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Santiago
Santiago
(/ˌsæntiˈɑːɡoʊ/, Spanish: [sanˈtjaɣo]), or also known as Santiago
Santiago
de Chile
Chile
([sanˈtjaɣo ðe ˈtʃile] ( listen)), is the capital and largest city of Chile
Chile
as well as one of the largest cities in the Americas. It is the center of Chile's largest and the most densely populated conurbation. The city is entirely located in the country's central valley. Most of the city lies between 500 m (1,640 ft) and 650 m (2,133 ft) above mean sea level. Founded in 1541 by the Spanish conquistador Pedro de Valdivia, Santiago
Santiago
has been the capital city of Chile
Chile
since colonial times. The city has a downtown core of 19th-century neoclassical architecture and winding side-streets, dotted by art deco, neo-gothic, and other styles. Santiago's cityscape is shaped by several stand-alone hills and the fast-flowing Mapocho
Mapocho
River, lined by parks such as Parque Forestal. The Andes
Andes
Mountains can be seen from most points in the city. These mountains contribute to a considerable smog problem, particularly during winter. The city outskirts are surrounded by vineyards and Santiago
Santiago
is within a few hours of both the mountains and the Pacific Ocean. Santiago
Santiago
is the cultural, political and financial center of Chile
Chile
and is home to the regional headquarters of many multinational corporations. The Chilean executive and judiciary are located in Santiago, but Congress meets mostly in nearby Valparaíso. Santiago
Santiago
is named after the biblical figure St. James. Santiago
Santiago
will host the 2023 Pan American Games.[1]

Contents

1 Nomenclature 2 History

2.1 Pre-colonial history 2.2 Founding of the city 2.3 Colonial Santiago 2.4 Capital of the Republic 2.5 19th century 2.6 The centennial Santiago 2.7 Population explosion 2.8 Greater Santiago 2.9 The metropolis in the early twenty-first century

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Natural disasters

4 Environmental issues 5 Demographics 6 Economy

6.1 Commercial development 6.2 Commerce

7 Transport

7.1 Air 7.2 Rail 7.3 Inter-urban buses 7.4 Highways 7.5 Public transport

7.5.1 Metro 7.5.2 Commuter rail 7.5.3 Bus 7.5.4 Taxi 7.5.5 Santiago
Santiago
Public Transportation Statistics

7.6 Internal transport

8 Political divisions 9 Culture

9.1 Heritage and monuments 9.2 Cultural activities and entertainment 9.3 Museums and libraries 9.4 Music 9.5 Newspapers 9.6 Sports 9.7 Recreation 9.8 Religion

10 Education

10.1 Private High Schools 10.2 Higher education

10.2.1 Traditional 10.2.2 Non-traditional 10.2.3 Other

11 International relations

11.1 Twin towns and sister cities 11.2 Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities 11.3 Partner city

12 Gallery 13 References 14 Bibliography 15 External links

Nomenclature[edit]

Municipality of Santiago
Santiago
Commune

In Chile, there are several entities which bear the name of "Santiago" that are often confused. The Commune of Santiago, sometimes referred to as "downtown" or "Central Santiago" ( Santiago
Santiago
Centro), is an administrative division that comprises roughly the area occupied by the city during its colonial period. The commune, administered by the Municipality of Santiago
Santiago
and headed by a mayor, is part of the Santiago
Santiago
Province headed by a provincial governor, which is in itself a subdivision of the Santiago Metropolitan Region
Santiago Metropolitan Region
headed by an intendant. Despite these classifications, when the term "Santiago" is used without another descriptor, it usually refers to what is also known as Greater Santiago
Santiago
(Gran Santiago), a territorial extension defined by its urban continuity that includes the Commune of Santiago in addition to 36 other communes, which together comprise the majority of the Santiago
Santiago
Province and some areas of neighboring provinces (see Political divisions). The city and region's demonym is santiaguinos (male) and santiaguinas (female). History[edit] See also: Timeline of Santiago
Santiago
de Chile Pre-colonial history[edit] According to certain archaeological investigations, it is believed that the first human groups of the X millennium settled in the Santiago
Santiago
basin. The groups were mainly nomadic hunter-gatherers, who traveled from the coast to the interior in search of guanacos during the time of the Andean snowmelt. About the year 800, the first sedentary inhabitants began to settle due to the formation of agricultural communities along the Mapocho
Mapocho
River, mainly maize, potatoes and beans, and the domestication of camelids in the area. The villages established in the areas belonging to picunches groups (name given by Chileans) or promaucaes (name given by Incas), were subject to the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
throughout the late fifteenth century and into the early sixteenth century. The Incas settled in the valley of mitimaes, the main installation settled in the center of the present city, with strengths as Huaca de Chena
Huaca de Chena
and the sanctuary of El Plomo hill. The area would have served as a basis for the failed Inca expeditions southward road junction as the Inca Trail. Founding of the city[edit]

1541 founding of Santiago. Painting by Pedro Lira

Inés de Suárez, successfully defending Santiago
Santiago
against a Mapuche attack in 1541

Having been sent by Francisco Pizarro
Francisco Pizarro
from Peru
Peru
and having made the long journey from Cuzco, Extremadura
Extremadura
conquistador Pedro de Valdivia reached the valley of the Mapocho
Mapocho
on 13 December 1540. The hosts of Valdivia camped by the river in the slopes of the Tupahue hill and slowly began to interact with the picunches natives who inhabited the area. Valdivia later summoned the chiefs of the area to a parliament, where he explained his intention to found a city on behalf of the king Carlos I of Spain, which would be the capital of his governorship of Nueva Extremadura. The natives accepted and even recommended the foundation of the town on a small island between two branches of the river next to a small hill called Huelén. On 12 February 1541, Valdivia officially founded the city of Santiago del Nuevo Extremo ( Santiago
Santiago
of New Extremadura) in honor of St. James, patron saint of Spain, near the Huelén, renamed by the conqueror as "St. Lucia". (The name Santiago
Santiago
is the local Galician evolution of Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
Sanctu Iacobu, "Saint James".) Following colonial rule, Valdivia entrusted the layout of the new town to master builder Pedro de Gamboa, who would design the city grid layout. In the center of the city, Gamboa designed a Plaza Mayor, around which various plots for the Cathedral and the governor's house were selected. In total, eight blocks from north to south, and ten from east to west, were built. Each solar (quarter block) was given to the settlers, who built houses of mud and straw. Valdivia left months later to the south with his troops, beginning the War of Arauco. Santiago
Santiago
was left unprotected. The indigenous hosts of Michimalonco
Michimalonco
used this to their advantage, and attacked the fledgling city. On 11 September 1541, the city was destroyed by the natives, but the 55 Spanish Garrison managed to defend the fort. The resistance was led by Inés de Suárez, a mistress to Valdivia. When she realized they were being overrun, she ordered the execution of all native prisoners, and proceeded to put their heads on pikes and also threw a few heads to the natives. In face of this barbaric act, the natives dispersed in terror. The city would be slowly rebuilt, giving prominence to the newly founded Concepción, where the Royal Audiencia of Chile
Chile
was then founded in 1565. However, the constant danger faced by Concepción, due partly to its proximity to the War of Arauco
War of Arauco
and also to a succession of devastating earthquakes, would not allow the definitive establishment of the Royal Court in Santiago
Santiago
until 1607. This establishment reaffirmed the city's role as capital. Colonial Santiago[edit]

Map of Santiago
Santiago
at the beginning of the colonial 18th century.

The Calicanto bridge over the Mapocho river
Mapocho river
was the main symbol of the city of Santiago
Santiago
after its inauguration in 1779.

Although early Santiago
Santiago
appeared to be in imminent danger of permanent destruction, threatened by Indigenous attacks, earthquakes, and a series of floods, the city began to grow rapidly. Of the 126 blocks designed by Gamboa in 1558, forty were occupied, and in 1580, the first major buildings in the city began to rise, the start of construction highlighted with the placing of the foundation stone of the first Cathedral in 1561 and the building of the church of San Francisco in 1572. Both of these constructions consisted of mainly adobe and stone. In addition to construction of important buildings, the city began to develop as nearby lands welcomed tens of thousands of livestock. A series of disasters impeded the development of the city during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries: an earthquake, a 1575 smallpox epidemic, in 1590, 1608, and 1618, the Mapocho River
Mapocho River
floods, and, finally, the earthquake of 13 May 1647, which killed over 600 people and affected more than five thousand others. However these disasters would not stop the growth of the capital of the Captaincy General of Chile
Chile
at a time when all the power of the country was centered on the Plaza de Armas santiaguina. In 1767, the corregidor Luis Manuel de Zañartu, launched one of the most important architectural works of the entire colonial period, Calicanto Bridge, effectively connecting the city to La Chimba on the north side of the river, and began the construction of embankments to prevent overflows of the Mapocho
Mapocho
River. Although its builders were able to complete the bridge, the piers were constantly being damaged by the river. In 1780, Governor Agustín de Jáuregui
Agustín de Jáuregui
hired the Italian architect Joaquín Toesca, who would design, among other important works, the façade of the cathedral, the Palacio de La Moneda, the canal San Carlos, and the final construction of the embankments during the government of Ambrosio O'Higgins. These important works were opened permanently in 1798. The O'Higgins government also oversaw the opening of the road to Valparaíso
Valparaíso
in 1791, which connected the capital with the country's main port. Capital of the Republic[edit]

Battle of Maipú, 1818

18 September 1810 was proclaimed the First Government Junta in Santiago, beginning the process of establishing the independence of Chile. The city, which became the capital of the new nation, was threatened by various events, especially the nearby military actions. Although some institutions, such as the National Institute and the National Library, were installed in the Patria Vieja, they were closed after the patriot defeat at the Battle of Rancagua
Battle of Rancagua
in 1814. The royal government lasted until 1817, when the Army of the Andes
Andes
secured victory in battle of Chacabuco, reinstating the patriot government in Santiago. Independence, however, was not assured. The Spanish army gained new victories in 1818 and headed for Santiago, but their march was definitively halted on the plains of the Maipo River, during the Battle of Maipú
Battle of Maipú
on 5 April 1818.

