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SASKATCHEWAN (/səˈskætʃəwᵻn/ ( listen ) or /-ˌwɑːn/ ) is a prairie and boreal province in western Canada
Canada
, the only province without natural borders . It has an area of 651,900 square kilometres (251,700 sq mi), nearly 10 percent of which (59,366 square kilometres (22,900 sq mi)) is fresh water, composed mostly of rivers, reservoirs, and the province's 100,000 lakes .

Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
is bordered on the west by Alberta
Alberta
, on the north by the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
, on the east by Manitoba
Manitoba
, to the northeast by Nunavut
Nunavut
, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana
Montana
and North Dakota . As of December 2013, Saskatchewan's population was estimated at 1,114,170. Residents primarily live in the southern prairie half of the province, while the northern boreal half is mostly forested and sparsely populated. Of the total population, roughly half live in the province's largest city Saskatoon
Saskatoon
, or the provincial capital Regina . Other notable cities include Prince Albert , Moose Jaw , Yorkton , Swift Current
Swift Current
, North Battleford , and the border city Lloydminster (partially within Alberta).

Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
is a landlocked province with large distances to moderating bodies of waters. As a result, its climate is extremely continental , rendering severe winters throughout the province. Southern areas have very warm or hot summers. Midale and Yellow Grass near the U.S. border are tied for the highest ever recorded temperatures in Canada
Canada
with 45 °C (113 °F) observed at both locations on July 5, 1937. In winter, temperatures below −45 °C (−49 °F) are possible even in the south during extreme cold snaps.

Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
has been inhabited for thousands of years by various indigenous groups , and first explored by Europeans in 1690 and settled in 1774. It became a province in 1905, carved out from the vast North-West Territories , which had until then included most of the Canadian Prairies . In the early 20th century the province became known as a stronghold for Canadian social democracy; North America's first social-democratic government was elected in 1944 . The province's economy is based on agriculture , mining , and energy . Saskatchewan's current premier is Brad Wall
Brad Wall
and its lieutenant-governor is Vaughn Solomon Schofield .

In 1992, the federal and provincial governments signed a historic land claim agreement with First Nations in Saskatchewan . The First Nations received compensation and were permitted to buy land on the open market for the tribes; they have acquired about 3,079 square kilometres (761,000 acres; 1,189 sq mi), now reserve lands. Some First Nations have used their settlement to invest in urban areas, including Saskatoon
Saskatoon
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Climate

* 3 History

* 3.1 20th century

* 4 Demographics

* 4.1 Municipalities

* 5 Economy

* 5.1 Provincial finances

* 6 Government and politics

* 6.1 Law enforcement

* 7 Education * 8 Healthcare * 9 Transportation * 10 Arts and culture * 11 Sports

* 12 Provincial symbols

* 12.1 Centennial celebrations

* 13 Climate * 14 See also * 15 References * 16 Further reading * 17 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Its name derived from the Saskatchewan River . The river was known as _kisiskāciwani-sīpiy_ ("swift flowing river") in the Cree language .

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of Saskatchewan

As Saskatchewan's borders largely follow the geographic coordinates of longitude and latitude , the province is roughly a quadrilateral , or a shape with four sides. However the 49th parallel boundary and the 60th northern border appear curved on globes and many maps. Additionally, the eastern boundary of the province is partially crooked rather than following a line of longitude, as correction lines were devised by surveyors prior to the homestead program (1880–1928). Topographic map of Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan

Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
is part of the Western Provinces and is bounded on the west by Alberta
Alberta
, on the north by the Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
, on the north-east by Nunavut
Nunavut
, on the east by Manitoba
Manitoba
, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana
Montana
and North Dakota
North Dakota
. Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
has the distinction of being the only Canadian province for which no borders correspond to physical geographic features (i.e. they are all parallels and meridians). Along with Alberta, Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
is one of only two land-locked provinces.

The overwhelming majority of Saskatchewan's population is located in the southern third of the province, south of the 53rd parallel .

Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
contains two major natural regions: the Canadian Shield in the north and the Interior Plains in the south. Northern Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
is mostly covered by boreal forest except for the Lake Athabasca Sand Dunes , the largest active sand dunes in the world north of 58°, and adjacent to the southern shore of Lake Athabasca . Southern Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
contains another area with sand dunes known as the "Great Sand Hills" covering over 300 square kilometres (120 sq mi). The Cypress Hills , located in the southwestern corner of Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
and Killdeer Badlands ( Grasslands National Park ), are areas of the province that were unglaciated during the last glaciation period, the Wisconsin glaciation .

The province's highest point, at 1,392 metres (4,567 ft), is located in the Cypress Hills less than 2 km from the provincial boundary with Alberta. The lowest point is the shore of Lake Athabasca, at 213 metres (699 ft). The province has 14 major drainage basins made up of various rivers and watersheds draining into the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
, Hudson Bay and the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
.

CLIMATE

Köppen climate types of Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan

Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
receives more hours of sunshine than any other Canadian province. The province lies far from any significant body of water. This fact, combined with its northerly latitude, gives it a warm summer, corresponding to its humid continental climate (Köppen type _Dfb_ ) in the central and most of the eastern parts of the province, as well as the Cypress Hills; drying off to a semi-arid steppe climate (Köppen type _BSk_) in the southwestern part of the province. Drought can affect agricultural areas during long periods with little or no precipitation at all. The northern parts of Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
– from about La Ronge northward – have a subarctic climate (Köppen _Dfc_) with a shorter summer season. Summers can get very hot, sometimes above 38 °C (100 °F) during the day, and with humidity decreasing from northeast to southwest. Warm southern winds blow from the plains and intermontane regions of the Western United States
United States
during much of July and August, very cool or hot but changeable air masses often occur during spring and in September. Winters are usually bitterly cold, with frequent Arctic air descending from the north. with high temperatures not breaking −17 °C (1 °F) for weeks at a time. Warm chinook winds often blow from the west, bringing periods of mild weather. Annual precipitation averages 30 to 45 centimetres (12 to 18 inches) across the province, with the bulk of rain falling in June, July, and August.

Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
is one of the most tornado -active parts in Canada
Canada
, averaging roughly 12 to 18 tornadoes per year, some violent. In 2012, 33 tornadoes were reported in the province. The Regina Cyclone took place in June 1912 when 28 people died in an F4 Fujita scale tornado. Severe and non-severe thunderstorm events occur in Saskatchewan, usually from early spring to late summer. Hail, strong winds and isolated tornadoes are a common occurrence.

The hottest temperature ever recorded anywhere in Canada
Canada
happened in Saskatchewan. The temperature rose to 45 °C (113 °F) in Midale and Yellow Grass . The coldest ever recorded in the province was −56.7 °C (−70.1 °F) in Prince Albert , which is north of Saskatoon.

AVERAGE DAILY MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURES FOR SELECTED CITIES IN SASKATCHEWAN CITY JULY (°C) JULY (°F) JANUARY (°C) JANUARY (°F)

Maple Creek 27/11 81/52 -5/-16 23/4

Estevan 27/13 81/55 -9/-20 16/-4

Weyburn
Weyburn
26/12 79/54 -10/-21 14/-6

Moose Jaw 26/12 79/54 -8/-19 18/-2

REGINA 26/11 79/52 -10/-22 14/-8

SASKATOON 25/11 77/52 -12/-22 10/-8

Melville 25/11 77/52 -12/-23 10/-9

Swift Current
Swift Current
25/11 77/52 -7/-17 19/1

Humboldt 24/11 75/52 -12/-23 10/-9

Melfort 24/11 75/52 -14/-23 7/-9

North Battleford 24/11 75/52 -12/-22 10/-8

Yorkton 24/11 75/52 -13/-23 9/-9

Lloydminster 23/11 73/52 -10/-19 14/-2

Prince Albert 24/11 75/52 -13/-25 9/-13

HISTORY

Main article: History of Saskatchewan Henry Kelsey sees a buffalo herd on the western plains.

Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
has been populated by various indigenous peoples of North America , including members of the Sarcee , Niitsitapi , Atsina , Cree
Cree
, Saulteaux , Assiniboine (Nakoda), Lakota and Sioux
Sioux
. The first known European to enter Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
was Henry Kelsey in 1690, who travelled up the Saskatchewan River in hopes of trading fur with the region's indigenous peoples. The first permanent European settlement was a Hudson\'s Bay Company post at Cumberland House , founded in 1774 by Samuel Hearne . In 1762 the south of the province was part of the Spanish Louisiana until 1802. _ Part of Alberta and Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
were traded from the United States, which in return received part of Rupert\'s Land , today part of North Dakota
North Dakota
and Minnesota
Minnesota
. Cree
Cree
Pipe Stem Carrier_, a painting of a Plains Cree
Cree
warrior by Paul Kane .

In 1803 the Louisiana Purchase transferred from France to the United States part of what is now Alberta
Alberta
and Saskatchewan. In 1818 it was ceded to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. Most of what is now Saskatchewan, though, was part of Rupert\'s Land and controlled by the Hudson's Bay Company, which claimed rights to all watersheds flowing into Hudson Bay , including the Saskatchewan River , Churchill , Assiniboine , Souris , and Qu\'Appelle River systems.

In the late 1850s and early 1860s, scientific expeditions led by John Palliser and Henry Youle Hind explored the prairie region of the province.

In 1870, Canada
Canada
acquired the Hudson's Bay Company's territories and formed the North-West Territories to administer the vast territory between British Columbia
British Columbia
and Manitoba
Manitoba
. The Crown also entered into a series of numbered treaties with the indigenous peoples of the area, which serve as the basis of the relationship between First Nations , as they are called today, and the Crown. Since the late twentieth century, land losses and inequities as a result of those treaties have been subject to negotiation for settlement between the First Nations in Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
and the federal government, in collaboration with provincial governments.

In 1885, post-Confederation Canada's first "naval battle" was fought in Saskatchewan, when a steamship engaged the Métis at Batoche in the North-West Rebellion .

A seminal event in the history of what was to become Western Canada was the 1874 "March West" of the federal government's new North-West Mounted Police . Despite poor equipment and lack of provisions, the men on the march persevered and established a federal presence in the new territory.

In 1876, following their defeat of United States
United States
Army forces at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in Montana
Montana
Territory in the United States, the Lakota Chief Sitting Bull led several thousand of his people to Wood Mountain. Survivors and descendants founded Wood Mountain Reserve in 1914.

European-Canadian settlement of the province started to take off as the Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway
was built in the early 1880s, and the Canadian government divided up the land by the Dominion Land Survey and gave free land to any willing settlers. The Battle of Batoche , 1885

The North-West Mounted Police set up several posts and forts across Saskatchewan, including Fort Walsh in the Cypress Hills, and Wood Mountain Post in south-central Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
near the United States border.

Many Métis people, who had not been signatories to a treaty, had moved to the Southbranch Settlement and Prince Albert district north of present-day Saskatoon
Saskatoon
following the Red River Rebellion in Manitoba in 1870. In the early 1880s, the Canadian government refused to hear the Métis' grievances, which stemmed from land-use issues. Finally, in 1885, the Métis, led by Louis Riel
Louis Riel
, staged the North-West Rebellion and declared a provisional government. They were defeated by a Canadian militia brought to the Canadian prairies by the new Canadian Pacific Railway. Riel, who surrendered and was convicted of treason in a packed Regina courtroom, was hanged on November 16, 1885. Since then, the government has recognized the Métis as an aboriginal people with status rights and provided them with various benefits.

20TH CENTURY

As more settlers came to the prairies on the railway, the population grew. On September 1, 1905, Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
became a province, with inauguration day held September 4. The Dominion Lands Act permitted settlers to acquire one quarter of a square mile of land to homestead and offered an additional quarter upon establishing a homestead. Immigration peaked in 1910, and in spite of the initial difficulties of frontier life – distance from towns, sod homes, and backbreaking labour – new settlers established a European-Canadian style of prosperous agrarian society . Bennett buggies , automobiles pulled by horses, were used during the Great Depression by farmers too impoverished to purchase gasoline.

