of arms of
Saskatchewan ), but other grains like canola ,
flax , rye , oats , peas , lentils , canary seed, and barley are also
Saskatchewan is the world's largest exporter of mustard
Beef cattle production by a Canadian province is only exceeded
by Alberta. In the northern part of the province, forestry is also a
Mining is a major industry in the province, with
the world's largest exporter of potash and uranium .
Oil and natural gas production is also a very important part of
Saskatchewan's economy, although the oil industry is larger. Among
Canadian provinces, only
Saskatchewan in overall oil
production. Heavy crude is extracted in the
Lloydminster-Kerrobert-Kindersley areas. Light crude is found in the
Swift Current areas as well as the Weyburn-
Natural gas is found almost entirely in the western part of
Saskatchewan, from the
Primrose Lake area through Lloydminster, Unity,
Kindersley, Leader, and around Maple Creek areas.
Saskatchewan's GDP in 2006 was approximately C$45.922 billion, with
economic sectors breaking down in the following way:
finance, insurance, real estate, leasing
education, health, social services
wholesale and retail trade
transportation, communications, utilities
agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting
A list of the top 100 companies includes The
Potash Corporation of
Saskatchewan , Federated Cooperatives Ltd. and IPSCO .
Crown corporations are Saskatchewan
Government Insurance (SGI) ,
SaskEnergy (the province's main
supplier of natural gas), and
SaskPower . Bombardier runs the NATO
Flying Training Centre at 15 Wing, near
Moose Jaw . Bombardier was
awarded a long-term contract in the late 1990s for $2.8 billion from
the federal government for the purchase of military aircraft and the
running of the training facility.
SaskPower since 1929 has been the
principal supplier of electricity in Saskatchewan, serving more than
451,000 customers and managing $4.5 billion in assets.
SaskPower is a
major employer in the province with almost 2,500 permanent full-time
staff located in 71 communities.
PERS. INC. TAX REVENUE
CORP. INC. TAX REVENUE4
The Tabulated Data covers each fiscal year (e.g. 2015–2016 covers
April 1, 2015 – March 31, 2016). All data is in $1,000s.
1 These values reflect the estimated population at the beginning of
the fiscal year.
2 These values reflect the debt of the General Revenue Fund alone at
the end of the fiscal year.
3 These values reflect the combined debt of the three major
Government Service Enterprises (Crown Corporations) at the end of the
fiscal year. As of March 31, 2016, SaskPower, SaskEnergy, and SaskTel
accounted for 88.4% of Crown Debt.
4 The highest rate of provincial corporate income tax was reduced
from 17% to 14% on July 1, 2006. It was further reduced to 13% on July
1, 2007, and finally to 12% on July 1, 2008. The tax on paid-up
capital was reduced from 0.6% to 0.3% on July 1, 2006, to 0.15% on
July 1, 2007, and abolished altogether on July 1, 2008. These
displayed values were obtained by adding the corporate income tax for
each year with the corporate capital tax.
5 The Provincial Sales Tax (PST) rate was reduced from 7% to 5% on
October 28, 2006.
6 These values are the credit ratings from Standard
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* Canadian Forces Military Police (15 Wing
Moose Jaw / CFD Dundurn)
Canadian National Railway
Canadian National Railway Police Service
Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway Police Service
* Caronport Police Service
* Corman Park Police Service
* Dalmeny Police Service
Estevan Police Service
File Hills First Nation Police Service
* Highway Transport Patrol (
* Luseland Police Service
Moose Jaw Police Service
* Prince Albert Police Service
Regina Police Service
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Saskatchewan Conservation Officer (
Saskatoon Police Service
University of Saskatchewan Department of Campus Safety (Special
* Vanscoy Police Service
Wascana Centre Police (
Weyburn Police Service
* Wilton Police Service
* Pine Grove Correctional Centre
* Prince Albert Correctional Centre
* Regina Correctional Centre
* Regina Paul Dojack Youth Centre
Saskatoon correctional centre
Regional Psychiatric Centre
Saskatoon Kilburn Hall
Education in Saskatchewan and List of Saskatchewan
The first education on the prairies took place within the family
groups of the First Nation and early fur trading settlers. There were
only a few missionary or trading post schools established in Rupert\'s
Land – later known as the North West Territories .
The first 76
North-West Territories school districts and the first
Board of Education meeting formed in 1886. The pioneering boom formed
ethnic bloc settlements . Communities were seeking education for their
children similar to the schools of their home land. Log cabins , and
dwellings were constructed for the assembly of the community, school,
church, dances and meetings.