La Alameda, Santiago
Santiago
in 1860

With the end of the war, Bernardo O'Higgins
Bernardo O'Higgins
was accepted as Supreme Director and, like his father, began a number of important works for the city. During the call Patria Nueva, closed institutions reopened. The General Cemetery opened, work on the canal San Carlos was completed, and, in the south arm of the Mapocho
Mapocho
River, known as La Cañada, the drying riverbed, used for sometime as a landfill, was turned into an avenue, now known as the Alameda de las Delicias. Two new earthquakes hit the city, one on 19 November 1822, and another on 20 February 1835. These two events, however, did not prevent the city's rapid, continued growth. In 1820, the city reported 46,000 inhabitants, while in 1854, the population reached 69,018. In 1865, the census reported 115,337 inhabitants. This significant increase was the result of suburban growth to the south and west of the capital, and in part to La Chimba, a vibrant district growing from the division of old properties that existed in the area. This new peripheral development led to the end of the traditional checkerboard structure that previously governed the city center. 19th century[edit]

Map of Santiago
Santiago
in 1895.

During the years of the Republican era, institutions such as the University of Chile
Chile
(Universidad de Chile), the Normal School of Preceptors, the School of Arts and Crafts, and the Quinta Normal, which included the Museum
Museum
of Fine Arts (now Museum
Museum
of Science and Technology) and the National Museum
Museum
of Natural History, were founded. Created primarily for educational use, they also became examples of public planning during that period. In 1851, the first telegraph system connecting the capital with the Port of Valparaíso
Valparaíso
was inaugurated.[2] A new momentum in the urban development of the capital took place during the so-called "Liberal Republic" and the administration of Mayor Benjamín Vicuña Mackenna. Among the main works during this period are the remodeling of the Cerro Santa Lucía
Cerro Santa Lucía
which, despite its central location, had been in a state of poor repair.[2] In an effort to transform Santiago, Vicuña Mackenna began construction of the Camino de Cintura, a road surrounding the entire city. A new redevelopment of the Alameda Avenue
Alameda Avenue
turned it into the main road of the city.

The Neptune Terrace, in the Santa Lucía Hill.

Also during this time and with the work of European landscapers in 1873, O'Higgins Park
O'Higgins Park
came into existence. The park, open to the public, became a landmark in Santiago
Santiago
due to its large gardens, lakes, and carriage trails. Other important buildings were opened during this era, such as the Teatro Municipal opera house, and the Club Hípico de Santiago. At the same time, the 1875 International Exposition was held in the grounds of the Quinta Normal.[3] The city became the main hub of the national railway system. The first railroad reached the city on 14 September 1857, at the Santiago Estación Central
Estación Central
railway station. Under construction at the time, the station would be opened permanently in 1884. During those years, railways connected the city to Valparaíso
Valparaíso
as well as regions in the north and south of Chile. The streets of Santiago
Santiago
were paved and by 1875 and there were 1,107 railway cars in the city, while 45,000 people used tram services on a daily basis. The centennial Santiago[edit]

The Plaza de Armas in 1906.

With the arrival of the new century, the city began to experience various changes related to the strong development of industry. Valparaíso, which had hitherto been the economic center of the country slowly lost prominence at the expense of the capital. By 1895, 75% of the national manufacturing industry was in the capital and only 28% in the harbor city, and by 1910, major banks and shops were set up in the streets of the city center, leaving Valparaíso. The enactment of the Autonomous Municipalities' act allowed municipalities to create various administrative divisions around the then Santiago
Santiago
departamento, with the aim of improving local ruling. Maipú, Ñuñoa, Renca, Lampa and Colina were to be created in 1891, Providencia and Barrancas in 1897, and Las Condes
Las Condes
in 1901. The La Victoria departamento was split with the creation of Lo Cañas in 1891, which would be split into La Granja and Puente Alto
Puente Alto
in 1892, La Florida in 1899, and La Cisterna
La Cisterna
in 1925. The San Cristobal Hill
San Cristobal Hill
in this period began a long process of development. In 1903 an astronomical observatory was installed and the following year the first stone was placed for its 14-meter Virgin Mary statue, nowadays visible from various points of city. However, the shrine would not be completed until some decades later. With the 1910 Chile
Chile
Centennial celebrations, many urban projects were undertaken. The railway network was extended allowing connection of the city with its nascent suburbs by a new rail ring and route to the Cajón del Maipo, while a new railway station was built in the north of the city: the Mapocho
Mapocho
Station. At the Mapocho
Mapocho
river's southern side, the Parque Forestal
Parque Forestal
was created and new buildings such as the Museum
Museum
of Fine Arts, the Barros Arana public boarding school and the National Library
Library
were opened. In addition, the work would include a sewer system, covering about 85% of the urban population. Population explosion[edit]

View of Ahumada, in the city center, in the late 1920s.

The 1920 census estimated the population of Santiago
Santiago
to be 507,296 inhabitants, equivalent to 13.6% of the population of Chile. This represented an increase of 52.47% from the census of 1907, i.e. an annual growth of 3.3%, almost three times the national figure. This growth was mainly due to the arrival of farmers from the south who came to work in factories and railroads which were under construction. However, this growth was experienced on the outskirts and not in the town itself.

Women prepare soup kitchens in 1932.

During this time, the downtown district was consolidated into a commercial, financial and administrative center, with the establishment of various portals and locales around Ahumada Street and a Civic District in the immediate surroundings of the Palace of La Moneda. The latter project involved the construction of various modernist buildings for the establishment of the offices of ministries and other public services, as well as commencing the construction of medium-rise buildings. On the other hand, the traditional inhabitants of the center began to migrate out of the city to more rural areas like Providencia and Ñuñoa, which hosted the oligarchy and the European immigrant professionals, and San Miguel for middle-class families. Furthermore, in the periphery villas were built various partners from various organizations of the time. Modernity expanded in the city, with the appearance of the first theaters, the extension of the telephone network and the opening of the Airport Los Cerrillos in 1928, among other advances.

View of Alameda in 1930.

The feeling that the early 20th century was an era of economic growth due to technological advances contrasted dramatically with the standard of living of lower social classes. The growth of the previous decades led to an unprecedented population explosion starting in 1929. The Great Depression
Great Depression
caused the collapse of the nitrate industry in the north, leaving 60,000 unemployed, which added to the decline in agricultural exports, resulting in a total number for the unemployed to be about 300,000 nationwide. These unemployed workers saw Santiago and its booming industry as the only chance to survive. Many migrants arrived in Santiago
Santiago
with nothing and thousands had to survive on the streets due to the great difficulty in finding a place they could rent. Widespread disease, including tuberculosis, claimed the lives of hundreds of the homeless. Unemployment and living costs increased dramatically whilst the salaries of the population of Santiago
Santiago
fell. The situation would change only several years later with a new industrial boom fostered by CORFO
CORFO
and the expansion of the state apparatus from the late 1930s. At this time, the aristocracy lost much of its power and the middle class, composed of merchants, bureaucrats and professionals, acquired the role of setting national policy. In this context, Santiago
Santiago
began to develop a substantial middle- and lower-class population, while the upper classes sought refuge in the districts of the capital. Thus, the old moneyed class trips to Cousino and Alameda Park, lost hegemony over popular entertainment venues such as the National Stadium emerged in 1938. Greater Santiago[edit]

Relative growth of Santiago, by communes[4]

1940 1952 1960 1970

Barrancas 100 223 792 1978

Conchalí 100 225 440 684

La Granja 100 264 1379 3424

Las Condes 100 197 506 1083

Ñuñoa 100 196 325 535

Renca 100 175 317 406

San Miguel 100 221 373 488

Santiago 100 104 101 81

In the following decades, Santiago
Santiago
continued to grow unabated. In 1940, the city accumulated 952,075 inhabitants, in 1952 this figure rose to 1,350,409 residents and the census of 1960 totaled 1,907,378 santiaguinos. This growth was reflected in the urbanization of rural areas on the periphery, where families of middle and lower class with stable housing were established: in 1930 the urban area had an area of 6500 hectares, which in 1960 reached 20,900 and in 1980 to 38,296. Although most of the communities continued to grow, it is mainly concentrated in outlying communities such as Canyon to the west, Conchalí
Conchalí
northern and La Cisterna
La Cisterna
and La Granja to the south. For the upper class, it began to approach the foothills of Las Condes
Las Condes
and La Reina sector. The center, however, lost people leaving more space for the development of trade, banking and government.

Extension of Greater Santiago, in 1965.

Regulation of the growth only began to be implemented during the 1960s with the creation of various development plans for Greater Santiago, a concept that reflected the new reality of a much larger city. In 1958 the Intercommunal Plan of Santiago
Santiago
was released. The proposed scheme set a limit of 38 600 urban and semi hectares for a maximum population of 3,260,000 inhabitants, included plans for the construction of new avenues, like the Américo Vespucio Avenue
Américo Vespucio Avenue
and Panamericana route 5, and the expansion of 'industrial belts'. The celebration of the World Cup in 1962 gave new impetus to implement plans for city improvement. In 1966 the Santiago Metropolitan Park
Santiago Metropolitan Park
was established in the Cerro San Cristóbal, MINVU began eradicating shanty towns and building new homes. Finally, the Edificio Diego Portales was constructed in 1972. In 1967 the new International Airport Pudahuel
Pudahuel
was opened, and, after years of discussion, in 1969 construction began on the Santiago
Santiago
Metro. The first phase ran beneath the western section of the Alameda and was opened in 1975. The Metro would become one of the most prestigious buildings in the city. In the following years it continued to expand, with two perpendicular lines in place by the end of 1978. Building telecommunications infrastructure was also an important development of this period, as reflected in the construction of the Torre Entel, which since its construction in 1975 has become one of the symbols of the capital and the tallest structure in the country for two decades. After the coup of 1973 and the establishment of the military regime, major changes in urban planning did not take place until the 1980s, when the government adopted a neoliberal economic model. In 1979, the master plan was amended. The urban area was extended to more than 62 000 ha for real estate development. This created urban sprawl, especially in La Florida, with the city reaching 40 619 ha in size in the early 1990s. The 1992 census showed that Santiago
Santiago
had become the country's most populous municipality with 328,881 inhabitants. Meanwhile, a strong earthquake struck the city on 3 March 1985. Although it caused few casualties, it left many people homeless and destroyed many old buildings. The metropolis in the early twenty-first century[edit]

The financial district in Santiago
Santiago
de Chile

Gran Torre Santiago
Gran Torre Santiago
tower.