In 1913, the Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Stock Growers Association was established as Saskatchewan's first ranchers' organization. At its founding convention in 1913, the members established three goals: to watch over legislation; to forward the interests of the stock growers in every honourable and legitimate way; and to suggest to parliament legislation to meet changing conditions and requirements. Its farming equivalent, the Saskatchewan Grain Growers Association , was the dominant political force in the province until the 1920s; it had close ties with the governing Liberal party.

In the late 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan , imported from the United States and Ontario, gained brief popularity in nativist circles in Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
and Alberta. The Klan, briefly allied with the provincial Conservative party because of their mutual dislike for Premier
Premier
James G. "Jimmy" Gardiner and his Liberals (who ferociously fought the Klan), enjoyed about two years of prominence. It declined and disappeared, subject to widespread political and media opposition, plus internal scandals involving the use of the organization's funds.

In 1970, the first annual Canadian Western Agribition was held in Regina. This farm-industry trade show, with its strong emphasis on livestock, is rated as one of the five top livestock shows in North America, along with those in Houston , Denver , Louisville and Toronto .

The province celebrated the 75th anniversary of its establishment in 1980, with Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon , presiding over the official ceremonies. In 2005, 25 years later, her sister, Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
, attended the events held to mark Saskatchewan's centennial.

Since the late 20th century, First Nations have become more politically active in seeking justice for past inequities, especially related to government taking of indigenous lands. The federal and provincial governments have negotiated on numerous land claims, and developed a program of "Treaty Land Entitlement", enabling First Nations to buy land to be taken into reserves with money from settlements of claims.

"In 1992, the federal and provincial governments signed an historic land claim agreement with Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
First Nations. Under the Agreement, the First Nations received money to buy land on the open market. As a result, about 761,000 acres have been turned into reserve land and many First Nations continue to invest their settlement dollars in urban areas", including Saskatoon. The money from such settlements has enabled First Nations to invest in businesses and other economic infrastructure.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Main article: Demographics of Saskatchewan

According to the Canada
Canada
2011 Census , the largest ethnic group in Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
is German (28.6%), followed by English (24.9%), Scottish (18.9%), Canadian (18.8%), Irish (15.5%), Ukrainian (13.5%), French ( Fransaskois ) (12.2%), First Nations (12.1%), Norwegian (6.9%), and Polish (5.8%). Saskatchewan's population since 1901

YEAR POPULATION Five-year % change Ten-year % change Rank among provinces

1901 91,279 n/a n/a 8

1911 492,432 n/a 439.5 3

1921 757,510 n/a 53.8 3

1931 921,785 n/a 21.7 3

1941 895,992 n/a -2.8 3

1951 831,728 n/a -7.2 5

1956 880,665 5.9 n/a 5

1961 925,181 5.1 11.2 5

1966 955,344 3.3 8.5 6

1971 926,242 -3.0 0.1 6

1976 921,325 -0.5 3.6 6

1981 968,313 5.1 4.5 6

1986 1,009,613 4.3 9.6 6

1991 988,928 -2.0 2.1 6

1996 976,615 -1.2 -3.3 6

2001 978,933 0.2 -1.0 6

2006 985,386 0.7 0.9 6

2011 1,053,960 7.0 7.6 6

2016 1,098,352 6.3 11.4 6

The largest denominations by number of adherents according to the 2001 census were the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
with 286,815 (30%); the United Church of Canada
Canada
with 187,450 (20%); and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada
Canada
with 78,520 (8%). 148,535 (15.4%) responded "no religion".

MUNICIPALITIES

Main article: List of communities in Saskatchewan Saskatoon skyline and the South Saskatchewan River

TEN LARGEST MUNICIPALITIES BY POPULATION

MUNICIPALITY 2001 2006 2011 2016

Saskatoon
Saskatoon
196,861 202,340 222,189 246,376

Regina 178,225 179,246 193,100 215,106

Prince Albert 34,291 34,138 35,129 35,926

Moose Jaw 32,131 32,132 33,274 33,890

Swift Current
Swift Current
14,821 14,946 15,503 16,604

Yorkton 15,107 15,038 15,669 16,343

North Battleford 13,692 13,190 13,888 14,315

Estevan 10,242 10,084 11,054 11,483

Warman 3,481 4,764 7,104 11,020

Weyburn
Weyburn
9,534 9,433 10,484 10,870

This list does not include Lloydminster , which has a total population of 31,410 but straddles the Alberta– Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
border. As of 2016, 11,765 people lived on the Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
side, which would make it Saskatchewan's 8th largest municipality. All of the listed communities are considered cities by the province; municipalities in the province with a population of 5,000 or more can receive official city status.

ECONOMY

Fields of canola and flax on the Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Prairie.

Historically, Saskatchewan's economy was primarily associated with agriculture . However, increasing diversification has resulted in agriculture, forestry , fishing , and hunting only making up 6.8% of the province's GDP. Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
grows a large portion of Canada's grain. Wheat
Wheat
is the most familiar crop and the one most often associated with the province (there are sheafs of wheat depicted on the coat of arms of Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
), but other grains like canola , flax , rye , oats , peas , lentils , canary seed, and barley are also produced. Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
is the world's largest exporter of mustard seed. Beef cattle production by a Canadian province is only exceeded by Alberta. In the northern part of the province, forestry is also a significant industry.

Mining
Mining
is a major industry in the province, with Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
being the world's largest exporter of potash and uranium .

Oil
Oil
and natural gas production is also a very important part of Saskatchewan's economy, although the oil industry is larger. Among Canadian provinces, only Alberta
Alberta
exceeds Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
in overall oil production. Heavy crude is extracted in the Lloydminster-Kerrobert-Kindersley areas. Light crude is found in the Kindersley- Swift Current
Swift Current
areas as well as the Weyburn- Estevan fields. Natural gas is found almost entirely in the western part of Saskatchewan, from the Primrose Lake area through Lloydminster, Unity, Kindersley, Leader, and around Maple Creek areas.

