SANTIAGO DE CHILE ( ( listen )), or simply SANTIAGO, is the capital
and largest city of
Chile as well as one of the largest cities in the
Americas . It is the center of Chile's largest and the most densely
populated conurbation . The city is entirely located in the country's
central valley , at an elevation of 520 m (1,706 ft) above mean sea
Founded in 1541,
Santiago has been the capital city of
colonial times. The city has a downtown core of 19th-century
neoclassical architecture and winding side-streets, dotted by art
deco, neo-gothic, and other styles. Santiago's cityscape is shaped by
several stand-alone hills and the fast-flowing
Mapocho River , lined
by parks such as
Parque Forestal . The
Andes Mountains can be seen
from most points in the city. These mountains contribute to a
considerable smog problem, particularly during winter. The city
outskirts are surrounded by vineyards and
Santiago is within a few
hours of both the mountains and the Pacific Ocean.
Santiago is the cultural, political and financial center of
is home to the regional headquarters of many multinational
corporations. The Chilean executive and judiciary are located in
Santiago, but Congress meets mostly in nearby
Valparaíso . Santiago
is named after the biblical figure St. James .
* 1 Nomenclature
* 2 History
* 2.1 Pre-colonial history
* 2.2 Founding of the city
* 2.3 Colonial
* 2.4 Capital of the Republic
* 2.5 19th century
* 2.6 The centennial
* 2.7 Population explosion
* 2.8 Greater
* 2.9 The metropolis in the early twenty-first century
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Climate
* 3.2 Natural disasters
* 4 Environmental issues
* 5 Demographics
* 6 Economy
* 6.1 Commercial development
* 6.2 Commerce
* 7 Transport
* 7.1 Air
* 7.2 Rail
* 7.3 Inter-urban buses
* 7.4 Highways
* 7.5 Public transport
* 7.5.1 Metro
* 7.5.2 Commuter rail
* 7.5.4 Taxi
Santiago Public Transportation Statistics
* 7.6 Internal transport
* 8 Political divisions
* 9 Culture
* 9.1 Heritage and monuments
* 9.2 Cultural activities and entertainment
* 9.3 Museums and libraries
* 9.4 Music
* 9.5 Newspapers
* 9.6 Sports
* 9.7 Recreation
* 9.8 Religion
* 10 Education
* 10.1 Private High Schools
* 10.2 Higher education
* 10.2.1 Traditional
* 10.2.2 Non-traditional
* 10.2.3 Other
* 11 International relations
Twin towns and sister cities
Twin towns and sister cities
Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities
* 11.3 Partner city
* 12 Gallery
* 13 References
* 14 Bibliography
* 15 External links
In Chile, there are several entities which bear the name of
"Santiago" that are often confused. The COMMUNE OF SANTIAGO ,
sometimes referred to as "downtown" or "Central Santiago" (Santiago
Centro), is an administrative division that comprises roughly the area
occupied by the city during its colonial period. The commune,
administered by the Municipality of
Santiago and headed by a mayor, is
part of the SANTIAGO PROVINCE headed by a provincial governor, which
is in itself a subdivision of the SANTIAGO METROPOLITAN REGION headed
by an intendant . Despite these classifications, when the term
"Santiago" is used without another descriptor, it usually refers to
what is also known as GREATER SANTIAGO (Gran Santiago), a territorial
extension defined by its urban continuity that includes the Commune of
Santiago in addition to 36 other communes, which together comprise the
majority of the
Santiago Province and some areas of neighboring
provinces (see Political divisions ).
The city and region's demonym is santiaguinos (male) and santiaguinas
See also: Timeline of
According to certain archaeological investigations, it is believed
that the first human groups of the X millennium settled in the
Santiago basin. The groups were mainly nomadic hunter-gatherers, who
traveled from the coast to the interior in search of guanacos during
the time of the Andean snowmelt. About the year 800, the first
sedentary inhabitants began to settle due to the formation of
agricultural communities along the
Mapocho River , mainly maize ,
potatoes and beans , and the domestication of camelids in the area.
The villages established in the areas belonging to picunches groups
(name given by Chileans) or promaucaes (name given by Incas), were
subject to the
Inca Empire throughout the late fifteenth century and
into the early sixteenth century. The Incas settled in the valley of
mitimaes , the main installation settled in the center of the present
city, with strengths as
Huaca de Chena and the sanctuary of El Plomo
hill . The area would have served as a basis for the failed Inca
expeditions southward road junction as the Inca Trail .
FOUNDING OF THE CITY
1541 founding of Santiago. Painting by
Pedro Lira Inés
de Suárez , successfully defending
Santiago against a Mapuche attack
Having been sent by
Francisco Pizarro from
Peru and having made the
long journey from
Extremadura conquistador Pedro de Valdivia
reached the valley of the
Mapocho on 13 December 1540. The hosts of
Valdivia camped by the river in the slopes of the Tupahue hill and
slowly began to interact with the picunches natives who inhabited the
area. Valdivia later summoned the chiefs of the area to a parliament,
where he explained his intention to found a city on behalf of the king
Carlos I of
Spain , which would be the capital of his governorship of
Extremadura . The natives accepted and even recommended the
foundation of the town on a small island between two branches of the
river next to a small hill called Huelén .
On 12 February 1541, Valdivia officially founded the city of Santiago
del Nuevo Extremo (
Santiago of New Extremadura) in honor of St. James
, patron saint of
Spain , near the Huelén, renamed by the conqueror
as "St. Lucia". (The name
Santiago is the local Galician evolution of
Vulgar Latin Sanctu Iacobu, "Saint James ".) Following colonial rule,
Valdivia entrusted the layout of the new town to master builder Pedro
de Gamboa , who would design the city grid layout . In the center of
the city, Gamboa designed a Plaza Mayor , around which various plots
for the Cathedral and the governor 's house were selected. In total,
eight blocks from north to south, and ten from east to west, were
built. Each solar (quarter block) was given to the settlers, who built
houses of mud and straw.
Valdivia left months later to the south with his troops, beginning
War of Arauco .
Santiago was left unprotected. The indigenous
Michimalonco used this to their advantage, and attacked the
fledgling city. On 11 September 1541, the city was destroyed by the
natives, but the 55 Spanish Garrison managed to defend the fort. The
resistance was led by
Inés de Suárez , a mistress to Valdivia. When
she realized they were being overrun, she ordered the execution of all
native prisoners, and proceeded to put their heads on pikes and also
threw a few heads to the natives. In face of this barbaric act, the
natives dispersed in terror. The city would be slowly rebuilt, giving
prominence to the newly founded Concepción , where the Royal
Chile was then founded in 1565. However, the constant
danger faced by Concepción, due partly to its proximity to the War of
Arauco and also to a succession of devastating earthquakes, would not
allow the definitive establishment of the Royal Court in Santiago
until 1607. This establishment reaffirmed the city's role as capital.
Santiago at the beginning of the colonial 18th century.
The Calicanto bridge over the
Mapocho river was the main symbol
of the city of
Santiago after its inauguration in 1779.
Santiago appeared to be in imminent danger of
permanent destruction, threatened by Indigenous attacks, earthquakes,
and a series of floods , the city began to grow rapidly. Of the 126
blocks designed by Gamboa in 1558, forty were occupied, and in 1580,
the first major buildings in the city began to rise, the start of
construction highlighted with the placing of the foundation stone of
the first Cathedral in 1561 and the building of the church of San
Francisco in 1572. Both of these constructions consisted of mainly
adobe and stone. In addition to construction of important buildings,
the city began to develop as nearby lands welcomed tens of thousands
A series of disasters impeded the development of the city during the
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries: an earthquake , a 1575 smallpox
epidemic , in 1590, 1608, and 1618, the
Mapocho River floods, and,
finally, the earthquake of 13 May 1647, which killed over 600 people
and affected more than five thousand others. However these disasters
would not stop the growth of the capital of the Captaincy General of
Chile at a time when all the power of the country was centered on the
Plaza de Armas santiaguina.