Downtown Santiago
Santiago
Skyline

Financial center of Santiago
Santiago
in Las Condes
Las Condes
commune

Titanium Tower

With the start of the transition to democracy in 1990, the city of Santiago
Santiago
had surpassed the three million inhabitants, with the majority living in the south: La Florida was the most populous area, followed by Puente Alto
Puente Alto
and Maipú. The real estate development in these municipalities and others like Quilicura
Quilicura
and Peñalolen
Peñalolen
largely came from the construction of housing projects for middle-class families. Meanwhile, high-income families moved into the foothills, now called Barrio Alto, increasing the population of Las Condes
Las Condes
and giving rise to new communes like Vitacura
Vitacura
and Lo Barnechea. The Providencia Avenue
Providencia Avenue
area became an important commercial hub in the eastern sector. This development was extended to Barrio Alto, which became an attractive location for the construction of high-rise buildings. Major companies and financial corporations were established in the area, which gave rise to a thriving modern business center known as Sanhattan. The departure of these companies to Barrio Alto and the construction of shopping centers all around the city created a crisis in the city center. To reinvent the area, the main shopping streets were turned into pedestrian walkways, such as the Paseo Ahumada, and the government instituted tax benefits for the construction of residential buildings, which attracted young adults.

The expansion to the periphery forced the Santiago metro
Santiago metro
extension to the commune of Maipú and Puente Alto. here an Alstom NS 74 (centre) begins to leave a metro station, while an Alstom NS 93
NS 93
(far lower right) is nearing the same metro station.

The city began to face a series of problems generated by disorganized growth. Air pollution
Air pollution
reached critical levels during the winter months and a layer of smog settled over the city. The authorities adopted legislative measures to reduce industrial pollution and placed restrictions on vehicle use. The Metro was expanded considerably, current lines were extended and three new lines were built between 1997 and 2006 in the southeastern sector. A new extension to Maipú was inaugurated in 2011, at which point the metropolitan railway had a total length of 105 km. In the case of buses, the system underwent a major reform in the early 1990s. In 2007 master plan known as Transantiago
Transantiago
was established. It has faced a number of problems since its launch. Entering the twenty-first century, rapid development persisted in Santiago. The Civic District was renewed with the creation of the Plaza de la Ciudadanía
Plaza de la Ciudadanía
and construction of the Ciudad Parque Bicentenario to commemorate the bicentenary of the Republic. The development of tall buildings continues in the eastern sector, which culminated in the opening of the skyscrapers Titanium La Portada
Titanium La Portada
and Gran Torre Santiago
Gran Torre Santiago
in the Costanera Center
Costanera Center
complex. However, socioeconomic inequality and geosocial fragmentation remain two of the most important problems in both the city and the country. On 27 February 2010, a strong earthquake was felt in the capital, causing some damage to old buildings. However, some modern buildings were also rendered uninhabitable. This generated much debate about the actual implementation of mandatory earthquake standards in the modern architecture of Santiago.

Quartermaster Metropolitan, seat of government of Santiago Metropolitan Region

Night view of the financial sector of Santiago. At the center, the Gran Torre Santiago, the tallest building in Latin America. At the upper back, the lights of the three ski resorts of the central Andes.

Night view of the center of Santiago

Geography[edit]

Satellite image of Santiago
Santiago
taken by Landsat 8
Landsat 8
on 24 October 2014.

The city lies in the center of the Santiago
Santiago
Basin, a large bowl-shaped valley consisting of broad and fertile lands surrounded by mountains. The city has a varying elevation, gradually increasing from 400 m (1,312 ft) in the western areas to more than 700 m (2,297 ft) in the eastern areas. Santiago's international airport, in the west, lies at an altitude of 460 m (1,509 ft). Plaza Baquedano, near the center, lies at 570 m (1,870 ft). Estadio San Carlos de Apoquindo, at the eastern edge of the city, has an elevation of 960 m (3,150 ft). The Santiago
Santiago
Basin is part of the Intermediate Depression
Intermediate Depression
and is remarkably flat, interrupted only by a few "island hills"; among them are Cerro Renca, Cerro Blanco, and Cerro Santa Lucía. The basin is approximately 80 kilometres (50 miles) in a north–south direction and 35 km (22 mi) from east to west. The Mapocho River
Mapocho River
flows through the city. The city is flanked by the main chain of the Andes
Andes
to the east and the Chilean Coastal Range
Chilean Coastal Range
to the west. On the north, it is bordered by the Cordón de Chacabuco, a mountain range of the Andes. At the southern border lies the Angostura de Paine, an elongated spur of the Andes that almost reaches the coast. The mountain range immediately bordering the city on the east is known as the Sierra de Ramón, which was formed due to tectonic activity of the San Ramón Fault. This range reaches 3296 metres at Cerro de Ramón. The Sierra de Ramón represents the "Precordillera" of the Andes. 20 km (12 mi) further east is the even larger Cordillera of the Andes, which has mountains and volcanoes that exceed 6,000 m (19,690 ft) and on which some glaciers are present. The tallest is the Tupungato
Tupungato
mountain at 6,570 m (21,555 ft). Other mountains include Tupungatito, San José, and Maipo. Cerro El Plomo
Cerro El Plomo
is the highest mountain visible from Santiago's urban area. During recent decades, urban growth has outgrown the boundaries of the city, expanding to the east up the slopes of the Andean Precordillera. In areas such as La Dehesa, Lo Curro, and El Arrayan, urban development is present at over 1,000 metres of altitude.[5]

Ski Center El Colorado

Cerro San Cristobal

Santiago
Santiago
in winter

Santiago
Santiago
in summer

Climate[edit] Santiago, in the airport area of Pudahuel, has a cool semi-arid climate (BSk according to the Köppen climate classification), with Mediterranean (Csb) patterns: warm dry summers (November to March) with temperatures reaching up to 35 °C (95 °F) on the hottest days; winters (June to August) are cool and humid, with cool to cold mornings; typical daily maximum temperatures of 14 °C (57 °F), and low temperatures near 0 °C (32 °F). In climate station of Quinta Normal
Quinta Normal
(near downtown) the precipitation average is 312 mm, and in climate station of Tobalaba (in higher grounds near Andes
Andes
Mountains) the precipitation average is 347 mm. In both the climate observed is "warm temperate with long dry season", that is a Mediterranean (Csb) climate. In the airport area of Pudahuel, mean rainfall is 282 mm (11.10 in) per year, about 80% of which occurs during the winter months (May to September), varying between 50 and 80 mm (1.97 and 3.15 in) of rainfall during these months. That amount contrasts with a very dry season during the summer months between December and March, when rainfall does not exceed 4 mm (0.16 in) on average, caused by an anticyclonic dominance continued for about seven or eight months. There is significant variation within the city, with rainfall at the lower-elevation Pudahuel
Pudahuel
site near the airport being about 20 percent lower than at the older Quinta Normal
Quinta Normal
site near the city centre. Santiago’s rainfall is highly variable and heavily influenced by the El Niño Southern Oscillation
El Niño Southern Oscillation
cycle, with rainy years coinciding with El Niño events and dry years with La Niña events.[6] The wettest year since records began in 1866 was 1900 with 819.7 millimetres (32.27 in)[7] – part of a “pluvial” from 1898 to 1905 that saw an average of 559.3 millimetres (22.02 in) over eight years[8] incorporating the second wettest year in 1899 with 773.3 millimetres (30.44 in) – and the driest 1924 with 66.1 millimetres (2.60 in).[7] Typically there are lengthy dry spells even in the rainiest of winters,[6] intercepted with similarly lengthy periods of heavy rainfall. For instance, in 1987, the fourth wettest year on record with 712.1 millimetres (28.04 in), there was only 1.7 millimetres (0.07 in) in the 36 days between 3 June and 8 July,[9][10] followed by 537.2 millimetres (21.15 in) in the 38 days between 9 July and 15 August.[11] Precipitation
Precipitation
is usually only rain, as snowfall only occurs in the Andes
Andes
and Precordillera, being rare in eastern districts, and extremely rare in most of the city.[12] In winter, the snow line is about 2,100 metres (6,890 ft), and it ranges from 1500 metres (4900 feet) up to 2900 metres (9500 feet).[12] The city is affected only occasionally by snowfall. The period between 2000 and 2017 has been registered 9 snowfalls and only two have been measured in the central sector (2007 and 2017). The amount of snow registered in Santiago
Santiago
on July 15, 2017 ranged between 3.0 cm in Quinta Normal and 10.0 cm in La Reina
La Reina
(Tobalaba).[13]

Climate data for Comodoro Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport, Pudahuel, Santiago
Santiago
(1970–2000, extremes 1966–present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 37.7 (99.9) 36.6 (97.9) 36.8 (98.2) 32.3 (90.1) 31.1 (88) 26.7 (80.1) 28.2 (82.8) 29.9 (85.8) 32.9 (91.2) 33.3 (91.9) 34.7 (94.5) 35.0 (95) 37.7 (99.9)

Average high °C (°F) 29.4 (84.9) 28.9 (84) 26.9 (80.4) 22.8 (73) 18.2 (64.8) 14.8 (58.6) 14.3 (57.7) 16.2 (61.2) 18.4 (65.1) 22.0 (71.6) 25.3 (77.5) 28.1 (82.6) 22.1 (71.8)

Daily mean °C (°F) 20.7 (69.3) 19.9 (67.8) 17.8 (64) 14.3 (57.7) 10.9 (51.6) 8.3 (46.9) 7.7 (45.9) 9.2 (48.6) 11.3 (52.3) 14.2 (57.6) 17.0 (62.6) 19.5 (67.1) 14.2 (57.6)

Average low °C (°F) 11.8 (53.2) 11.1 (52) 9.4 (48.9) 6.9 (44.4) 4.9 (40.8) 3.3 (37.9) 2.5 (36.5) 3.4 (38.1) 5.2 (41.4) 7.2 (45) 9.0 (48.2) 10.9 (51.6) 7.1 (44.8)

Record low °C (°F) 2.7 (36.9) 1.2 (34.2) 0.7 (33.3) −2.6 (27.3) −5.9 (21.4) −6.5 (20.3) −6.8 (19.8) −6.2 (20.8) −4.5 (23.9) −2.8 (27) 0.7 (33.3) 3.2 (37.8) −6.8 (19.8)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 0.3 (0.012) 1.3 (0.051) 3.8 (0.15) 12.9 (0.508) 44.2 (1.74) 69.8 (2.748) 69.3 (2.728) 38.1 (1.5) 22.5 (0.886) 11.0 (0.433) 7.0 (0.276) 1.7 (0.067) 281.9 (11.098)

