Saskatchewan (/səˈskætʃəwən, sæ-, -ˌwɒn/ ( listen))
is a prairie and boreal province in western Canada, the only province
without natural borders. It has an area of 651,900 square kilometres
(251,700 sq mi), nearly 10 percent of which (59,366 square
kilometres (22,900 sq mi)) is fresh water, composed mostly
of rivers, reservoirs, and the province's 100,000 lakes.
Saskatchewan is bordered on the west by Alberta, on the north by the
Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, to the northeast by
Nunavut, and on the south by the U.S. states of
Montana and North
Dakota. As of late 2017, Saskatchewan's population was estimated at
1,163,925. Residents primarily live in the southern prairie half of
the province, while the northern boreal half is mostly forested and
sparsely populated. Of the total population, roughly half live in the
province's largest city Saskatoon, or the provincial capital Regina.
Other notable cities include Prince Albert, Moose Jaw, Yorkton, Swift
Current, North Battleford, Melfort, and the border city Lloydminster
(partially within Alberta).
Saskatchewan is a landlocked province with large distances to
moderating bodies of waters. As a result, its climate is extremely
continental, rendering severe winters throughout the province.
Southern areas have very warm or hot summers.
Midale and Yellow Grass
near the U.S. border are tied for the highest ever recorded
Canada with 45 °C (113 °F) observed at
both locations on July 5, 1937. In winter, temperatures below
−45 °C (−49 °F) are possible even in the south during
extreme cold snaps.
Saskatchewan has been inhabited for thousands of years by various
indigenous groups, and first explored by Europeans in 1690 and settled
in 1774. It became a province in 1905, carved out from the vast
North-West Territories, which had until then included most of the
Canadian Prairies. In the early 20th century the province became known
as a stronghold for Canadian social democracy; North America's first
social-democratic government was elected in 1944. The province's
economy is based on agriculture, mining, and energy. Saskatchewan's
current premier is
Scott Moe and its lieutenant-governor is Vaughn
In 1992, the federal and provincial governments signed an historic
land claim agreement with
First Nations in Saskatchewan. The First
Nations received compensation and were permitted to buy land on the
open market for the tribes; they have acquired about 3,079 square
kilometres (761,000 acres; 1,189 sq mi), now reserve lands.
First Nations have used their settlement to invest in urban
areas, including Saskatoon.
3.1 European settlements
3.2 20th century
3.4 Recent history
5.1 Provincial finances
6 Government and politics
6.1 Law enforcement
10 Arts and culture
12 Provincial symbols
12.1 Centennial celebrations
14 See also
16 Further reading
17 External links
Its name derived from the
Saskatchewan River. The river was known as
kisiskāciwani-sīpiy ("swift flowing river") in the Cree
Main article: Geography of Saskatchewan
As Saskatchewan's borders largely follow the geographic coordinates of
longitude and latitude, the province is roughly a quadrilateral, or a
shape with four sides. However the 49th parallel boundary and the 60th
northern border appear curved on globes and many maps. Additionally,
the eastern boundary of the province is partially crooked rather than
following a line of longitude, as correction lines were devised by
surveyors prior to the homestead program (1880–1928).
Topographic map of Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan is part of the Western Provinces and is bounded on the
west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the
north-east by Nunavut, on the east by Manitoba, and on the south by
the U.S. states of
Montana and North Dakota.
Saskatchewan has the
distinction of being the only Canadian province for which no borders
correspond to physical geographic features (i.e. they are all
parallels and meridians). Along with Alberta,
Saskatchewan is one of
only two land-locked provinces.
The overwhelming majority of Saskatchewan's population is located in
the southern third of the province, south of the 53rd parallel.
Saskatchewan contains two major natural regions: the Canadian Shield
in the north and the
Interior Plains in the south. Northern
Saskatchewan is mostly covered by boreal forest except for the Lake
Athabasca Sand Dunes, the largest active sand dunes in the world north
of 58°, and adjacent to the southern shore of Lake Athabasca.
Saskatchewan contains another area with sand dunes known as
the "Great Sand Hills" covering over 300 square kilometres
(120 sq mi). The Cypress Hills, located in the southwestern
Saskatchewan and Killdeer Badlands (Grasslands National
Park), are areas of the province that were unglaciated during the last
glaciation period, the Wisconsin glaciation.
The province's highest point, at 1,392 metres (4,567 ft), is
located in the Cypress Hills less than 2 km from the provincial
boundary with Alberta. The lowest point is the shore of Lake
Athabasca, at 213 metres (699 ft). The province has 14 major
drainage basins made up of various rivers and watersheds draining into
the Arctic Ocean,
Hudson Bay and the Gulf of Mexico.
Köppen climate types of Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan receives more hours of sunshine than any other Canadian
province. The province lies far from any significant body of
water. This fact, combined with its northerly latitude, gives it a
warm summer, corresponding to its humid continental climate (Köppen
type Dfb) in the central and most of the eastern parts of the
province, as well as the Cypress Hills; drying off to a semi-arid
steppe climate (Köppen type BSk) in the southwestern part of the
province. Drought can affect agricultural areas during long periods
with little or no precipitation at all. The northern parts of
Saskatchewan – from about
La Ronge northward – have a subarctic
climate (Köppen Dfc) with a shorter summer season. Summers can get
very hot, sometimes above 38 °C (100 °F) during the day,
and with humidity decreasing from northeast to southwest. Warm
southern winds blow from the plains and intermontane regions of the
United States during much of July and August, very cool or hot
but changeable air masses often occur during spring and in September.
Winters are usually bitterly cold, with frequent Arctic air descending
from the north. with high temperatures not breaking −17 °C
(1 °F) for weeks at a time. Warm chinook winds often blow from
the west, bringing periods of mild weather. Annual precipitation
averages 30 to 45 centimetres (12 to 18 inches) across the
province, with the bulk of rain falling in June, July, and August.
Saskatchewan is one of the most tornado-active parts in Canada,
averaging roughly 12 to 18 tornadoes per year, some violent. In 2012,
33 tornadoes were reported in the province. The
Regina Cyclone took
place in June 1912 when 28 people died in an F4
Fujita scale tornado.