In 1767, the corregidor Luis Manuel de Zañartu , launched one of the
most important architectural works of the entire colonial period,
Calicanto Bridge , effectively allowing the city to join La Chimba to
north of the river, and began the construction of embankments to
prevent overflows of the
Mapocho River. Although the bridge was able
to be built, the stems were constantly destroyed by the river. In
Agustín de Jáuregui hired the Italian architect
Joaquín Toesca , who would design, among other important works, the
façade of the cathedral, the
Palacio de La Moneda
Palacio de La Moneda , the canal San
Carlos , and the final construction of the embankments during the
government of Ambrosio O\'Higgins . These important works were opened
permanently in 1798. The O'Higgins government also oversaw the opening
of the road to
Valparaíso in 1791, which connected the capital with
the country's main port.
CAPITAL OF THE REPUBLIC
Battle of Maipú
Battle of Maipú , 1818
18 September 1810 was proclaimed the First Government Junta in
Santiago, beginning the process of establishing the independence of
Chile . The city, which became the capital of the new nation, was
threatened by various events, especially the nearby military actions .
Although some institutions, such as the National Institute and the
Library , were installed in the
Patria Vieja , they were
closed after the patriot defeat at the
Battle of Rancagua in 1814. The
royal government lasted until 1817, when the
Army of the Andes secured
victory in battle of Chacabuco , reinstating the patriot government in
Santiago. Independence, however, was not assured. The Spanish army
gained new victories in 1818 and headed for Santiago, but their march
was definitively halted on the plains of the Maipo River, during the
Battle of Maipú
Battle of Maipú on 5 April 1818. La Alameda,
Santiago in 1860
With the end of the war, Bernardo O\'Higgins was accepted as Supreme
Director and, like his father, began a number of important works for
the city. During the call
Patria Nueva , closed institutions reopened.
The General Cemetery opened, work on the canal San Carlos was
completed, and, in the south arm of the
Mapocho River, known as La
Cañada, the drying riverbed, used for sometime as a landfill, was
turned into an avenue, now known as the Alameda de las Delicias .
Two new earthquakes hit the city, one on 19 November 1822, and
another on 20 February 1835. These two events, however, did not
prevent the city's rapid, continued growth. In 1820, the city reported
46,000 inhabitants, while in 1854, the population reached 69,018. In
1865, the census reported 115,337 inhabitants. This significant
increase was the result of suburban growth to the south and west of
the capital, and in part to La Chimba, a vibrant district growing from
the division of old properties that existed in the area. This new
peripheral development led to the end of the traditional checkerboard
structure that previously governed the city center.
Santiago in 1895.
During the years of the Republican era, institutions such as the
Chile (Universidad de Chile), the Normal School of
Preceptors, the School of Arts and Crafts, and the
Quinta Normal ,
which included the
Museum of Fine Arts (now
Museum of Science and
Technology) and the National
Museum of Natural History , were founded.
Created primarily for educational use, they also became examples of
public planning during that period. In 1851, the first telegraph
system connecting the capital with the Port of
A new momentum in the urban development of the capital took place
during the so-called "Liberal Republic" and the administration of
Benjamín Vicuña Mackenna
Benjamín Vicuña Mackenna . Among the main works during this
period are the remodeling of the
Cerro Santa Lucía which, despite its
central location, had been in a state of poor repair. In an effort to
transform Santiago, Vicuña Mackenna began construction of the Camino
de Cintura, a road surrounding the entire city. A new redevelopment of
Alameda Avenue turned it into the main road of the city. The
Neptune Terrace, in the
Santa Lucía Hill .
Also during this time and with the work of European landscapers in
1873, O\'Higgins Park came into existence. The park, open to the
public, became a landmark in
Santiago due to its large gardens, lakes,
and carriage trails. Other important buildings were opened during this
era, such as the Teatro Municipal opera house, and the Club Hípico de
Santiago . At the same time, the 1875 International Exposition was
held in the grounds of the Quinta Normal.
The city became the main hub of the national railway system. The
first railroad reached the city on 14 September 1857, at the Santiago
Estación Central railway station . Under construction at the time,
the station would be opened permanently in 1884. During those years,
railways connected the city to
Valparaíso as well as regions in the
north and south of Chile. The streets of
Santiago were paved and by
1875 and there were 1,107 railway cars in the city, while 45,000
people used tram services on a daily basis.
THE CENTENNIAL SANTIAGO
The Plaza de Armas in 1906.
With the arrival of the new century, the city began to experience
various changes related to the strong development of industry .
Valparaíso, which had hitherto been the economic center of the
country slowly lost prominence at the expense of the capital. By 1895,
75% of the national manufacturing industry was in the capital and only
28% in the harbor city, and by 1910, major banks and shops were set up
in the streets of the city center, leaving Valparaíso.
The enactment of the Autonomous Municipalities' act allowed
municipalities to create various administrative divisions around the
Santiago departamento, with the aim of improving local ruling.
Renca , Lampa and Colina were to be created in
1891, Providencia and Barrancas in 1897, and
Las Condes in 1901. The
La Victoria departamento was split with the creation of Lo Cañas in
1891, which would be split into La Granja and
Puente Alto in 1892, La
Florida in 1899, and
La Cisterna in 1925.
San Cristobal Hill in this period began a long process of
development. In 1903 an astronomical observatory was installed and the
following year the first stone was placed for its 14-meter Virgin Mary
statue, nowadays visible from various points of city. However, the
shrine would not be completed until some decades later.
With the 1910
Chile Centennial celebrations, many urban projects were
undertaken. The railway network was extended allowing connection of
the city with its nascent suburbs by a new rail ring and route to the
Cajón del Maipo , while a new railway station was built in the north
of the city: the
Mapocho Station . At the
Mapocho river's southern
Parque Forestal was created and new buildings such as the
Museum of Fine Arts , the Barros Arana public boarding school and the
Library were opened. In addition, the work would include a
sewer system, covering about 85% of the urban population.
View of Ahumada , in the city center, in the late 1920s.
The 1920 census estimated the population of
Santiago to be 507,296
inhabitants, equivalent to 13.6% of the population of Chile. This
represented an increase of 52.47% from the census of 1907, i.e. an
annual growth of 3.3%, almost three times the national figure. This
growth was mainly due to the arrival of farmers from the south who
came to work in factories and railroads which were under construction.
However, this growth was experienced on the outskirts and not in the
town itself. Women prepare soup kitchens in 1932.
During this time, the downtown district was consolidated into a
commercial, financial and administrative center, with the
establishment of various portals and locales around Ahumada Street and
a Civic District in the immediate surroundings of the Palace of La
Moneda . The latter project involved the construction of various
modernist buildings for the establishment of the offices of ministries
and other public services, as well as commencing the construction of
medium-rise buildings. On the other hand, the traditional inhabitants
of the center began to migrate out of the city to more rural areas
like Providencia and
Ñuñoa , which hosted the oligarchy and the
European immigrant professionals, and San Miguel for middle-class
families. Furthermore, in the periphery villas were built various
partners from various organizations of the time. Modernity expanded in
the city, with the appearance of the first theaters, the extension of
the telephone network and the opening of the Airport Los Cerrillos in
1928, among other advances. View of Alameda in 1930.
The feeling that the early 20th century was an era of economic growth
due to technological advances contrasted dramatically with the
standard of living of lower social classes. The growth of the previous
decades led to an unprecedented population explosion starting in 1929.