Average precipitation days 0 0 1 3 5 7 7 6 5 2 1 0 37

Average relative humidity (%) 57 60 65 71 80 84 84 81 78 71 63 58 71

Mean monthly sunshine hours 362.7 302.3 272.8 201.0 155.0 120.0 145.7 161.2 186.0 248.0 306.0 347.2 2,807.9

Mean daily sunshine hours 11.7 10.7 8.8 6.7 5.0 4.0 4.7 5.2 6.2 8.0 10.2 11.2 7.7

Source #1: Dirección Meteorológica de Chile[14][15]

Source #2: Universidad de Chile
Chile
(sunshine hours only)[16]

Temperatures vary throughout the year from an average of 20 °C (68 °F) in January to 8 °C (46 °F) in June and July. In the summer days are very warm to hot, often reaching over 30 °C (86 °F) and a record high close to 37 °C (99 °F), while nights are very pleasant and cool, at 11 °C (52 °F). During autumn and winter the temperature drops, and is slightly lower than 10 °C (50 °F). The temperature may even drop to 0 °C (32 °F), especially during the morning. The historic low of −6.8 °C (20 °F) was in July 1976.[15] Santiago’s location within a watershed is one of the most important factors determining the climate of the city. The coastal mountain range serves as a screen that stops the spread of maritime influence, contributing to the increase in annual and daily thermal oscillation (the difference between the maximum and minimum daily temperatures can reach 14 °C) and maintaining low relative humidity, close to an annual average of 70%. It also prevents the entry of air masses, with the exception of some coastal low clouds that penetrate to the basin through the river valleys.[citation needed] Prevailing winds are from the southwest, with an average of 15 km/h (9 mph), especially during the summer; the winter is less windy. Natural disasters[edit] Due to Santiago's location on the Pacific Ring of Fire
Pacific Ring of Fire
at the boundary of the Nazca and South American plates, it experiences a significant amount of tectonic activity.[17] The first earthquake on record to strike Santiago
Santiago
occurred in 1575, 34 years after the official founding of Santiago. The 1647 Santiago earthquake
1647 Santiago earthquake
devastated the city, and inspired Heinrich von Kleist's novel, The Earthquake In Chile.[17] The 1960 Valdivia earthquake
1960 Valdivia earthquake
and the 1985 Algarrobo earthquake
1985 Algarrobo earthquake
both caused damage in Santiago, and led to the development of strict building codes with a view to minimising future earthquake damage. In 2010, Chile
Chile
was struck by the sixth largest earthquake ever recorded, reaching 8.8 on the moment magnitude scale. 525 people died, of whom 13 were in Santiago, and the damage was estimated at 15–30 billion US dollars. 370,000 homes were damaged, but the building codes implemented after the earlier earthquakes meant that despite the size of the earthquake, damage was far less than that caused a few weeks earlier by the 2010 Haiti earthquake, in which at least 100,000 people died.[18] Environmental issues[edit] Santiago's air is the most polluted air in Chile.[19] In the 1990s air pollution fell by about one-third, but there has been little progress since 2000. A study by a Chilean university found in 2010 that Santiago
Santiago
pollution had doubled.[20] Particulate matter air pollution is a serious public health concern in Santiago, with atmospheric concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 regularly exceeding standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency
US Environmental Protection Agency
and World Health Organisation.[21] A final major source of Santiago
Santiago
air pollution, one that continues year-round, is the smelter of the El Teniente
El Teniente
copper mine.[22][23] The government does not usually report it as being a local pollution source, as it is just outside the reporting area of the Santiago Metropolitan Region, being 110 kilometres (68 mi) from downtown.[24][25]

During winter months, Thermal inversion
Thermal inversion
(a meteorological phenomenon whereby a stable layer of warm air holds down colder air close to the ground) causes high levels of smog and air pollution to be trapped and concentrated within the Central Valley. As of March 2007, only 61% of the wastewater in Santiago
Santiago
was treated,[26] which increased up to 71% by the end of the same year. However, in March 2012, the Mapocho
Mapocho
Wastewater Treatment Plant began operations, increasing the wastewater treatment capacity of the city to 100%, making Santiago
Santiago
the first capital city in Latin America
Latin America
to treat all of its municipal sewage.[27] The Mapocho
Mapocho
River, which crosses the city from the northeast to the southwest of the Central Valley, remains contaminated by household, agricultural, and industrial sewage, and by upstream copper-mining waste (there are a number of copper mines in the Andes
Andes
east of Santiago), which is dumped untreated into the river.[28] Laws exist which require industries and local governments to treat all wastewater discharges, but these regulations are often loosely enforced.[29] There are now a number of large wastewater processing and recycling plants under construction, and ongoing plans to decontaminate the river[30] and make it navigable.[31]

Panoramic view of northeastern Santiago, as seen from the hills of Parque Metropolitano in Providencia. Visible in the background are Apoquindo
Apoquindo
and Sierra de Ramón.

Demographics[edit] According to data collected in the 2002 census by the National Institute of Statistics, the Santiago
Santiago
metropolitan area population reached 5,428,590 inhabitants, equivalent to 35.91 per cent of the national total and 89.56 per cent of total regional inhabitants. This figure reflects broad growth in the population of the city during the 20th century: it had 383,587 inhabitants in 1907; 1,010,102 in 1940; 2,009,118 in 1960; 3,899,619 in 1982; and 4,729,118 in 1992.[32] (percentage of total population, 2007)[33]

Population of Santiago
Santiago
from 1820 to 2020 (projected).

The growth of Santiago
Santiago
has undergone several changes over the course of its history. In its early years, the city had a rate of growth 2.68% annually until the 17th century, then down to less than 2% per year until the early 20th century figures. During the 20th century, Santiago
Santiago
experienced a demographic explosion as it absorbed migration from mining camps in northern Chile
Chile
during the economic crisis of the 1930s. The population surged again via migration from rural sectors between 1940 and 1960. This migration was coupled with high fertility rates, and annual growth reached 4.92% between 1952 and 1960. Growth has declined, reaching 1.35% in the early 2000s. The size of the city expanded constantly; The 20,000 hectares Santiago
Santiago
covered in 1960 doubled by 1980, reaching 64,140 hectares in 2002. The population density in Santiago
Santiago
is 8,464 inhabitants/km2. The population of Santiago[32] has seen a steady increase in recent years. In 1990 the total population under 20 years was 38.04% and 8.86% were over 60. Estimates in 2007 show that 32.89% of men and 30.73% of women were less than 20 years old, while 10.23% of men and 13.43% of women were over 60 years. For the year 2020, it is estimated that the figures will be 26.69% and 16.79%. 4,313,719 people in Chile
Chile
say they were born in one of the communes of the Santiago
Santiago
Metropolitan Region,[32] which, according to the 2002 census, amounts to 28.54% of the national total. 67.6% of the current inhabitants of Santiago
Santiago
claim to have been born in one of the communes of the metropolitan area. 2.11% of the inhabitants are immigrants, mainly from other Latin American countries such as Argentina
Argentina
and Peru. Economy[edit]

Santiago
Santiago
skyline

The Gran Torre Santiago
Gran Torre Santiago
(Great Santiago
Santiago
Tower), part of the Costanera Center complex, is the tallest building in Ibero-America

Santiago
Santiago
financial center

Santiago
Santiago
is the industrial and financial center of Chile, and generates 45% of the country's GDP.[34] Some international institutions, such as ECLAC
ECLAC
(Economic Commission for Latin America
Latin America
and the Caribbean), have their offices in Santiago. The strong economy and low government debt is attracting migrants from Europe and the United States.[35] Santiago's steady economic growth over the past few decades has transformed it into a modern metropolis. The city is now home to a growing theater and restaurant scene, extensive suburban development, dozens of shopping centers, and a rising skyline, including the tallest building in Latin America, the Gran Torre Santiago. It includes several major universities, and has developed a modern transportation infrastructure, including a free flow toll-based, partly underground urban freeway system and the Metro de Santiago, South America's most extensive subway system. Commercial development[edit] The Costanera Center, a mega project in Santiago's Financial District, includes a 280,000-square-metre (3,000,000 sq ft) mall, a 300-meter (980 ft) tower, two office towers of 170 meters (558 ft) each, and a hotel 105 meters (344 ft) tall. In January 2009 the retailer in charge, Cencosud, said in a statement that the construction of the mega-mall would gradually be reduced until financial uncertainty is cleared.[36] In January 2010, Cencosud announced the restart of the project, and this was taken generally as a symbol of the country's success over the global financial crisis. Close to Costanera Center
Costanera Center
another skyscraper is already in use, Titanium La Portada, 190 meters (623 ft) tall. Although these are the two biggest projects, there are many other office buildings under construction in Santiago, as well as hundreds of high rise residential buildings. In February 2011, Gran Torre Santiago, part of the Costanera Center
Costanera Center
project, located in the called Sanhattan
Sanhattan
district, reached the 300-meter mark, officially becoming the tallest structure in Latin America.[37] Commerce[edit] Santiago
Santiago
is Chile's retail capital. Falabella, Paris, Johnson, Ripley, La Polar, and several other department stores dot the mall landscape of Chile. The east side neighborhoods like Vitacura, La Dehesa, and Las Condes
Las Condes
are home to Santiago's Alonso de Cordova street, and malls like Parque Arauco, Alto Las Condes, Mall Plaza
Mall Plaza
(a chain of malls present in Chile
Chile
and other Latin American countries) and Costanera Center are known for their luxurious shopping. Alonso de Cordova, Santiago's equivalent to Rodeo Drive or Rua Oscar Freire in São Paulo, has exclusive stores like Louis Vuitton, Hermès, Emporio Armani, Salvatore Ferragamo, Ermenegildo Zegna, Swarovski, MaxMara, Longchamp, and others. Alonso de Cordova also houses some of Santiago's most famous restaurants, art galleries, wine showrooms and furniture stores. The Costanera Center
Costanera Center
has stores like Armani Exchange, Banana Republic, Façonnable, Hugo Boss, Swarovski, and Zara. There are plans for a Saks Fifth Avenue in Santiago. Several mercados in the city such as the Mercado Central de Santiago
Mercado Central de Santiago
sell local goods. Barrio Bellavista
Barrio Bellavista
and Barrio Lastarria
Barrio Lastarria
have some of the most exclusive night clubs, chic cafés and restaurants. Transport[edit] Air[edit]