Severe and non-severe thunderstorm events occur in Saskatchewan,
usually from early spring to late summer. Hail, strong winds and
isolated tornadoes are a common occurrence.
The hottest temperature ever recorded anywhere in
Canada happened in
Saskatchewan. The temperature rose to 45 °C (113 °F) in
Midale and Yellow Grass. The coldest ever recorded in the province was
−56.7 °C (−70.1 °F) in Prince Albert, which is north
Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in
Main article: History of Saskatchewan
Henry Kelsey sees a buffalo herd on the western plains.
Saskatchewan has been populated by various indigenous peoples of North
America, including members of the Sarcee, Niitsitapi, Atsina, Cree,
Saulteaux, Assiniboine (Nakoda), Lakota and Sioux. The first known
European to enter
Henry Kelsey in 1690, who travelled
Saskatchewan River in hopes of trading fur with the region's
indigenous peoples. The first permanent European settlement was a
Hudson's Bay Company
Hudson's Bay Company post at Cumberland House, founded in 1774 by
Samuel Hearne. In 1762 the south of the province was part of the
Spanish Louisiana until 1802.
Saskatchewan were traded from the United States,
which in return received part of Rupert's Land, today part of North
Dakota and Minnesota.
Cree Pipe Stem Carrier, a painting of a Plains
Cree warrior by Paul
In 1803 the
Louisiana Purchase transferred from France to the United
States part of what is now
Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1818 the U.S.
ceded the area to Britain. Most of what is now
Saskatchewan was part
Rupert's Land and controlled by the Hudson's Bay Company, which
claimed rights to all watersheds flowing into Hudson Bay, including
Saskatchewan River, Churchill, Assiniboine, Souris, and Qu'Appelle
In the late 1850s and early 1860s, scientific expeditions led by John
Henry Youle Hind explored the prairie region of the
Canada acquired the Hudson's Bay Company's territories and
North-West Territories to administer the vast territory
British Columbia and Manitoba. The Crown also entered into a
series of numbered treaties with the indigenous peoples of the area,
which serve as the basis of the relationship between First Nations, as
they are called today, and the Crown. Since the late twentieth
century, land losses and inequities as a result of those treaties have
been subject to negotiation for settlement between the First Nations
Saskatchewan and the federal government, in collaboration with
In 1876, following their defeat of
United States Army forces at the
Battle of the Little Bighorn
Battle of the Little Bighorn in
Montana Territory in the United
States, the Lakota Chief
Sitting Bull led several thousand of his
people to Wood Mountain. Survivors and descendants founded Wood
Mountain Reserve in 1914.
The Battle of Batoche, 1885
The North-West Mounted Police set up several posts and forts across
Fort Walsh in the Cypress Hills, and Wood
Mountain Post in south-central
Saskatchewan near the United States
Many Métis people, who had not been signatories to a treaty, had
moved to the
Southbranch Settlement and Prince Albert district north
Saskatoon following the
Red River Rebellion
Red River Rebellion in Manitoba
in 1870. In the early 1880s, the Canadian government refused to hear
the Métis' grievances, which stemmed from land-use issues. Finally,
in 1885, the Métis, led by Louis Riel, staged the North-West
Rebellion and declared a provisional government. They were defeated by
a Canadian militia brought to the
Canadian prairies by the new
Canadian Pacific Railway. Riel, who surrendered and was convicted of
treason in a packed Regina courtroom, was hanged on November 16, 1885.
Since then, the government has recognized the Métis as an aboriginal
people with status rights and provided them with various benefits.
National policy set by the federal government, the Canadian Pacific
Hudson's Bay Company
Hudson's Bay Company and associated land companies
encouraged immigration. The
Dominion Lands Act
Dominion Lands Act of 1872 permitted
settlers to acquire one quarter of a square mile of land to homestead
and offered an additional quarter upon establishing a homestead. In
1874, the North-West Mounted Police began providing police services.
In 1876, the
North-West Territories Act provided for appointment, by
the Ottawa, of a Lieutenant Governor and a Council to assist him.
Highly optimistic advertising campaigns promoted the benefits of
prairie living. Potential immigrants read leaflets information painted
Canada as a veritable garden of Eden, and downplayed the need for
agricultural expertise. Ads in The Nor'-West Farmer by the
Commissioner of Immigration implied that western land was blessed with
water, wood, gold, silver, iron, copper, and cheap coal for fuel, all
of which were readily at hand. Reality was far harsher, especially for
the first arrivals who lived in sod houses. However eastern money
poured in and by 1913, long term mortgage loans to Saskatchewan
farmers had reached $65 million.
The dominant groups comprised British settlers from eastern
Britain, who comprised about 50% of the population during the late
19th and early 20th centuries. They played the leading role in
establishing the basic institutions of plains society, economy and
Gender roles were sharply defined. Men were primarily responsible for
breaking the land; planting and harvesting; building the house;
buying, operating and repairing machinery; and handling finances. At
first there were many single men on the prairie, or husbands whose
wives were still back east, but they had a hard time. They realized
the need for a wife. In 1901, there were 19,200 families, but this
surged to 150,300 families only 15 years later. Wives played a central
role in settlement of the prairie region. Their labor, skills, and
ability to adapt to the harsh environment proved decisive in meeting
the challenges. They prepared bannock, beans and bacon, mended
clothes, raised children, cleaned, tended the garden, helped at
harvest time and nursed everyone back to health. While prevailing
patriarchal attitudes, legislation, and economic principles obscured
women's contributions, the flexibility exhibited by farm women in
performing productive and nonproductive labor was critical to the
survival of family farms, and thus to the success of the wheat
Immigration peaked in 1910, and in spite of the initial difficulties
of frontier life – distance from towns, sod homes, and backbreaking
labour – new settlers established a European-Canadian style of
prosperous agrarian society.
On September 1, 1905,
Saskatchewan became a province, with
inauguration day held September 4. Its political leaders at the time
proclaimed its destiny was to become Canada's most powerful province.