Great Depression caused the collapse of the nitrate industry in
the north, leaving 60,000 unemployed, which added to the decline in
agricultural exports, resulting in a total number for the unemployed
to be about 300,000 nationwide. These unemployed workers saw Santiago
and its booming industry as the only chance to survive. Many migrants
Santiago with nothing and thousands had to survive on the
streets due to the great difficulty in finding a place they could
rent. Widespread disease, including tuberculosis, claimed the lives of
hundreds of the homeless. Unemployment and living costs increased
dramatically whilst the salaries of the population of
The situation would change only several years later with a new
industrial boom fostered by
CORFO and the expansion of the state
apparatus from the late 1930s. At this time, the aristocracy lost much
of its power and the middle class, composed of merchants, bureaucrats
and professionals, acquired the role of setting national policy. In
Santiago began to develop a substantial middle- and
lower-class population, while the upper classes sought refuge in the
districts of the capital. Thus, the old moneyed class trips to Cousino
and Alameda Park, lost hegemony over popular entertainment venues such
as the National Stadium emerged in 1938.
RELATIVE GROWTH OF SANTIAGO, BY COMMUNES
In the following decades,
Santiago continued to grow unabated. In
1940, the city accumulated 952,075 inhabitants, in 1952 this figure
rose to 1,350,409 residents and the census of 1960 totaled 1,907,378
santiaguinos. This growth was reflected in the urbanization of rural
areas on the periphery, where families of middle and lower class with
stable housing were established: in 1930 the urban area had an area of
6500 hectares, which in 1960 reached 20 900 and in 1980 to 38 296
Although most of the communities continued to grow, it is mainly
concentrated in outlying communities such as Canyon to the west,
Conchalí northern and
La Cisterna and La Granja to the south. For the
upper class, it began to approach the foothills of
Las Condes and La
Reina sector. The center, however, lost people leaving more space for
the development of trade, banking and government Extension of
Greater Santiago, in 1965.
Regulation of the growth only began to be implemented during the
1960s with the creation of various development plans for Greater
Santiago, a concept that reflected the new reality of a much larger
city. In 1958 the Intercommunal Plan of
Santiago was released. The
proposed scheme set a limit of 38 600 urban and semi hectares for a
maximum population of 3,260,000 inhabitants, included plans for the
construction of new avenues, like the
Américo Vespucio Avenue and
Panamericana route 5 , and the expansion of 'industrial belts'. The
celebration of the World Cup in 1962 gave new impetus to implement
plans for city improvement. In 1966 the
Santiago Metropolitan Park was
established in the Cerro San Cristóbal, MINVU began eradicating
shanty towns and building new homes. Finally, the Edificio Diego
Portales was constructed in 1972.
In 1967 the new International Airport
Pudahuel was opened, and, after
years of discussion, in 1969 construction began on the
. The first phase ran beneath the western section of the Alameda and
was opened in 1975. The Metro would become one of the most prestigious
buildings in the city. In the following years it continued to expand,
with two perpendicular lines in place by the end of 1978. Building
telecommunications infrastructure was also an important development of
this period, as reflected in the construction of the
Torre Entel ,
which since its construction in 1975 has become one of the symbols of
the capital and the tallest structure in the country for two decades.
After the coup of 1973 and the establishment of the military regime ,
major changes in urban planning did not take place until the 1980s,
when the government adopted a neoliberal economic model. In 1979, the
master plan was amended. The urban area was extended to more than 62
000 ha for real estate development. This created urban sprawl,
especially in La Florida , with the city reaching 40 619 ha in size in
the early 1990s. The 1992 census showed that
Santiago had become the
country's most populous municipality with 328,881 inhabitants.
Meanwhile, a strong earthquake struck the city on 3 March 1985.
Although it caused few casualties, it left many people homeless and
destroyed many old buildings.
THE METROPOLIS IN THE EARLY TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY
Santiago Centro de la Ciudad Financial center
With the start of the transition to democracy in 1990, the city of
Santiago had surpassed the three million inhabitants, with the
majority living in the south: La Florida was the most populous area,
Puente Alto and Maipú . The real estate development in
these municipalities and others like
came from the construction of housing projects for middle-class
families. Meanwhile, high-income families moved into the foothills,
now called Barrio Alto , increasing the population of
Las Condes and
giving rise to new communes like
Lo Barnechea . Moreover,
although poverty began to drop significantly, there remained a strong
dichotomy between the thriving global city and scattered city slums.
Providencia Avenue area became an important commercial hub in the
eastern sector. This development was extended to Barrio Alto , which
became an attractive location for the construction of high-rise
buildings. Major companies and financial corporations were established
in the area, which gave rise to a thriving modern business center
Sanhattan . The departure of these companies to Barrio Alto
and the construction of shopping centers all around the city created a
crisis in the city center. To reinvent the area, the main shopping
streets were turned into pedestrian walkways, such as the Paseo
Ahumada , and the government instituted tax benefits for the
construction of residential buildings, which attracted young adults.
The expansion to the periphery forced the
Santiago metro extension
to the commune of Maipú and
Puente Alto .
The city began to face a series of problems generated by disorganized
Air pollution reached critical levels during the winter months
and a layer of smog settled over the city. The authorities adopted
legislative measures to reduce industrial pollution and placed
restrictions on vehicle use. The Metro was expanded considerably,
current lines were extended and three new lines were built between
1997 and 2006 in the southeastern sector. A new extension to Maipú
was inaugurated in 2011, at which point the metropolitan railway had a
total length of 105 km . In the case of buses , the system underwent a
major reform in the early 1990s. In 2007 master plan known as
Transantiago was established. It has faced a number of problems since
Entering the twenty-first century, rapid development persisted in
Santiago. The Civic District was renewed with the creation of the
Plaza de la Ciudadanía and construction of the Ciudad Parque
Bicentenario to commemorate the bicentenary of the Republic. The
development of tall buildings continues in the eastern sector, which
culminated in the opening of the skyscrapers
Titanium La Portada and
Gran Torre Santiago
Gran Torre Santiago in real the
Costanera Center complex. However,
socioeconomic inequality and geosocial fragmentation remain two of the
most important problems in both the city and the country.
On 27 February 2010, a strong earthquake was felt in the capital,
causing some damage to old buildings. However, some modern buildings
were also rendered uninhabitable. This generated much debate about the
actual implementation of mandatory earthquake standards in the modern
architecture of Santiago.
Quartermaster Metropolitan, seat of government of Santiago
Night view of the financial sector of Santiago. At the center, the
Gran Torre Santiago
Gran Torre Santiago , the tallest building in
Latin America . At the
upper back, the lights of the three ski resorts of the central
Night view of the center of
Satellite image of
Santiago taken by
Landsat 8 on 24 October
The city lies in the center of the
Santiago Basin, a large
bowl-shaped valley consisting of broad and fertile lands surrounded by
mountains. The city has a varying elevation, with 400 m (1,312 ft) in
the western areas and 540 m (1,772 ft) at the
Plaza Baquedano . It is
flanked by the main chain of the
Andes to the east and the Chilean
Coastal Range to the west. On the north, it is bounded by the Cordón
de Chacabuco, a mountain range of the Andes. The
Santiago are quite elevated; the tallest is the Tupungato
mountain at 6,570 m (21,555 ft). Other mountains include
San José , and Maipo .
Cerro El Plomo is the highest mountain visible
from Santiago's urban area. The
Mapocho River flows through the city.
At the southern border lies the Angostura de Paine, an elongated spur
Andes that almost reaches the coast. The
Santiago Basin is part
Intermediate Depression and is remarkably flat, interrupted
only by a few hills; among them are Cerro
Cerro Blanco , and
Cerro Santa Lucía . This basin is approximately 80 kilometres (50
miles) in a north–south direction and 35 km (22 mi) from east to
To the east stands the massive Sierra de Ramón, a mountain chain
formed at the foothills of the
Precordillera due to the activity of
San Ramón Fault , reaching 3296 metres at the Cerro de Ramón .