Comodoro Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport

Comodoro Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport
Comodoro Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport
(IATA: SCL) is Santiago's national and international airport and the principal hub of LATAM Airlines, Sky Airline, Aerocardal
Aerocardal
and JetSmart. The airport is located in the western commune of Pudahuel. The largest airport in Chile, it is ranked sixth in passenger traffic among Latin American airports, with 14,168,282 passengers served in 2012—a 17.04% increase over 2011.[38] It is located 15 km from the city centre. Santiago
Santiago
is also served by Eulogio Sánchez Airport
Eulogio Sánchez Airport
(ICAO: SCTB), a small, privately owned general aviation airport in the commune of La Reina. Peldehue airport in Colina is currently under construction and set to start operations in January 2019.[39] Rail[edit]

Central Station, with three X'Trapolis Modular trains

Empresa de los Ferrocarriles del Estado
Empresa de los Ferrocarriles del Estado
(EFE)

Trains operated by Chile's national railway company, Empresa de los Ferrocarriles del Estado (EFE), connect Santiago
Santiago
to several cities in the south-central part of the country: Rancagua, San Fernando, Talca (connected to the coastal city of Constitución by a different train service), Linares and Chillán. All such trains arrive and depart from the Estación Central railway station
Estación Central railway station
(Central Station), which can be accessed by bus or subway.[40] Inter-urban buses[edit] Bus
Bus
companies provide passenger transportation from Santiago
Santiago
to most areas of the country as well as to foreign destinations, while some also provide parcel shipping and delivery services. There are several bus terminals in Santiago:

Terminal San Borja: located in Metro station "Estación Central." Provides buses to all destinations in Chile
Chile
and to some towns around Santiago. Terminal Alameda: located in Metro station "Universidad de Santiago." Provides buses to all destinations in Chile. Terminal Santiago: located one block west of Terminal Alameda. Provides buses to all destinations in Chile
Chile
as well as to destinations in most countries in South America, except Bolivia. Terrapuerto Los Héroes: located two blocks east of Metro station "Los Héroes." Provides buses to south of Chile
Chile
and some northern cities, as well as Argentina
Argentina
(Mendoza and Buenos Aires) and Paraguay (Asunción). Terminal Pajaritos: located in Metro station "Pajaritos." Provides buses to the international airport, inter-regional services to Valparaíso, Viña del Mar
Viña del Mar
and several other coastal cities and towns. Terminal La Cisterna: located in Metro station "La Cisterna." Provides buses to towns around southern Santiago, Viña del Mar, Temuco
Temuco
and Puerto Montt. Terminal La Paz: located about two blocks away from the fresh fruit and vegetables market "Vega Central;" the closest Metro station is "Puente Cal y Canto." It connects the rural areas north of Santiago.

Highways[edit]

Costanera Norte Expressway

A network of free flow toll highways connects the various areas of the city. They include the Vespucio Norte and Vespucio Sur highways, which surround the city completing a nearly full circle; Autopista Central, the section of the Pan American highway crossing the city from north to south, divided in two highways 3 km (2 mi) apart; and the Costanera Norte, running next to the Mapocho River
Mapocho River
and connecting the international airport with the downtown and with the wealthier areas of the city to the east, where it divides into two highways. Other non-free flow toll roads connecting Santiago
Santiago
to other cities, include: Rutas del Pacífico (Ruta 68), the continuation of the Alameda Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins
Bernardo O'Higgins
Avenue to the west, provides direct access to Valparaíso
Valparaíso
and Viña del Mar; Autopista del Sol (Ruta 78), connects Melipilla
Melipilla
and the port of San Antonio with the capital; Autopista Ruta del Maipo (a.k.a. "Acceso Sur") is an alternative to the Pan American highway to access the various localities south of Santiago; Autopista Los Libertadores provides access to the main border crossing to Argentina, via Colina and Los Andes; and Autopista Nororiente, which provides access to the suburban development known as Chicureo, north of the capital. Public transport[edit]

Baquedano Metro station

Santiago
Santiago
has 37% of Chile's vehicles, with a total of 991,838 vehicles, 979,346 of which are motorized. 805,220 cars pass through the city, which is equivalent to 38% of the national total, and at a rate of one car for every seven people.[citation needed] An extensive network of streets and avenues stretching across Santiago
Santiago
facilitate travel between the different communities that make up the metropolitan area. In the 1990s the government attempted to reorganize the public transport system. New routes were introduced in 1994 and the buses were painted yellow. The system, however, had serious issues with routes overlapping, high levels of air and noise pollution, and safety problems for both riders and drivers. To tackle these issues a new transport system, called Transantiago, was devised. The system was launched in earnest on 10 February 2007, combining core services across the city with the subway and with local feeder routes, under a unified system of payment through a contactless smartcard called "Tarjeta bip!". The change was not well received by users, who complained of lack of buses, too many bus-to-bus transfers, and diminished coverage. Some of these problems were resolved, but the system earned a bad reputation which it hasn't been able to shake off. As of 2011[update], the fare evasion rate is stubbornly high.

Estación Central

The Metro de Santiago
Metro de Santiago
subway carries over two million passengers daily through its five lines (1, 2, 4, 4A, and 5), extending over 84 km (52 mi) and 108 stations. In 2011 a new extension to the commune of Maipú expanded the Metro to more than 105 km (65 mi) in length. Construction of two new lines (3 and 6) was confirmed recently by president Sebastián Piñera, and are expected to be operating in 2017 and 2018.[41] In recent years many cycle paths have been constructed, but so far the number is limited and with little connections between the routes. Most cyclists ride on the street, and the use of helmets and lights is not widespread, even though it is mandatory. Metro[edit]

Vicente Valdés station

Santiago Metro
Santiago Metro
map

Los Leones station

With 100 stations currently in operation and 40 other planned or under construction, the Santiago Metro
Santiago Metro
is South America's most extensive metro system. The system has five operating lines and carries around 2,400,000 passengers per day. Two underground lines (Line 4 and 4A) and an extension of Line 2 were inaugurated in 2005 and 2006, and line 5 in 2011.[42][43] The South Express Line, Line 6, will be finished by 2017, adding 10 stations to the network and approximately 15 km (9 mi) of track, and line 3 will be finished by 2018.[43] Commuter rail[edit] EFE provides suburban rail service under the brandname of Metrotren. There is only one southbound route, serving 18 stations between Santiago's Central Station and San Fernando, via Rancagua. The electrified service expands over 138 km (86 mi). About 10 daily trains operate the full distance in each direction, with up to 30 trains between Santiago
Santiago
and Graneros.[44] Bus[edit]

Transantiago
Transantiago
bus, with original color scheme (2005-2012)

C20 Transantiago
Transantiago
bus, with new color scheme (2012-Present)

Transantiago
Transantiago
is the name for the city's public transport system. It works by combining local (feeder) bus lines, main bus lines, commuter trains, and the Metro network. It includes an integrated fare system, which allows passengers to make bus-to-bus, bus-to-metro or bus-to-train transfers for the price of one ticket, using a contactless smartcard (bip!). Taxi[edit] Taxicabs are common in Santiago
Santiago
and are painted black with yellow roofs and have orange license plates. So-called radiotaxis may be called up by telephone and can be any make, model, or color but should always have the orange plates. Colectivos are shared taxicabs that carry passengers along a specific route for a fixed fee. Uber operates in Santiago
Santiago
and is a safe and reliable option.[citation needed] Santiago
Santiago
Public Transportation Statistics[edit] The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Santiago, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 84 min. 23% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 15 min, while 21% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 7.4 km, while 15% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.[45] Internal transport[edit]

Map of Santiago
Santiago
depicting main streets and airport.

As of 2006, Santiago
Santiago
was home to 992,000 vehicles, 979,000 of which were motorized. This made up 37.3% of Chile's total vehicle count. 805,000 cars passed through the city, which is 37.6% of the national total[clarification needed] or one car for every seven people.[46] The main road is the Avenida Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, better known as Alameda Avenue, which runs northeast and southwest. From north to south, it is crossed by Autopista Central
Autopista Central
and the Independencia, Gran Avenida, Recoleta, Santa Rosa, Vicuña Mackenna and Tobalaba avenues. Other major roads include the Avenida Los Pajaritos to the west and Providencia Avenue
Providencia Avenue
and Apoquindo
Apoquindo
Avenue to the east. Finally, the Américo Vespucio Avenue
Américo Vespucio Avenue
acts as a ring road. During the 2000s, several urban highways were built through Santiago in order to improve the situation for vehicles. The road General Velásquez and sections of the Pan-American Highway
Pan-American Highway
in Santiago
Santiago
were converted into the Autopista Central, while Amerigo Vespucci became variously the highways Vespucio Norte Express and Vespucio Sur, as well as Vespucio Oriente in the future. Following the edge of the Mapocho
Mapocho
River, Costanera Norte was built to link the northeast of the capital to the airport and the downtown area. All these highways, totaling 210 km in length, have a free flow toll system. Political divisions[edit] Greater Santiago
Santiago
lacks a metropolitan government for its administration, which is currently distributed between various authorities, complicating the operation of the city as a single entity.[47] The highest authority in Santiago
Santiago
is considered to be the intendant of the Santiago
Santiago
Metropolitan Region, an unelected delegate of the president. The whole of Greater Santiago
Santiago
does not fit perfectly into any administrative division, as it extends into four different provinces and 37 communes. The majority of its 641.4 km2 (247.65 sq mi) (as of 2002)[48] lie within Santiago Province, with some peripheral areas contained in the provinces of Cordillera, Maipo, and Talagante.

Note: Communes in the peripheries are not shown to their full extent.

