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The Salafi
Salafi
movement or Salafist movement or Salafism
Salafism
is an ultra-conservative[1] reform[2] branch[3][4] or movement within Sunni Islam[5] that developed in Arabia
Arabia
in the first half of the 18th century.[6] It advocated a return to the traditions of the salaf, who are the first three generations of scholars after the Prophet Muhammad. The Salafist doctrine is centered around the concept of looking back to a prior historical period in an effort to understand how the contemporary world should be ordered.[7] They reject religious innovation or bid'ah, and support the implementation of sharia (Islamic law)."[8] The movement is often divided into three categories: the largest group are the purists (or quietists), who avoid politics; the second largest group are the activists, who get involved in politics; the smallest group are jihadists, who form a minority.[8] In legal matters, Salafis are divided between those who, in the name of independent legal judgement (ijtihad), reject strict adherence (taqlid) to the four Sunni
Sunni
schools of law (madhahib), and others who remain faithful to these.[9] The majority of the Salafis in the Gulf states reside in Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia.[10] 46.87% of Qataris[10] and 44.8% of Emiratis are Salafis.[10] 5.7% of Bahrainis are Salafis and 2.17% of Kuwaitis are Salafis.[10] Salafis are the "dominant minority" in Saudi Arabia.[11] There are 4 million Saudi Salafis since 22.9% of Saudis are Salafis (concentrated in Najd).[10] Salafi
Salafi
literalist creed has also gained some acceptance in Turkey.[12] The Salafi
Salafi
movement is often described as synonymous with Wahhabism, but Salafists consider the term "Wahhabi" derogatory.[13] At other times, Salafism
Salafism
has been deemed a hybrid of Wahhabism
Wahhabism
and other post-1960s movements.[14] Salafism
Salafism
has become associated with literalist, strict and puritanical approaches to Islam – and, particularly in the West, with the Salafi
Salafi
Jihadis who espouse violent jihad against those they deem to be enemies of Islam
Islam
as a legitimate expression of Islam.[15] Academics and historians have used the term "Salafism" to denote "a school of thought which surfaced in the second half of the 19th century as a reaction to the spread of European ideas" and "sought to expose the roots of modernity within Muslim
Muslim
civilization."[16][17] However some contemporary Salafis follow "literal, traditional ... injunctions of the sacred texts", looking to Ibn Taymiyyah
Ibn Taymiyyah
or his disciple Ibn Kathir[18] rather than the "somewhat freewheeling interpretation" of 19th century figures Muhammad
Muhammad
Abduh, Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, and Rashid Rida.[19][20]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Tenets

2.1 Views on Taqlid (scholarly authority) 2.2 Opposition to the use of kalam

3 History

3.1 Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abd-al-Wahhab

4 Trends within Salafism

4.1 Purists 4.2 Activists 4.3 Salafi
Salafi
jihadists

5 Views on extremism 6 Regional groups and movements

6.1 Saudi Arabia
Arabia
(Wahhabism) 6.2 Indian subcontinent ( Ahl-i Hadith
Ahl-i Hadith
movement) 6.3 Egypt 6.4 France 6.5 Germany 6.6 China 6.7 Bosnia and Herzegovina 6.8 Vietnam 6.9 Sweden 6.10 Qatar

7 Statistics 8 Other usage

8.1 Modernist Salafism 8.2 In the broadest sense

9 Criticism

9.1 German government's statement on Salafism

10 Prominent Salafis 11 See also 12 References 13 Bibliography

Etymology[edit] Salafis consider a hadith that quotes Muhammad
Muhammad
saying, "The best of my community are my generation, the ones who follow them and the ones who follow them."[21] as a call to Muslims to follow the example of those first three generations, known collectively as the salaf.[22] or "pious Predecessors" (السلف الصالح as- Salaf
Salaf
as-Ṣāliḥ). The salaf are believed to include Muhammad
Muhammad
himself,[23] the "Companions" (Sahabah), the "Followers" (Tabi‘un), and the "Followers of the Followers" (Tabi‘ al-Tabi‘in). Since the fifth Muslim
Muslim
generation or earlier, Sunni
Sunni
theologians have used the examples of the Salaf
Salaf
to understand the texts and tenets of Islam. At times they have referred to the hadith to differentiate the creed (Aqidah) of the first Muslims from subsequent variations in creed and methodology (see Madhab), to oppose religious innovation (bid‘ah) and, conversely, to defend particular views and practices.[24] Tenets[edit]

Part of a series on: Salafi
Salafi
movement

Sab'u Masajid, Saudi Arabia

Ideology and influences

Ahl al-Hadith Ibn Taymiyyah Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya Al-Sindhi Ibn ʿAbd al-Wahhab

Founders and key figures

Muhammad
Muhammad
Abduh Rashid Rida Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz Ibn al Uthaymeen Nasiruddin Albani Muqbil bin Hadi al-Wadi'i List of Salafi
Salafi
scholars

Notable universities

Umm al-Qura University Islamic University of Madinah

Related ideologies

Islamism Islamic fundamentalism Madkhalism Qutbism Sahwa movement Salafi
Salafi
jihadism Wahhabism

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According to Bernard Haykel, "temporal proximity to the Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
is associated with the truest form of Islam" among many Sunni Muslims.[25] Salafis view the Salaf
Salaf
as an eternal model for all succeeding Muslim generations in their beliefs, exegesis, method of worship, mannerisms, morality, piety and conduct: the Islam
Islam
they practiced is seen as pure, unadulterated and, therefore, the ultimate authority for the interpretation of the Sunnah.[26][better source needed] The Salafi
Salafi
da'wa is a methodology, but it is not a madh'hab in fiqh (jurisprudence) as is commonly misunderstood. Salafis may be influenced by the Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali
Hanbali
or the Hanafi
Hanafi
schools of Sunni
Sunni
fiqh.[27] Salafis place great emphasis on practicing actions in accordance with the known sunnah, not only in prayer but in every activity in daily life. For instance, many are careful always to use three fingers when eating, to drink water in three pauses, and to hold it with the right hand while sitting.[28] Views on Taqlid (scholarly authority)[edit] In legal matters, Salafis are divided between those who, in the name of independent legal judgement (ijtihad), reject strict adherence (taqlid) to the four schools of law (madhahib) and others who remain faithful to these.[9][29] Salafi
Salafi
scholars from Saudi Arabia
Arabia
are generally bound by Hanbali
Hanbali
fiqh and advocate following an Imam
Imam
rather than having individuals try to interpret and understand scripture alone.[9][30] Other Salafi
Salafi
scholars, however, believe that taqlid is unlawful. From their perspective, Muslims who follow a madhab without searching personally for direct evidence may be led astray.[31] The latter group of scholars include Rashid Rida,[32] al-Khajnadee, Muhammad
Muhammad
Abduh,[33] Saleem al-Hilali and Nasir al-Din al-Albani.[34] At the far end of the spectrum of belief, some Salafis hold that adhering to taqlid is an act of polytheism.[35] Opposition to the use of kalam[edit] Modern-day proponents of the Athari
Athari
school of theology largely come from the Salafi
Salafi
(or Wahhabi) movement; they uphold the athari works of Ibn Taymiyyah.[36] For followers of the Salafi
Salafi
movement, the "clear" (i.e. zahir, apparent, exoteric or literal) meaning of the Qur'an, and especially the prophetic traditions, has sole authority in matters of belief. They believe that to engage in rational disputation (kalam), even if one arrives at the truth, is absolutely forbidden.[37] Atharis engage in an amodal reading of the Qur'an, as opposed to one engaged in Ta'wil
Ta'wil
(metaphorical interpretation). They do not attempt to conceptualize the meanings of the Qur'an
Qur'an
rationally, and believe that the "real" modality should be consigned to God alone (tafwid).[38] History[edit] Historians and academics date the emergence of Salafism
Salafism
to late 19th-century Egypt.[39][40][41][42] Salafis believe that the label "Salafiyya" existed from the first few generations of Islam
Islam
and that it is not a modern movement.[41] To justify this view, Salafis rely on a handful of quotes from medieval times where the term Salafi
Salafi
is used. However, these quotes provide dubious and weak evidence for their claim[43] since the term "Salafiyya" and its derivatives are not commonplace in medieval and pre-modern literature.[44] One of the quotes used as evidence and widely posted on Salafi websites is from the genealogical dictionary of al-Sam'ani (d. 1166), who wrote a short entry about the surname "al-Salafi" (the Salafi): "According to what I heard, this [surname indicates one's] ascription to the pious ancestors and [one's] adoption of their doctrine [madhhabihim]."[45][46] The scholar Lauzière comments that, "al-Sam'ani could only list two individuals—a father and his son—who were known by it. Plus, the entry contains blank spaces in lieu of their full names, presumably because al-Sam'ani had forgotten them or did not know them."[46] Further, he states that "al-Sam'ani's dictionary suggests that the surname was marginal at best, and the lone quotation taken from al-Dhahabi, who wrote 200 years later, does little to prove Salafi
Salafi
claims."[47] In the modern era, however, many Salafis adopt the surname "al-Salafi" and refer to the label "Salafiyya" in various circumstances to evoke a specific understanding of Islam
Islam
that is supposed to differ from that of other Sunnis in terms of creed, law, morals, and behavior.[47] Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abd-al-Wahhab[edit] Main article: Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abd al-Wahhab Modern Salafists consider the 18th-century scholar Muhammed bin 'Abd al-Wahhab and many of his students to have been Salafis.[48] He started a reform movement in the remote, sparsely populated region of Najd.[49] He advocated purging practices such as shrine and tomb visitation, which were widespread among Muslims. 'Abd al-Wahhab considered this practice to be idolatry, representative of impurities and inappropriate innovations in Islam.[27][50] Trends within Salafism[edit]