20 km (12 mi) further east is the Cordillera of the
Andes with its
mountain ranges and volcanoes, many of which exceed 6,000 m (19,690
ft) and in which some glaciers are present.
During recent decades, urban growth has outgrown the boundaries of
the city, expanding to the east closer to the Andean
In areas such as La Dehesa, Lo Curro, and El Arrayan, urban
development is present at over 1,000 metres of altitude.
Cerro San Cristobal
Santiago in winter
Santiago in summer
Santiago, in the airport area of Pudahuel, has a cool semi-arid
climate (BSk according to the
Köppen climate classification ), with
Mediterranean (Csb) patterns: warm dry summers (November to March)
with temperatures reaching up to 35 °C (95 °F) on the hottest days;
winters (June to August) are cool and humid, with cool to cold
mornings; typical daily maximum temperatures of 14 °C (57 °F), and
low temperatures near 0 °C (32 °F). In climate station of Quinta
Normal (near downtown) the precipitation average is 312 mm, and in
climate station of Tobalaba (in higher grounds near
the precipitation average is 347 mm. In both the climate observed is
"warm temperate with long dry season", that is a Mediterranean (Csb)
In the airport area of Pudahuel, mean rainfall is 282 mm (11.10 in)
per year, about 80% of which occurs during the winter months (May to
September), varying between 50 and 80 mm (1.97 and 3.15 in) of
rainfall during these months. That amount contrasts with a very dry
season during the summer months between December and March, when
rainfall does not exceed 4 mm (0.16 in) on average, caused by an
anticyclonic dominance continued for about seven or eight months.
There is significant variation within the city, with rainfall at the
Pudahuel site near the airport being about 20 percent
lower than at the older
Quinta Normal site near the city centre.
Santiago’s rainfall is highly variable and heavily influenced by
El Niño Southern Oscillation cycle, with rainy years coinciding
with El Niño events and dry years with La Niña events. The wettest
year since records began in 1866 was 1900 with 819.7 millimetres
(32.27 in) – part of a “pluvial” from 1898 to 1905 that saw an
average of 559.3 millimetres (22.02 in) over eight years
incorporating the second wettest year in 1899 with 773.3 millimetres
(30.44 in) – and the driest 1924 with 66.1 millimetres (2.60 in).
Typically there are lengthy dry spells even in the rainiest of
winters, intercepted with similarly lengthy periods of heavy
rainfall. For instance, in 1987, the fourth wettest year on record
with 712.1 millimetres (28.04 in), there was only 1.7 millimetres
(0.07 in) in the 36 days between 3 June and 8 July, followed by
537.2 millimetres (21.15 in) in the 38 days between 9 July and 15
Precipitation is usually only rain, as snowfall only occurs in the
Precordillera , being rare in eastern districts, and
extremely rare in most of the city. In winter, the snow line is about
2,100 metres (6,890 ft), and it ranges from 1500 metres (4900 feet) up
to 2900 metres (9500 feet).
CLIMATE DATA FOR COMODORO ARTURO MERINO BENíTEZ INTERNATIONAL
AIRPORT , PUDAHUEL, SANTIAGO (1970–2000, EXTREMES 1966–PRESENT)
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
MEAN DAILY SUNSHINE HOURS
Source #1: Dirección Meteorológica de
Source #2: Universidad de
Chile (sunshine hours only)
Temperatures vary throughout the year from an average of 20 °C (68
°F) in January to 8 °C (46 °F) in June and July. In the summer days
are very warm to hot, often reaching over 30 °C (86 °F) and a record
high close to 37 °C (99 °F), while nights are very pleasant and
cool, at 11 °C (52 °F). During autumn and winter the temperature
drops, and is slightly lower than 10 °C (50 °F). The temperature may
even drop to 0 °C (32 °F), especially during the morning. The
historic low of −6.8 °C (20 °F) was in July 1976.
Santiago’s location within a watershed is one of the most important
factors determining the climate of the city. The coastal mountain
range serves as a screen that stops the spread of maritime influence,
contributing to the increase in annual and daily thermal oscillation
(the difference between the maximum and minimum daily temperatures can
reach 14 °C) and maintaining low relative humidity, close to an
annual average of 70%. It also prevents the entry of air masses, with
the exception of some coastal low clouds that penetrate to the basin
through the river valleys.
Prevailing winds are from the southwest, with an average of 15 km/h
(9 mph), especially during the summer; the winter is less windy.
Due to Santiago's location on the
Pacific Ring of Fire
Pacific Ring of Fire at the
boundary of the Nazca and South American plates , it experiences a
significant amount of tectonic activity. The first earthquake on
record to strike
Santiago occurred in 1575 , 34 years after the
official founding of Santiago. The
1647 Santiago earthquake devastated
the city, and inspired
Heinrich von Kleist
Heinrich von Kleist 's novel, The Earthquake In
1960 Valdivia earthquake and the
1985 Algarrobo earthquake both
caused damage in Santiago, and led to the development of strict
building codes with a view to minimising future earthquake damage. In
Chile was struck by the sixth largest earthquake ever recorded ,
reaching 8.8 on the moment magnitude scale . 525 people died, of whom
13 were in Santiago, and the damage was estimated at 15–30 billion
US dollars. 370,000 homes were damaged, but the building codes
implemented after the earlier earthquakes meant that despite the size
of the earthquake, damage was far less than that caused a few weeks
earlier by the
2010 Haiti earthquake
2010 Haiti earthquake , in which at least 100,000
Santiago's air is the most polluted air in Chile. In the 1990s air
pollution fell by about one-third, but there has been little progress
since 2000. A study by a Chilean university found in 2010 that
Santiago pollution had doubled. Particulate matter air pollution is a
serious public health concern in Santiago, with atmospheric
concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 regularly exceeding standards
established by the
US Environmental Protection Agency and World Health
Diesel truck exhaust is another major source of winter smog. A
lengthy replacement process of the transit system that began in 2005
was ended in 2010.
A final major source of
Santiago air pollution, one that continues
year-round, is the smelter of the
El Teniente copper mine. The
government does not usually report it as being a local pollution
source, as it is just outside the reporting area of the Santiago
Metropolitan Region , being 110 kilometres (68 mi) from downtown.
During winter months,
Thermal inversion (a meteorological phenomenon
whereby a stable layer of warm air holds down colder air close to the
ground) causes high levels of smog and air pollution to be trapped and
concentrated within the Central Valley.
As of March 2007, only 61% of the wastewater in
Santiago was treated,
which increased up to 71% by the end of the same year. However, in
March 2012, the
Mapocho Wastewater Treatment Plant began operations,
increasing the wastewater treatment capacity of the city to 100%,
Santiago the first capital city in
Latin America to treat all
of its municipal sewage.
Mapocho River , which crosses the city from the northeast to the
southwest of the Central Valley , remains contaminated by household,
agricultural, and industrial sewage, and by upstream copper-mining
waste (there are a number of copper mines in the
Andes east of
Santiago), which is dumped untreated into the river. Laws exist which
require industries and local governments to treat all wastewater
discharges, but these regulations are often loosely enforced. There
are now a number of large wastewater processing and recycling plants
under construction, and ongoing plans to decontaminate the river and
make it navigable.
Noise levels on the main streets are high, mostly because of noisy
diesel buses. Panoramic view of northeastern Santiago, as seen
from the hills of Parque Metropolitano in Providencia. Visible in the
Apoquindo and Sierra de Ramón .
According to data collected in the 2002 census by the National
Institute of Statistics, the
Santiago metropolitan area population
reached 5,428,590 inhabitants, equivalent to 35.91 per cent of the
national total and 89.56 per cent of total regional inhabitants. This
figure reflects broad growth in the population of the city during the
20th century: in 1907 it had 383,587 inhabitants; 1,010,102 in 1940;
2,009,118 in 1960; 3,899,619 in 1982; and 4,729,118 in 1992.