Saskatchewan embarked on an ambitious province-building program based
on its Anglo-Canadian culture and wheat production for the export
market. Population quintupled from 91,000 in 1901 to 492,000 to 1911,
thanks to heavy immigration of farmers from the U.S., Germany and
Scandinavia. Efforts were made to assimilate the newcomers to British
Canadian culture and values.
The long-term prosperity of the province depended on the world price
of grain, which headed steadily upward from the 1880s to 1920, then
Wheat output was increased by new strains, such as the
"Marquis wheat" strain which matured 8 days sooner and yielded 7 more
bushels per acre than the previous standard, "Red Fife". The national
output of wheat soared from 8 million bushels in 1896, to 26 million
in 1901, reaching 151 million by 1921.
In the 1905 provincial elections, Liberals won 16 of 25 seats in
Saskatchewan government bought out Bell Telephone
Company in 1909, with the government owning the long-distance lines
and left local service to small companies organized at the municipal
Premier Walter Scott preferred government assistance to
outright ownership because he thought enterprises worked better if
citizens had a stake in running them; he set up the Saskatchewan
Cooperative Elevator Company in 1911. Despite pressure from farm
groups for direct government involvement in the grain handling
business, the Scott government opted to loan money to a farmer-owned
Saskatchewan in 1909 provided bond guarantees to
railway companies for the construction of branch lines, alleviating
the concerns of farmers who had trouble getting their wheat to market
by wagon. The
Saskatchewan Grain Growers Association, was the
dominant political force in the province until the 1920s; it had close
ties with the governing Liberal party. In 1913, the
Growers Association was established with three goals: to watch over
legislation; to forward the interests of the stock growers in every
honourable and legitimate way; and to suggest to parliament
legislation to meet changing conditions and requirements.
Urban reform movements in Regina were based on on support from
business and professional groups. City planning, reform of local
government, and municipal ownership of utilities were more widely
supported by these two groups, often through such organizations as the
Board of Trade. Church-related and other altruistic organizations
generally supported social welfare and housing reforms; these groups
were generally less successful in getting their own reforms
The province responded to the First World War in 1914 with patriotic
enthusiasm and enjoyed the resultant economic boom for farms and
cities alike. Emotional and intellectuasl support for the war emerged
from the politics of Canadian national identity, the rural myth, and
social gospel progressivism The Church of England was especially
supportive. However there was strong hostility toward German-Canadian
farmers. Recent Ukrainian immigrants were enemy aliens because
their citizenship citizenship in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A small
fraction were were taken to internment camps. Most of the internees
were unskilled unemployed labourers who were imprisoned "because they
were destitute, not because they were disloyal."
The price of wheat tripled and acreage seeded doubled. The wartime
spirit of sacrifice intensified social reform movements that had
predated the war and now came to fruition.
Saskatchewan gave women the
right to vote in 1916 and at the end 1916 passed a referendum to
prohibit the sale of alcohol.
Bennett buggies, automobiles pulled by horses, were used during the
Great Depression by farmers with too little cash to purchase gasoline.
In the late 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan, imported from the United States
and Ontario, gained brief popularity in nativist circles in
Saskatchewan and Alberta. The Klan, briefly allied with the provincial
Conservative party because of their mutual dislike for
G. "Jimmy" Gardiner and his Liberals (who ferociously fought the
Klan), enjoyed about two years of prominence. It declined and
disappeared, subject to widespread political and media opposition,
plus internal scandals involving the use of the organization's funds.
In 1970, the first annual
Canadian Western Agribition was held in
Regina. This farm-industry trade show, with its strong emphasis on
livestock, is rated as one of the five top livestock shows in North
America, along with those in Houston, Denver, Louisville and Toronto.
The province celebrated the 75th anniversary of its establishment in
1980, with Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, presiding over the
official ceremonies. In 2005, 25 years later, her sister,
Queen Elizabeth II, attended the events held to mark Saskatchewan's
Since the late 20th century,
First Nations have become more
politically active in seeking justice for past inequities, especially
related to government taking of indigenous lands. The federal and
provincial governments have negotiated on numerous land claims, and
developed a program of "Treaty Land Entitlement", enabling First
Nations to buy land to be taken into reserves with money from
settlements of claims.
"In 1992, the federal and provincial governments signed an historic
land claim agreement with
Saskatchewan First Nations. Under the
First Nations received money to buy land on the open
market. As a result, about 761,000 acres have been turned into reserve
land and many
First Nations continue to invest their settlement
dollars in urban areas", including Saskatoon. The money from such
settlements has enabled
First Nations to invest in businesses and
other economic infrastructure.
Main article: Demographics of Saskatchewan
According to the
Canada 2011 Census, the largest ethnic group in
Saskatchewan is German (28.6%), followed by English (24.9%), Scottish
(18.9%), Canadian (18.8%), Irish (15.5%), Ukrainian (13.5%), French
First Nations (12.1%), Norwegian (6.9%), and
Saskatchewan's population since 1901
The largest denominations by number of adherents according to the 2001
census were the
Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church with 286,815 (30%); the United
Canada with 187,450 (20%); and the Evangelical Lutheran
Canada with 78,520 (8%). 148,535 (15.4%) responded "no
Main article: List of communities in Saskatchewan
Saskatoon skyline and the South
Ten largest municipalities by population
This list does not include Lloydminster, which has a total population
of 31,410 but straddles the Alberta–
Saskatchewan border. As of 2016,
11,765 people lived on the
Saskatchewan side, which would make it
Saskatchewan's 8th largest municipality. All of the listed communities
are considered cities by the province; municipalities in the province
with a population of 5,000 or more can receive official city status.
Fields of canola and flax on the
Historically, Saskatchewan's economy was primarily associated with
agriculture. However, increasing diversification has resulted in
agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting only making up 6.8% of the
Saskatchewan grows a large portion of Canada's
Wheat is the most familiar crop and the one most often
associated with the province (there are sheafs of wheat depicted on
the coat of arms of Saskatchewan), but other grains like canola, flax,
rye, oats, peas, lentils, canary seed, and barley are also produced.