Saskatchewan's GDP in 2006 was approximately C$45.922 billion, with economic sectors breaking down in the following way:

% SECTOR

17.1 finance, insurance, real estate, leasing

13.0 mining, petroleum

11.9 education, health, social services

11.7 wholesale and retail trade

9.1 transportation, communications, utilities

7.7 manufacturing

6.8 agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting

6.5 business services

5.8 government services

5.1 construction

5.3 other

A list of the top 100 companies includes The Potash
Potash
Corporation of Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
, Federated Cooperatives Ltd. and IPSCO .

Major Saskatchewan-based Crown corporations are Saskatchewan Government Insurance (SGI) , SaskTel
SaskTel
, SaskEnergy (the province's main supplier of natural gas), and SaskPower . Bombardier runs the NATO Flying Training Centre at 15 Wing, near Moose Jaw . Bombardier was awarded a long-term contract in the late 1990s for $2.8 billion from the federal government for the purchase of military aircraft and the running of the training facility. SaskPower since 1929 has been the principal supplier of electricity in Saskatchewan, serving more than 451,000 customers and managing $4.5 billion in assets. SaskPower is a major employer in the province with almost 2,500 permanent full-time staff located in 71 communities.

PROVINCIAL FINANCES

FISCAL YEAR POPULATION1 GOV\'T DEBT2 CROWN DEBT3 BUDGET SURPLUS GFSF BALANCE PERS. INC. TAX REVENUE CORP. INC. TAX REVENUE4 PST REVENUE5 RESOURCE REVENUE HEALTH EXPENSE CREDIT RATING6

2015–2016 1,134,402 4,798,562 7,589,001 -1,520,000 0 2,537,349 1,002,546 1,288,921 1,761,265 5,109,545 AAA (neg)

2014–2015 1,122,588 3,799,970 6,892,757 62,000 131,269 2,546,577 848,469 1,358,205 2,614,478 4,981,636 AAA

2013–2014 1,093,880 3,803,006 5,955,899 589,000 446,269 2,470,056 1,017,188 1,326,403 2,520,964 4,834,932 AAA

2012–2013 1,073,107 3,804,817 4,981,693 16,000 666,000 2,406,254 838,275 1,284,893 2,515,869 4,575,589 AAA

2011–2012 1,053,960 3,807,590 4,193,541 55,000 708,000 1,897,409 793,790 1,322,161 2,821,957 4,400,159 AAA

2010–2011 1,041,729 4,135,226 3,744,627 96,000 1,006,000 1,795,788 1,155,273 1,186,922 2,527,799 4,202,106 AA+

2009–2010 1,025,638 4,140,482 3,618,953 167,705 958,000 1,890,848 881,424 1,084,001 1,910,624 3,934,231 AA+

2008–2009 1,010,218 4,145,286 3,390,175 1,969,933 1,215,000 1,844,226 591,930 1,108,628 4,612,408 3,976,241 AA+

2007–2008 996,130 6,824,323 3,172,903 1,282,869 1,528,934 1,938,258 673,641 995,995 2,325,116 3,504,333 AA

2006–2007 991,260 7,244,938 3,398,647 397,794 887,500 1,668,538 1,067,459 1,079,794 1,694,252 3,202,965 AA

2005–2006 994,996 7,197,223 3,444,783 539,466 887,500 1,447,905 918,279 1,112,350 1,721,100 2,990,625 AA

2004–2005 997,263 7,545,574 3,319,737 765,117 748,500 1,329,081 638,968 985,079 1,474,191 2,773,961 AA-

2003–2004 995,848 8,031,637 3,171,093 -210,017 366,000 1,245,763 682,052 854,480 1,140,962 2,515,823 AA-

2002–2003 997,805 7,821,426 3,084,579 82,860 577,000 1,429,757 557,360 813,932 1,243,649 2,342,835 A+

2001–2002 1,001,643 7,561,899 3,166,992 -278,902 495,000 1,196,410 507,542 770,984 903,044 2,199,723 A+

The Tabulated Data covers each fiscal year (e.g. 2015–2016 covers April 1, 2015 – March 31, 2016). All data is in $1,000s.

1 These values reflect the estimated population at the beginning of the fiscal year.

2 These values reflect the debt of the General Revenue Fund alone at the end of the fiscal year.

3 These values reflect the combined debt of the three major Government Service Enterprises (Crown Corporations) at the end of the fiscal year. As of March 31, 2016, SaskPower, SaskEnergy, and SaskTel accounted for 88.4% of Crown Debt.

4 The highest rate of provincial corporate income tax was reduced from 17% to 14% on July 1, 2006. It was further reduced to 13% on July 1, 2007, and finally to 12% on July 1, 2008. The tax on paid-up capital was reduced from 0.6% to 0.3% on July 1, 2006, to 0.15% on July 1, 2007, and abolished altogether on July 1, 2008. These displayed values were obtained by adding the corporate income tax for each year with the corporate capital tax.

5 The Provincial Sales Tax (PST) rate was reduced from 7% to 5% on October 28, 2006.

6 These values are the credit ratings from Standard -webkit-column-count: 2; column-count: 2;">

* Canadian Forces Military Police (15 Wing Moose Jaw / CFD Dundurn) * Canadian National Railway
Canadian National Railway
Police Service * Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway
Police Service * Caronport Police Service * Corman Park Police Service * Dalmeny Police Service * Estevan Police Service * File
File
Hills First Nation Police Service * Highway Transport Patrol ( Special
Special
Constables) * Luseland Police Service * Moose Jaw Police Service * Prince Albert Police Service * Regina Police Service * Royal Canadian Mounted Police * Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Conservation Officer ( Special
Special
Constables) * Saskatoon
Saskatoon
Police Service * University of Saskatchewan Department of Campus Safety (Special Constables) * Vanscoy Police Service * Wascana Centre Police ( Special
Special
Constables) * Weyburn
Weyburn
Police Service * Wilton Police Service

Correctional facilities

* Pine Grove Correctional Centre * Prince Albert Correctional Centre * Regina Correctional Centre * Regina Paul Dojack Youth Centre * Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Penitentiary * Saskatoon
Saskatoon
correctional centre * Regional Psychiatric Centre * Saskatoon
Saskatoon
Kilburn Hall

EDUCATION

Main articles: Education in Saskatchewan and List of Saskatchewan school divisions

The first education on the prairies took place within the family groups of the First Nation and early fur trading settlers. There were only a few missionary or trading post schools established in Rupert\'s Land – later known as the North West Territories .