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Militant

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Key texts

Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (Iqbal 1930s)

Principles of State and Government (Asad 1961)

Ma'alim fi al-Tariq
Ma'alim fi al-Tariq
("Milestones") (Qutb 1965)

Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist ("Velayat-e faqih") (Khomeini 1970)

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Ali
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Key ideologues

Muhammad
Muhammad
Abduh Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī Qazi Hussain Ahmad Muhammad
Muhammad
Nasiruddin al-Albani Muhammad
Muhammad
Asad Hassan al-Banna Necmettin Erbakan Rached Ghannouchi Safwat Hegazi Muhammad
Muhammad
Iqbal Ali
Ali
Khamenei Ruhollah Khomeini Abul A'la Maududi Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani Yusuf al-Qaradawi Sayyid Qutb Tariq Ramadan Ata Abu Rashta Rashid Rida Navvab Safavi Ali
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Some who have observed trends in the Salafist movement have divided Salafis into three groups – purists, activists, and jihadis.[51][52] Purists focus on education and missionary work to solidify the tawhid; activists focus on political reform and re-establishing a caliphate through the means of evolution, but not violence (sometimes called Salafist activism); and jihadists share similar political goals as the politicians, but engage in violent Jihad
Jihad
(sometimes called Salafi jihadism and/or Qutbism).[51] Purists[edit] "Purists" are Salafists who focus on non-violent da'wah (preaching of Islam), education, and "purification of religious beliefs and practices". They dismiss politics as "a diversion or even innovation that leads people away from Islam".[53] They never oppose rulers. Madkhalism, as an example, is a strain of Salafists viewed as supportive of authoritarian regimes in the Middle East.[54][55][56] Taking its name from the controversial Saudi Arabian cleric Rabee al-Madkhali, the movement lost its support in Saudi Arabia
Arabia
proper when several members of the Permanent Committee (the country's clerical body) denounced Madkhali personally.[57] Influence of both the movement and its figureheads have waned so much within the Muslim
Muslim
world that analysts have declared it to be a largely European phenomenon.[57] Activists[edit] Main article: Activism Activists are another strain of the global Salafi
Salafi
movement, but different from the Salafi
Salafi
jihadists in that they eschew violence and different from Salafi
Salafi
purists in that they engage in modern political processes.[58] Due to numerical superiority, the movement has been referred to as the mainstream of the Salafist movement at times.[56] This trend, who some call "politicos", see politics as "yet another field in which the Salafi
Salafi
creed has to be applied" in order to safeguard justice and "guarantee that the political rule is based upon the Shari'a".[53] Al–Sahwa Al-Islamiyya
Al–Sahwa Al-Islamiyya
(Islamic Awakening), as example, has been involved in peaceful political reform. Safar Al-Hawali and Salman al-Ouda
Salman al-Ouda
are representatives of this trend. Because of being active on social media, they have earned some support among more educated youth.[59][60]

It's very simple. We want sharia. Sharia
Sharia
in economy, in politics, in judiciary, in our borders and our foreign relations. — Mohammed Abdel-Rahman, the son of Omar Abdel-Rahman, Time magazine. October 8, 2012[61]