Communes of Santiago
Santiago
Province

Santiago
Santiago
Centro

Cerrillos

Cerro Navia

Conchalí

El Bosque

Estación Central

Huechuraba

Independencia

La Cisterna

La Florida

La Granja

La Pintana

La Reina

Las Condes

Lo Barnechea

Lo Espejo

Lo Prado

Macul

Maipú

Ñuñoa

Pedro Aguirre Cerda

Peñalolén

Providencia

Pudahuel

Quilicura

Quinta Normal

Recoleta

Renca

San Joaquín

San Miguel

San Ramón

Vitacura

Communes in other provinces

Padre Hurtado

Pirque

Puente Alto

San Bernardo

San José de Maipo

Culture[edit] Only a few historical buildings from the Spanish colonial period remain in the city, because Santiago
Santiago
– like the rest of the country – is regularly hit by earthquakes. Extant buildings include the Casa Colorada (1769), the San Francisco Church (1586), and Posada del Corregidor
Corregidor
(1750). The Cathedral on the central square (Plaza de Armas) is a sight that ranks as high as the Palacio de La Moneda, the Presidential Palace. The original building was built between 1784 and 1805, and architect Joaquín Toesca
Joaquín Toesca
was in charge of its construction. Other buildings surrounding the Plaza de Armas are the Central Post Office Building, which was finished in 1882, and the Palacio de la Real Audiencia de Santiago, built between 1804 and 1807. It houses the Chilean National History Museum, with 12,000 objects that can be exhibited. On the southeast corner of the square stands the green cast-iron Commercial Edwards building, which was built in 1893. East of that is the colonial building of the Casa Colorada
Casa Colorada
(1769), which houses the Museum of Santiago. Close by is the Municipal Theatre of Santiago, which was built in 1857 by the French architect Brunet of Edward Baines. It was badly damaged by an earthquake in 1906. Not far from the theatre is the Subercaseaux Mansion and the National Library, one of the largest libraries of South America. The Former National Congress Building, the Justice Palace, and the Royal Customs Palace (Palacio de la Real Aduana de Santiago) are located close to each other. The latter houses the Museum
Museum
of pre-Columbian art. A fire destroyed the building of the Congress in 1895, which was then rebuilt in a neoclassical style and reopened in 1901. The Congress was deposed under the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet (1973–1989), and after the dictatorship was newly constituted on 11 March 1990, in Valparaíso. The building of the Justice Palace (Palacio de Tribunales) is located on the south side of the Montt Square. It was designed by the architect Emilio Doyére and built between 1907 and 1926. The building is home to the Supreme Court of Chile. The panel of 21 judges is the highest judicial power in Chile. The building is also headquarters of the Court of Appeals of Santiago. Bandera street leads toward the building of the Santiago
Santiago
Stock Exchange (the Bolsa de Comercio), completed in 1917, the Club de la Unión (opened in 1925), the Universidad de Chile
Chile
(1872), and toward the oldest churchhouse in the city, the San Francisco Church (constructed between 1586 and 1628), with its Marian statue of the Virgen del Socorro ("Our Lady of Help"), which was brought to Chile
Chile
by Pedro de Valdivia. North of the Plaza de Armas ("Square of Arms", where the colonial militia was mustered) are the Paseo Puente, the Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
Church (1771), and the Central Market (Mercado Central), an ornamental iron building. Also in downtown Santiago
Santiago
is the Torre Entel, a 127.4-meter-high television tower with observation deck completed in 1974; the tower serves as a communication center for the communications company, ENTEL Chile. The Costanera Center
Costanera Center
was completed in 2009, and includes housing, shopping, and entertainment venues. The project, with a total area of 600,000 square meters, includes the 300-meter high Gran Torre Santiago (South America's tallest building) and other commercial buildings. The four office towers are served by highway and subway connections.[49]

Municipal Theatre of Santiago

Palacio de La Moneda

Contemporary Art Museum
Museum
of Santiago

Fine Arts Museum

Biblioteca Nacional de Chile

Former Congress Building

Heritage and monuments[edit]

The Metropolitan Cathedral is one of the most representative buildings of colonial architecture.

The statue of the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
at San Cristobal Hill
San Cristobal Hill
is one of the main symbols of the city.

Within the metropolitan area of Santiago, there are 174 heritage sites in the custody of the National Monuments Council, among which are archaeological, architectural and historical monuments, neighborhoods and typical areas. Of these, 93 are located within the commune of Santiago, considered the historic center of the city. Although no santiaguino monument has been declared a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by Unesco three have already been proposed by the Chilean government: the Incan sanctuary of El Plomo, the church and convent of San Francisco and the palace of La Moneda. In the center of Santiago
Santiago
are several buildings built during the Spanish domination and that mostly correspond to, as the Metropolitan Cathedral and the aforementioned church of San Francisco Catholic churches. Buildings of the period are those located on the sides of Plaza de Armas, as the seat of Real Audiencia, the Post Office or the Casa Colorada. During the nineteenth century and the advent of independence, new architectural works began to be erected in the capital of the young republic. The aristocracy built small palaces for residential use, mainly around the neighborhood Republica and preserved until today. To this other structures adopted artistic trends from Europe, as the Equestrian Club of Santiago, the head offices of the University of Chile
Chile
and the Catholic University, Central Station and the Mapocho Station, Mercado Central, join the National Library, Museum
Museum
of Fine Arts and the Barrio París-Londres, among others. Various green areas in the city contain within and around various sites of heritage character. Among the most important are the fortifications of Santa Lucia hill, the shrine of the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
on the summit of San Cristobal hill, the lavish crypt of the General Cemetery, Parque Forestal, the O'Higgins Park
O'Higgins Park
and the Quinta Normal Park. Cultural activities and entertainment[edit]

Municipal Theatre of Santiago.

Interior from Gabriela Mistral Cultural Center.

In Santiago's major theater companies are located, hosting several national and international projects, with the highest expression during the International Theatre Festival known as Santiago
Santiago
a Mil, which takes place every summer since 1994 and has gathered more than one million spectators. Also is the Planetarium at the University of Santiago
Santiago
de Chile. To carry out various cultural, artistic and musical events, there are several precincts within which highlight the Mapocho
Mapocho
Cultural Center, 100 Matucana Cultural Center, the Gabriela Mistral Cultural Center, Centro Cultural Palacio de La Moneda, the Movistar Arena
Movistar Arena
and the Caupolican Theater. On the other hand, the opera and ballet performances are permanently accepted by the Municipal Theatre of Santiago, located in the heart of the city and which has a capacity of 1500 spectators. There are 18 cinemas in the capital with a total of 144 rooms and over 32,000 seats, the projection centers than 5 arthouse add. For children and teenagers there are several entertainment venues, such as amusement park Fantasilandia, the National Zoo or the Buin Zoo on the outskirts of the city. The Bellavista, Brasil, Manuel Montt, Plaza Ñuñoa
Ñuñoa
and Suecia account for most of the nightclubs, restaurants and bars in the city, the main evening entertainment centers in the capital. In order to promote the economic development of other regions, the law prohibits the construction of a casino in the metropolitan region, but Nearby are the casino from the coastal city of Vina del Mar, 120 km from distance from Santiago, and Monticello Grand Casino in Mostazal, 56 kilometers south of Santiago, opened in 2008. Museums and libraries[edit] Santiago
Santiago
has a wealth of museums of different kinds, among which are three of 'National' class administered by the Directorate of Libraries, Archives and Museums (DIBAM): the National History Museum, National Museum
Museum
of Fine Arts and the National Museum
Museum
of Natural History. Most of the museums are located in the historic city center, occupying the old buildings of colonial origin, such as with the National History Museum, which is located in the Palacio de la Real Audiencia. La Casa Colorada
Casa Colorada
houses the Museum
Museum
of Santiago, while the Colonial Museum
Museum
is housed in a wing of the Church of San Francisco and the Museum
Museum
of Pre-Columbian Art occupies part of the old Palacio de la Aduana. The Museum
Museum
of Fine Arts, though it is located in the city center, was built in the early twentieth century, especially for housing the museum and in the back of the building was laid in 1947, the Museum
Museum
of Contemporary Art, under the Faculty of Arts of the University of Chile. The Quinta Normal Park
Quinta Normal Park
also has several museums, among which are the already mentioned of Natural History, Artequin Museum, the Museum
Museum
of Science and Technology and the Museo Ferroviario. In other parts of the city there are some museums such as the Aeronautical Museum
Museum
in Cerrillos, Museum
Museum
of Tajamares in Providence and the Museo Interactivo Mirador in La Granja. The latter opened in 2000 and designed mainly for children and youth has been visited by more than 2.8 million visitors, making it the busiest museum in the country. As for public libraries, the most important is the National Library located in downtown Santiago. Its origins date back to 1813, when it was created by the nascent Republic and was moved to its current premises a century later, also home to the headquarters of the National Archives. In order to provide more closeness to the population, incorporating new technologies and complement the services provided by public libraries and the National Library
Library
was opened in 2005 the Library
Library
of Santiago
Santiago
at Barrio Matucana.

The National Historical Museum, located in the Plaza de Armas in Santiago.

The National Museum
Museum
of Fine Arts, located next to Parque Forestal.

The National Museum
Museum
of Natural History, located in the Quinta Normal.

The National Library
Library
from La Alameda.

Music[edit] Santiago
Santiago
has two symphony orchestras:

Orquesta Filarmónica de Santiago
Santiago
(" Santiago
Santiago
Philharmonic Orchestra"), which performs in the Teatro Municipal (Municipal Theatre of Santiago) Orquesta Sinfónica de Chile
Chile
(" Chile
Chile
Symphony Orchestra"), part of the Universidad de Chile, performs in its theater.

There are a number of jazz establishments, some of them, including "El Perseguidor", "Thelonious", and "Le Fournil Jazz Club", are located in Bellavista, one of Santiago's "hippest" neighborhoods, though "Club de Jazz de Santiago", the oldest and most traditional one, is in Ñuñoa.[50] Annual festivals featured in Santiago
Santiago
include Lollapalooza
Lollapalooza
and the Maquinaria festival. Newspapers[edit] The most widely circulated newspapers in Chile
Chile
are published by El Mercurio and Copesa and have earned more than the 91% of revenues generated in printed advertising in Chile.[51] Some newspapers available in Santiago
Santiago
are:

El Mercurio La Tercera La Cuarta Las Últimas Noticias La Segunda The Clinic

Sports[edit] Santiago
Santiago
is home to some of Chile's most successful football clubs. Colo-Colo, founded on 19 April 1925, has a long tradition, and has played continuously in the highest league since the establishment of the first Chilean league in 1933. The club's wins include 30 national titles, 10 Copa Chile
Chile
successes, and champions of the Copa Libertadores tournament in 1991, the only Chilean team to have won this tournament. The club hosts its home games in the Estadio Monumental in the commune of Macul.