The first 76 North-West Territories school districts and the first Board of Education meeting formed in 1886. The pioneering boom formed ethnic bloc settlements . Communities were seeking education for their children similar to the schools of their home land. Log cabins , and dwellings were constructed for the assembly of the community, school, church, dances and meetings.

The prosperity of the Roaring Twenties and the success of farmers in proving up on their homesteads helped provide funding to standardize education. Text books, normal schools for educating teachers, formal school curricula and state of the art school house architectural plans provided continuity throughout the province. English as the school language helped to provide economic stability, because one community could communicate with another and goods could be traded and sold in a common language. The number of one-room school house districts across Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
totalled approximately 5,000 at the height of this system of education in the late 1940s.

Following World War II, the transition from many one-room school houses to fewer and larger consolidated modern technological town and city schools occurred as a means of ensuring technical education. School buses, highways, and family vehicles create ease and accessibility of a population shift to larger towns and cities. Combines and tractors mean the farmer could manage more than a quarter section of land, so there was a shift from family farms and subsistence crops to cash crops grown on many sections of land.

School vouchers have been newly proposed as a means of allowing competition between rural schools and making the operation of co-operative schools practicable in rural areas.

HEALTHCARE

Saskatchewan's Ministry of Health is responsible for policy direction, sets and monitors standards, and provides funding for regional health authorities and provincial health services.

_ Wikinews has related news: CANADA PURSUES NEW NUCLEAR RESEARCH REACTOR TO PRODUCE MEDICAL ISOTOPES _

Saskatchewan's medical health system is widely and inaccurately characterized as "socialized medicine": medical practitioners in Saskatchewan, as in other Canadian provinces, are not civil servants but remit their accounts to the publicly funded Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Medical Care Insurance Plan rather than to patients (i.e. a single-payer system ).

Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
medical health system has faced criticism due to a lack of accessibility to the midwifery program. According to Leanne Smith, the director for maternal services in the Saskatoon
Saskatoon
Health Region declared half of the women who apply for the midwifery program are turned away. Ministry of Health data shows midwives saw 1,233 clients in the 2012-13 fiscal year (which runs April to March). But in that fourth quarter, 359 women were still on waiting lists for immediate or future care. The provincial Health Ministry received 47 letters about midwifery services in 2012, most of which asked for more midwives. As a continuing problem in the Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
health care system, more pressure has been placed to recruit more midwives for the province.

TRANSPORTATION

Main article: Transportation in Saskatchewan Trans Canada
Canada
1 Eatonia Railway Station

Transportation in Saskatchewan includes an infrastructure system of roads, highways, freeways, airports, ferries, pipelines, trails, waterways and railway systems serving a population of approximately 1,003,299 (according to 2007 estimates) inhabitants year-round. It is funded primarily with local and federal government funds. The Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Department of Highways and Transportation estimates 80% of traffic is carried on the 5,031-kilometre principal system of highways.

The Ministry of Highways and Infrastructure operates over 26,000 kilometres (16,000 mi) of highways and divided highways . There are also municipal roads which comprise different surfaces. Asphalt concrete pavements comprise almost 9,000 kilometres (5,600 mi), granular pavement almost 5,000 kilometres (3,100 mi), non structural or thin membrane surface TMS are close to 7,000 kilometres (4,300 mi) and finally gravel highways make up over 5,600 kilometres (3,500 mi) through the province. In the northern sector, ice roads which can only be navigated in the winter months comprise another approximately 150 kilometres (93 mi) of travel.

Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
has over 250,000 kilometres (150,000 mi) of roads and highways, the highest amount of road surface of any Canadian province. The major highways in Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
are the Trans Canada
Canada
expressway , Yellowhead Highway northern Trans Canada
Canada
route, Louis Riel
Louis Riel
Trail , CanAm Highway , Red Coat Trail , Northern Woods and Water route , and Saskota travel route .

The first Canadian transcontinental railway was constructed by the Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway
between 1881 and 1885. After the great east-west transcontinental railway was built, north-south connector branch lines were established. The 1920s saw the largest rise in rail line track as the CPR and CNR fell into competition to provide rail service within ten kilometres. In the 1960s there were applications for abandonment of branch lines. Today the only two passenger rail services in the province are _ The Canadian
The Canadian
_ and Winnipeg – Churchill train , both operated by Via Rail
Via Rail
. _The Canadian_ is a transcontinental service linking Toronto
Toronto
with Vancouver.

The main Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
waterways are the North Saskatchewan River or South Saskatchewan River routes. In total, there are 3,050 bridges maintained by the Department of Highways in Saskatchewan. There are currently twelve ferry services operating in the province, all under the jurisdiction of the Department of Highways.