The prosperity of the
Roaring Twenties and the success of farmers in
proving up on their homesteads helped provide funding to standardize
education. Text books, normal schools for educating teachers, formal
school curricula and state of the art school house architectural plans
provided continuity throughout the province. English as the school
language helped to provide economic stability, because one community
could communicate with another and goods could be traded and sold in a
common language. The number of one-room school house districts across
Saskatchewan totalled approximately 5,000 at the height of this system
of education in the late 1940s.
Following World War II, the transition from many one-room school
houses to fewer and larger consolidated modern technological town and
city schools occurred as a means of ensuring technical education.
School buses, highways, and family vehicles create ease and
accessibility of a population shift to larger towns and cities.
Combines and tractors mean the farmer could manage more than a quarter
section of land, so there was a shift from family farms and
subsistence crops to cash crops grown on many sections of land.
School vouchers have been newly proposed as a means of allowing
competition between rural schools and making the operation of
co-operative schools practicable in rural areas.
Saskatchewan's Ministry of Health is responsible for policy
direction, sets and monitors standards, and provides funding for
regional health authorities and provincial health services.
Wikinews has related news: CANADA PURSUES NEW NUCLEAR RESEARCH
REACTOR TO PRODUCE MEDICAL ISOTOPES _
Saskatchewan's medical health system is widely and inaccurately
characterized as "socialized medicine": medical practitioners in
Saskatchewan, as in other Canadian provinces, are not civil servants
but remit their accounts to the publicly funded
Care Insurance Plan rather than to patients (i.e. a single-payer
Saskatchewan medical health system has faced criticism due to a lack
of accessibility to the midwifery program. According to Leanne Smith,
the director for maternal services in the
Saskatoon Health Region
declared half of the women who apply for the midwifery program are
turned away. Ministry of Health data shows midwives saw 1,233 clients
in the 2012-13 fiscal year (which runs April to March). But in that
fourth quarter, 359 women were still on waiting lists for immediate or
future care. The provincial Health Ministry received 47 letters about
midwifery services in 2012, most of which asked for more midwives. As
a continuing problem in the
Saskatchewan health care system, more
pressure has been placed to recruit more midwives for the province.
Transportation in Saskatchewan Trans
Eatonia Railway Station
Transportation in Saskatchewan includes an infrastructure system of
roads, highways, freeways, airports, ferries, pipelines, trails,
waterways and railway systems serving a population of approximately
1,003,299 (according to 2007 estimates) inhabitants year-round. It is
funded primarily with local and federal government funds. The
Saskatchewan Department of Highways and Transportation estimates 80%
of traffic is carried on the 5,031-kilometre principal system of
The Ministry of Highways and Infrastructure operates over 26,000
kilometres (16,000 mi) of highways and divided highways . There are
also municipal roads which comprise different surfaces. Asphalt
concrete pavements comprise almost 9,000 kilometres (5,600 mi),
granular pavement almost 5,000 kilometres (3,100 mi), non structural
or thin membrane surface TMS are close to 7,000 kilometres (4,300 mi)
and finally gravel highways make up over 5,600 kilometres (3,500 mi)
through the province. In the northern sector, ice roads which can only
be navigated in the winter months comprise another approximately 150
kilometres (93 mi) of travel.
Saskatchewan has over 250,000 kilometres (150,000 mi) of roads and
highways, the highest amount of road surface of any Canadian province.
The major highways in
Saskatchewan are the Trans
Canada expressway ,
Yellowhead Highway northern Trans
Louis Riel Trail ,
CanAm Highway , Red Coat Trail , Northern Woods and Water route , and
Saskota travel route .
The first Canadian transcontinental railway was constructed by the
Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway between 1881 and 1885. After the great
east-west transcontinental railway was built, north-south connector
branch lines were established. The 1920s saw the largest rise in rail
line track as the CPR and CNR fell into competition to provide rail
service within ten kilometres. In the 1960s there were applications
for abandonment of branch lines. Today the only two passenger rail
services in the province are _
The Canadian _ and Winnipeg –
Churchill train , both operated by
Via Rail . _The Canadian_ is a
transcontinental service linking
Toronto with Vancouver.
