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Canadian Indian Residential School System
In Canada, the Indian residential school system was a network of boarding schools for Indigenous peoples. The network was funded by the Canadian government's Department of Indian Affairs and administered by Christian churches. The school system was created to isolate Indigenous children from the influence of their own native culture and religion in order to assimilate them into the dominant Canadian culture. Over the course of the system's more than hundred-year existence, around 150,000 children were placed in residential schools nationally. By the 1930s, about 30 percent of Indigenous children were attending residential schools. The number of school-related deaths remains unknown due to incomplete records. Estimates range from 3,200 to over 30,000, mostly from disease. The system had its origins in laws enacted before Confederation, but it was primarily active from the passage of the '' Indian Act'' in 1876, under Prime Minister Alexander MacKenzie. Under Prime Minis ...
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Canadian Confederation
Canadian Confederation (french: Confédération canadienne, link=no) was the process by which three British North American provinces, the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, were united into one federation called the Dominion of Canada, on July 1, 1867. Upon Confederation, Canada consisted of four provinces: Ontario and Quebec, which had been split out from the Province of Canada, and the provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Over the years since Confederation, Canada has seen numerous territorial changes and expansions, resulting in the current number of ten provinces and three territories. Terminology Canada is a federation and not a confederate association of sovereign states, which is what " confederation" means in contemporary political theory. It is nevertheless often considered to be among the world's more decentralized federations. The use of the term ''confederation'' arose in the Province of Canada to refer to proposals beginning in the 1 ...
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Child Displacement
Child displacement is the complete removal or separation of children from their parents and immediate family or settings in which they have initially been reared. Displaced children includes varying categories of children who experience separation from their families and social settings due to several varied reasons. These populations include children separated from their parents, refugees,Alfredson, Lisa, (2002) 'Child Soldiers, Displacement and Human Security', 4 Disarmament Forum pp. l 7-27 children sent to boarding schools,CWAB - Session 6.2 - Reasons for displacement
European Union – Canada project Child welfare across borders (2003)
internally displaced persons or IDPs, and ...
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Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island (PEI; ) is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is the smallest province in terms of land area and population, but the most densely populated. The island has several nicknames: "Garden of the Gulf", "Birthplace of Confederation" and "Cradle of Confederation". Its capital and largest city is Charlottetown. It is one of the three Maritime provinces and one of the four Atlantic provinces. Part of the traditional lands of the Miꞌkmaq, it was colonized by the French in 1604 as part of the colony of Acadia. The island was ceded to the British at the conclusion of the French and Indian War in 1763 and became part of the colony of Nova Scotia, and in 1769 the island became its own British colony. Prince Edward Island hosted the Charlottetown Conference in 1864 to discuss a union of the Maritime provinces; however, the conference became the first in a series of meetings which led to Canadian Confederation in 1867. Prince Edward Island ...
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New Brunswick
New Brunswick (french: Nouveau-Brunswick, , locally ) is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is one of the three Maritime provinces and one of the four Atlantic provinces. It is the only province with both English and French as its official languages. New Brunswick is bordered by Quebec to the north, Nova Scotia to the east, the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the northeast, the Bay of Fundy to the southeast, and the U.S. state of Maine to the west. New Brunswick is about 83% forested and its northern half is occupied by the Appalachians. The province's climate is continental with snowy winters and temperate summers. New Brunswick has a surface area of and 775,610 inhabitants (2021 census). Atypically for Canada, only about half of the population lives in urban areas. New Brunswick's largest cities are Moncton and Saint John, while its capital is Fredericton. In 1969, New Brunswick passed the Official Languages Act which began recognizing French ...
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Rankin Inlet
Rankin Inlet ( iu, Kangiqliniq; Inuktitut syllabics: ᑲᖏᕿᓂᖅ or ''Kangirliniq'', ᑲᖏᖅᖠᓂᖅ, or ''Kangir&iniq'' meaning ''deep bay/inlet'') is an Inuit hamlet on Kudlulik Peninsula in Nunavut, Canada. It is the largest hamlet and second-largest settlement in Nunavut, after the territorial capital, Iqaluit. On the northwestern Hudson Bay, between Chesterfield Inlet and Arviat, it is the regional centre for the Kivalliq Region. In the 1995 Nunavut capital plebiscite, Iqaluit defeated Rankin Inlet to become territorial capital of Nunavut. History Archaeological sites suggest the area was inhabited around 1200 A.D. by Thule people, bowhead whale hunters. By the late 18th century, they were succeeded by Caribou Inuit who hunted the inland barren-ground caribou, and fished for Arctic char along the coast, as well as the Diane River and Meliadine River. The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) established itself throughout the bay in the 17th century, and after 1717, ...