Ferries of Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
FERRY LOCATION WATERWAY REFERENCE

Estuary connecting Estuary and Laporte South Saskatchewan River

Lemsford North of Lemsford connecting 32 and 30 South Saskatchewan River

Lancer North of Lancer connecting 32 and 30 South Saskatchewan River

Riverhurst Highway 42 and Highway 373 Lake Diefenbaker

Clarkboro Between Warman and Aberdeen on 784 South Saskatchewan River

Hague Between Hague and Aberdeen South Saskatchewan River

St. Laurent East of Duck Lake , 11 and Batoche 225 South Saskatchewan River

Fenton Between 25 and 3 on Grid Road South Saskatchewan River

Weldon Between 3 , Weldon via 682 and 302 , Prince Albert South Saskatchewan River

Paynton Between 16 and 26 via 764 North Saskatchewan River

Wingard East of Marcelin , 40 connecting to 11 Wingard North Saskatchewan River

Cecil Between 302 and 55 east of Prince Albert North Saskatchewan River

The Saskatoon
Saskatoon
Airport (YXE) was initially established as part of the Royal Canadian Air Force training program during World War II
World War II
. It was renamed the _John G. Diefenbaker Airport_ in the official ceremony, June 23, 1993. _Roland J. Groome Airfield_ is the official designation for the Regina International Airport (YQR) as of August 3, 2005; the airport was established in 1930. Under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP), twenty Service Flying Training Schools (RAF) were established at various Saskatchewan locations in World War II
World War II
. 15 Wing Moose Jaw is home to the Canadian Forces formation aerobatics team, the _Snowbirds_.

Airlines offering service to Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
are Air Canada
Canada
, WestJet Airlines , United Airlines , Delta Air Lines , Transwest Air , Sunwing Airlines , Norcanair Airlines, La Ronge Aviation Services Ltd, La Loche Airways, Osprey Wings Ltd, Buffalo Narrows Airways Ltd, Île-à-la-Crosse Airways Ltd, Voyage Air, Pronto Airways , Venture Air Ltd, Pelican Narrows Air Service, Jackson Air Services Ltd, and Northern Dene Airways Ltd.

The Government of Canada
Canada
has agreed to contribute $20 million for two new interchanges in Saskatoon
Saskatoon
. One of them being at the Sk Hwy 219 / Lorne Ave intersection with Circle Drive, the other at the Senator Sid Buckwold Bridge (Idylwyld Freeway) and Circle Drive. This is part of the Asia-Pacific Gateway and Corridor Initiative to improve access to the Canadian National Railway\'s intermodal freight terminal thereby increasing Asia-Pacific trade. Also, the Government of Canada
Canada
will contribute $27 million to Regina to construct a Canadian Pacific Railway CPR intermodal facility and improve infrastructure transportation to the facility from both national highway networks, Sk Hwy 1, the Trans Canada
Canada
Highway and Sk Hwy 11, Louis Riel
Louis Riel
Trail . This also is part of the Asia-Pacific Gateway and Corridor Initiative to improve access to the CPR terminal and increase Asia-Pacific trade.

ARTS AND CULTURE

Main article: Culture of Saskatchewan See also: Tourism in Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Museums and galleries

* MacKenzie Art Gallery * Mendel Art Gallery * RCMP Heritage Centre * Saskatchewan Western Development Museum

Orchestras

* Regina Symphony Orchestra * Saskatoon
Saskatoon
Symphony Orchestra

Artist-run centres

* PAVED Arts

Artists

* Joe Fafard , sculptor

SPORTS

The Saskatchewan Roughriders Canadian football team are the province's professional football franchise, and are extremely popular across Saskatchewan. The team's fans are also found to congregate on game days throughout Canada, and collectively they are known as "Rider Nation".

The province's other major sport franchise is the Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Rush of the National Lacrosse League . In their first year of competition, 2016, the Rush won both their Division Title and the League Championship.

Hockey is the most popular sport in the province. More than 490 NHL players have been born in Saskatchewan, the highest per capita output of any Canadian province, U.S. state, or European country. Notable NHL figures born in Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
include Keith Allen , Gordie Howe
Gordie Howe
, Bryan Trottier
Bryan Trottier
, Bernie Federko , Clark Gillies , Fern Flaman , Bert Olmstead , Harry Watson , Elmer Lach , Max Bentley , Sid Abel , Doug Bentley , Eddie Shore , Clint Smith , Bryan Hextall , Johnny Bower , Emile Francis , Glenn Hall , Chuck Rayner , Brad McCrimmon , Patrick Marleau , Dave Manson , Theo Fleury , Terry Harper , Wade Redden , Brian Propp , Scott Hartnell , Ryan Getzlaf , and Chris Kunitz . Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
does not have an NHL or minor professional franchise, but five teams in the junior Western Hockey League are located in the province: the Moose Jaw Warriors , Prince Albert Raiders , Regina Pats , Saskatoon
Saskatoon
Blades and Swift Current
Swift Current
Broncos .

In 2015, Budweiser honoured Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
for their abundance of hockey players by sculpting a 12-foot-tall hockey player monument in ice for Saskatchewan’s capital city of Regina. The company then filmed this frozen monument for a national television commercial, thanking the province for creating so many goal scorers throughout hockey’s history. Budweiser also gifted the “hockey player” province a trophy made of white birch—Saskatchewan’s provincial tree—which bears the name of every pro player in history. Sitting atop the trophy was a golden Budweiser Red Light, synched to every current Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
player in the pros. This trophy can currently be seen at Victoria Bar in Regina.

PROVINCIAL SYMBOLS

The official tartan of Saskatchewan, created in 1961.

The flag of Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
was officially adopted on September 22, 1969. The flag features the provincial shield in the upper quarter nearest the staff, with the floral emblem , the Prairie Lily , in the fly. The upper green (in forest green ) half of the flag represents the northern Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
forest lands, while the golden lower half of the flag symbolizes the southern wheat fields and prairies. A province-wide competition was held to design the flag, and drew over 4,000 entries. The winning design was by Anthony Drake, then living in Hodgeville .

In 2005, Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Environment held a province-wide vote to recognize Saskatchewan's centennial year, receiving more than 10,000 on-line and mail-in votes from the public. The walleye was the overwhelming favourite of the six native fish species nominated for the designation, receiving more than half the votes cast. Other species in the running were the lake sturgeon , lake trout , lake whitefish , northern pike and yellow perch .

Saskatchewan's other symbols include the tartan, the license plate, and the provincial flower. Saskatchewan's official tartan was registered with the Court of Lord Lyon King of Arms
Lord Lyon King of Arms
in Scotland
Scotland
in 1961. It has seven colours: gold, brown, green, red, yellow, white and black. The provincial licence plates display the slogan "Land of Living Skies". The provincial flower of Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
is the Western Red Lily .