Saskatchewan is the world's largest exporter of mustard seed. Beef
cattle production by a Canadian province is only exceeded by Alberta.
In the northern part of the province, forestry is also a significant
Mining is a major industry in the province, with
the world's largest exporter of potash and uranium.
Oil and natural gas production is also a very important part of
Saskatchewan's economy, although the oil industry is larger. Among
Canadian provinces, only
Saskatchewan in overall oil
production. Heavy crude is extracted in the
Lloydminster-Kerrobert-Kindersley areas. Light crude is found in the
Swift Current areas as well as the Weyburn-
Natural gas is found almost entirely in the western part of
Saskatchewan, from the
Primrose Lake area through Lloydminster, Unity,
Kindersley, Leader, and around Maple Creek areas.
Saskatchewan's GDP in 2006 was approximately C$45.922 billion,
with economic sectors breaking down in the following way:
finance, insurance, real estate, leasing
education, health, social services
wholesale and retail trade
transportation, communications, utilities
agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting
A list of the top 100 companies includes The
Potash Corporation of
Saskatchewan, Federated Cooperatives Ltd. and IPSCO.
Crown corporations are Saskatchewan
Government Insurance (SGI), SaskTel,
SaskEnergy (the province's main
supplier of natural gas), and SaskPower. Bombardier runs the NATO
Flying Training Centre at 15 Wing, near Moose Jaw. Bombardier was
awarded a long-term contract in the late 1990s for $2.8 billion from
the federal government for the purchase of military aircraft and the
running of the training facility.
SaskPower since 1929 has been the
principal supplier of electricity in Saskatchewan, serving more than
451,000 customers and managing $4.5 billion in assets.
SaskPower is a
major employer in the province with almost 2,500 permanent full-time
staff located in 71 communities.
Pers. Inc. Tax Revenue
Corp. Inc. Tax Revenue4
The Tabulated Data covers each fiscal year (e.g. 2015–2016 covers
April 1, 2015 – March 31, 2016). All data is in $1,000s.
1 These values reflect the estimated population at the beginning of
the fiscal year.
2 These values reflect the debt of the General Revenue Fund alone at
the end of the fiscal year.
3 These values reflect the combined debt of the three major Government
Service Enterprises (Crown Corporations) at the end of the fiscal
year. As of March 31, 2016, SaskPower, SaskEnergy, and SaskTel
accounted for 88.4% of Crown Debt.
4 The highest rate of provincial corporate income tax was reduced from
17% to 14% on July 1, 2006. It was further reduced to 13% on July 1,
2007, and finally to 12% on July 1, 2008. The tax on paid-up capital
was reduced from 0.6% to 0.3% on July 1, 2006, to 0.15% on July 1,
2007, and abolished altogether on July 1, 2008. These displayed values
were obtained by adding the corporate income tax for each year with
the corporate capital tax.
5 The Provincial Sales Tax (PST) rate was reduced from 7% to 5% on
October 28, 2006.
6 These values are the credit ratings from Standard & Poor's as of
the end of the Fiscal Year.
Source: Government of Saskatchewan.
Government and politics
Politics of Saskatchewan
Politics of Saskatchewan and Monarchy in Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan has the same form of government as the other Canadian
provinces with a lieutenant-governor (who is the representative of the
Queen in Right of Saskatchewan), premier, and a unicameral
For many years,
Saskatchewan was one of Canada's more progressive
provinces, reflecting many of its citizens' feelings of alienation
from the interests of large capital. In 1944
Tommy Douglas became
premier of the first avowedly socialist regional government in North
America. Most of his
Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs)
represented rural and small-town ridings. Under his Cooperative
Commonwealth Federation government,
Saskatchewan became the first
province to have Medicare. In 1961, Douglas left provincial politics
to become the first leader of the federal New Democratic Party.
Provincial politics in
Saskatchewan is dominated by the
social-democratic New Democrats and the centre-right Saskatchewan
Party, with the latter holding the majority in the Legislative
Saskatchewan since 2007. Numerous smaller political
parties also run candidates in provincial elections, including the
Green Party, Liberal Party, and the Progressive Conservative Party,
but none is currently represented in the Legislative Assembly
(Liberals and Conservatives generally caucus under the Saskatchewan
Party banner in provincial affairs). After 16 years of New Democratic
governments under premiers
Roy Romanow and Lorne Calvert, the 2007
provincial election was won by the
Saskatchewan Party under Brad Wall.
In the 2011 election,
Premier Wall and the
Saskatchewan Party were
returned with an increased majority.
Recent federal elections have been dominated by the Conservative Party
since the party currently represents 10 of 14 federal ridings in
Saskatchewan, while the New Democratic Party represents three and the
Liberal Party of Canada, one.
Canadian Forces Military Police (15 Wing
Moose Jaw / CFD Dundurn)
Canadian National Railway
Canadian National Railway Police Service
Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway Police Service
Caronport Police Service
Corman Park Police Service
Dalmeny Police Service
Estevan Police Service
File Hills First Nation Police Service
Highway Transport Patrol (
Luseland Police Service
Moose Jaw Police Service
Prince Albert Police Service
Regina Police Service
Royal Canadian Mounted Police
Saskatchewan Conservation Officer (
Saskatoon Police Service
University of Saskatchewan
University of Saskatchewan Department of Campus Safety (Special
Vanscoy Police Service
Wascana Centre Police (
Weyburn Police Service
Wilton Police Service
Pine Grove Correctional Centre
Prince Albert Correctional Centre
Regina Correctional Centre
Regina Paul Dojack Youth Centre
Saskatoon correctional centre
Regional Psychiatric Centre
Saskatoon Kilburn Hall
Education in Saskatchewan
Education in Saskatchewan and List of Saskatchewan
The first education on the prairies took place within the family
groups of the First Nation and early fur trading settlers. There were
only a few missionary or trading post schools established in Rupert's
Land – later known as the North West Territories.