Salafi
Salafi
jihadists[edit] Main article: Salafi
Salafi
jihadism " Salafi
Salafi
Jihadism" was a term invented by Gilles Kepel[62][63] to describe those self-claiming Salafi
Salafi
groups who began developing an interest in (armed) jihad during the mid-1990s. Practitioners are often referred to as " Salafi
Salafi
jihadis" or " Salafi
Salafi
jihadists". Journalist Bruce Livesey estimates Salafi
Salafi
jihadists constitute less than 1.0 percent of the world's 1.2 billion Muslims (i.e., less than 10 million).[62] Another definition of Salafi
Salafi
jihadism, offered by Mohammed M. Hafez, is an "extreme form of Sunni
Sunni
Islamism
Islamism
that rejects democracy and Shia rule." Hafez distinguished them from apolitical and conservative Salafi
Salafi
scholars (such as Muhammad
Muhammad
Nasiruddin al-Albani, Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al Uthaymeen, Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd Allah ibn Baaz
Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd Allah ibn Baaz
and Abdul-Azeez ibn Abdullaah Aal ash-Shaikh), but also from the sahwa movement associated with Salman al-Ouda
Salman al-Ouda
or Safar Al-Hawali.[64] An analysis of the Caucasus Emirate, a Salafi
Salafi
jihadist group, was made in 2014 by Darion Rhodes.[65] It analyzes the group's strict observance of tawhid and its rejection of shirk, taqlid, ijtihad and bid‘ah, while believing that jihad is the only way to advance the cause of Allah on the earth.[65] Despite some similarities, the different contemporary self-proclaimed Salafist groups often strongly disapprove of one another and deny the other's Islamic character.[66] Views on extremism[edit] In recent years, the Salafi
Salafi
methodology has come to be associated with the jihad of extremist groups that advocate the killing of innocent civilians. The European Parliament, in a report commissioned in 2013 claimed that Wahhabi
Wahhabi
and Salafi
Salafi
groups are involved, mainly via Saudi charities, in the support and supply of arms to rebel groups around the world.[67] Some Salafi
Salafi
scholars appear to support extremism and acts of violence. The Egyptian Salafi
Salafi
cleric Mahmoud Shaaban "appeared on a religious television channel calling for the deaths of main opposition figures Mohammed ElBaradei
Mohammed ElBaradei
– a Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
laureate – and former presidential candidate Hamdeen Sabahi."[68][69] The popular salafi preacher Zakir Naik
Zakir Naik
speaking of Osama bin Laden, said that he would not criticise bin Laden because he had not met him and did not know him personally. He added that, "If bin Laden is fighting enemies of Islam, I am for him," and that "If he is terrorizing America – the terrorist, biggest terrorist – I am with him. Every Muslim
Muslim
should be a terrorist. The thing is that if he is terrorizing the terrorist, he is following Islam. Whether he is or not, I don’t know, but you as Muslims know that, without checking up, laying allegations is also wrong."[70] Other salafis have rejected the use of violence. The Saudi scholar, Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen
Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen
considered suicide bombing to be unlawful[71][72] and the scholar Abdul Muhsin al-Abbad wrote a treatise entitled: According to which intellect and Religion is Suicide bombings and destruction considered Jihad?.[71] Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani stated that "History repeats itself. Everybody claims that the Prophet is their role model. Our Prophet spent the first half of his message making dawah, and he did not start it with jihad".[73] Salafism
Salafism
is sponsored globally by Saudi Arabia
Arabia
and this ideology is used to justify the violent acts of Jihadi Salafi
Salafi
groups that include Al-Qaeda, ISIS, Boko Haram, and the Al-Shabaab.[74][75] In addition, Saudi Arabia
Arabia
prints textbooks for schools and universities to teach Salafism
Salafism
as well as recruit international students from Egypt, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Africa and the Balkans
Balkans
to help spread Salafism in their local communities.[74][75] Some other Islamic groups, particularly some Sufis, have also complained about extremism among some Salafi. It has been noted that the Western association of Salafi
Salafi
ideology with violence stems from writings "through the prism of security studies" that were published in the late 20th century and that continue to persist.[76] Regional groups and movements[edit] Saudi Arabia
Arabia
(Wahhabism)[edit] Main article: Wahhabism Wahhabism
Wahhabism
is a more strict, Saudi form of Salafism,[77][78] according to Mark Durie, who states that Saudi leaders "are active and diligent" using their considerable financial resources "in funding and promoting Salafism
Salafism
all around the world."[79] Ahmad Moussalli tends to agree with the view that Wahhabism
Wahhabism
is a subset of Salafism, saying "As a rule, all Wahhabis are salafists, but not all salafists are Wahhabis".[80] However, many scholars and critics distinguish between the old form of Saudi Salafism
Salafism
(termed as Wahhabism) and the new Salafism
Salafism
in Saudi Arabia. Stéphane Lacroix, a fellow and lecturer at Sciences Po in Paris, also affirmed a distinction between the two: "As opposed to Wahhabism, Salafism
Salafism
refers […] to all the hybridations that have taken place since the 1960s between the teachings of Muhammad
Muhammad
bin ‘Abd al-Wahhab and other Islamic schools of thought". Hamid Algar and Khaled Abou El Fadl believe, during the 1960s and 70s, Wahhabism rebranded itself as Salafism
Salafism
knowing it could not "spread in the modern Muslim
Muslim
world" as Wahhabism.[81][82] Its largesse funded an estimated "90% of the expenses of the entire faith", throughout the Muslim
Muslim
World, according to journalist Dawood al-Shirian.[83] It extended to young and old, from children's madrasas to high-level scholarship.[84] "Books, scholarships, fellowships, mosques" (for example, "more than 1,500 mosques were built from Saudi public funds over the last 50 years") were paid for.[85] It rewarded journalists and academics, who followed it and built satellite campuses around Egypt
Egypt
for Al Azhar, the oldest and most influential Islamic university.[86] Yahya Birt counts spending on "1,500 mosques, 210 Islamic centres and dozens of Muslim
Muslim
academies and schools" [87] at a cost of around $2–3bn annually since 1975.[88] To put the number into perspective, the propaganda budget of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was about $1bn per annum.[88] This spending has done much to overwhelm less strict local interpretations of Islam, according to observers like Dawood al-Shirian and Lee Kuan Yew,[83] and has caused the Saudi interpretation (sometimes called "petro-Islam"[89]) to be perceived as the correct interpretation – or the "gold standard" of Islam
Islam
– in many Muslims' minds.[90][91] Salafis are often called Wahhabis, which they consider a derogatory term.[92] Indian subcontinent ( Ahl-i Hadith
Ahl-i Hadith
movement)[edit] Main article: Ahl-i Hadith Ahl-i Hadith
Ahl-i Hadith
is a religious movement that emerged in Northern India in the mid-nineteenth century.[93] Adherents of Ahl-i- Hadith
Hadith
regard the Quran, sunnah, and hadith as the sole sources of religious authority and oppose everything introduced in Islam
Islam
after the earliest times.[94] In particular, they reject taqlid (following legal precedent) and favor ijtihad (independent legal reasoning) based on the scriptures.[93] The movement's followers call themselves Salafi, while others refer to them as Wahhabi,[95] or consider them a variation on the Wahhabi
Wahhabi
movement.[96][97] In recent decades the movement has expanded its presence in Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan.[93][94] Syed Nazeer Husain
Syed Nazeer Husain
from Delhi
Delhi
and Siddiq Hasan Khan of Bhopal
Bhopal
are regarded as the founder of the movement. Folk Islam
Islam
and Sufism, commonly popular with the poor and working class in the region, are anathema to Ahl-i Hadith
Ahl-i Hadith
beliefs and practices. This attitude toward Sufism
Sufism
has brought the movement into conflict with the rival Barelvi movement even more so than the Barelvis' rivals, the Deobandis.[98] Ahl-i Hadith
Ahl-i Hadith
followers identify with the Zahiri
Zahiri
madhhab.[99] The movement draws both inspiration and financial support from Saudi Arabia.[100][101] Egypt[edit] There are 5 to 6 million Salafis in Egypt.[102] Salafis in Egypt
Egypt
are not united under a single banner or unified leadership. The main Salafi
Salafi
trends in Egypt
Egypt
are Al-Sunna Al-Muhammadeyya Society, The Salafist Calling, al-Madkhaliyya Salafism, Activist Salafism, and al-Gam’eyya Al-Shar’eyya.[103] Since 2015 the Egyptian government has banned books associated with the Salafi
Salafi
movement.[104] Al-Sunna Al-Muhammadeyya Society, also known as Ansar Al-Sunna, was founded in 1926 by Sheikh Mohamed Hamed El-Fiqi (d.), a 1916 graduate of Al-Azhar and a student of the famed Muslim
Muslim
reformer Muhammed Abduh. It is considered the main Salafi
Salafi
group in Egypt. El-Fiqi's ideas were resentful of Sufism. But unlike Muhammed Abduh, Ansar Al-Sunna follows the tawhid as preached by Ibn Taymiyyah.[103] Salafist Call is another influential Salafist organisation. It is the outcome of student activism during the 1970s. While many of the activists joined the Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood, a faction led by Mohammad Ismail al-Muqaddim, influenced by Salafists of Saudi Arabia established the Salafist Calling between 1972 and 1977.[105] Salafist Call created the Al-Nour Party
Al-Nour Party
after the 2011 Egyptian Revolution. It has an ultra-conservative Islamist ideology, which believes in implementing strict Sharia
Sharia
law.[106] In the 2011–12 Egypt
Egypt
parliamentary elections, the Islamist Bloc led by Al‑Nour party received 7,534,266 votes out of a total 27,065,135 correct votes (28%). The Islamist Bloc gained 127 of the 498 parliamentary seats contested,[107] second-place after the Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood's Freedom and Justice Party. Al‑Nour Party itself won 111 of the 127 seats. From January 2013 the party gradually distanced itself from Mohammad Morsi's Brotherhood government, and came to join the opposition in the July 2013 coup which ousted Morsi.[108] A lawsuit against the party was dismissed on 22 September 2014 because the court indicated it had no jurisdiction.[109] A case on the dissolution of the party was adjourned until 17 January 2015.[110] Another court case that was brought forth to dissolve the party[111] was dismissed after the Alexandria Urgent Matters Court ruled on 26 November 2014 that it lacked jurisdiction.[112] According to Ammar Ali
Ali
Hassan of al-Ahram, while Salafis and the Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood agree on many issues such as the need to "Islamize" society and restricting private property rights by legally requiring all Muslims to give alms, the former has nevertheless rejected the flexibility of the latter on the issue of whether women and Christians should be entitled to serve in high office, as well as its relatively tolerant attitude towards Shia
Shia
Iran.[113] France[edit] In France, in 2015 police say that salafism is represented in 90 out of 2500 investigated religious communities, which is double the number compared to five years earlier.[114] Germany[edit] See also: Islam
Islam
in Germany Salafism
Salafism
is a growing movement in Germany
Germany
whose aim of a Islamic dictatorship is incompatible with a Western democracy.[115] Estimates by German interior intelligence service show that it grew from 3800 members in 2011 to 7500 members in 2015.[116] In Germany, most of the recruitment to the movement is done on the Internet and also on the streets,[116] a propaganda drive which mostly attracts youth.[116] There are two ideological camps, one advocates political salafism and directs its recruitment efforts towards non-Muslims and non-salafist Muslims to gain influence in society.[116] The other and minority movement, the jihadist salafism, advocates gaining influence by the use of violence and nearly all identified terrorist cells in Germany came from salafist circles.[116] In 2015, Sigmar Gabriel, Vice-Chancellor of Germany, spoke out, saying "We need Saudi Arabia
Arabia
to solve the regional conflicts, but we must at the same time make clear that the time to look away is past. Wahhabi mosques are financed all over the world by Saudi Arabia. In Germany, many dangerous Islamists come from these communities."[117] In November 2016, nationwide raids were conducted on the Salafist True Religion (Islamist organization).[118][119][120] According to the German Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution in Cologne, the number of Salafists in Germany
Germany
grew from 7003970000000000000♠9700in December 2016 to 7004108000000000000♠10800in December 2017. In addition to the rise, the salafist movement in Germany
Germany
was increasingly fractured which made them harder to monitor by authorities.[115] According to the office, street distributions of Quran
Quran
took place less frequently which was described as a success for the authorities.[115] Radicalisation changed character, from taking place in mosques and interregional salafist organisations to more often happening in small circles, which increasingly formed on the Internet. A further development was a rise in participation of women.[115] China[edit] Main article: Sailaifengye Salafism
Salafism
is opposed by a number of Hui Muslims Sects in China such as by the Gedimu, Sufi Khafiya and Jahriyya, to the extent that even the fundamentalist Yihewani (Ikhwan) Chinese sect, founded by Ma Wanfu after Salafi
Salafi
inspiration, condemned Ma Debao and Ma Zhengqing as heretics when they attempted to introduce Salafism
Salafism
as the main form of Islam. Ma Debao established a Salafi
Salafi
school, called the Sailaifengye (Salafi), in Lanzhou
Lanzhou
and Linxia. It is completely separate from other Muslim
Muslim
sects in China.[121] Muslim
Muslim
Hui avoid Salafis, even if they are family members.[122] The number of Salafis in China are not included on percentage lists of Muslim
Muslim
sects in China.[123] The Kuomintang
Kuomintang
Sufi Muslim
Muslim
General Ma Bufang, who backed the Yihewani (Ikhwan) Muslims, persecuted the Salafis and forced them into hiding. They were not allowed to move or worship openly. The Yihewani had become secular and Chinese nationalists; they considered the Salafiyya to be "heterodox" (xie jiao) and people who followed foreigners' teachings (waidao). After the Communists took power, Salafis were allowed to worship openly again.[124] Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit] Many religious buildings were destroyed in the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
during the 90s and mosques were frequently rebuilt with the aid of funds from Saudi Arabia
Arabia
in exchange for Saudi control which became the starting point of the wahhabist influence in Bosnia.[125] Due to the wahhabism that came along with Saudi aid to rebuild the mosque and along with Gulf-trained imams mandated by the salafist influence, all-covering veils such as niqab and burqa have become more prevalent and the issue of polygamy was debated in parliament due to pressure from islamist groups.[125] According to a study from 2005, over 3% of the mainstream Sunni
Sunni
Muslim
Muslim
population (around 60,000 people) of Bosnia and Herzegovina identified themselves as wahhabist.[126] Vietnam[edit] An attempt at Salafist expansion among the Muslim
Muslim
Chams
Chams
in Vietnam has been halted by Vietnamese government controls, however, the loss of the Salafis among Chams
Chams
has been to be benefit of Tablighi Jamaat.[127] Sweden[edit] Representatives from the mosque in Gävle
Gävle
are promoting this variant of Islam, which in Sweden is considered extreme. According to researcher Aje Carlbom at Malmö
Malmö
University. The organisation behind the missionary work is Swedish United Dawah
Dawah
Center, abbreviated SUDC.[128] SUDC is characterised as a salafist group by a researcher of religious history at Stockholm University
Stockholm University
and it has many links to British Muslim
Muslim
Abdur Raheem Green.[128] According to professor Mohammed Fazlhashemi, salafists are opposed to rational theology and hate shia Muslims above all.[128] Further Fazlhashemi states that salafism requires women to be relegated to second class citizens as they would be forbidden from leaving the home without a male companion as well as being excluded from education and the workplace.[128] Three Muslim
Muslim
community organisations in Malmö
Malmö
invited reportedly antisemitic and homophobic salafist lecturers such as Salman al-Ouda. One of the organisations, Alhambra is a student at society Malmö University.[129][undue weight? – discuss] In Hässleholm
Hässleholm
the Ljusets moské (translated: "the mosque of light") is spreading salafi ideology and portray shia Muslims as apostates and traitors in social media while the atrocities of the Islamic state
Islamic state
are never mentioned.[130] In 2009 the imam Abu al-Hareth at the mosque was sentenced to six years in jail for the attempted murder of a local shia Muslim
Muslim
from Iraq and another member set fire to a shia mosque in Malmö.[130] In 2017 Swedish Security Police reported that the number of jihadists in Sweden had risen to thousands from about 200 in 2010.[131] Based on social media analysis, an increase was noted in 2013.[132] Qatar[edit] Similar to Saudi Arabia, most citizens of Qatar
Qatar
adhere to a strict sect of Salafism
Salafism
referred to as Wahhabism.[133] The national mosque of Qatar
Qatar
is the Imam
Imam
Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab
Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab
Mosque
Mosque
named after the founder of Wahhabism.[134] Similar to Saudi Arabian sponsorship of Salafism, Qatar
Qatar
has also funded the construction of mosques that promote the Wahhabi
Wahhabi
Salafism.[135] Unlike the strict practice of Wahhabi
Wahhabi
Salafism
Salafism
in Saudi Arabia, Qatar has demonstrated an alternative view of Wahhabism. In Qatar, women are allowed by law to drive, non-Muslims have access to pork and liquor through a state-owned distribution center, and religious police do not force businesses to close during prayer times.[136] Also, Qatar
Qatar
hosts branches of several American universities and a "Church City" in which migrant workers may practice their religion.[137][138] The adoption of a more liberal interpretation of Wahhabism
Wahhabism
is largely credited to Qatar's young Emir, Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani. Yet, Qatar's more tolerant interpretation of Wahhabism
Wahhabism
compared to Saudi Arabia
Arabia
has drawn backlash from Qatari citizens and foreigners. The Economist
The Economist
reported that a Qatari cleric criticized the state's acceptance of un-Islamic practices away from the public sphere and complained that Qatari citizens are oppressed.[136] Although Qatari gender separation is less strict than that found in Saudi Arabia, plans to offer co-ed lectures were put aside after threats to boycott Qatar's segregated public university.[136] Meanwhile, there have been reports of local discontent with the sale of alcohol in Qatar.[139] Qatar
Qatar
has also drawn widespread criticism for attempting to spread its fundamental religious interpretation both through military and non-military channels. Militarily, Qatar
Qatar
has been criticized for funding rebel Islamist extremist fighters in the Libyan Crisis and the Syrian Civil War. In Libya, Qatar
Qatar
funded allies of Ansar al-Sharia, the jihadist group thought to be behind the killing of former U.S. ambassador Christopher Stevens, while channeling weapons and money to the Islamist Ahrar al-Sham
Ahrar al-Sham
group in Syria.[140] In addition, Qatar-based charities and online campaigns, such as Eid Charity and Madid Ahl al-Sham, have a history of financing terrorist groups in Syria.[141][142] Qatar
Qatar
has also repeatedly provided financial support to the Gaza government led by the militant Hamas
Hamas
organization while senior Hamas
Hamas
officials have visited Doha
Doha
and hosted Qatari leaders in Gaza.[143][144] Qatar
Qatar
also gave approximately $10 billion to the government of Egypt
Egypt
during Mohamed Morsi's time in office.[145] Non-militarily, Qatar
Qatar
state-funded broadcaster Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
has come under criticism for selective reporting in coordination with Qatar's foreign policy objectives.[146] In addition, reports have condemned Qatar's financing of the construction of mosques and Islamic centers in Europe as attempts to exert the state's Salafist interpretation of Islam.[147] Reports of Qatar
Qatar
attempting to impact the curriculum of U.S. schools and buy influence in universities have also spread.[148][149] The nearby Gulf States of Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, and the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
have been among the countries that have condemned Qatar's actions. In 2014, the three Gulf countries withdrew their ambassadors from Qatar
Qatar
referencing Qatar's failure to commit to non-interference in the affairs of other Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries.[150] Saudi Arabia
Arabia
has also threatened to block land and sea borders with Qatar.[151] Statistics[edit] Worldwide there are roughly 50 million Salafists,[152] including roughly 20 to 30 million Salafis in India,[153] 5 to 6 million Salafis in Egypt,[102] and 1.6 million Salafis in Sudan.[154] Salafi communities are smaller elsewhere, including roughly 10,000 in Tunisia, 17,000 in Morocco, 7,000 in Jordan, 17,000 in France and 5,000 in Germany.[155] It is often reported from various sources, including the German domestic intelligence service (Bundesnachrichtendienst), that Salafism is the fastest-growing Islamic movement in the world.[156][157][158][159] Other usage[edit] Modernist Salafism[edit]