Saskatchewan waterways are the North
Saskatchewan River or
Saskatchewan River routes. In total, there are 3,050 bridges
maintained by the Department of Highways in Saskatchewan. There are
currently twelve ferry services operating in the province, all under
the jurisdiction of the Department of Highways.
connecting Estuary and Laporte
North of Lemsford connecting 32 and 30
North of Lancer connecting 32 and 30
Highway 42 and Highway 373
Between Warman and Aberdeen on 784
Between Hague and Aberdeen
East of Duck Lake , 11 and Batoche 225
Between 25 and 3 on Grid Road
Between 3 , Weldon via 682 and 302 , Prince Albert
Between 16 and 26 via 764
East of Marcelin , 40 connecting to 11 Wingard
Between 302 and 55 east of Prince Albert
Saskatoon Airport (YXE) was initially established as part of the
Royal Canadian Air Force training program during
World War II
World War II . It was
renamed the _John G. Diefenbaker Airport_ in the official ceremony,
June 23, 1993. _Roland J. Groome Airfield_ is the official
designation for the
Regina International Airport (YQR) as of August 3,
2005; the airport was established in 1930. Under the British
Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP), twenty Service Flying
Training Schools (RAF) were established at various Saskatchewan
World War II
World War II . 15 Wing
Moose Jaw is home to the Canadian
Forces formation aerobatics team, the _Snowbirds_.
Airlines offering service to
Saskatchewan are Air
Canada , WestJet
United Airlines ,
Delta Air Lines ,
Transwest Air , Sunwing
Airlines , Norcanair Airlines,
La Ronge Aviation Services Ltd, La
Loche Airways, Osprey Wings Ltd, Buffalo Narrows Airways Ltd,
Île-à-la-Crosse Airways Ltd, Voyage Air,
Pronto Airways , Venture
Air Ltd, Pelican Narrows Air Service, Jackson Air Services Ltd, and
Northern Dene Airways Ltd.
The Government of
Canada has agreed to contribute $20 million for two
new interchanges in
Saskatoon . One of them being at the Sk Hwy 219 /
Lorne Ave intersection with Circle Drive, the other at the Senator Sid
Buckwold Bridge (Idylwyld Freeway) and Circle Drive. This is part of
the Asia-Pacific Gateway and Corridor Initiative to improve access to
the Canadian National Railway\'s intermodal freight terminal thereby
increasing Asia-Pacific trade. Also, the Government of
contribute $27 million to Regina to construct a Canadian Pacific
Railway CPR intermodal facility and improve infrastructure
transportation to the facility from both national highway networks, Sk
Hwy 1, the Trans
Canada Highway and Sk Hwy 11,
Louis Riel Trail . This
also is part of the Asia-Pacific Gateway and Corridor Initiative to
improve access to the CPR terminal and increase Asia-Pacific trade.
ARTS AND CULTURE
Culture of Saskatchewan See also: Tourism in
Saskatchewan Museums and galleries
MacKenzie Art Gallery
Mendel Art Gallery
RCMP Heritage Centre
Saskatchewan Western Development Museum
Regina Symphony Orchestra
Saskatoon Symphony Orchestra
Joe Fafard , sculptor
Canadian football team are the
province's professional football franchise, and are extremely popular
across Saskatchewan. The team's fans are also found to congregate on
game days throughout Canada, and collectively they are known as "Rider
The province's other major sport franchise is the
National Lacrosse League . In their first year of competition,
2016, the Rush won both their Division Title and the League
Hockey is the most popular sport in the province. More than 490 NHL
players have been born in Saskatchewan, the highest per capita output
of any Canadian province, U.S. state, or European country. Notable
NHL figures born in
Saskatchewan include Keith Allen ,
Gordie Howe ,
Bryan Trottier ,
Bernie Federko ,
Clark Gillies ,
Fern Flaman , Bert
Olmstead , Harry Watson ,
Elmer Lach ,
Max Bentley ,
Sid Abel , Doug
Eddie Shore ,
Clint Smith ,
Bryan Hextall ,
Johnny Bower ,
Emile Francis ,
Glenn Hall ,
Chuck Rayner ,
Brad McCrimmon , Patrick
Dave Manson , Theo Fleury ,
Terry Harper ,
Wade Redden ,
Brian Propp ,
Scott Hartnell ,
Ryan Getzlaf , and
Chris Kunitz .
Saskatchewan does not have an NHL or minor professional franchise, but
five teams in the junior
Western Hockey League are located in the
Moose Jaw Warriors ,
Prince Albert Raiders , Regina Pats
Saskatoon Blades and
Swift Current Broncos .