(percentage of total population, 2007) Population of Santiago
from 1820 to 2020 (projected).
The growth of
Santiago has undergone several changes over the course
of its history. In its early years, the city had a rate of growth
2.68% annually until the 17th century, then down to less than 2% per
year until the early 20th century figures. During the 20th century,
Santiago experienced a demographic explosion as it absorbed migration
from mining camps in northern
Chile during the economic crisis of the
1930s. The population surged again via migration from rural sectors
between 1940 and 1960. This migration was coupled with high fertility
rates, and annual growth reached 4.92% between 1952 and 1960. Growth
has declined, reaching 1.35% in the early 2000s. The size of the city
expanded constantly; The 20,000 hectares
Santiago covered in 1960
doubled by 1980, reaching 64,140 hectares in 2002. The population
Santiago is 8,464 inhabitants/km2.
The population of
Santiago has seen a steady increase in recent
years. In 1990 the total population under 20 years was 38.04% and
8.86% were over 60. Estimates in 2007 show that 32.89% of men and
30.73% of women were less than 20 years old, while 10.23% of men and
13.43% of women were over 60 years. For the year 2020, it is estimated
that the figures will be 26.69% and 16.79%.
4,313,719 people in
Chile say they were born in one of the communes
Santiago Metropolitan Region , which according to the 2002
census, amounts to 28.54% of the national total. 67.6% of the current
Santiago claim to been born in one of the communes of
the metropolitan area. 2.11% of the inhabitants are immigrants ,
mainly from other Latin American countries such as
Argentina and Peru.
Apoquindo Avenue, the financial center of
Santiago is the industrial and financial center of Chile, and
generates 45% of the country's
GDP . Some international institutions,
ECLAC (Economic Commission for
Latin America and the
Caribbean), have their offices in Santiago. The strong economy and low
government debt is attracting migrants from Europe and the United
Santiago's steady economic growth over the past few decades has
transformed it into a modern metropolis. The city is now home to a
growing theater and restaurant scene, extensive suburban development,
dozens of shopping centers, and a rising skyline, including the
tallest building in Latin America, the
Gran Torre Santiago
Gran Torre Santiago . It
includes several major universities, and has developed a modern
transportation infrastructure, including a free flow toll-based,
partly underground urban freeway system and the
Metro de Santiago
Metro de Santiago ,
South America's most extensive subway system.
Costanera Center , a mega project in Santiago's Financial
District, includes a 280,000-square-metre (3,000,000 sq ft) mall, a
300-meter (980 ft) tower, two office towers of 170 meters (558 ft)
each, and a hotel 105 meters (344 ft) tall. In January 2009 the
retailer in charge,
Cencosud , said in a statement that the
construction of the mega-mall would gradually be reduced until
financial uncertainty is cleared. In January 2010,
the restart of the project, and this was taken generally as a symbol
of the country's success over the global financial crisis . Close to
Costanera Center another skyscraper is already in use, Titanium La
Portada , 190 meters (623 ft) tall. Although these are the two biggest
projects, there are many other office buildings under construction in
Santiago, as well as hundreds of high rise residential buildings. In
Gran Torre Santiago
Gran Torre Santiago , part of the Costanera Center
project, located in the called
Sanhattan district, reached the
300-meter mark, officially becoming the tallest structure in Latin
America . The
Gran Torre Santiago
Gran Torre Santiago (Great
Santiago Tower), part
Costanera Center complex, is the tallest building in
Santiago financial center
Andes from air. View to the east.
Santiago is Chile's retail capital. Falabella , Paris, Johnson,
La Polar , and several other department stores dot the mall
landscape of Chile. The east side neighborhoods like
Vitacura , La
Dehesa , and
Las Condes are home to Santiago's Alonso de Cordova
street, and malls like
Parque Arauco , Alto
Las Condes ,
Mall Plaza (a
chain of malls present in
Chile and other Latin American countries)
Costanera Center are known for their luxurious shopping. Alonso de
Cordova, Santiago's equivalent to Rodeo Drive or Rua Oscar Freire in
São Paulo, has exclusive stores like
Louis Vuitton ,
Emporio Armani ,
Salvatore Ferragamo ,
Ermenegildo Zegna ,
MaxMara, Longchamp, and others. Alonso de Cordova also houses some of
Santiago's most famous restaurants, art galleries, wine showrooms and
furniture stores. The
Costanera Center has stores like Armani Exchange
Banana Republic ,
Hugo Boss ,
Swarovski , and Zara .
There are plans for a Saks Fifth Avenue in Santiago. Several mercados
in the city sell local goods.
Barrio Bellavista is where some of the
most exclusive night clubs and chic cafes are located.
Comodoro Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport
Comodoro Arturo Merino Benítez International Airport (
IATA : SCL) is
Santiago's national and international airport and the principal hub of
LATAM Airlines ,
Sky Airline ,
One Airlines ,
Aerocardal and PAL
Airlines . The airport is located in the western commune of
The largest airport in Chile, it is ranked sixth in passenger traffic
among Latin American airports, with 14,168,282 passengers served in
2012—a 17.04% increase over 2011. It is located 15 km from the city
It is also the only connecting point (aside from Ezeiza Airport in
Buenos Aires) for air traffic between
Latin America and Oceania served
Qantas and LATAM Airlines at this point.
Qantas operate the
non-stop flights to
Australia . LATAM Airlines operate the
non-stop flights to
New Zealand and these flights continue
Air France Operates non-stop flights
Santiago – Paris.
Air Canada offers service from Toronto Pearson International (YYZ),
which continues to Buenos Aires,
Santiago is also served by
Eulogio Sánchez Airport (ICAO: SCTB), a
small, privately owned general aviation airport in the commune of La
Trains operated by Chile's national railway company, Empresa de los
Ferrocarriles del Estado (EFE), connect
Santiago to several cities in
the south-central part of the country:
Rancagua , San Fernando , Talca
(connected to the coastal city of Constitución by a different train
service), Linares and
Chillán . All such trains arrive and depart
Estación Central railway station (Central Station), which
can be accessed by bus or subway.
Bus companies provide passenger transportation from
Santiago to most
areas of the country as well as to foreign destinations, while some
also provide parcel shipping and delivery services.
There are several bus terminals in Santiago:
* Terminal San Borja: located in Metro station "
Estación Central ."
Provides buses to all destinations in
Chile and to some towns around
* Terminal Alameda: located in Metro station "Universidad de
Santiago." Provides buses to all destinations in Chile.
* Terminal Santiago: located one block west of Terminal Alameda.
Provides buses to all destinations in
Chile as well as to destinations
in most countries in South America, except Bolivia.
* Terrapuerto Los Héroes: located two blocks east of Metro station
"Los Héroes." Provides buses to south of
Chile and some northern
cities, as well as
Argentina (Mendoza and Buenos Aires) and Paraguay
* Terminal Pajaritos: located in Metro station "Pajaritos." Provides
buses to the international airport , inter-regional services to
Viña del Mar
Viña del Mar and several other coastal cities and
* Terminal La Cisterna: located in Metro station "La Cisterna."
Provides buses to towns around southern Santiago, Viña del Mar,
Temuco and Puerto Montt.
* Terminal La Paz: located about two blocks away from the fresh
fruit and vegetables market "Vega Central;" the closest Metro station
is "Puente Cal y Canto." It connects the rural areas north of
A network of free flow toll highways connects the various areas of
the city. They include the Vespucio Norte and Vespucio Sur highways,
which surround the city completing a nearly full circle; Autopista
Central , the section of the Pan American highway crossing the city
from north to south, divided in two highways 3 km (2 mi) apart; and
Costanera Norte , running next to the
Mapocho River and connecting
the international airport with the downtown and with the wealthier
areas of the city to the east, where it divides into two highways.