Part of a series on Islam Aqidah

Five Pillars of Islam

Shahada Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj

Sunni Six articles of belief

God Prophets Holy books Angels The Last Judgement Predestination

Sunni
Sunni
theological traditions

Ilm al-Kalam

Ash'ari1 Maturidi

Sunni
Sunni
Murji'ah Traditionalist2

Shi'a Twelver3

Principles

Tawhid Adalah Prophecy Imamah Qiyamah

Practices

Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj Khums Jihad Commanding what is just Forbidding what is evil Tawalla Tabarra

Seven pillars of Ismailism4

Walayah Tawhid Salah Zakat Sawm Hajj Jihad

Other Shia
Shia
concepts of Aqidah

Imamate Batin Sixth Pillar of Islam

Other schools of theology

Khawarij5 Ibadi6 Murji'ah

Qadariyah Muʿtazila7 Sufism8

Including: 1Jahmi; 2Karramiyya; 3 Alawites
Alawites
& Qizilbash 4Sevener-Qarmatians, Assassins
Assassins
& Druzes 5Ajardi, Azariqa, Bayhasiyya, Najdat
Najdat
& Sūfrī 6Nūkkārī; 7 Bahshamiyya
Bahshamiyya
& Ikhshîdiyya 8Alevism, Bektashi Order
Bektashi Order
& Qalandariyya Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Main article: Islamic Modernism As opposed to the traditionalist Salafism
Salafism
discussed throughout this article, academics and historians have used the term "Salafism" to denote modernists, "a school of thought which surfaced in the second half of the 19th century as a reaction to the spread of European ideas" and "sought to expose the roots of modernity within Muslim civilization."[16][17] They are also known as Modernist Salafis.[160][161][162][163] However contemporary Salafis follow "literal, traditional […] injunctions of the sacred texts", looking to Ibn Taymiyyah
Ibn Taymiyyah
rather than the "somewhat freewheeling interpretation" of 19th-century figures Muhammad
Muhammad
Abduh, Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, and Rashid Rida.[19][20] The origins of contemporary Salafism
Salafism
in the modernist "Salafi Movement" of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani
Jamal al-Din al-Afghani
and Muhammad Abduh
Muhammad Abduh
is noted by some,[164][165] while others say Islamic Modernism
Islamic Modernism
only influenced contemporary Salafism.[166] However, the former notion has been rejected by majority.[167][168][169] According to Quintan Wiktorowicz:

There has been some confusion in recent years because both the Islamic modernists and the contemporary Salafis refer (referred) to themselves as al-salafiyya, leading some observers to erroneously conclude a common ideological lineage. The earlier salafiyya (modernists), however, were predominantly rationalist Asharis.[51]

Inspired by Islamic modernists, groups like Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood, Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
etc. are called Salafis in this context.[170] Muslim Brotherhood include the term salafi in the "About Us" section of its website.[171] In this context "in terms of their respective formation, Wahhabism
Wahhabism
and Salafism
Salafism
were quite distinct. Wahhabism
Wahhabism
was a pared-down Islam
Islam
that rejected modern influences, while Salafism
Salafism
sought to reconcile Islam with modernism. What they had in common is that both rejected traditional teachings on Islam
Islam
in favor of direct, ‘fundamentalist’ reinterpretation. Although Salafism
Salafism
and Wahhabism began as two distinct movements, Faisal's embrace of Salafi
Salafi
(Muslim Brotherhood) pan- Islamism
Islamism
resulted in cross-pollination between ibn Abd al-Wahhab's teachings on tawhid, shirk and bid‘ah and Salafi interpretations of ahadith (the sayings of Muhammad). Some Salafis nominated ibn Abd al-Wahhab as one of the Salaf
Salaf
(retrospectively bringing Wahhabism
Wahhabism
into the fold of Salafism), and the Muwahideen began calling themselves Salafis."[172] In the broadest sense[edit] In a broad sense, Salafi
Salafi
(follower of Salaf) means any reform movement that calls for resurrection of Islam
Islam
by going back to its origin. In line with Wahhabism
Wahhabism
they promote a literal understanding of the sacred texts of Islam
Islam
and reject other more liberal reformist movements such as those inspired for example by [173] Muhammad Abduh
Muhammad Abduh
or by Muhammad Iqbal.[168] Criticism[edit] Scholars from Al-Azhar University
Al-Azhar University
of Cairo produced a work of religious opinions entitled al-Radd (The Response) to refute the views of the Salafi
Salafi
movement.[174] Al-Radd singles out numerous Salafi aberrations – in terms of ritual prayer alone it targets for criticism the following Salafi
Salafi
claims:[175]

The claim that it is prohibited to recite God's name during the minor ablution [Fatwa 50] The claim that it is obligatory for men and women to perform the major ablution on Friday [Fatwa 63] The claim that it is prohibited to own a dog for reasons other than hunting [Fatwa 134] The claim that it is prohibited to use alcohol for perfumes [Fatwa 85].