CENTENNIAL CELEBRATIONS

In 2005, Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
celebrated its centennial. To honour it, the Royal Canadian Mint
Royal Canadian Mint
issued a commemorative five-dollar coin depicting Canada's wheat fields as well as a circulation 25-cent coin of a similar design. Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
and the Duke of Edinburgh
Duke of Edinburgh
visited Regina , Saskatoon
Saskatoon
, and Lumsden , and the Saskatchewan-reared Joni Mitchell issued an album in Saskatchewan's honour.

CLIMATE

Main article: Climate change in Saskatchewan

The effects of climate change in Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
are now being observed in parts of the province. There is evidence of reduction of biomass in Saskatchewan's boreal forests (as with those of other Canadian prairie provinces ) is linked by researchers to drought-related water stress, stemming from global warming , most likely caused by greenhouse gas emissions. While studies, as early as 1988 (Williams, et al., 1988) have shown climate change will affect agriculture, whether the effects can be mitigated through adaptations of cultivars , or crops, is less clear. Resiliency of ecosystems may decline with large changes in temperature. The provincial government has responded to the threat of climate change by introducing a plan to reduce carbon emissions , "The Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Energy and Climate Change Plan," in June 2007.

SEE ALSO

_

* Book: Canada
Canada

* Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
portal

* Outline of Saskatchewan * Index of Saskatchewan-related articles * * * 45561 Saskatchewan_ British LMS Jubilee Class locomotive named after the province. * Assiniboia * Saskatchewan Act * Saskatchewan Film and Video Classification Board * Scouting and Guiding in Saskatchewan
Scouting and Guiding in Saskatchewan

LISTS:

* List of airports in Saskatchewan * List of cities in Canada
Canada
* List of lieutenant governors of Saskatchewan * List of mayors in Saskatchewan * List of premiers of Saskatchewan * List of rivers of Saskatchewan * List of rural municipalities in Saskatchewan * List of Saskatchewan general elections * List of Saskatchewan Leaders of the Opposition * List of towns in Saskatchewan * Symbols of Saskatchewan