Other non-free flow toll roads connecting
Santiago to other cities,
include: Rutas del Pacífico (Ruta 68 ), the continuation of the
Alameda Libertador General Bernardo O\'Higgins Avenue to the west,
provides direct access to
Valparaíso and Viña del Mar; Autopista del
Sol (Ruta 78), connects
Melipilla and the port of San Antonio with the
capital; Autopista Ruta del Maipo (a.k.a. "Acceso Sur") is an
alternative to the Pan American highway to access the various
localities south of Santiago; Autopista Los Libertadores provides
access to the main border crossing to Argentina, via Colina and Los
Andes ; and Autopista Nororiente, which provides access to the
suburban development known as Chicureo, north of the capital.
Baquedano Metro station
Santiago has 37% of Chile's vehicles, with a total of 991,838
vehicles, 979,346 of which are motorized. 805,220 cars pass through
the city, which is equivalent to 38% of the national total, and at a
rate of one car for every seven people. An extensive network of
streets and avenues stretching across
Santiago facilitate travel
between the different communities that make up the metropolitan area.
In the 1990s the government attempted to reorganize the public
transport system. New routes were introduced in 1994 and the buses
were painted yellow. The system, however, had serious issues with
routes overlapping, high levels of air and noise pollution, and safety
problems for both riders and drivers. To tackle these issues a new
transport system, called
Transantiago , was devised. The system was
launched in earnest on 10 February 2007, combining core services
across the city with the subway and with local feeder routes, under a
unified system of payment through a contactless smartcard called
"Tarjeta bip!". The change was not well received by users, who
complained of lack of buses, too many bus-to-bus transfers, and
diminished coverage. Some of these problems were resolved, but the
system earned a bad reputation which it hasn't been able to shake off.
As of 2011 , the fare evasion rate is stubbornly high. Estación
Metro de Santiago
Metro de Santiago subway carries over two million passengers
daily through its five lines (1, 2, 4, 4A, and 5), extending over 84
km (52 mi) and 108 stations. In 2010 a new extension to the commune of
Maipú expanded the Metro to more than 105 km (65 mi) in length.
Construction of two new lines (3 and 6) was confirmed recently by
president Sebastián Piñera, and are expected to be operating in
In recent years many cycle paths have been constructed, but so far
the number is limited and with little connections between the routes.
Most cyclists ride on the street, and the use of helmets and lights is
not widespread, even though it is mandatory.
Vicente Valdés station
Santiago Metro map Escuela
Militar metro station
With 100 stations currently in operation and 19 other planned or
under construction, the
Santiago Metro is South America's most
extensive metro system. The system has five operating lines and
carries around 2,400,000 passengers per day. Two underground lines
(Line 4 and 4A) and an extension of Line 2 were inaugurated in 2005
and 2006, and line 5 in 2011. The South Express Line, Line 6, will
be finished by 2016, adding 12 stations to the network and
approximately 15 km (9 mi) of track, and line 3 will be finished by
EFE provides suburban rail service under the brandname of
There is only one southbound route, serving 18 stations between
Santiago's Central Station and San Fernando, via Rancagua. The
electrified service expands over 138 km (86 mi). About 10 daily trains
operate the full distance in each direction, with up to 30 trains
Santiago and Graneros.
Transantiago is the name for the city's public transport system. It
works by combining local (feeder) bus lines, main bus lines, and the
Metro network. It includes an integrated fare system, which allows
passengers to make bus-to-bus or bus-to-metro transfers for the price
of one ticket, using a contactless smartcard.
Taxicabs are common in
Santiago and are painted black with yellow
roofs and have orange license plates. So-called radiotaxis may be
called up by telephone and can be any make, model, or color but should
always have the orange plates. Colectivos are shared taxicabs that
carry passengers along a specific route for a fixed fee.
Uber operates in
Santiago and is a safe and reliable option.
Santiago Public Transportation Statistics
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit
in Santiago, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 84 min. 23%
of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The
average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public
transit is 15 min, while 21% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on
average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a
single trip with public transit is 7.4 km, while 15% travel for over
12 km in a single direction.
Santiago depicting main streets and airport .
As of 2006,
Santiago was home to 992,000 vehicles, 979,000 of which
were motorized. This made up 37.3% of Chile's total vehicle count.
805,000 cars passed through the city, which is 37.6% of the national
total or one car for every seven people.
The main road is the Avenida Libertador General Bernardo O\'Higgins ,
better known as Alameda Avenue, which runs northeast and southwest.
From north to south, it is crossed by
Autopista Central and the
Independencia , Gran Avenida , Recoleta , Santa Rosa , Vicuña
Mackenna and Tobalaba avenues. Other major roads include the Avenida
Los Pajaritos to the west and
Providencia Avenue and
to the east. Finally, the
Américo Vespucio Avenue acts as a ring road
During the 2000s, several urban highways were built through Santiago
in order to improve the situation for vehicles. The road General
Velásquez and sections of the
Pan-American Highway in
converted into the Autopista Central, while Amerigo Vespucci became
variously the highways Vespucio Norte Express and Vespucio Sur, as
well as Vespucio Oriente in the future. Following the edge of the
Costanera Norte was built to link the northeast of the
capital to the airport and the downtown area. All these highways,
totaling 210 km in length, have a free flow toll system.
Santiago lacks a metropolitan government for its
administration, which is currently distributed between various
authorities, complicating the operation of the city as a single
entity. The highest authority in
Santiago is considered to be the
intendant of the
Santiago Metropolitan Region , an unelected delegate
of the president.
The whole of Greater
Santiago does not fit perfectly into any
administrative division, as it extends into four different provinces
and 37 communes . The majority of its 641.4 km2 (247.65 sq mi) (as of
2002) lie within
Santiago Province , with some peripheral areas
contained in the provinces of Cordillera , Maipo , and
Note: Communes in the peripheries are not shown to their full
COMMUNES OF SANTIAGO PROVINCE
Pedro Aguirre Cerda
COMMUNES IN OTHER PROVINCES
San José de Maipo
Only a few historical buildings from the Spanish colonial period
remain in the city, because
Santiago – like the rest of the country
– is regularly hit by earthquakes. Extant buildings include the Casa
Colorada (1769), the San Francisco Church (1586), and Posada del
The Cathedral on the central square (Plaza de Armas ) is a sight that
ranks as high as the Palacio de La Moneda, the Presidential Palace.
The original building was built between 1784 and 1805, and architect
Joaquín Toesca was in charge of its construction. Other buildings
surrounding the Plaza de Armas are the Central Post Office Building ,
which was finished in 1882, and the Palacio de la Real Audiencia de
Santiago , built between 1804 and 1807. It houses the Chilean National
Museum , with 12,000 objects that can be exhibited. On the
southeast corner of the square stands the green cast-iron Commercial
Edwards building, which was built in 1893. East of that is the
colonial building of the
Casa Colorada (1769), which houses the Museum
of Santiago. Close by is the
Municipal Theatre of Santiago , which was
built in 1857 by the French architect Brunet of Edward Baines. It was
badly damaged by an earthquake in 1906. Not far from the theatre is
the Subercaseaux Mansion and the National
Library , one of the largest
libraries of South America.
Former National Congress Building , the Justice Palace , and the
Royal Customs Palace (Palacio de la Real Aduana de Santiago) are
located close to each other. The latter houses the
pre-Columbian art . A fire destroyed the building of the Congress in
1895, which was then rebuilt in a neoclassical style and reopened in
1901. The Congress was deposed under the military dictatorship of
Augusto Pinochet (1973–1989), and after the dictatorship was newly
constituted on 11 March 1990, in Valparaíso.