One of the authors of al-Radd, the Professor of Law Anas Abu Shady states that, "they [the Salafis] want to be everything to everyone. They're interested not only in the evident (al-zahir), although most of their law goes back to the Muhalla [of the Ẓāhirī
Ẓāhirī
scholar Ibn Hazm], but they also are convinced that they alone understand the hidden (al-batin)!"[176] The Syrian scholar Mohamed Said Ramadan Al-Bouti
Mohamed Said Ramadan Al-Bouti
wrote a number of works refuting Salafism
Salafism
including Al-La Madhhabiyya (Abandoning the Madhhabs) is the most dangerous Bid‘ah Threatening the Islamic Shari'a (Damascus: Dar al-Farabi 2010) and Al-Salafiyya was a blessed epoch, not a school of thought (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 1990).[174] The latter is perhaps the most famous refutation of Salafism
Salafism
in the twentieth century.[177] Numerous academic rebuttals of Salafism
Salafism
have been produced in the English language by Khaled Abou El Fadl of the UCLA School of Law, Timothy Winter of Cambridge
Cambridge
University and G.F. Haddad.[174] El Fadl argues that fanatical groups such as al-Qaeda "derive their theological premises from the intolerant Puritanism of the Wahhabi
Wahhabi
and Salafi
Salafi
creeds".[178] He also suggests that the extreme intolerance and even endorsement of terrorism manifest in Wahhabism
Wahhabism
and Salafism represents a deviation from Muslim
Muslim
historical traditions.[178] El-Fadl also argues that the Salafi
Salafi
methodology "drifted into stifling apologetics" by the mid-20th century, a reaction against "anxiety" to "render Islam
Islam
compatible with modernity," by its leaders earlier in the century.[179] According to the As- Sunnah
Sunnah
Foundation of America, the Salafi
Salafi
and Wahhabi
Wahhabi
movements are strongly opposed by a long list of Sunni scholars.[clarification needed (like whom?)][180] The Saudi government has been criticised for damaging Islamic heritage of thousands of years in Saudi Arabia. For example, there has been some controversy that the expansion projects of the mosque and Mecca
Mecca
itself are causing harm to early Islamic heritage. Many ancient buildings, some more than a thousand years old, have been demolished to make room not only for the expansion of the Masjid al-Haram, but for new malls and hotels.[181][182][183][184][185] Though some Salafis who attended a lecture by The City Circle in the UK, were equally as opposed to it as other Muslims.[186] The Salafi
Salafi
movement has been linked by Marc Sageman to some terrorist groups around the world, like Al-Qaeda.[187] German government's statement on Salafism[edit] German government officials[188] have stated that Salafism
Salafism
has a strong link to terrorism but have clarified that not all Salafists are terrorists. The statements by German government officials criticizing Salafism
Salafism
were televised by Deutsche Welle
Deutsche Welle
during April 2012.[189][190] Prominent Salafis[edit]

Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz, Saudi Arabian Grand Mufti[191] Abdullah el-Faisal, Jamaican Muslim
Muslim
leader[192][193] Abul A'la Maududi, Pakistani scholar and philosopher Abdur Raheem Green[194] Abu Qatada, Jordanian cleric[195][196] Ali
Ali
al-Tamimi, contemporary American Islamic leader[197] Anjem Choudary, 21st-century British Salafi
Salafi
figure[198][199][200][201] Anwar al-Awlaki, leader of American/Yemeni terror group Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)[202] Bilal Philips, Canadian Salafi
Salafi
imam[203] Feiz Mohammad[204] Haitham al-Haddad, British Salafi
Salafi
cleric[205] Muhammad
Muhammad
Al-Munajjid, Salafi
Salafi
scholar[206] Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al Uthaymeen, late Saudi Arabian Salafi
Salafi
scholar (died 1999)[207] Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani
Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani
(died 1999), Albanian-Syrian scholar who published more than 100 books, lectured widely, and taught briefly in Saudi Arabia[14] Mohammed Yusuf (Boko Haram), Nigerian Muslim[208] Abu Bakar Bashir, leader of Indonesian terror group (Jema'ah Islamiyah) Nasir al-Fahd, Saudi Arabian Salafist scholar who supports jihad, opposes the Saudi state, and in 2012 proclaimed allegiance to ISIS[209] Omar Bakri Muhammad, 21st-century Salafi
Salafi
Jihadist preacher[210] Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
al-Baghdadi, leader of terrorist group (Islamic State, known as ISIS, ISIL, IS, Daesh) Osama bin Laden, Saudi Arabian cleric who developed and led the terror group (Al-Qaeda)[211][212] Rabee al-Madkhali, Saudi scholar and former head of the Sunnah
Sunnah
Studies Department at the Islamic University of Madinah. He is disassociated with extremist insurgent groups.[213][214] Yasir Qadhi, American Muslim
Muslim
cleric, professor at Rhodes College, and author; also Dean of Academic Studies at international al-Maghrib Institute[215] Zakir Naik, Salafi
Salafi
ideologue in India[216]

See also[edit]

Ahl al-Hadith Athari Bid‘ah Ibn Taymiyyah International propagation of Salafism
Salafism
and Wahhabism Islam
Islam
in Saudi Arabia Islamic fundamentalism Islamic schools and branches Islamism Muslim
Muslim
World League Petro-Islam Shirk (Islam) Sufi– Salafi
Salafi
relations Wahhabi
Wahhabi
movement

References[edit]