Estadio Nacional de Chile

Universidad de Chile
Chile
has 17 national titles and 4 Copa Chile
Chile
wins. In 2011 they were champions of Copa Sudamericana, the only Chilean team to have won this tournament. The club was founded on 24 May 1927, under the name Club Deportivo Universitario as a union of Club Náutico and Federación Universitaria. The founders were students of the University of Chile. In 1980, the organization separated from the University of Chile
Chile
and the club is now completely independent. The team plays its home games in the Estadio Nacional de Chile
Chile
in the commune of Ñuñoa. Club Deportivo Universidad Católica
Club Deportivo Universidad Católica
(UC) was founded on 21 April 1937. It consists of fourteen different departments. This team plays its home games in Estadio San Carlos de Apoquindo. Universidad Católica has 12 national titles, making it the third most successful football club in the country. It has played the Copa Libertadores
Copa Libertadores
more than 20 times, reaching the final in 1993, losing to São Paulo FC. Several other football clubs are based in Santiago, including Unión Española, Audax Italiano, Palestino, Santiago
Santiago
Morning, Magallanes and Barnechea. In addition to football, several sports are played in the city, tennis and basketball being the main ones. The Club Hípico de Santiago
Santiago
and the Hipódromo Chile
Chile
are the two horseracing tracks in the city. The city will hold a round of the all-electric FIA Formula E Championship in February 2018, on a temporary street circuit incorporating the Plaza Baquedano
Plaza Baquedano
and Parque Forestal[52]. It will be the first FIA sanctioned race in the country. The 2023 Pan American Games will be held in Santiago.[1] Recreation[edit] There is an extensive network of bicycle trails in the city, especially in the Providencia commune. The longest section is the Americo Vespuccio road, which contains a very wide dirt path with many trees through the center of a street used by motorists on both sides. The next longest path is along the Mapocho River
Mapocho River
along Andrés Bello Avenue. Many people use folding bicycles to commute to work.[53] The city's main parks are:

Cerro San Cristóbal
Cerro San Cristóbal
– San Cristóbal Hill, which includes the Chilean National Zoo Parque O'Higgins
Parque O'Higgins
– O'Higgins Park Parque Forestal
Parque Forestal
– Forestal Park, park located at the city center alongside Mapocho
Mapocho
river Cerro Santa Lucía
Cerro Santa Lucía
– Santa Lucía Hill Parque Araucano in Las Condes
Las Condes
adjacent to the Parque Arauco
Parque Arauco
shopping mall contains 30 hectares of gardens. It is closed for maintenance on Mondays. Parque Inés de Suarez, Providencia Parque Padre Hurtado
Padre Hurtado
(a.k.a. Parque Intercomunal)

There are ski resorts to the east of the city (Valle Nevado, La Parva, El Colorado) and wineries in the plains west of the city. Cultural venues include:

Museo de Bellas Artes – Fine Arts Museum Barrio Bellavista, cultural and bohemian neighborhood Central Station, railway station designed by Gustave Eiffel Víctor Jara Stadium Ex National Congress Plaza de Armas, central square Palacio de La Moneda, government palace Teatro Municipal (Municipal Theatre of Santiago), the principal opera house of the country. The main sport venues are Estadio Nacional (site of the 1962 World Cup final), Estadio Monumental David Arellano, Estadio Santa Laura, and Estadio San Carlos de Apoquindo.

Religion[edit]

Santiago's Metropolitan Cathedral

See also: Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Santiago
Santiago
de Chile As in most of Chile, the majority of the population of Santiago
Santiago
is Catholic. According to the National Census, carried out in 2002 by the National Statistics Bureau (INE), in the Santiago
Santiago
Metropolitan Region, 3,129,249 people 15 and older identified themselves as Catholics, equivalent to 68.7% of the total population, while 595,173 (13.1%) described themselves as Evangelical Protestants. Around 1.2% of the population declared themselves as being Jehovah's Witnesses, while 2.00% identified themselves as Latter-day Saints
Latter-day Saints
(Mormons), 0.25% as Jewish, 0.11% as Orthodox and 0.03% as Muslim. Approximately 10.4% of the population of the Metropolitan Region stated that they were atheist or agnostic, while 5.4% declared that they followed other religions.[54] In 2010 construction was initiated on the continental Bahá'í House of Worship for South America
South America
in the commune of Peñalolen.[55] Construction at the site nears completion and a dedication is planned for October, 2016.[56] Education[edit] The city is home to numerous universities, colleges, research institutions, and libraries. The largest university and one of the oldest in the Americas
Americas
is Universidad de Chile. The roots of the University date back to the year 1622, as on 19 August the first university in Chile
Chile
under the name of Santo Tomás de Aquino was founded. On 28 July 1738, it was named the Real Universidad de San Felipe in honor of King Philip V of Spain. In the vernacular, it is also known as Casa de Bello (Spanish: House of Bello – after their first Rector, Andrés Bello). On 17 April 1839, after Chile's independence from the Kingdom of Spain, it was renamed the Universidad de Chile, and reopened on 17 September 1843. The Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
Chile
(PUC) was founded in June 1888 and was ranked as the best school in Latin America
Latin America
in 2014.[57] On 11 February 1930 it was declared a university by a decree of Pope
Pope
Pius XI. It received recognition by the Chilean government as an appointed Pontifical University in 1931. Joaquín Larraín Gandarillas (1822–1897), Archbishop of Anazarba, was the founder and first rector of the PUC. The PUC is a modern university; the campus of San Joaquin has a number of contemporary buildings and offers many parks and sports facilities. Several courses are conducted in English. Ex-president, Sebastián Piñera, minister Ricardo Raineri, and minister Hernán de Solminihac all attended PUC as students and worked in PUC as professors. In the 2010 admission process, approximately 48% of the students who achieved the best score in the Prueba de Selección Universitaria matriculated in the UC.[58] Private High Schools[edit]

Vermont Academy Chile
Chile
Campus (Global Programs) International School Nido de Aguilas Saint George's College Colegio San Ignacio Colegio del Verbo Divino Colegio Cordillera de Las Condes Colegio Tabancura Colegio Villa Maria Academy The Grange School

Higher education[edit] Traditional[edit]

Universidad de Chile

Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile

Universidad de Chile
Chile
(U or UCH) Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
Chile
(PUC) Universidad de Santiago
Santiago
de Chile
Chile
(USACH) Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación
Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación
(UMCE) Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana
Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana
(UTEM) Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María
Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María
(UTFSM)

Non-traditional[edit]

Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez
Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez
(UAI) Universidad del Desarrollo
Universidad del Desarrollo
(UDD) Universidad Diego Portales
Universidad Diego Portales
(UDP) Universidad Alberto Hurtado (UAH) Universidad Central de Chile
Chile
(Ucen) Universidad Nacional Andrés Bello
Andrés Bello
(Unab) Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano (UAHC) Universidad de Ciencias de la Informática (UCINF) Universidad Mayor (UM) Universidad Finis Terrae Universidad de Los Andes Universidad Gabriela Mistral (UGM) Universidad del Pacífico Universidad de las Américas Universidad de Artes, Ciencias y Comunicación
Universidad de Artes, Ciencias y Comunicación
(UNIACC) Universidad San Sebastián (USS) Universidad Bolivariana

Other[edit]

Ruprecht Karls University of Heidelberg's Postgraduierten- und Weiterbildungszentrum der Universität Heidelberg in Santiago David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies (DRCLAS) Regional Office in Santiago Stanford
Stanford
Faculty in Santiago

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Chile Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Santiago
Santiago
is twinned with:

Ankara, Turkey
Turkey
(2000)[59] Manila, Philippines[60] Riga, Latvia[61]

Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities[edit] Santiago
Santiago
is part of the Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities[62] from 12 October 1982 establishing brotherly relations with the following cities:

Andorra
Andorra
la Vella, Andorra Asunción, Paraguay Bogotá, Colombia Buenos Aires, Argentina Caracas, Venezuela Guatemala
Guatemala
City, Guatemala Havana, Cuba Quito, Ecuador La Paz, Bolivia Lisbon, Portugal Lima, Peru Madrid, Spain Managua, Nicaragua Mexico
Mexico
City, Mexico Montevideo, Uruguay Panama
Panama
City, Panama Rio de Janeiro, Brazil San Jose, Costa Rica San Juan, Puerto Rico San Salvador, El Salvador Santiago, Chile Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Tegucigalpa, Honduras

Partner city[edit]

Paris, France
France
(1997, "Friendship Pact")

Gallery[edit]

Club de La Unión

Façade of the Santiago
Santiago
Stock Exchange

Basílica del Salvador

Paseo Bulnes, downtown Santiago

Paseo Ahumada, downtown Santiago

Entel Tower

A street in Santiago

References[edit]