The first 76
North-West Territories school districts and the first
Board of Education meeting formed in 1886. The pioneering boom formed
ethnic bloc settlements. Communities were seeking education for their
children similar to the schools of their home land. Log cabins, and
dwellings were constructed for the assembly of the community, school,
church, dances and meetings.
The prosperity of the
Roaring Twenties and the success of farmers in
proving up on their homesteads helped provide funding to standardize
education. Text books, normal schools for educating
teachers, formal school curricula and state of the art school house
architectural plans provided continuity throughout the province.
English as the school language helped to provide economic stability,
because one community could communicate with another and goods could
be traded and sold in a common language. The number of one-room school
house districts across
Saskatchewan totalled approximately 5,000 at
the height of this system of education in the late 1940s.[citation
Following World War II, the transition from many one-room school
houses to fewer and larger consolidated modern technological town and
city schools occurred as a means of ensuring technical education.
School buses, highways, and family vehicles create ease and
accessibility of a population shift to larger towns and cities.
Combines and tractors mean the farmer could manage more than a quarter
section of land, so there was a shift from family farms and
subsistence crops to cash crops grown on many sections of land.
School vouchers have been newly proposed as a means of allowing
competition between rural schools and making the operation of
co-operative schools practicable in rural areas.
Saskatchewan's Ministry of Health is responsible for policy direction,
sets and monitors standards, and provides funding for regional health
authorities and provincial health services.
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Saskatchewan's medical health system is widely and inaccurately
characterized as "socialized medicine": medical practitioners in
Saskatchewan, as in other Canadian provinces, are not civil servants
but remit their accounts to the publicly funded
Care Insurance Plan rather than to patients (i.e. a single-payer
Saskatchewan medical health system has faced criticism due to a lack
of accessibility to the midwifery program. According to Leanne Smith,
the director for maternal services in the
Saskatoon Health Region
declared half of the women who apply for the midwifery program are
turned away. Ministry of Health data shows midwives saw 1,233
clients in the 2012-13 fiscal year (which runs April to March). But in
that fourth quarter, 359 women were still on waiting lists for
immediate or future care. The provincial Health Ministry received
47 letters about midwifery services in 2012, most of which asked for
more midwives. As a continuing problem in the
care system, more pressure has been placed to recruit more midwives
for the province.
Main article: Transportation in Saskatchewan
Eatonia Railway Station
Transportation in Saskatchewan
Transportation in Saskatchewan includes an infrastructure system of
roads, highways, freeways, airports, ferries, pipelines, trails,
waterways and railway systems serving a population of approximately
1,003,299 (according to 2007 estimates) inhabitants year-round. It is
funded primarily with local and federal government funds. The
Saskatchewan Department of Highways and Transportation estimates 80%
of traffic is carried on the 5,031-kilometre principal system of
The Ministry of Highways and Infrastructure operates over 26,000
kilometres (16,000 mi) of highways and divided highways. There
are also municipal roads which comprise different surfaces. Asphalt
concrete pavements comprise almost 9,000 kilometres (5,600 mi),
granular pavement almost 5,000 kilometres (3,100 mi), non
structural or thin membrane surface TMS are close to 7,000 kilometres
(4,300 mi) and finally gravel highways make up over 5,600
kilometres (3,500 mi) through the province. In the northern
sector, ice roads which can only be navigated in the winter months
comprise another approximately 150 kilometres (93 mi) of
Saskatchewan has over 250,000 kilometres (150,000 mi) of
roads and highways, the highest amount of road surface of any Canadian
province. The major highways in
Saskatchewan are the Trans Canada
expressway, Yellowhead Highway northern Trans
Canada route, Louis Riel
Trail, CanAm Highway, Red Coat Trail, Northern Woods and Water route,
and Saskota travel route.
The first Canadian transcontinental railway was constructed by the
Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway between 1881 and 1885. After the great
east-west transcontinental railway was built, north-south connector
branch lines were established. The 1920s saw the largest rise in rail
line track as the CPR and CNR fell into competition to provide rail
service within ten kilometres. In the 1960s there were applications
for abandonment of branch lines. Today the only two passenger rail
services in the province are
The Canadian and Winnipeg – Churchill
train, both operated by Via Rail.
The Canadian is a transcontinental
Toronto with Vancouver.
Saskatchewan waterways are the North
Saskatchewan River or
Saskatchewan River routes. In total, there are 3,050 bridges
maintained by the Department of Highways in Saskatchewan. There
are currently twelve ferry services operating in the province, all
under the jurisdiction of the Department of Highways.
Ferries of Saskatchewan
connecting Estuary and Laporte
North of Lemsford connecting 32 and 30
North of Lancer connecting 32 and 30
Highway 42 and Highway 373
Between Warman and Aberdeen on 784
Between Hague and Aberdeen
East of Duck Lake, 11 and Batoche 225
Between 25 and 3 on Grid Road
Between 3, Weldon via 682 and 302, Prince Albert
Between 16 and 26 via 764
East of Marcelin, 40 connecting to 11 Wingard
Between 302 and 55 east of Prince Albert
Saskatoon Airport (YXE) was initially established as part of the
Royal Canadian Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force training program during World War II. It was
renamed the John G. Diefenbaker Airport in the official ceremony, June
23, 1993. Roland J. Groome Airfield is the official designation
Regina International Airport
Regina International Airport (YQR) as of August 3, 2005; the
airport was established in 1930. Under the British Commonwealth Air
Training Plan (BCATP), twenty Service Flying Training Schools
(RAF) were established at various
Saskatchewan locations in World War
II. 15 Wing
Moose Jaw is home to the Canadian Forces formation
aerobatics team, the Snowbirds.
Airlines offering service to
Saskatchewan are Air Canada, WestJet
Airlines, United Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Transwest Air, Sunwing
Airlines, Norcanair Airlines,
La Ronge Aviation Services Ltd, La Loche
Airways, Osprey Wings Ltd, Buffalo Narrows Airways Ltd,
Île-à-la-Crosse Airways Ltd, Voyage Air, Pronto Airways, Venture Air
Ltd, Pelican Narrows Air Service, Jackson Air Services Ltd, and
Northern Dene Airways Ltd.