^ Naylor, Phillip (15 January 2015). North Africa Revised. University of Texas Press. Retrieved 5 December 2015.  ^ Esposito, John (2004). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 275. Retrieved 5 December 2015.  ^ Joppke, Christian (2013-04-01). Legal Integration of Islam. Harvard University Press. p. 27. ISBN 9780674074910. Salafism, which is a largely pietistic, apolitical sect favoring a literalist reading of the Quran
Quran
and Sunna.  ^ Joas Wagemakers (2016). Salafism
Salafism
in Jordan: Political Islam
Islam
in a Quietist Community. Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. p. 227. These men adhere to the Salafi
Salafi
branch of Islam  ^ Bernard Haykel (2009). "Salafī Groups". In John L. Esposito. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Tucker, Spencer C.; Roberts, Priscilla (2008-05-12). The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Political, Social, and Military History [4 volumes]: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 975. ISBN 9781851098422.  ^ Turner, J. (2014-08-26). Religious Ideology and the Roots of the Global Jihad: Salafi
Salafi
Jihadism
Jihadism
and International Order. Springer. ISBN 9781137409577.  ^ a b "Salafism: Politics and the puritanical". The Economist. 27 June 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2015.  ^ a b c Al-Yaqoubi, Muhammad
Muhammad
(2015). Refuting ISIS: A Rebuttal Of Its Religious And Ideological Foundations. Sacred Knowledge. p. xiii. ISBN 978-1908224125.  ^ a b c d e "Demography of Religion in the Gulf". Mehrdad Izady. 2013.  ^ "The Shiʻis of Saudi Arabia". pp. 56–57.  ^ " Salafism
Salafism
Infiltrates Turkish Religious Discourse". Middle East Institute. Retrieved 2018-02-16.  ^ For example, the Ahl-i Hadith
Ahl-i Hadith
which "have been active since the nineteenth century on the border between Pakistan and Afghanistan ... though designated as Wahhabis by their adversaries, ... prefer to call themselves 'Salafis.'" (from The Failure of Political Islam, by Olivier Roy, translated by Carol Volk, Harvard University Press, 1994, pp. 118–9) ^ a b Stephane Lacroix, Al-Albani's Revolutionary Approach to Hadith. Leiden
Leiden
University's ISIM Review, Spring 2008, #21. ^ Dr Abdul-Haqq Baker, Extremists in Our Midst: Confronting Terror, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011,[page needed] ^ a b Kepel, Gilles (2006). Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 9781845112578. Retrieved 28 January 2014.  ^ a b For example: " Salafism
Salafism
originated in the mid to late 19th-century as an intellectual movement at al-Azhar University, led by Muhammad Abduh
Muhammad Abduh
(1849–1905), Jamal al-Din al-Afghani
Jamal al-Din al-Afghani
(1839–1897) and Rashid Rida
Rashid Rida
(1865–1935)." from Understanding the Origins of Wahhabism
Wahhabism
and Salafism
Salafism
Archived 3 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine., by Trevor Stanley. Terrorism Monitor Volume 3, Issue 14. July 15, 2005 ^ Oliver Leaman The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia Taylor & Francis 2006 ISBN 978-0-415-32639-1 page 632 ^ a b Jihad
Jihad
By Gilles Kepel, Anthony F. Roberts. Books.google.com. 2006-02-24. ISBN 978-1-84511-257-8. Retrieved 2010-04-18.  ^ a b Haykel, Bernard. " Sufism
Sufism
and Salafism
Salafism
in Syria". 11 May 2007. Syria Comment. Retrieved 22 May 2013. The Salafis of the Muhammad Abduh variety no longer exist, as far as I can tell, and certainly are not thought of by others as Salafis since this term has been appropriated/co-opted fully by Salafis of the Ahl al-Hadith/Wahhabi variety.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "haykel" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). ^ Wood, Graeme (2016-12-20). The Way of the Strangers: Encounters with the Islamic State. Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 9780241240120.  ^ Lacey, Robert (2009). Inside the Kingdom, Kings, Clerics, Modernists, Terrorists, and the Struggle for Saudi Arabia. New York: Viking. p. 9.  ^ "What ISIS
ISIS
really wants", The Atlantic, February 2015 ^ "The way of the Sufis is the way of the Salaf, the Scholars among the Sahaba, Tabi’in and Tabi’ at-Tabi’in. Its origin is to worship Allah and to leave the ornaments of this world and its pleasures." (Ibn Khaldun (733–808 H/1332–1406 CE) Muqaddimat ibn Khaldan, p. 328, quoted in PAHARY SHEIK MOHAMMAD YASSER, SUFISM: ORIGIN, DEVELOPMENT AND EMERGENCE OF SUFI ORDERS, retrieved March 2012 ^ Haykel, Bernard (2009). "Chapter 1: On the Nature of Salafi
Salafi
Thought and Action". In Meijer, Roel. Global Salafism: Islam's New Religious Movement. Columbia University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-231-15420-8.  ^ Sharh Usool, "I'tiqaad Ahl as- Sunnah
Sunnah
wal-Jama'ah, al-Laalika'ee, tahqeeq of Nash'at Kamaal Misree," 1/7-9 ^ a b GlobalSecurity.org " Salafi
Salafi
Islam", Global Security website ^ Roy, Olivier. Globalized Islam: The Search for a New Ummah. Columbia University Press. p. 266. Retrieved 13 October 2016.  ^ The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought, p. 484 ^ Stephane Lacroix; George Holoch (2011). Awakening Islam. Harvard University Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-674-04964-2.  ^ Miriam Cooke, Bruce B. Lawrence, Muslim
Muslim
Networks from Hajj
Hajj
to Hip Hop, p. 213 ^ "Thus he [Rida] opposed Taqlid and called for and practiced absolute ijtihad." Clinton Bennett, The Bloomsbury Companion to Islamic Studies, p. 174. See also, Richard Gauvain, Salafi
Salafi
Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God, Introduction, p. 9 ^ "Abduh's statement of purpose was: To liberate thought from the shackles of Taqlid and understand religion as it was understood by the Salaf." Bennett, The Bloomsbury Companion to Islamic Studies, p. 168. ^ "From there he [Albani] learned to oppose taqlid in a madhab." Bennett, The Bloomsbury Companion to Islamic Studies, p. 174. "Al-Albani had denounced Wahhabi
Wahhabi
attachment to the Hanbali
Hanbali
school." Stephane Lacroix, George Holoch, Awakening Islam, p. 85 ^ "For many Salafis, both modernist and conservative, "worship" of created beings includes practicing taqlid within a madhab of fiqh." Bennett, The Bloomsbury Companion to Islamic Studies, p. 165 ^ Halverson, Theology and Creed
Creed
in Sunni
Sunni
Islam, 2010: 38–48 ^ Halverson, Theology and Creed
Creed
in Sunni
Sunni
Islam, 2010: 36 ^ Halverson, Theology and Creed
Creed
in Sunni
Sunni
Islam, 2010: 36–7 ^ Mahmood, Saba (2011-10-23). Politics of Piety: The Islamic Revival and the Feminist Subject. Princeton University Press. p. 61. ISBN 0691149801. The Salafi
Salafi
movement emerged at the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth  ^ Esposito, John L.; Shahin, Emad El-Din (2013-11-01). The Oxford Handbook of Islam
Islam
and Politics. OUP USA. p. 38. ISBN 9780195395891.  ^ a b Curtis, Edward E. (2010-01-01). Encyclopedia of Muslim-American History. Infobase Publishing. p. 499. ISBN 9781438130408.  ^ Campo, Juan Eduardo (2009-01-01). Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. p. 601. ISBN 9781438126968.  ^ Lauzière, Henri (July 24, 2008). The Evolution of the Salafiyya in the Twentieth Century through the life and thought of Taqi al-Din al-Hilali. Phd Dissertation Georgetown University. p. 62. However, the evidence they have gathered so far is tenuous. Puristic Salafis rely on a few quotes that, while lending support to their argument, hardly prove it beyond any doubt  ^ Lauzière, Henri (July 24, 2008). The Evolution of the Salafiyya in the Twentieth Century through the life and thought of Taqi al-Din al-Hilali. Phd Dissertation Georgetown University. p. 61.  ^ Abu Saʿd al-Tamimi al-Samʿani, al-Ansab, ed. ʿAbd al-Rahman ibn Yahya al-Muʿallimi al-Yamani, vol.7 (Hayderabad: Matbaʿat Majlis Daʾirat al-Maʿarif al-ʿUthmaniyya, 1976), 167 ^ a b Lauzière, Henri (July 24, 2008). The Evolution of the Salafiyya in the Twentieth Century through the life and thought of Taqi al-Din al-Hilali. Phd Dissertation Georgetown University. p. 63.  ^ a b Lauzière, Henri (July 24, 2008). The Evolution of the Salafiyya in the Twentieth Century through the life and thought of Taqi al-Din al-Hilali. Phd Dissertation Georgetown University. p. 65.  ^ Quintan Wiktorowicz, Anatomy of the Salafi
Salafi
Movement, p. 216. ^ Commins, David (2006). The Wahhabi
Wahhabi
Mission and Saudi Arabia. I.B.Tauris. p. 7. ISBN 9780857731357. The Wahhabi
Wahhabi
religious reform movement arose in Najd, the vast, thinly populated heart of Central Arabia.  ^ Esposito 2003, p. 333 ^ a b c Anatomy of the Salafi
Salafi
Movement by QUINTAN WIKTOROWICZ, Washington, D.C. ^ Natana J. DeLong-Bas, in Wahhabi
Wahhabi
Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad, ^ a b Whatever Happened to the Islamists? edited by Olivier Roy and Amel Boubekeur, Columbia University Press, 2012 ^ Richard Gauvain, Salafi
Salafi
Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God, p. 41. New York: Routledge, 2013. ^ Roel Meijer, Global Salafism: Islam's New Religious Movement, p. 49. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009. ^ a b George Joffé, Islamist Radicalisation in Europe and the Middle East: Reassessing the Causes of Terrorism, p. 317. London: I.B. Tauris, 2013. ^ a b The Transmission and Dynamics of the Textual Sources of Islam: Essays in Honour of Harald Motzki, eds. Nicolet Boekhoff-van der Voort, Kees Versteegh and Joas Wagemakers, p. 382. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2011. ^ Meijer, p. 48. ^ On Salafism
Salafism
By Yasir Qadhi page-7 ^ Saudi Arabia's Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood predicament washingtonpost.com ^ Ghosh, Bobby (October 8, 2012). "The Rise Of The Salafis". Time. 180 (15). Retrieved 2014-05-06.  ^ a b " Special
Special
Reports - The Salafist Movement - Al Qaeda's New Front - FRONTLINE - PBS". www.pbs.org.  ^ Coming to Terms: Fundamentalists or Islamists?, Martin Kramer, Middle East Quarterly, Spring 2003, pp. 65–77. ^ Hafez, Mohammed M. (23 June 2017). "Suicide Bombers in Iraq: The Strategy and Ideology of Martyrdom". US Institute of Peace Press – via Google Books.  ^ a b Darion Rhodes, Salafist-Takfiri Jihadism: the Ideology of the Caucasus Emirate, International Institute for Counter-terrorism, March 2014 ^ Abou El Fadl, Khaled, The Great Theft Harper San Francisco, 2005, pp. 62–8 ^ Valentine, Simon Ross (2014-11-28). Force and Fanaticism: Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia
Arabia
and Beyond. Oxford University Press. p. 246. ISBN 9781849044646.  ^ The Observer, Violent tide of Salafism
Salafism
threatens the Arab spring, by Peter Beaumont and Patrick Kingsley, 10 February 2013. ^ Reuters, Egypt
Egypt