REFERENCES

* ^ "Emblems of Saskatchewan". Government of Saskatchewan. Archived from the original on March 17, 2015. Retrieved July 22, 2014. * ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2016 and 2011 censuses". _Statistics Canada
Canada
_. February 2, 2017. Retrieved April 30, 2017. * ^ "Population by year of Canada
Canada
of Canada
Canada
and territories". Statistics Canada
Canada
. September 26, 2014. Retrieved March 20, 2016. * ^ _Saskatchewanian_ is the prevalent demonym, and is used by the Government of Saskatchewan. According to the _Oxford Guide to Canadian English Usage_ (ISBN 0-19-541619-8 ; p. 335), _Saskatchewaner_ is also in use. * ^ "The Legal Context of Canada\'s Official Languages". University of Ottawa. Retrieved October 7, 2016. * ^ "Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory (2015)". Statistics Canada. November 9, 2016. Retrieved January 26, 2017. * ^ "Estimates of population, Canada, provinces and territories". Statistics Canada
Canada
. December 18, 2013. Retrieved January 29, 2013. * ^ "Statistics Canada, Quarterly demographic estimates, 2009". Statcan.gc.ca. December 23, 2009. Retrieved February 23, 2011. * ^ " Midale Climate Normals 1971-2000". Environment Canada. Retrieved October 2, 2015. * ^ " Yellow Grass Climate Normals 1971-2000". Environment Canada. Retrieved October 2, 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Treaty Land Entitlement – The English River Story, Saskatchewan", Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, accessed November 25, 2011 * ^ "Government of Canada". Geonames.nrcan.gc.ca. September 18, 2007. Retrieved February 23, 2011. * ^ " Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
High Point". Peakbagger.com. Retrieved August 17, 2014. * ^ Hydrology from The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan * ^ "National Climate Data". Environment Canada. Archived from the original on January 19, 2012. Retrieved July 17, 2011. * ^ Bray, Tim (December 23, 2008). "2008/12/23, Four PM". Retrieved February 28, 2008. English just doesn’t have words to describe cold of that intensity. I was appropriately dressed but am still a mild-climate West Coast Wimp, and the cold hurt me wherever it touched me; and it tried really hard to find chinks in my clothing's armor to penetrate and hurt. * ^ "Average Weather for Saskatoon, SK – Temperature and Precipitation". Weather.com. July 29, 2010. Retrieved February 23, 2011. * ^ "National Climate Data and Information Archive". Environment Canada. Retrieved September 2, 2010. * ^ The first smallpox epidemic on the Canadian Plains: In the fur-traders\' words. _ The Canadian
The Canadian
Journal of Infectious Diseases._ * ^ "Louisiana Purchase". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. * ^ Dave Yanko, "Batoche in the North-West Rebellion", Virtualsk.com * ^ " Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Stock Growers Association", Official Website * ^ Archer, John H. (1996). "Regina: A Royal City". _Monarchy Canada
Canada
Magazine_. Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada. Spring 1996. Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. Retrieved June 30, 2009. * ^ " Government of Saskatchewan > About Government > News Releases > February 2002 > Province Honours Princess Margaret". Queen's Printer for Saskatchewan. February 11, 2002. Retrieved February 15, 2011. * ^ "Royal couple touches down in Saskatchewan". CTV. May 18, 2005. Retrieved June 30, 2009. * ^ " Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Ethnic Origins, Visible Minorities ">(PDF). Government of Saskatchewan. * ^ The history of Saskatchewan\'s population from Statistics Canada
Canada
* ^ Canada\'s population. Statistics Canada
Canada
. Retrieved September 28, 2006. Archived November 4, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Religions in Canada". 2.statcan.ca. Retrieved February 23, 2011. * ^ "Canadian Food-Processing Sector". Invest in Canada. Retrieved January 24, 2012. * ^ Greuel, William. "Mustard". _The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan_. Retrieved January 9, 2017. * ^ Fact Sheet at the Wayback Machine (archived December 3, 2007) from the Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Mining
Mining
Association * ^ Government of Saskatchewan. Oil
Oil
and Gas Industry. Retrieved on: April 26, 2008. * ^ Government of Saskatchewan. The Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Oil
Oil
and Gas InfoMap. Retrieved April 26, 2008. * ^ Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory from Statistics Canada
Canada
* ^ Public Accounts of Saskatchewan. Government of Saskatchewan . Retrieved March 25, 2017. * ^ Government of Saskatchewan. "official page". Retrieved February 15, 2007. * ^ "How Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Health Pays Your Bill – Health – Government of Saskatchewan". Health.gov.sk.ca. Retrieved February 23, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ French, Janet. (June 15, 2013) Half of women who want midwife turned away. Thestarphoenix.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-12. * ^ " Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Department of Highways and Transportation". Retrieved January 18, 2008. * ^ Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Highways and Transportation. "Performance Plan – Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Highways and Transportation". Retrieved September 4, 2007. * ^ "Saskatchewan". World Travel Guide – Nexus Business Media. 2007. Retrieved September 4, 2007. * ^ "Canadian Pacific Railway". Retrieved January 18, 2008. * ^ Fung, K.I. (1969). "Atlas of Saskatchewan". Saskatoon: Modern Press. * ^ Ivanochko, Bob (2006). "Bridges". _CANADIAN PLAINS RESEARCH CENTER, UNIVERSITY OF REGINA_. Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved January 18, 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ "Saskatchewan City & Town Maps – Directory". _Becquet's Custom Programming_. Archived from the original on January 18, 2008. Retrieved January 18, 2008. * ^ "Airport History". _ Saskatoon
Saskatoon
Airport Authority_. Retrieved January 18, 2008. * ^ _A_ _B_ Chabun, Will (2006). "Aviation". _CANADIAN PLAINS RESEARCH CENTER, UNIVERSITY OF REGINA_. Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved January 18, 2008. * ^ Kraushaar, Clint (May 1998). "The RAF comes to Estevan". _The Estevan Airport: A History to 1988_. Estevan Community Access Project & Estevan Public Library. Retrieved January 18, 2008. * ^ " Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Airlines: Airlines in Saskatchewan, Canada". 1994–2008. Retrieved January 18, 2008. * ^ Hon. Lawrence Cannon, M.P., P.C. Minister of transport, infrastructure and communities (2005–2008). "Statement by Hon. Lawrence Cannon, M.P., P.C. Minister of transport, infrastructure and communities at a news conference of Council of ministers responsible for transportation and highway safety". _Newswire_. CNW Group. Retrieved April 27, 2008. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ "NHL Players Born in Saskatchewan, Canada". _Hockey-Reference.com_. Retrieved November 1, 2013. * ^ Chaput, John. "Hockey". _The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan_. Retrieved November 1, 2013. * ^ "Saskatchewan, The Home of Goal Scorers - Budweiser Canada". _YouTube_. Retrieved April 24, 2015. * ^ "Saskatchewan, flag of". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. 2008. Retrieved July 9, 2008. * ^ " Walleye
Walleye
Wins Vote For Saskatchewan\'s Fish Emblem". Gov.sk.ca. September 30, 2005. Retrieved February 23, 2011. * ^ Williams, G.D.V., R.A. Fautley, K.H. Jones, R.B. Stewart, and E.E. Wheaton. 1988. "Estimating Effects of Climatic Change on Agriculture
Agriculture
in Saskatchewan, Canada." p. 219-379. In M.L. Parry et al. (ed.) _The Impact of Climatic Variations on Agriculture_. Vol. 1 Assessment in Cool Temperate and Cold Regions. Reidel Publ. Co. Dordrecht. * ^ Riebsame. W.E. (1991). "Sustainability of the Great Plains in an Uncertain Climate." _ Great Plains Research_ Vol.1 No.1, University of Nebraska

FURTHER READING

_ Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
travel guide from Wikivoyage

* Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan_ * Archer, John H. _Saskatchewan: A History._ Saskatoon: Western Producer Prairie Books, 1980. 422 pp. * Bennett, John W. and Kohl, Seena B. _Settling the Canadian-American West, 1890–1915._ University of Nebraska Press, 1995. 311 pp. * Waiser, Bill. _Saskatchewan: A New History_ (2006) * Bocking, D. H., ed. _Pages from the Past: Essays on Saskatchewan History._ Saskatoon: Western Producer Prairie Books, 1979. 299 pp. * LaPointe, Richard and Tessier, Lucille. _The Francophones of Saskatchewan: A History._ Regina: University of Regina , Campion Coll., 1988. 329 pp. * Lipset, Seymour M. _Agrarian Socialism: The Cooperative Commonwealth Federation in Saskatchewan: A Study in Political Sociology._ University of California Press, 1950. * Martin, Robin _Shades of Right: Nativist and Fascist Politics in Canada, 1920–1940_, University of Toronto
Toronto
Press , 1992. * Porter, Jene M (2008). _Perspectives of Saskatchewan_. University of Manitoba
Manitoba
Press. ISBN 978-0-88755-183-3 . * Veldhuis, Niels (2009). " Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
Prosperity: Building on Success". Fraser Institute.

* Grams, Grant W.: _Der Volksverein deutsch-canadischer Katholiken, the rise and fall of a German-Catholic Cultural and Immigration Society, 1909-1952_, in Nelson H. Minnich (ed.) The Catholic Historical Review, 2013. * Grams, Grant W.: _Deportation from Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
during the Great Depression, the case of H.P. Janzen_, in John D. Thiesen (ed.), Mennonite Life, 2010. * Grams, Grant W.: _The Deportation of German Nationals from Canada, 1919 to 1939_, in Peter S. Li (ed.), Journal of International Migration and Integration, 2010. * Grams, Grant W.: _Immigration and Return Migration of German Nationals, Saskatchewan