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Indian Reserve
In Canada, an Indian reserve (french: réserve indienne) is specified by the '' Indian Act'' as a "tract of land, the legal title to which is vested in Her Majesty, that has been set apart by Her Majesty for the use and benefit of a band." Indian reserves are the areas set aside for First Nations, an indigenous Canadian group, after a contract with the Canadian state ("the Crown"), and are not to be confused with land claims areas, which involve all of that First Nations' traditional lands: a much larger territory than any reserve. Demographics A single "band" (First Nations government) may control one reserve or several, while other reserves are shared between multiple bands. In 2003, the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs stated there were 2,300 reserves in Canada, comprising . According to Statistics Canada in 2011, there are more than 600 First Nations/Indian bands in Canada and 3,100 Indian reserves across Canada. Examples include the Driftpile First Natio ...
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Pass System (Canadian History)
The pass system (1885–1951) was a Canadian federal government Department of Indian Affairs (DIA) segregationist policy, first initiated on a significant scale in the region that became the three prairie provinces in the wake of the 1885 North-West Rebellion—as part of a series of highly restrictive measures—to confine Indigenous people to Indian reserves—newly-established through the numbered treaties. The "Indian pass system"—introduced as a temporary emergency measure to quell First Nations resistance—was formalized and became permanent under successive federal governments. In archived correspondence between the three federal officials who were the "most prominent in the development and implementation of Indian policy" in the 1880s and 1890s— John A. Macdonald (1815–1891), Edgar Dewdney (1835–1916), and Hayter Reed (1849–1936), it was evident that they were all cognizant of the lack of a legal basis for the pass system, and that it did not respect treaty ...
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Hayter Reed
Hayter Reed (May 26, 1849 – December 21, 1936) was a Canadian politician. He served on the 1st Council of the Northwest Territories. Early life Birth Hayter Reed was born in L'Orignal, Canada West, on 26 May 1849. His father was George Decimus Hayter, an immigrant from Surrey, England, a registrar for the United Counties of Prescott and Russell, who had married Hayter's mother, Harriet McKay, a Canadian born. Hayter Reed was one of two children; he had a sister named Louisa Reed. Family After Harriet McKay left George Decimus Reed, she travelled to the United States to live with her family. Harriet McKay took Louisa with her and left Hayter Reed with George Decimus Reed's sister's family, the Drapers. Thereafter George Decimus Reed died and Harriet McKay firmly eschewed any personal correspondence with Hayter Reed. Little else is known about George Decimus Reed, Harriet McKay, and Louisa Reed. Education With the support of his aunt and uncle, Hayter Reed attended U ...
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List Of Industrial Schools
Industrial schools teach vocational training and manual labour. {{incomplete list, date=June 2022 Canada * Victoria Industrial School for Boys (now the Mimico Correctional Centre) in Mimico, Ontario Ireland * St. Augustine's Industrial School for Girls run by the Sisters of Mercy in Templemore, County Tipperary, Ireland United States *Carlisle Indian Industrial School * Cleveland Industrial School * Denmark Industrial School *Downingtown Industrial and Agricultural School * Haines Normal and Industrial School in Augusta, Georgia * Hebrew Industrial School for Girls * Fort Valley High and Industrial School in Fort Valley, Georgia * Illinois Industrial School for Girls in Park Ridge, Illinois ( Hannah G. Solomon served as its president) * Iowa Industrial School for Girls in Mitchellville *Lakin Industrial School in Lakin, West Virginia * Morris Industrial School * Northern Normal and Industrial School Northern State University in Aberdeen, South Dakota * Vermont Industrial Sch ...
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Day School
A day school — as opposed to a boarding school — is an educational institution where children and adolescents are given instructions during the day, after which the students return to their homes. A day school has full-day programs when compared to after-school programs. A day school is a learning center whereby the learners usually goes back to their dwelling place daily and they do not dwell at the study center. It could be a secondary or tertiary day school. It could also be privately or government owned. Consequently, parents and guardians are not required to pay for accommodation and feeding fees, this is due to the non residential status of a day school. Day school helps the child to receiving a dual training from the home (parents, nuclear and extended family, friends and well wishers and from school environment (teachers, peers, and class mates) thereby helping them to practice what they have learned in school and gives them a spirit of exploration and enquiry into ...
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Mackenzie Bowell
Sir Mackenzie Bowell (; December 27, 1823 – December 10, 1917) was a Canadian newspaper publisher and politician, who served as the fifth prime minister of Canada, in office from 1894 to 1896. Bowell was born in Rickinghall, Suffolk, England. He and his family moved to Belleville, Ontario, in 1832. When in his early teens, Bowell was apprenticed to the printing shop of the local newspaper, the ''Belleville Intelligencer'', and some 15 years later, became its owner and proprietor. In 1867, following Confederation, he was elected to the House of Commons for the Conservative Party. Bowell entered cabinet in 1878, and would serve under three prime ministers: John A. Macdonald, John Abbott, and John Thompson. He served variously as Minister of Customs (1878–1892), Minister of Militia and Defence (1892), and Minister of Trade and Commerce (1892–1894). Bowell kept his Commons seat continuously for 25 years, through a period of Liberal Party rule in the 1870s. In 1892 ...
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