Saskatchewan for their abundance of
hockey players by sculpting a 12-foot-tall hockey player monument in
ice for Saskatchewan’s capital city of Regina. The company then
filmed this frozen monument for a national television commercial,
thanking the province for creating so many goal scorers throughout
Budweiser also gifted the “hockey player”
province a trophy made of white birch—Saskatchewan’s provincial
tree—which bears the name of every pro player in history. Sitting
atop the trophy was a golden
Budweiser Red Light, synched to every
Saskatchewan player in the pros. This trophy can currently be
seen at Victoria Bar in Regina.
The official tartan of Saskatchewan, created in 1961.
The flag of
Saskatchewan was officially adopted on September 22,
1969. The flag features the provincial shield in the upper quarter
nearest the staff, with the floral emblem , the Prairie Lily , in the
fly. The upper green (in forest green ) half of the flag represents
Saskatchewan forest lands, while the golden lower half of
the flag symbolizes the southern wheat fields and prairies. A
province-wide competition was held to design the flag, and drew over
4,000 entries. The winning design was by Anthony Drake, then living in
Saskatchewan Environment held a province-wide vote to
recognize Saskatchewan's centennial year, receiving more than 10,000
on-line and mail-in votes from the public. The walleye was the
overwhelming favourite of the six native fish species nominated for
the designation, receiving more than half the votes cast. Other
species in the running were the lake sturgeon , lake trout , lake
whitefish , northern pike and yellow perch .
Saskatchewan's other symbols include the tartan, the license plate,
and the provincial flower. Saskatchewan's official tartan was
registered with the Court of
Lord Lyon King of Arms
Lord Lyon King of Arms in
1961. It has seven colours: gold, brown, green, red, yellow, white and
black. The provincial licence plates display the slogan "Land of
Living Skies". The provincial flower of
Saskatchewan is the Western
Red Lily .
Saskatchewan celebrated its centennial. To honour it, the
Royal Canadian Mint
Royal Canadian Mint issued a commemorative five-dollar coin depicting
Canada's wheat fields as well as a circulation 25-cent coin of a
similar design. Queen
Elizabeth II and the
Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh visited
Saskatoon , and Lumsden , and the Saskatchewan-reared Joni
Mitchell issued an album in Saskatchewan's honour.
Climate change in Saskatchewan
The effects of climate change in
Saskatchewan are now being observed
in parts of the province. There is evidence of reduction of biomass in
Saskatchewan's boreal forests (as with those of other Canadian
prairie provinces ) is linked by researchers to drought-related water
stress, stemming from global warming , most likely caused by
greenhouse gas emissions. While studies, as early as 1988 (Williams,
et al., 1988) have shown climate change will affect agriculture,
whether the effects can be mitigated through adaptations of cultivars
, or crops, is less clear. Resiliency of ecosystems may decline with
large changes in temperature. The provincial government has responded
to the threat of climate change by introducing a plan to reduce carbon
emissions , "The
Saskatchewan Energy and Climate Change Plan," in June
Outline of Saskatchewan
Index of Saskatchewan-related articles
* 45561 Saskatchewan_ British
LMS Jubilee Class locomotive named
after the province.
Saskatchewan Film and Video Classification Board
Scouting and Guiding in Saskatchewan
Scouting and Guiding in Saskatchewan
List of airports in Saskatchewan
* List of cities in
List of lieutenant governors of Saskatchewan
List of mayors in Saskatchewan
List of premiers of Saskatchewan
List of rivers of Saskatchewan
List of rural municipalities in Saskatchewan
List of Saskatchewan general elections
List of Saskatchewan Leaders of the Opposition
List of towns in Saskatchewan
Symbols of Saskatchewan
* ^ "Emblems of Saskatchewan". Government of Saskatchewan. Archived
from the original on March 17, 2015. Retrieved July 22, 2014.
* ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and
territories, 2016 and 2011 censuses". _Statistics
Canada _. February
2, 2017. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
* ^ "Population by year of
Canada and territories".
Canada . September 26, 2014. Retrieved March 20, 2016.
* ^ _Saskatchewanian_ is the prevalent demonym, and is used by the
Government of Saskatchewan. According to the _Oxford Guide to Canadian
English Usage_ (ISBN 0-19-541619-8 ; p. 335), _Saskatchewaner_ is also
* ^ "The Legal Context of Canada\'s Official Languages". University
of Ottawa. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
* ^ "Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and
territory (2015)". Statistics Canada. November 9, 2016. Retrieved
January 26, 2017.
* ^ "Estimates of population, Canada, provinces and territories".
Canada . December 18, 2013. Retrieved January 29, 2013.