The Government of
Canada has agreed to contribute $20 million for two
new interchanges in Saskatoon. One of them being at the Sk Hwy 219 /
Lorne Ave intersection with Circle Drive, the other at the Senator Sid
Buckwold Bridge (Idylwyld Freeway) and Circle Drive. This is part of
the Asia-Pacific Gateway and Corridor Initiative to improve access to
the Canadian National Railway's intermodal freight terminal thereby
increasing Asia-Pacific trade. Also, the Government of
contribute $27 million to Regina to construct a Canadian Pacific
Railway CPR intermodal facility and improve infrastructure
transportation to the facility from both national highway networks, Sk
Hwy 1, the Trans
Canada Highway and Sk Hwy 11,
Louis Riel Trail. This
also is part of the Asia-Pacific Gateway and Corridor Initiative to
improve access to the CPR terminal and increase Asia-Pacific
Arts and culture
Main article: Culture of Saskatchewan
See also: Tourism in Saskatchewan
Museums and galleries
MacKenzie Art Gallery
RCMP Heritage Centre
Saskatchewan Western Development Museum
Regina Symphony Orchestra
Saskatoon Symphony Orchestra
Joe Fafard, sculptor
Canadian football team are the province's
professional football franchise, and are extremely popular across
Saskatchewan. The team's fans are also found to congregate on game
days throughout Canada, and collectively they are known as "Rider
The province's other major sport franchise is the
Saskatchewan Rush of
the National Lacrosse League. In their first year of competition,
2016, the Rush won both their Division Title and the League
Hockey is the most popular sport in the province. More than 490 NHL
players have been born in Saskatchewan, the highest per capita
output of any Canadian province, U.S. state, or European country.
Notable NHL figures born in
Saskatchewan include Keith Allen, Gordie
Howe, Bryan Trottier, Bernie Federko, Clark Gillies, Fern Flaman, Bert
Olmstead, Harry Watson, Elmer Lach, Max Bentley, Sid Abel, Doug
Bentley, Eddie Shore, Clint Smith, Bryan Hextall, Johnny Bower, Emile
Francis, Glenn Hall, Chuck Rayner, Brad McCrimmon, Patrick Marleau,
Dave Manson, Theo Fleury, Terry Harper, Wade Redden, Brian Propp,
Scott Hartnell, Ryan Getzlaf, and Chris Kunitz.
Saskatchewan does not
have an NHL or minor professional franchise, but five teams in the
Western Hockey League
Western Hockey League are located in the province: the Moose
Jaw Warriors, Prince Albert Raiders, Regina Pats,
Saskatoon Blades and
Swift Current Broncos.
Saskatchewan for their abundance of hockey
players by sculpting a 12-foot-tall hockey player monument in ice for
Saskatchewan’s capital city of Regina. The company then filmed
this frozen monument for a national television commercial, thanking
the province for creating so many goal scorers throughout hockey’s
Budweiser also gifted the “hockey player” province a
trophy made of white birch—Saskatchewan’s provincial tree—which
bears the name of every pro player in history. Sitting atop the trophy
was a golden
Budweiser Red Light, synched to every current
Saskatchewan player in the pros. This trophy can currently be seen at
Victoria Bar in Regina.
The official tartan of Saskatchewan, created in 1961.
The flag of
Saskatchewan was officially adopted on September 22, 1969.
The flag features the provincial shield in the upper quarter nearest
the staff, with the floral emblem, the Prairie Lily, in the fly. The
upper green (in forest green) half of the flag represents the northern
Saskatchewan forest lands, while the golden lower half of the flag
symbolizes the southern wheat fields and prairies. A province-wide
competition was held to design the flag, and drew over 4,000 entries.
The winning design was by Anthony Drake, then living in
Saskatchewan Environment held a province-wide vote to
recognize Saskatchewan's centennial year, receiving more than 10,000
on-line and mail-in votes from the public. The walleye was the
overwhelming favourite of the six native fish species nominated for
the designation, receiving more than half the votes cast. Other
species in the running were the lake sturgeon, lake trout, lake
whitefish, northern pike and yellow perch.
Saskatchewan's other symbols include the tartan, the license plate,
and the provincial flower. Saskatchewan's official tartan was
registered with the Court of
Lord Lyon King of Arms
Lord Lyon King of Arms in
1961. It has seven colours: gold, brown, green, red, yellow, white and
black. The provincial licence plates display the slogan "Land of
Living Skies". The provincial flower of
Saskatchewan is the Western
Saskatchewan celebrated its centennial. To honour it, the
Royal Canadian Mint
Royal Canadian Mint issued a commemorative five-dollar coin depicting
Canada's wheat fields as well as a circulation 25-cent coin of a
similar design. Queen
Elizabeth II and the
Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh visited
Regina, Saskatoon, and Lumsden, and the Saskatchewan-reared Joni
Mitchell issued an album in Saskatchewan's honour.
Climate change in Saskatchewan
The effects of climate change in
Saskatchewan are now being observed
in parts of the province. There is evidence of reduction of biomass in
Saskatchewan's boreal forests (as with those of other
Canadian prairie provinces) is linked by researchers to
drought-related water stress, stemming from global warming, most
likely caused by greenhouse gas emissions. While studies, as early as
1988 (Williams, et al., 1988) have shown climate change will affect
agriculture, whether the effects can be mitigated through
adaptations of cultivars, or crops, is less clear. Resiliency of
ecosystems may decline with large changes in temperature. The
provincial government has responded to the threat of climate change by
introducing a plan to reduce carbon emissions, "The Saskatchewan
Energy and Climate Change Plan," in June 2007.