orders cleric held over ElBaradei death call, by Marwa Awad, edited by Paul Taylor and Jon Hemming, 11 February 2013. ^ Von Drehle, David; Ghosh, Bobby: "An Enemy Within: The Making of Najibullah Zazi". Time. p. 2. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 16 April 2011. ^ a b Gabriel G. Tabarani, Jihad's New Heartlands: Why the West Has Failed to Contain Islamic Fundamentalism, p. 26. ^ Richard Gauvain, Salafi
Salafi
Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God, p. 331 ^ Quintan Wiktorowicz, Anatomy of the Salafi
Salafi
Movement, p. 217. ^ a b Husain, Ed (2014-08-22). " ISIS
ISIS
Atrocities Started With Saudi Support for Salafi
Salafi
Hate". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-09-21.  ^ a b Friedman, Thomas L. (2015-09-02). "Our Radical Islamic BFF, Saudi Arabia". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-09-21.  ^ Meijer, Roel (2009). "Introduction". In Meijer, Roel. Global Salafism: Islam's New Religious Movement. Columbia University Presss. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-231-15420-8.  ^ Murphy, Caryle (September 5, 2006). "For Conservative Muslims, Goal of Isolation a Challenge". Washington Post. The kind of Islam practiced at Dar-us-Salaam, known as Salafism, once had a significant foothold among area Muslims, in large part because of an aggressive missionary effort by the government of Saudi Arabia. Salafism
Salafism
and its strict Saudi version, known as Wahhabism, struck a chord with many Muslim
Muslim
immigrants who took a dim view of the United States' sexually saturated pop culture and who were ambivalent about participating in a secular political system.  ^ Lewis, Bernard (April 27, 2006). " Islam
Islam
and the West: A Conversation with Bernard Lewis (transcript)". pewforum.org. Pew. Retrieved 5 August 2014. There are others, the so-called Salafia. It's run along parallel lines to the Wahhabis, but they are less violent and less extreme – still violent and extreme but less so than the Wahhabis.  ^ Mark Durie (June 6, 2013). "Salafis and the Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood: What is the difference?". Middle East Forum. What is called Wahhabism
Wahhabism
– the official religious ideology of the Saudi state – is a form of Salafism. Strictly speaking, 'Wahhabism' is not a movement, but a label used mainly by non-Muslims to refer to Saudi Salafism, referencing the name of an influential 18th-century Salafi
Salafi
teacher, Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abd al-Wahhab. ... The continuing impact of Salafi
Salafi
dogma in Saudi Arabia
Arabia
means that Saudi leaders are active and diligent in funding and promoting Salafism
Salafism
all around the world. If there is a mosque receiving Saudi funding in your city today, in every likelihood it is a Salafi
Salafi
mosque. Saudi money has also leveraged Salafi
Salafi
teachings through TV stations, websites and publications.  ^ Moussalli, Ahmad (January 30, 2009). Wahhabism, Salafism
Salafism
and Islamism: Who Is The Enemy? (PDF). A Conflicts Forum Monograph. p. 3.  ^ Dillon, Michael R. "WAHHABISM: IS IT A FACTOR IN THE SPREAD OF GLOBAL TERRORISM?" (PDF). September 2009. Naval Post-Graduate School. pp. 3–4. Retrieved 2 April 2014. Hamid Algar […] emphasizes the strong influence of the Saudi petrodollar in the propagation of Wahhabism, but also attributes the political situation of the Arab world at the time as a contributing factor that led to the co-opting of Salafism. […] Khaled Abou El Fadl, […] expresses the opinion that Wahhabism
Wahhabism
would not have been able to spread in the modern Muslim world […] it would have to be spread under the banner of Salafism.8 This attachment of Wahhabism
Wahhabism
to Salafism
Salafism
was needed as Salafism
Salafism
was a much more 'credible paradigm in Islam'; making it an ideal medium for Wahhabism. […] The co-opting of Salafism
Salafism
by Wahhabism
Wahhabism
was not completed until the 1970s when the Wahhabis stripped away some of their extreme intolerance and co-opted the symbolism and language of Salafism; making them practically indistinguishable.  ^ Abou El Fadl, Khaled (2005). The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam
Islam
from the Extremists. p. 75.  ^ a b Dawood al-Shirian, 'What Is Saudi Arabia
Arabia
Going to Do?' Al-Hayat, May 19, 2003 ^ Abou al Fadl, Khaled, The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam
Islam
from the Extremists, Harper SanFrancisco, 2005, pp. 48–64 ^ Kepel, p. 72 ^ Murphy, Caryle, Passion for Islam
Islam
– Shaping the Modern Middle East: the Egyptian Experience, Simon & Schuster, 2002 p. 32 ^ Coolsaet, Rik. "Cycles of Revolutionary Terrorism, Chapter 7". In Rik Coolsaet. Jihadi Terrorism and the Radicalisation Challenge: European and American. Ashgate Publishing Ltd. The proliferation of brochures, free qurans and new Islamic centres in Malaga, Madrid, Milat, Mantes-la-Jolie, Edinburgh, Brussels, Lisbon, Zagreb, Washington, Chicago, and Toronto; the financing of Islamic Studies chairs in American universities; the growth of Internet sites: all of these elements have facilitated access to Wahhabi
Wahhabi
teachings and the promotion of Wahhabism
Wahhabism
as the sole legitimate guardian of Islamic thought.  ^ a b "Wahhabism: A deadly scripture". The Independent. 1 November 2007. Retrieved 4 October 2015.  ^ Kepel 2002, pp. 69–75 ^ "Radical Islam
Islam
in Central Asia". Retrieved 13 November 2014.  ^ Kuan Yew Lee; Ali
Ali
Wyne. Lee Kuan Yew: The Grand Master's Insights on China, the United States, and . MIT Press. But over the last 30-odd years, since the oil crisis and the petrodollars became a major factor in the Muslim
Muslim
world, the extremists have been proleytizing, building mosques, religious schools where they teach Wahhabism
Wahhabism
[…] sending out preachers, and having conferences. Globalizing, networking. And slowly they have convinced the Southeast Asian Muslims, and indeed Muslims throughout the world, that the gold standard is Saudi Arabia, that that is the real good Muslim.  ^ Laurent Bonnefoy, Salafism
Salafism
in Yemen: Transnationalism and Religious Identity, Columbia University Press/Hurst, 2011, ISBN 978-1-84904-131-7, p. 245. ^ a b c John L. Esposito, ed. (2014). "Ahl-i Hadith". The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ a b Olivier, Roy; Sfeir, Antoine, eds. (2007). The Columbia World Dictionary of Islamism. Columbia University Press. p. 27.  ^ Rabasa, Angel M. The Muslim
Muslim
World After 9/11 By Angel M. Rabasa, p. 275 ^ Alex Strick Van Linschoten and Felix Kuehn, An Enemy We Created: The Myth of the Taliban-Al Qaeda Merger in Afghanistan, p. 427. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. ISBN 9780199927319 ^ Lieven, Anatol (2011). Pakistan: A Hard Country. New York: PublicAffairs. p. 128. ISBN 978-1-61039-023-1. Ahl-e-Hadith ... a branch of the international Salafi
Salafi
... tradition, heavily influenced by Wahabism.  ^ Arthur F Buehler, Sufi Heirs of the Prophet: the Indian Naqshbandiyya and the Rise of the Mediating Sufi Shaykh, p. 179. Part of the Studies in Comparative Religion series. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1998. ISBN 9781570032011 ^ Daniel W. Brown, Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought: Vol. 5 of Cambridge
Cambridge
Middle East Studies, p. 32. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. ISBN 9780521653947. Quote: "Ahl-i-Hadith [...] consciously identified themselves with Zahiri
Zahiri
doctrine." ^ Rubin, p. 348 ^ Sushant Sareen, The Jihad
Jihad
Factory: Pakistan's Islamic Revolution in the Making, p. 282. New Delhi: Har Anand Publications, 2005. ^ a b "What is Salafism
Salafism
and should we be worried?".  ^ a b " Salafi
Salafi
Groups in Egypt
Egypt
- Islamopedia Online". www.islamopediaonline.org.  ^ " Egypt
Egypt
to remove books of Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Baz and Ibn Uthaymeen from all mosques". DOA. Retrieved 6 January 2016.  ^ Al-Nour Party
Al-Nour Party
Jadaliyya. Retrieved 19 December 2013. ^ Omar Ashour (6 January 2012). "The unexpected rise of Salafists has complicated Egyptian politics". The Daily Star. Retrieved 19 December 2013.  ^ Salafis and Sufis in Egypt, Jonathan Brown, Carnegie Paper, December 2011. ^ Patrick Kingsley (7 July 2013). "Egypt's Salafist al-Nour party wields new influence on post-Morsi coalition World news". London: theguardian.com. Retrieved 19 December 2013.  ^ " Egypt
Egypt
court says it has no power to dissolve Nour Party". Ahram Online. 22 September 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2014.  ^ "Cairo court adjourns case on dissolution of Islamist Nour Party". Ahram Online. 15 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014.  ^ Auf, Yussef (25 November 2014). "Political Islam's Fate in Egypt Lies in the Hands of the Courts". Atlantic Council. Retrieved 1 December 2014.  ^ "Court claims no jurisdiction over religiously affiliated parties". Daily News Egypt. 26 November 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.  ^ Hassan, Ammar Ali. " Muslim
Muslim
Brothers and Salafis". 06-12-2012. Al Ahram. Retrieved 19 May 2013.  ^ "Le salafisme gagne du terrain chez les musulmans". Le Monde. 1 April 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.  ^ a b c d (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "Zahl der Salafisten steigt in Deutschland auf Rekordhoch Aktuell Deutschland DW 10.12.2017". DW.COM (in German). Retrieved 2017-12-10.  ^ a b c d e "(de) Salafistische Bestrebungen - Inhalte und Ziele salafistischer Ideologie". Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz. Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution. Retrieved 18 September 2015.  ^ Reuters, 6 December 2015, German Vice Chancellor warns Saudi Arabia over Islamist funding. Deutsche Welle, 6 December 2015, German vice chancellor warns Saudi Arabia
Arabia
over Islamist funding in Germany ^ Smali, Alison (19 November 2016). " Germany
Germany
Cracks Down on Salafists to Shield Refugees". New York Times. Retrieved 20 November 2016.  ^ Niebergall, Nina (15 November 2016). "'True religion:' How Salafists lure supporters". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 16 November 2016.  ^ Eddy, Melissa (15 November 2016). " Germany
Germany
Bans 'True Religion' Muslim
Muslim
Group and Raids Mosques". New York Times. Retrieved 16 November 2016.  ^ Michael Dillon (1999). China's Muslim
Muslim
Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Richmond: Curzon Press. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-7007-1026-3. Retrieved 2010-06-28.  ^ Maris Boyd Gillette (2000). Between Mecca
Mecca