* ^ "Statistics Canada, Quarterly demographic estimates, 2009".
Statcan.gc.ca. December 23, 2009. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
* ^ "
Midale Climate Normals 1971-2000". Environment Canada.
Retrieved October 2, 2015.
* ^ "
Yellow Grass Climate Normals 1971-2000". Environment Canada.
Retrieved October 2, 2015.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Treaty Land Entitlement – The English River
Story, Saskatchewan", Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development
Canada, accessed November 25, 2011
* ^ "Government of Canada". Geonames.nrcan.gc.ca. September 18,
2007. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
* ^ "
Saskatchewan High Point". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved August 17,
* ^ Hydrology from The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan
* ^ "National Climate Data". Environment Canada. Archived from the
original on January 19, 2012. Retrieved July 17, 2011.
* ^ Bray, Tim (December 23, 2008). "2008/12/23, Four PM". Retrieved
February 28, 2008. English just doesn’t have words to describe cold
of that intensity. I was appropriately dressed but am still a
mild-climate West Coast Wimp, and the cold hurt me wherever it touched
me; and it tried really hard to find chinks in my clothing's armor to
penetrate and hurt.
* ^ "Average Weather for Saskatoon, SK – Temperature and
Precipitation". Weather.com. July 29, 2010. Retrieved February 23,
* ^ "National Climate Data and Information Archive". Environment
Canada. Retrieved September 2, 2010.
* ^ The first smallpox epidemic on the Canadian Plains: In the
fur-traders\' words. _
The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases._
* ^ "Louisiana Purchase". _Encyclopædia Britannica_.
* ^ Dave Yanko, "Batoche in the North-West Rebellion",
* ^ "
Saskatchewan Stock Growers Association", Official Website
* ^ Archer, John H. (1996). "Regina: A Royal City". _Monarchy
Canada Magazine_. Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada. Spring 1996.
Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. Retrieved June 30,
* ^ "
Government of Saskatchewan > About Government > News Releases
> February 2002 > Province Honours Princess Margaret". Queen's Printer
for Saskatchewan. February 11, 2002. Retrieved February 15, 2011.
* ^ "Royal couple touches down in Saskatchewan". CTV. May 18, 2005.
Retrieved June 30, 2009.
* ^ "
Saskatchewan Ethnic Origins, Visible Minorities ">(PDF).
Government of Saskatchewan.
* ^ The history of Saskatchewan\'s population from Statistics
* ^ Canada\'s population. Statistics
Canada . Retrieved September
28, 2006. Archived November 4, 2008, at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ "Religions in Canada". 2.statcan.ca. Retrieved February 23,
* ^ "Canadian Food-Processing Sector". Invest in Canada. Retrieved
January 24, 2012.
* ^ Greuel, William. "Mustard". _The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan_.
Retrieved January 9, 2017.
* ^ Fact Sheet at the
Wayback Machine (archived December 3, 2007)
* ^ Government of Saskatchewan.
Oil and Gas Industry. Retrieved on:
April 26, 2008.
* ^ Government of Saskatchewan. The
Oil and Gas
InfoMap. Retrieved April 26, 2008.
* ^ Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and
territory from Statistics
* ^ Public Accounts of Saskatchewan.
Government of Saskatchewan .
Retrieved March 25, 2017.
* ^ Government of Saskatchewan. "official page". Retrieved February
* ^ "How
Saskatchewan Health Pays Your Bill – Health –
Government of Saskatchewan". Health.gov.sk.ca. Retrieved February 23,
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ French, Janet. (June 15, 2013) Half of women who
want midwife turned away. Thestarphoenix.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
* ^ "
Saskatchewan Department of Highways and Transportation".
Retrieved January 18, 2008.
Saskatchewan Highways and Transportation. "Performance Plan –
Saskatchewan Highways and Transportation". Retrieved September 4,
* ^ "Saskatchewan". World Travel Guide – Nexus Business Media.
2007. Retrieved September 4, 2007.
* ^ "Canadian Pacific Railway". Retrieved January 18, 2008.
* ^ Fung, K.I. (1969). "Atlas of Saskatchewan". Saskatoon: Modern
* ^ Ivanochko, Bob (2006). "Bridges". _CANADIAN PLAINS RESEARCH
CENTER, UNIVERSITY OF REGINA_. Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved
January 18, 2008.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ "Saskatchewan
City & Town Maps – Directory". _Becquet's Custom Programming_.