Outline of Saskatchewan
Index of Saskatchewan-related articles
LMS Jubilee Class
LMS Jubilee Class locomotive named after
Saskatchewan Film and Video Classification Board
Scouting and Guiding in Saskatchewan
List of airports in Saskatchewan
List of cities in Canada
List of lieutenant governors of Saskatchewan
List of mayors in Saskatchewan
List of premiers of Saskatchewan
List of rivers of Saskatchewan
List of rural municipalities in Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan general elections
Saskatchewan Leaders of the Opposition
List of towns in Saskatchewan
Symbols of Saskatchewan
^ "Emblems of Saskatchewan". Government of Saskatchewan. Archived from
the original on March 17, 2015. Retrieved July 22, 2014.
^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and
territories, 2016 and 2011 censuses". Statistics Canada. February 2,
2017. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
^ "Population by year of
Canada and territories". Statistics
Canada. September 26, 2014. Retrieved March 26, 2018.
^ Saskatchewanian is the prevalent demonym, and is used by the
Government of Saskatchewan. According to the Oxford Guide to Canadian
English Usage (ISBN 0-19-541619-8; p. 335), Saskatchewaner is
also in use.
^ "The Legal Context of Canada's Official Languages". University of
Ottawa. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
^ "Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and
territory (2015)". Statistics Canada. November 9, 2016. Retrieved
January 26, 2017.
^ "Estimates of population, Canada, provinces and territories".
Statistics Canada. December 18, 2013. Retrieved January 29,
^ "Statistics Canada, Quarterly demographic estimates, 2009".
Statcan.gc.ca. December 23, 2009. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
Midale Climate Normals 1971-2000". Environment Canada. Retrieved
October 2, 2015.
Yellow Grass Climate Normals 1971-2000". Environment Canada.
Retrieved October 2, 2015.
^ a b c "Treaty Land Entitlement – The English River Story,
Saskatchewan", Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada,
accessed November 25, 2011
^ "Government of Canada". Geonames.nrcan.gc.ca. September 18, 2007.
Archived from the original on June 4, 2008. Retrieved February 23,
Saskatchewan High Point". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved August 17,
^ Hydrology from The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan
^ "National Climate Data". Environment Canada. Archived from the
original on January 19, 2012. Retrieved July 17, 2011.
^ Bray, Tim (December 23, 2008). "2008/12/23, Four PM". Retrieved
February 28, 2008. English just doesn’t have words to describe cold
of that intensity. I was appropriately dressed but am still a
mild-climate West Coast Wimp, and the cold hurt me wherever it touched
me; and it tried really hard to find chinks in my clothing's armor to
penetrate and hurt.
^ "Average Weather for Saskatoon, SK – Temperature and
Precipitation". Weather.com. July 29, 2010. Retrieved February 23,
^ "National Climate Data and Information Archive". Environment Canada.
Retrieved September 2, 2010.
^ The first smallpox epidemic on the Canadian Plains: In the
The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases.
^ "Louisiana Purchase". Encyclopædia Britannica.
^ Howard A. Leeson (2001).
Saskatchewan Politics: Into the
Twenty-first Century. U of Regina Press. p. 116.
^ Sandra Rollings-Magnusson, "Canada's Most Wanted: Pioneer Women on
the Western Prairies." Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology
2000 37(2): 223-238; W. T. Easterbrook, Farm Credit in
^ Peter Bush, Western Challenge: The Presbyterian Church in Canada's
Mission on the Prairies and North, 1885-1925. (2000); Marjory Harper,
"Probing the Pioneer Questionnaires: British Settlement in
Saskatchewan History 2000 52(2): 28-46.
^ Sandra Rollings-Magnusson, "Canada's Most Wanted: Pioneer Women on
the Western Prairies." Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology
(2000) 37#2: 223-238; E. Rowles, "Bannock, beans and bacon: An
investigation of pioneer diet."
Saskatchewan History, (1952) 1#1 pp.
^ James M. Pitsula, "Disparate Duo" Beaver 2005 85(4): 14-24.
^ Arthur Henry Reginald Buller (1919). Essays on Wheat: Including the
Discovery and Introduction of Marquis Wheat, the Early History of
Wheatgrowing in Manitoba,
Wheat in Western Canada, the Origin of Red
Bobs and Kitchener, and the Wild
Wheat of Palestine.
^ Ronald S. Love, "'A Harebrained Plan':
Saskatchewan and the
Formation of a Provincial Telephone Policy, 1906-1912." Saskatchewan
History 2005 57(1): 15-33.
^ Kevin H. Burley, The Development of Canada's Staples 1867–1939: A
Documentary Collection (1970) pp 139-43.
Saskatchewan Stock Growers Association", Official Website
^ Girard Hengen, "A Case Study in Urban Reform: Regina Before the
First World War."
Saskatchewan History (1988) 41#1: 19-34
^ James M. Pitsula, For All We Have and Are: Regina and the Experience
of the Great War (U of
Manitoba Press, 2008), p 280. online review
^ Pitsula, For All We Have and Are p 41.
^ Lubomyr Luciuk, In Fear of the Barbed Wire Fence: Canada's First
National Internment Operations and the Ukrainian Canadians, 1914-1920
(Kingston: Kashtan Press, 2001).
^ Archer, John H. (1996). "Regina: A Royal City". Monarchy Canada
Magazine. Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada. Spring 1996. Archived
from the original on February 9, 2008. Retrieved June 30, 2009.
Government of Saskatchewan
Government of Saskatchewan > About Government > News Releases
> February 2002 > Province Honours Princess Margaret". Queen's
Printer for Saskatchewan. February 11, 2002. Retrieved February 15,
^ "Royal couple touches down in Saskatchewan". CTV. May 18, 2005.
Retrieved June 30, 2009.
Saskatchewan Ethnic Origins, Visible Minorities & Immigration"
(PDF). Government of Saskatchewan.
^ The history of Saskatchewan's population from Statistics Canada
^ Canada's population. Statistics Canada. Retrieved September 28,
2006. Archived November 4, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Religions in Canada". 2.statcan.ca. Retrieved February 23,
^ "Canadian Food-Processing Sector". Invest in Canada. Retrieved
January 24, 2012.
^ Greuel, William. "Mustard". The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan.
Retrieved January 9, 2017.