The building of the Justice Palace (Palacio de Tribunales) is located
on the south side of the Montt Square. It was designed by the
architect Emilio Doyére and built between 1907 and 1926. The building
is home to the Supreme Court of
Chile . The panel of 21 judges is the
highest judicial power in Chile. The building is also headquarters of
the Court of Appeals of Santiago.
Bandera street leads toward the building of the
Exchange (the Bolsa de Comercio), completed in 1917, the Club de la
Unión (opened in 1925), the Universidad de
Chile (1872), and toward
the oldest churchhouse in the city, the San Francisco Church
(constructed between 1586 and 1628), with its Marian statue of the
Virgen del Socorro ("Our Lady of Help"), which was brought to
Pedro de Valdivia. North of the Plaza de Armas ("Square of Arms",
where the colonial militia was mustered) are the Paseo Puente , the
Santo Domingo Church (1771), and the Central Market (Mercado Central),
an ornamental iron building. Also in downtown
Santiago is the Torre
Entel , a 127.4-meter-high television tower with observation deck
completed in 1974; the tower serves as a communication center for the
communications company, ENTEL Chile.
Costanera Center was completed in 2009, and includes housing,
shopping, and entertainment venues. The project, with a total area of
600,000 square meters, includes the 300-meter high Gran Torre Santiago
(South America's tallest building) and other commercial buildings. The
four office towers are served by highway and subway connections.
Municipal Theatre of Santiago
Palacio de La Moneda
Palacio de La Moneda
Biblioteca Nacional de Chile
Former Congress Building
HERITAGE AND MONUMENTS
The Metropolitan Cathedral is one of the most representative
buildings of colonial architecture. The statue of the Virgin
San Cristobal Hill is one of the main symbols of the city.
Within the metropolitan area of Santiago, there are 174 heritage
sites in the custody of the National Monuments Council, among which
are archaeological, architectural and historical monuments,
neighborhoods and typical areas. Of these, 93 are located within the
Santiago , considered the historic center of the city.
Although no santiaguino monument has been declared a World Heritage
Unesco three have already been proposed by the Chilean
government: the Incan sanctuary of El Plomo , the church and convent
of San Francisco and the palace of La Moneda .
In the center of
Santiago are several buildings built during the
Spanish domination and that mostly correspond to, as the Metropolitan
Cathedral and the aforementioned church of San Francisco Catholic
churches. Buildings of the period are those located on the sides of
Plaza de Armas , as the seat of Real Audiencia , the Post Office or
Casa Colorada .
During the nineteenth century and the advent of independence, new
architectural works began to be erected in the capital of the young
republic. The aristocracy built small palaces for residential use,
mainly around the neighborhood Republica and preserved until today. To
this other structures adopted artistic trends from Europe, as the
Equestrian Club of
Santiago , the head offices of the University of
Chile and the Catholic University , Central Station and the Mapocho
Station , Mercado Central , join the National
Museum of Fine
Arts and the
Barrio París-Londres , among others.
Various green areas in the city contain within and around various
sites of heritage character. Among the most important are the
fortifications of Santa Lucia hill , the shrine of the
Virgin Mary on
the summit of San Cristobal hill , the lavish crypt of the General
Parque Forestal , the O\'Higgins Park and the Quinta Normal
CULTURAL ACTIVITIES AND ENTERTAINMENT
Municipal Theatre of Santiago . Interior from Gabriela
Mistral Cultural Center .
In Santiago's major theater companies are located, hosting several
national and international projects, with the highest expression
during the International Theatre Festival known as
Santiago a Mil,
which takes place every summer since 1994 and has gathered more than
one million spectators. Also is the Planetarium at the University of
To carry out various cultural, artistic and musical events, there are
several precincts within which highlight the
Mapocho Cultural Center ,
100 Matucana Cultural Center , the Gabriela Mistral Cultural Center ,
Palacio de La Moneda
Palacio de La Moneda , the
Movistar Arena and the
Theater . On the other hand, the opera and ballet
performances are permanently accepted by the Municipal Theatre of
Santiago , located in the heart of the city and which has a capacity
of 1500 spectators.
There are 18 cinemas in the capital with a total of 144 rooms and
over 32,000 seats, the projection centers than 5 arthouse add.
For children and teenagers there are several entertainment venues,
such as amusement park
Fantasilandia , the National Zoo or the Buin
Zoo on the outskirts of the city. The Bellavista , Brasil , Manuel
Montt , Plaza
Ñuñoa and Suecia account for most of the nightclubs,
restaurants and bars in the city, the main evening entertainment
centers in the capital. In order to promote the economic development
of other regions, the law prohibits the construction of a casino in
the metropolitan region, but Nearby are the casino from the coastal
Vina del Mar , 120 km from distance from Santiago, and
Monticello Grand Casino in Mostazal, 56 kilometers south of Santiago,
opened in 2008.
MUSEUMS AND LIBRARIES
Santiago has a wealth of museums of different kinds, among which are
three of 'National' class administered by the Directorate of
Libraries, Archives and Museums (DIBAM): the National History
Museum of Fine Arts and the National
Museum of Natural
Most of the museums are located in the historic city center,
occupying the old buildings of colonial origin, such as with the
National History Museum, which is located in the Palacio de la Real
Audiencia . La
Casa Colorada houses the
Museum of Santiago, while the
Museum is housed in a wing of the Church of San Francisco and
Museum of Pre-Columbian Art occupies part of the old Palacio de la
Aduana . The
Museum of Fine Arts, though it is located in the city
center, was built in the early twentieth century, especially for
housing the museum and in the back of the building was laid in 1947,
Museum of Contemporary Art , under the Faculty of Arts of the
Quinta Normal Park also has several museums, among which are the
already mentioned of Natural History, Artequin
Museum , the
Science and Technology and the Museo Ferroviario . In other parts of
the city there are some museums such as the Aeronautical
Museum of Tajamares in Providence and the Museo Interactivo
Mirador in La Granja. The latter opened in 2000 and designed mainly
for children and youth has been visited by more than 2.8 million
visitors, making it the busiest museum in the country.
As for public libraries , the most important is the National Library
located in downtown Santiago. Its origins date back to 1813, when it
was created by the nascent Republic and was moved to its current
premises a century later, also home to the headquarters of the
National Archives . In order to provide more closeness to the
population, incorporating new technologies and complement the services
provided by public libraries and the National
Library was opened in
Santiago at Barrio Matucana . The National
Museum , located in the Plaza de Armas in Santiago. The
Museum of Fine Arts , located next to
Parque Forestal .
Museum of Natural History , located in the Quinta Normal
. The National
Library from La Alameda .
Santiago has two symphony orchestras:
* Orquesta Filarmónica de
Orchestra"), which performs in the Teatro Municipal (Municipal Theatre
* Orquesta Sinfónica de
Chile Symphony Orchestra"), part of
the Universidad de Chile, performs in its theater.
There are a number of jazz establishments, some of them, including
"El Perseguidor", "Thelonious", and "Le Fournil Jazz Club", are
located in Bellavista, one of Santiago's "hippest" neighborhoods,
though "Club de Jazz de Santiago", the oldest and most traditional
one, is in Ñuñoa. Annual festivals featured in
Lollapalooza and the
Maquinaria festival .
The most widely circulated newspapers in
Chile are published by El
Copesa and have earned more than the 91% of revenues
generated in printed advertising in Chile.
Some newspapers available in
Las Últimas Noticias
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Santiago is home to some of Chile's most successful football clubs.