Archived from the original on January 18, 2008. Retrieved January 18,
* ^ "Airport History". _
Saskatoon Airport Authority_. Retrieved
January 18, 2008.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Chabun, Will (2006). "Aviation". _CANADIAN PLAINS
RESEARCH CENTER, UNIVERSITY OF REGINA_. Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan.
Retrieved January 18, 2008.
* ^ Kraushaar, Clint (May 1998). "The RAF comes to Estevan". _The
Estevan Airport: A History to 1988_.
Estevan Community Access Project
Estevan Public Library. Retrieved January 18, 2008.
* ^ "
Saskatchewan Airlines: Airlines in Saskatchewan, Canada".
1994–2008. Retrieved January 18, 2008.
* ^ Hon. Lawrence Cannon, M.P., P.C. Minister of transport,
infrastructure and communities (2005–2008). "Statement by Hon.
Lawrence Cannon, M.P., P.C. Minister of transport, infrastructure and
communities at a news conference of Council of ministers responsible
for transportation and highway safety". _Newswire_. CNW Group.
Retrieved April 27, 2008. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list
* ^ "NHL Players Born in Saskatchewan, Canada".
_Hockey-Reference.com_. Retrieved November 1, 2013.
* ^ Chaput, John. "Hockey". _The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan_.
Retrieved November 1, 2013.
* ^ "Saskatchewan, The Home of Goal Scorers -
_YouTube_. Retrieved April 24, 2015.
* ^ "Saskatchewan, flag of". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. 2008.
Retrieved July 9, 2008.
* ^ "
Walleye Wins Vote For Saskatchewan\'s Fish Emblem". Gov.sk.ca.
September 30, 2005. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
* ^ Williams, G.D.V., R.A. Fautley, K.H. Jones, R.B. Stewart, and
E.E. Wheaton. 1988. "Estimating Effects of Climatic Change on
Agriculture in Saskatchewan, Canada." p. 219-379. In M.L. Parry et al.
(ed.) _The Impact of Climatic Variations on Agriculture_. Vol. 1
Assessment in Cool Temperate and Cold Regions. Reidel Publ. Co.
* ^ Riebsame. W.E. (1991). "Sustainability of the
Great Plains in
an Uncertain Climate." _
Great Plains Research_ Vol.1 No.1, University
Saskatchewan travel guide from Wikivoyage
* Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan_
* Archer, John H. _Saskatchewan: A History._ Saskatoon: Western
Producer Prairie Books, 1980. 422 pp.
* Bennett, John W. and Kohl, Seena B. _Settling the
Canadian-American West, 1890–1915._ University of Nebraska Press,
1995. 311 pp.
* Waiser, Bill. _Saskatchewan: A New History_ (2006)
* Bocking, D. H., ed. _Pages from the Past: Essays on Saskatchewan
History._ Saskatoon: Western Producer Prairie Books, 1979. 299 pp.
* LaPointe, Richard and Tessier, Lucille. _The Francophones of
Saskatchewan: A History._ Regina:
University of Regina , Campion
Coll., 1988. 329 pp.
* Lipset, Seymour M. _Agrarian Socialism: The Cooperative
Commonwealth Federation in Saskatchewan: A Study in Political
Sociology._ University of California Press, 1950.
* Martin, Robin _Shades of Right: Nativist and Fascist Politics in
Canada, 1920–1940_, University of
Toronto Press , 1992.
* Porter, Jene M (2008). _Perspectives of Saskatchewan_. University
Manitoba Press. ISBN 978-0-88755-183-3 .
* Veldhuis, Niels (2009). "
Saskatchewan Prosperity: Building on
Success". Fraser Institute.
* Grams, Grant W.: _Der Volksverein deutsch-canadischer Katholiken,
the rise and fall of a German-Catholic Cultural and Immigration
Society, 1909-1952_, in Nelson H. Minnich (ed.) The Catholic
Historical Review, 2013.
* Grams, Grant W.: _Deportation from
Saskatchewan during the Great
Depression, the case of H.P. Janzen_, in John D. Thiesen (ed.),
Mennonite Life, 2010.
* Grams, Grant W.: _The Deportation of German Nationals from Canada,
1919 to 1939_, in Peter S. Li (ed.), Journal of International
Migration and Integration, 2010.
* Grams, Grant W.: _Immigration and Return Migration of German
Saskatchewan 1919 to 1939_, in Patrick Douand (ed.),
Prairie Forum, 2008.
* Grams, Grant W.: _Was Eckhardt Kastendieck one of Saskatchewan’s
most active Nazis?_, in Jason Zorbas (ed.),