^ a b https://www.insidethegames.biz/articles/1057486/santiago-confirmed-as-host-of-2023-pan-american-games ^ a b Anson Uriel Hancock (1893). A History of Chile. C. H. Sergel. p. 17.  ^ Martín (29 May 2007). "Past, present, and future images of a "green space" in the metropolitan area of Santiago" (in Spanish). Revista Urbanismo, Nº3. Archived from the original on 13 March 2007. Retrieved 18 May 2015.  ^ De Ramón, Armando (2000). Santiago
Santiago
de Chile
Chile
(1541–1991): Historia de una sociedad urbana (in Spanish). Santiago, Chile: Editorial Sudamericana. Memoria Chilena: MC0007069.  Archived 27 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Peaklist (2007). " Argentina
Argentina
and Chile
Chile
Central, Ultra-Prominences". Retrieved 24 June 2007.  ^ a b Rutllant, Josè and Fuenzalida, Humberto; ‘Synoptic Aspects of the Central Chile
Chile
Rainfall Variability Associated with the Southern Oscillation’; International Journal of Climatology, vol. 11 (1991), pp. 63–76 ^ a b Paskoff, Roland P.; ‘Geomorphological Processes and Characteristic Landforms in the Mediterranean Regions of the World’; Mediterranean Type Ecosystems; in Ecological Studies, Volume 7, 1973, pp 53–60 ^ Lliboutry, Louis; ‘Studies of the shrinkage after a sudden advance, blue bands and wave ogives on Glaciar Universidad (central Chilean Andes)’; Journal of Glaciology; vol. 3, Issue 24, pp. 261–270 ^ Luis Lazcano (23 November 2011). "Temperatura Mensual". 222.61. Retrieved 1 August 2015.  ^ Luis Lazcano (23 November 2011). "Temperatura Mensual". 222.61. Retrieved 1 August 2015.  ^ Luis Lazcano (23 November 2011). "Temperatura Mensual". 222.61. Retrieved 1 August 2015.  ^ a b René Garreaud-Salazar Impacto en la variabilidad de la línea de nieve en crecidas invernales en cuencas pluvio-nivales de Chile central. (in Spanish) Sociedad Chilena de Ingeniería Hidráulica, XI Congreso Chileno. Retrieved 20 January 2012. ^ Dirección Meteorológica de Chile
Chile
(13 August 2017). "Eventos de nieve en Santiago
Santiago
de Chile" (PDF). Retrieved 25 November 2017.  ^ "Estadistica Climatologica Tomo I" (PDF) (in Spanish). Dirección General de Aeronáutica Civil. March 2001. pp. 404–427. Retrieved 6 September 2013.  ^ a b "Temperatura Mensual Histórica de Pudahuel, Santiago. (330021)". Sistema de Administración de Datos Climatológicos (in Spanish). Dirección Meteorológica de Chile. Archived from the original on 3 June 2016. Retrieved 26 May 2016.  ^ "Tabla 4.6: Medias mensuales de horas de sol diarias extraídas del WRDC ruso (en (hrs./dia))" (PDF). Elementos Para La Creación de Un Manual de Buenas Prácticas Para Instalaciones Solares Térmicas Domiciliarias (in Spanish). Universidad de Chile. September 2007. p. 81. Retrieved 21 January 2015.  ^ a b Buchenau, Jürgen, and Lyman L. Johnson. Aftershocks: Earthquakes and Popular Politics in Latin America. Albuquerque: U of New Mexico, 2009. Print. ^ Snook, Margaret. "Chile's Earthquake: View from Santiago." The Guardian. The Guardian, 27 February 2010. Web. 30 September 2014 ^ Severe air pollution plagues Chilean cities Friday, 29 June 2007 – 21:00 UTC ^ Pamela Morales. "Chilean University Finds Santiago
Santiago
Pollution Has Doubled". The Santiago
Santiago
Times. Retrieved 27 January 2010.  ^ Valdez, Ana; et al. (2012). "Elemental concentrations of ambient particles and cause specific mortality in Santiago, Chile: a time series study". Environmental Health. 11 (1): 82. doi:10.1186/1476-069x-11-82.  ^ "Cipma.cl" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 September 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2010.  ^ "Bio.puc.cl". Retrieved 17 April 2010.  ^ Pedro Oyola. "the role of monitoring in air quality management" (PDF).  ^ "Conoma.cl". Conama.cl. 14 May 2008. Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2010.  ^ Revista Ecoamérica. "Cruzada ambiental por el Mapocho
Mapocho
limpio" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 16 February 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2008. permitirá pasar del 68 al 81% en el tratamiento de las aguas servidas  ^ "Informe anual de coberturas de servicios sanitarios" (PDF). Superintendencia de servicios sanitarios. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2013.  ^ El Mercurio. "Región Metropolitana saneará el 100% de aguas servidas al 2010" (in Spanish). Fundación Terram. Retrieved 11 February 2008.  ^ Comisión Regional Metropolitana del Medio Ambiente. "Agua, Recurso Escaso y Vital" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 28 July 2008. Retrieved 2 November 2008. se calcula que sólo el 77% de las industrias del país cumple con la norma de RILES existente  ^ " Mapocho
Mapocho
urbano limpio: El río soñado" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 June 2008. Retrieved 2 November 2008. Proyecto Mapocho
Mapocho
Urbano Limpio  ^ Fundación Futuro. "Proyecto Mapocho" (in Spanish).  ^ a b c Se consideran en total las comunas de la Provincia de Santiago, más Padre Hurtado, Pirque, Puente Alto
Puente Alto
y San Bernardo. Estas cifras no son equivalentes a la de la ciudad de Santiago
Santiago
pues excluyen ciertas áreas fuera de dichas comunas e incluyen algunas zonas rurales; sin embargo, representa a un 95,4% de la población total del área metropolitana. ^ INE. "Chile, proyecciones de población al 30 de junio (1990–2020): Región Metropolitana de Santiago". Archived from the original (XLS) on 12 June 2009. Retrieved 23 December 2007.  ^ "Santiago.cl". Santiago.cl. Archived from the original on 15 August 2009. Retrieved 17 April 2010.  ^ "Why You Should Move to Santiago, Chile". BrophyWorld. Retrieved 23 November 2011.  ^ "Reuters.com". In.reuters.com. 29 January 2009. Retrieved 17 April 2010.  ^ "La Segunda". La Segunda. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2011.  ^ "Estadisticas de trafico de pasajeros". Aeropuerto de Santiago. Archived from the original on 20 January 2014. Retrieved 22 December 2013.  ^ "Construccion aeródromo peldehue finalizará en enero 2019".  ^ [1] Archived 28 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Piñera anuncia construcción de dos nuevas Líneas del Metro para 2014 Nacional". La Tercera. 1 January 1990. Retrieved 13 March 2011.  ^ "Railway-technology.com". Railway-technology.com. Archived from the original on 10 December 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2010.  ^ a b "Metrosantiago.cl". Metrosantiago.cl. Retrieved 17 April 2010.  ^ "Website Metroten Santiago". Tmsa.cl. Archived from the original on 9 February 2010. Retrieved 17 April 2010.  ^ " Santiago
Santiago
Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, 2017.  Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. ^ Marcela Sariego Rivera; Rogelio Veloso Fiol (13 April 2007). "Anuario Parque de Vehículos en Circulación" (PDF) (in Spanish). Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 11 December 2007.  ^ Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
Chile
(2004), Boletín de Políticas Públicas: Una autoridad metropolitana para Santiago[dead link] ^ Alexander Galetovic; Pablo Jordán (Summer 2008). "Santiago: ¿Dónde estamos?, ¿Hacia dónde vamos?" (PDF) (in Spanish). Estudios Públicos.  ^ Emporis: Gran Torre Costanera Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. ^ " The Santiago Times – News and Current Affairs From Chile". The Santiago
Santiago
Times. Retrieved 1 August 2015.  ^ Torta para dos ¿Hasta cuando?, elciudadano.cl ^ Sebastián Varela (23 May 2017). "Es oficial: el 3 de febrero se correrá la Fórmula E en Santiago". La Tercera. Retrieved 21 January 2018.  ^ "Bicycles in Santiago, New York, and Tokyo". brophyworld.com. Retrieved 1 August 2015.  ^ "INE, Chile, 2002 Census". Ine.cl. Retrieved 17 April 2010.  ^ "Bahá'í Temple of South America". Archived from the original on 2 October 2015.  ^ Watkins, Katie. "In Progress: Bahá'í Temple of South America
South America
/ Hariri Pontarini Architects". archdaily.com. Arch Daily. Retrieved 2 February 2016.  ^ "Top 10 Universities in Latin America". Top Universities. Retrieved 8 February 2015.  ^ "Los Mejores Puntajes Prefieren la UC – DSRD – PUC". DSRD. Archived from the original on 5 March 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2011.  ^ "Kardeş Kentleri Listesi ve 5 Mayıs Avrupa Günü Kutlaması [via WaybackMachine.com]" (in Turkish). Ankara
Ankara
Büyükşehir Belediyesi – Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Archived from the original on 14 January 2009. Retrieved 21 July 2013.  ^ "About Manila: Sister Cities". City of Manila. Retrieved 24 November 2016.  ^ "Twin cities of Riga". Riga
Riga
City Council. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 27 July 2009.  ^ "Declaración de Hermanamiento múltiple y solidario de todas las Capitales de Iberoamérica (12-10-82)" (PDF). 12 October 1982. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 May 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2015. 

Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Santiago
Santiago
de Chile External links[edit]

Media related to Santiago
Santiago
de Chile
Chile
at Wikimedia Commons Santiago
Santiago
de Chile
Chile
travel guide from Wikivoyage  " Santiago
Santiago
de Chile". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 

v t e

Capitals of South America

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

Asunción, Paraguay Bogotá, Colombia Brasília, Brazil Buenos Aires, Argentina Caracas, Venezuela Cayenne, French Guiana
French Guiana
(France) Georgetown, Guyana King Edward Point, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
(UK)

La Paz
La Paz
(de facto) Sucre
Sucre
(de jure), Bolivia

Lima, Peru Montevideo, Uruguay Paramaribo, Suriname Quito, Ecuador Santiago, Chile Stanley, Falkland Islands
Stanley, Falkland Islands
(UK)

v t e

< Communes and municipalities in Santiago Metropolitan Region
Santiago Metropolitan Region
>

Santiago

Santiago Cerrillos Cerro Navia Conchalí El Bosque Estación Central Huechuraba Independencia La Cisterna La Florida La Granja La Pintana La Reina Las Condes Lo Barnechea Lo Espejo Lo Prado Macul Maipú Ñuñoa Pedro Aguirre Cerda Peñalolén Providencia Pudahuel Quilicura Quinta Normal Recoleta Renca San Joaquín San Miguel San Ramón Vitacura

Chacabuco

Colina Lampa Tiltil

Cordillera

Pirque Puente Alto San José de Maipo

Maipo Province

Buin Calera de Tango Paine San Bernardo

Melipilla

Alhué Curacaví María Pinto Melipilla San Pedro

Talagante

El Monte Isla de Maipo Padre Hurtado Peñaflor Talagante

v t e

Chilean cities with a population of over 150,000 (2002 census)

Greater Santiago

Puente Alto Maipú La Florida Las Condes San Bernardo Peñalolén Santiago Pudahuel La Pintana El Bosque Ñuñoa

Greater Concepción

Concepción Talcahuano

Greater Valparaíso

Valparaíso Viña del Mar

Greater La Serena

La Serena Coquimbo

Antofagasta Greater Temuco

Temuco Padre Las Casas

Rancagua
Rancagua
conurbation Greater Iquique

Iquique Alto Hospicio

Talca Arica Puerto Montt Chillán
Chillán
conurbation

v t e

American Capitals of Culture

2000 Mérida 2001 Iquique 2002 Maceió 2003 Panama
Panama
City Curitiba 2004 Santiago 2005 Guadalajara 2006 Córdoba 2007 Cusco 2008 Brasília 2009 Asunción 2010 Santo Domingo 2011 Quito 2012 São Luís 2013 Barranquilla 2014 Colima 2015 Mayagüez 2016 Valdivia 2017 Mérida

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 135444014 LCCN: n79077402 GND: 4122723-2 SELIBR: 164748 SUDOC: 156402610 BNF:

.