Colo-Colo , founded on 19 April 1925, has a long tradition, and has
played continuously in the highest league since the establishment of
the first Chilean league in 1933. The club's wins include 30 national
titles , 10 Copa
Chile successes, and champions of the Copa
Libertadores tournament in 1991, the only Chilean team to have won
this tournament. The club hosts its home games in the Estadio
Monumental in the commune of Macul. Estadio Nacional de
Chile has 17 national titles and 4 Copa
Chile wins. In
2011 they were champions of
Copa Sudamericana , the only Chilean team
to have won this tournament. The club was founded on 24 May 1927,
under the name Club Deportivo Universitario as a union of Club
Náutico and Federación Universitaria. The founders were students of
the University of
Chile . In 1980, the organization separated from the
Chile and the club is now completely independent. The
team plays its home games in the Estadio Nacional de
Chile in the
commune of Ñuñoa.
Club Deportivo Universidad Católica (UC) was founded on 21 April
1937. It consists of fourteen different departments. This team plays
its home games in Estadio San Carlos de Apoquindo. Universidad
Católica has 12 national titles, making it the third most successful
football club in the country. It has played the
Copa Libertadores more
than 20 times, reaching the final in 1993, losing to São Paulo FC.
Several other football clubs are based in Santiago, including Unión
Audax Italiano , Palestino ,
Santiago Morning , Magallanes
and Barnechea . In addition to football, several sports are played in
the city, tennis and basketball being the main ones. The Club Hípico
Santiago and the Hipódromo
Chile are the two horseracing tracks in
There is an extensive network of bicycle trails in the city,
especially in the Providencia commune. The longest section is the
Americo Vespuccio road, which contains a very wide dirt path with many
trees through the center of a street used by motorists on both sides.
The next longest path is along the
Mapocho River along Andrés Bello
Avenue. Many people use folding bicycles to commute to work.
The city's main parks are:
Cerro San Cristóbal –
San Cristóbal Hill , which includes the
Chilean National Zoo
Parque O'Higgins – O\'Higgins Park
Parque Forestal – Forestal Park , park located at the city
Cerro Santa Lucía – Santa Lucía Hill
* Parque Araucano in
Las Condes adjacent to the Parque Arauco
shopping mall contains 30 hectares of gardens. It is closed for
maintenance on Mondays.
* Parque Inés de Suarez, Providencia
Padre Hurtado (a.k.a. Parque Intercomunal)
There are ski resorts to the east of the city (
Valle Nevado , La
El Colorado ) and wineries in the plains west of the city.
Cultural venues include:
* Museo de Bellas Artes – Fine Arts Museum
Barrio Bellavista , cultural and bohemian neighborhood
* Central Station , railway station designed by
* Víctor Jara Stadium
* Ex National Congress
* Plaza de Armas , central square
Palacio de La Moneda
Palacio de La Moneda , government palace
* Teatro Municipal (
Municipal Theatre of Santiago ), the principal
opera house of the country. The main sport venues are Estadio Nacional
(site of the 1962 World Cup final), Estadio Monumental David Arellano
Estadio Santa Laura
Estadio Santa Laura , and Estadio San Carlos de
Santiago's Metropolitan Cathedral Main article: Roman
As in most of Chile, the majority of the population of
Catholic . According to the National Census, carried out in 2002 by
the National Statistics Bureau (INE ), in the
Region, 3,129,249 people 15 and older identified themselves as
Catholics, equivalent to 68.7% of the total population, while 595,173
(13.1%) described themselves as Evangelical Protestants . Around 1.2%
of the population declared themselves as being Jehovah\'s Witnesses ,
while 2.00% identified themselves as
Latter-day Saints (Mormons),
0.25% as Jewish , 0.11% as Orthodox and 0.03% as
Approximately 10.4% of the population of the Metropolitan Region
stated that they were atheist or agnostic , while 5.4% declared that
they followed other religions. In 2010 construction was initiated on
the continental Bahá\'í House of Worship for
South America in the
commune of Peñalolen. Construction at the site nears completion and
a dedication is planned for October, 2016.
The city is home to numerous universities, colleges, research
institutions, and libraries.
The largest university and one of the oldest in the
Chile . The roots of the University date back to the
year 1622, as on 19 August the first university in
Chile under the
name of Santo Tomás de Aquino was founded. On 28 July 1738, it was
named the Real Universidad de San Felipe in honor of King Philip V of
Spain . In the vernacular, it is also known as Casa de Bello (Spanish:
House of Bello – after their first Rector,
Andrés Bello ). On 17
April 1839, after Chile's independence from the Kingdom of
Spain , it
was renamed the Universidad de Chile, and reopened on 17 September
The Pontificia Universidad Católica de
Chile (PUC) was founded in
June 1888 and was ranked as the best school in
Latin America in 2014.
On 11 February 1930 it was declared a university by a decree of Pope
Pius XI . It received recognition by the Chilean government as an
appointed Pontifical University in 1931. Joaquín Larraín Gandarillas
(1822–1897), Archbishop of Anazarba , was the founder and first
rector of the PUC. The PUC is a modern university; the campus of San
Joaquin has a number of contemporary buildings and offers many parks
and sports facilities. Several courses are conducted in English.
Sebastián Piñera , minister
Ricardo Raineri , and
minister Hernán de Solminihac all attended PUC as students and worked
in PUC as professors. In the 2010 admission process, approximately 48%
of the students who achieved the best score in the Prueba de
Selección Universitaria matriculated in the UC.
PRIVATE HIGH SCHOOLS
* Vermont Academy
Chile Campus (Global Programs)
International School Nido de Aguilas
* Saint George\'s College
* Colegio San Ignacio
Colegio del Verbo Divino
* Colegio Cordillera de
* Colegio Tabancura
* Colegio Villa Maria Academy
* The Grange School
Chile Pontificia Universidad Católica de
* Universidad de
Chile (U or UCH)
* Pontificia Universidad Católica de
* Universidad de
Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación (UMCE)
Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana (UTEM)
Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María (UTFSM)
Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez (UAI)
Universidad del Desarrollo (UDD)
Universidad Diego Portales (UDP)
Universidad Alberto Hurtado (UAH)
* Universidad Central de
* Universidad Nacional
Andrés Bello (Unab)
* Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano (UAHC)
* Universidad de Ciencias de la Informática (UCINF)
Universidad Mayor (UM)
Universidad Finis Terrae
* Universidad de Los
Universidad Gabriela Mistral (UGM)
* Universidad del Pacífico
* Universidad de las Américas
Universidad de Artes, Ciencias y Comunicación (UNIACC)
Universidad San Sebastián (USS)
Ruprecht Karls University of Heidelberg 's Postgraduierten- und
Weiterbildungszentrum der Universität Heidelberg in Santiago
David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies (DRCLAS)
Regional Office in Santiago
Stanford Faculty in Santiago
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES
This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please
help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources .
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2015) (Learn
how and when to remove this template message )
Santiago is twinned with:
UNION OF IBERO-AMERICAN CAPITAL CITIES
Santiago is part of the
Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities from
12 October 1982 establishing brotherly relations with the following
Andorra la Vella , Andorra
Asunción , Paraguay
Bogotá , Colombia
Buenos Aires , Argentina
Caracas , Venezuela
Guatemala City , Guatemala
Havana , Cuba
Quito , Ecuador
La Paz , Bolivia
Lisbon , Portugal
Lima , Peru
Madrid , Spain
Managua , Nicaragua
Mexico City , Mexico
Montevideo , Uruguay
Panama City , Panama
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro , Brazil
* San Jose , Costa Rica
* San Juan , Puerto Rico
San Salvador , El Salvador
* Santiago, Chile
Santo Domingo , Dominican Republic
Tegucigalpa , Honduras
France (1997, "Friendship Pact")
Club de La Unión
Façade of the
Santiago Stock Exchange
Santiago Stock Exchange
Basílica del Salvador
Paseo Bulnes , downtown
Paseo Ahumada , downtown
A street in
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See also: Bibliography of the history of
* Media related to
Chile at Wikimedia Commons
Chile travel guide from Wikivoyage
Dependent territories and states with limited rec