^ "Fact Sheet". Archived from the original on December 3, 2007.
Retrieved January 16, 2009. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status
unknown (link) from the
^ Government of Saskatchewan.
Oil and Gas Industry Archived September
29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on: April 26, 2008.
^ Government of Saskatchewan. The
Oil and Gas InfoMap.
Retrieved April 26, 2008.
^ Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory
Archived April 20, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. from Statistics
^ Public Accounts of Saskatchewan. Government of Saskatchewan.
Retrieved March 25, 2017.
^ Government of Saskatchewan. "official page". Retrieved February 15,
Saskatchewan Health Pays Your Bill – Health – Government of
Saskatchewan". Health.gov.sk.ca. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
^ a b c French, Janet. (June 15, 2013) Half of women who want midwife
turned away. Thestarphoenix.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
Saskatchewan Department of Highways and Transportation". Retrieved
January 18, 2008.
Saskatchewan Highways and Transportation. "Performance Plan –
Saskatchewan Highways and Transportation". Retrieved September 4,
^ "Saskatchewan". World Travel Guide – Nexus Business Media. 2007.
Retrieved September 4, 2007.
^ "Canadian Pacific Railway". Retrieved January 18, 2008.
^ Fung, K.I. (1969). "Atlas of Saskatchewan". Saskatoon: Modern
^ Ivanochko, Bob (2006). "Bridges". CANADIAN PLAINS RESEARCH CENTER,
UNIVERSITY OF REGINA. Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved January
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "
Saskatchewan City & Town Maps –
Directory". Becquet's Custom Programming. Archived from the original
on January 18, 2008. Retrieved January 18, 2008.
^ "Airport History".
Saskatoon Airport Authority. Retrieved January
^ a b Chabun, Will (2006). "Aviation". CANADIAN PLAINS RESEARCH
CENTER, UNIVERSITY OF REGINA. Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved
January 18, 2008.
^ Kraushaar, Clint (May 1998). "The RAF comes to Estevan". The Estevan
Airport: A History to 1988.
Estevan Community Access Project &
Estevan Public Library. Retrieved January 18, 2008.
Saskatchewan Airlines: Airlines in Saskatchewan, Canada".
1994–2008. Retrieved January 18, 2008.
^ Hon. Lawrence Cannon, M.P., P.C. Minister of transport,
infrastructure and communities (2005–2008). "Statement by Hon.
Lawrence Cannon, M.P., P.C. Minister of transport, infrastructure and
communities at a news conference of Council of ministers responsible
for transportation and highway safety". Newswire. CNW Group. Retrieved
April 27, 2008. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
^ "NHL Players Born in Saskatchewan, Canada". Hockey-Reference.com.
Retrieved November 1, 2013.
^ Chaput, John. "Hockey". The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved
November 1, 2013.
^ "Saskatchewan, The Home of Goal Scorers -
YouTube. Retrieved April 24, 2015.
^ "Saskatchewan, flag of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Retrieved
July 9, 2008.
Walleye Wins Vote For Saskatchewan's Fish Emblem". Gov.sk.ca.
September 30, 2005. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
^ Williams, G.D.V., R.A. Fautley, K.H. Jones, R.B. Stewart, and E.E.
Wheaton. 1988. "Estimating Effects of Climatic Change on Agriculture
in Saskatchewan, Canada." p. 219-379. In M.L. Parry et al. (ed.) The
Impact of Climatic Variations on Agriculture. Vol. 1 Assessment in
Cool Temperate and Cold Regions. Reidel Publ. Co. Dordrecht.
^ Riebsame. W.E. (1991). "Sustainability of the
Great Plains in an
Uncertain Climate."[permanent dead link]
Great Plains Research Vol.1
No.1, University of Nebraska
Saskatchewan travel guide from Wikivoyage
Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan
Archer, John H. Saskatchewan: A History. Saskatoon: Western Producer
Prairie Books, 1980. 422 pp.
Bennett, John W. and Kohl, Seena B. Settling the Canadian-American
West, 1890–1915. University of Nebraska Press, 1995. 311 pp.
Waiser, Bill. Saskatchewan: A New History (2006)
Bocking, D. H., ed. Pages from the Past: Essays on Saskatchewan
History. Saskatoon: Western Producer Prairie Books, 1979. 299 pp.
LaPointe, Richard and Tessier, Lucille. The Francophones of
Saskatchewan: A History. Regina: University of Regina, Campion Coll.,
1988. 329 pp.
Lipset, Seymour M. Agrarian Socialism: The Cooperative Commonwealth
Federation in Saskatchewan: A Study in Political Sociology. University
of California Press, 1950.
Martin, Robin Shades of Right: Nativist and Fascist Politics in
Canada, 1920–1940, University of
Toronto Press, 1992.
Porter, Jene M (2008). Perspectives of Saskatchewan. University of
Manitoba Press. ISBN 978-0-88755-183-3.
Veldhuis, Niels (2009). "
Saskatchewan Prosperity: Building on
Success". Fraser Institute.
Grams, Grant W.: Der Volksverein deutsch-canadischer Katholiken, the
rise and fall of a German-Catholic Cultural and Immigration Society,
1909-1952, in Nelson H. Minnich (ed.) The Catholic Historical Review,
Grams, Grant W.: Deportation from
Saskatchewan during the Great
Depression, the case of H.P. Janzen, in John D. Thiesen (ed.),
Mennonite Life, 2010.
Grams, Grant W.: The Deportation of German Nationals from Canada, 1919
to 1939, in Peter S. Li (ed.), Journal of International Migration and
Grams, Grant W.: Immigration and Return Migration of German Nationals,
Saskatchewan 1919 to 1939, in Patrick Douand (ed.), Prairie Forum,
Grams, Grant W.: Was Eckhardt Kastendieck one of Saskatchewan’s most
active Nazis?, in Jason Zorbas (ed.),
Saskatchewan History, 2007.
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Former colonies and territories in Canada
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Coordinates: 55°N 106°W / 55°N 106°W / 55; -106
ISNI: 0000 0001 0661 1097