and Beijing: modernization and consumption among urban Chinese Muslims. Stanford University Press. p. 81. ISBN 0-8047-3694-4. Retrieved 2010-06-28.  ^ John L. Esposito (1999). The Oxford History of Islam. Oxford University Press US. p. 749. ISBN 0-19-510799-3. Retrieved 2010-06-28.  ^ BARRY RUBIN (2000). Guide to Islamist Movements. M.E. Sharpe. p. 800. ISBN 0-7656-1747-1. Retrieved 2010-06-28.  ^ a b "Kaliber 5 juni 2005: Saudiarabisk mission i Sverige". Sveriges Television. 20 November 2005. Retrieved 13 March 2017.  ^ "Islamists Gain Ground in Sarajevo". Der Spiegel. 25 February 2009. Retrieved 14 March 2017.  ^ Féo, Agnès De. "Les musulmans de Châu Đốc (Vietnam) à l'épreuve du salafisme". Recherches en sciences sociales sur l'Asie du Sud-Est. moussons: 359–372.  ^ a b c d "(sv) Gävles moské vill sprida extrem tolkning av islam". Gefle Dagblad. 7 September 2015. Retrieved 8 September 2015.  ^ "Tre olika Malmöföreningar ville lyssna på bin Ladins förra mentor". Sydsvenskan. 29 April 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2016.  ^ a b "Moskéns ledning sprider extremism och hat". Expressen (in Swedish). Retrieved 2017-06-04.  ^ "Säpochefen: "Det finns tusentals radikala islamister i Sverige"". Aftonbladet. Retrieved 2017-06-17.  ^ Radio, Sveriges. "Säpo: Huge increase in violent Islamist extremists in Sweden - Radio Sweden". Retrieved 2017-06-17.  ^ "Tiny Qatar's growing global clout". BBC News. 2011-05-01. Retrieved 2016-11-30.  ^ "PHOTOS: Qatar's state mosque opens to the public". Doha
Doha
News. 2011-12-16. Retrieved 2016-11-30.  ^ Kern, Soeren. " Qatar
Qatar
Financing Wahhabi
Wahhabi
Islam
Islam
in France, Italy, Ireland and Spain". Gatestone Institute. Retrieved 2016-11-30.  ^ a b c "The other Wahhabi
Wahhabi
state". The Economist. 2016-06-04. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2016-11-30.  ^ "Study in Qatar". Top Universities. 2016-09-14. Retrieved 2016-11-30.  ^ "Qatar's 'Church City' grows as Christianity loses taboo status". Doha
Doha
News. 2011-05-16. Retrieved 2016-11-30.  ^ Delmar-Morgan, Alex (2012-01-07). "Qatar, Unveiling Tensions, Suspends Sale of Alcohol". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2016-11-30.  ^ Spencer, By David Blair and Richard. "How Qatar
Qatar
is funding the rise of Islamist extremists". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-11-30.  ^ Reports, CATF. "Eid Charity's Al Baraka Initiative: Admirable or Alarming?". Retrieved 2016-11-30.  ^ "Analysis: Qatar
Qatar
still negligent on terror finance FDD's Long War Journal". FDD's Long War Journal. Retrieved 2016-11-30.  ^ " Qatar
Qatar
says gives $30 million to pay Gaza public sector workers". Reuters. 2016-07-22. Retrieved 2016-11-30.  ^ "Why Israel Lets Qatar
Qatar
Give Millions To Hamas". NPR.org. Retrieved 2016-11-30.  ^ Law, Bill (2013-07-05). " Egypt
Egypt
crisis: Fall of Morsi challenges Qatar's new emir". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-11-30.  ^ "Al-Jazeera TV network draws criticism, praise for coverage of Arab revolutions". Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-11-30.  ^ Reports, CATF. "Qatari Donors Are Buying a Say in Italy's Islam". Retrieved 2016-11-30.  ^ Reports, CATF. "Libya, Qatar
Qatar
Seeking Influence in U.S. Schools". Retrieved 2016-11-30.  ^ Reports, CATF. "Qatar: From Oxford Classrooms to Europe's Hearts and Minds". Retrieved 2016-11-30.  ^ https://english.alarabiya.net/en/views/news/middle-east/2014/03/05/Gulf-trio-pull-Qatar-ambassadors-why-now-.html ^ "Saudi threatens to block Qatar's land, sea borders". Arabian Business. Retrieved 2016-11-30.  ^ Global Strategic Assessment 2009: America's Security Role in a Changing World, p. 138, Patrick M. Cronin ^ "Why India's ' Muslim
Muslim
Rage' Is Different from the Middle East's". Time. 1 October 2012.  ^ Sharif, Jamal Al. "Salafis in Sudan:Non-Interference or Confrontation". studies.aljazeera.net.  ^ http://pomeps.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/POMEPS_Studies2_Salafi.pdf ^ Barby Grant. "Center wins NEH grant to study Salafism". Arizona State University. Retrieved 9 June 2014. It also reveals that Salafism was cited in 2010 as the fastest growing Islamic movement on the planet.  ^ Simon Shuster (3 Aug 2013). "Comment: Underground Islam
Islam
in Russia". Slate. Retrieved 9 June 2014. It is the fastest-growing movement within the fastest-growing religion in the world.  ^ CHRISTIAN CARYL (September 12, 2012). "The Salafi
Salafi
Moment". FP. Retrieved 9 June 2014. Though solid numbers are hard to come by, they're routinely described as the fastest-growing movement in modern-day Islam.  ^ "Uproar in Germany
Germany
Over Salafi
Salafi
Drive to Hand Out Millions of Qurans". AFP. 2012-04-16. Retrieved 9 June 2014. The service [German domestic intelligence service] said in its most recent annual report dating from 2010 that Salafism
Salafism
was the fastest growing Islamic movement in the world…  ^ "SE Asian Muslims caught between iPad and Salafism
Salafism
- The Nation". Nation Multimedia.  ^ Salafism
Salafism
Modernist Salafism
Salafism
from the 20th Century to the Present ^ Kjeilen, Tore. " Salafism
Salafism
- LookLex Encyclopaedia". i-cias.com.  ^ Salafism
Salafism
Archived 11 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Tony Blair Faith Foundation ^ Understanding the Origins of Wahhabism
Wahhabism
and Salafism Terrorism Monitor Volume 3 Issue: 14 July 15, 2005 by: Trevor Stanley ^ Dillon, Michael R (page-33) ^ On Salafi
Salafi
Islam
Islam
IV Conclusion Yasir Qadhi April 22, 2014 ^ Anatomy of the Salafi
Salafi
Movement By QUINTAN WIKTOROWICZ, Washington, D.C. p. 212 ^ a b Wahhabism, Salafismm and Islamism
Islamism
Who Is The Enemy? By Pfr. Ahmad Mousali American University of Beirut p. 11 ^ "‘Abduh clearly did not claim to be a Salafi
Salafi
nor identified his followers as Salafis. He simply referred al-Salafiyyin in the context of theological debates as Sunni
Sunni
Muslims who differed from Ash’arites based on their strict adherence to ‘aqidat al-salaf (the creed of the forefather) (Lauziere, 2010)" ^ The split between Qatar
Qatar
and the GCC won’t be permanent "However, the intra- Sunni
Sunni
divides have not been so clear to foreign observers. Those divides include the following: purist Salafism
Salafism
(which many call "Wahhabism"), modernist Salafism
Salafism
(which is the main intellectual ancestor of the Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood) and classical Sunnism (which is the mainstream of Islamic religious institutions in the region historically" ^ ikhwanonline.net Archived 29 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Understanding al-Khajnadee, Muhammad
Muhammad
Abduh, the Origins of Wahhabism and Salafism
Salafism
www.jamestown.org ^ Wahhābis and the Development of Salafism
Salafism
by Sadashi Fukuda p. 4 ^ a b c Gauvain, Richard (2012-12-12). Salafi
Salafi
Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God. Routledge. p. 268. ISBN 9781136446931.  ^ Gauvain, Richard (2012-12-12). Salafi
Salafi
Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God. Routledge. p. 318. ISBN 9781136446931.  ^ Gauvain, Richard (2012-12-12). Salafi
Salafi
Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God. Routledge. p. 4. ISBN 9781136446931.  ^ Lauzire, Henri (2015-12-08). The Making of Salafism: Islamic Reform in the Twentieth Century. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231540179.  ^ a b Fish, M. Steven (2011-02-09). Are Muslims Distinctive?: A Look at the Evidence. Oxford University Press, US. p. 132. ISBN 9780199769209.  ^ Abou El Fadl, Khaled, The Great Theft, Harper San Francisco, 2005, p. 77 ^ As- Sunnah
Sunnah
Foundation of America, Wahhabism: Understanding the Roots and Role Models of Islamic Extremism by Zubair Qamar, condensed and edited by ASFA staff. This article lists 65 Sunni
Sunni
scholars from different time periods, whom the article claims were opposed to either the Salafi
Salafi
or the Wahhabi
Wahhabi
movements. The article claims that the Wahhabi
Wahhabi
movement is the same thing as the Salafi
Salafi
movement. ^ Laessing, Ulf (18 November 2010). " Mecca
Mecca
goes Upmarket". Reuters. Retrieved 1 December 2010.  ^ Taylor, Jerome (24 September 2011). " Mecca
Mecca
for the rich: Islam's holiest site turning into Vegas". The Independent. London.  ^ Abou-Ragheb, Laith (12 July 2005). "Dr.Sami Angawi on Wahhabi Desecration of Makkah". Center for Islamic Pluralism. Retrieved 28 November 2010.  ^ The Independent, The photos Saudi Arabia
Arabia
doesn't want seen – and proof Islam's most holy relics are being demolished in Mecca
Mecca
, by Jerome Taylor, 15 March 2013. The article says that the Saudis are dismantling some old parts the Grand Mosque
Mosque
at Mecca, as part of work to make the mosque larger, and that the sites of other very old buildings in Mecca
Mecca
and Medina
Medina
have been redevloped over the past twenty years. The article claims that many senior Wahhabis believe that preserving historic relics for their own sake is undesirable because it encourages idolatry (shirq). ^ Saudi's Destruction Of The Islamic Heritage, by AhleSunnaTV on YouTube ^ The Independent, Why don't more Muslims speak out against the wanton destruction of Mecca's holy sites?, by Jerome Taylor, 28 October 2012. ^ Third public hearing of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, Statement of Marc Sageman to the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, 9 July 2003 ^ " Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution
Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution
(Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz) 7/18/2012: latest 2011 report on Islamic Salafist extremism in Germany
Germany
(English)".  ^ (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "Salafist extremism spreading in Germany
Germany
- Germany
Germany
- DW - 08.05.2012". DW.COM.  ^ (in German) Online "Pipeline" German news agency article from July 17, 2012, on the German government's view of Salafist extremism ^ Caryle Murphy (15 July 2010). "A Kingdom Divided". GlobalPost. Archived from the original on 5 May 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2014. As Grand Mufti, the late Bin Baz was the most prominent proponent of Saudi Arabia's ultraconservative strain of Salafi
Salafi
Islam, sometimes known as Wahhabism  ^ Lewis, Philip (2008-02-12). Young, British and Muslim. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 192. ISBN 9780826497291. Two other Wahhabi/ Salafi
Salafi
individuals are worth mentioning. The first is Sheikh Abdullah el-Faisal, who merited a full front-page article in The Times in February 2002  ^ Janson, Marloes (2013-10-28). Islam, Youth and Modernity in the Gambia: The Tablighi Jama'at. Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. p. 244. ISBN 9781107040571.  ^ Bowen, Innes Medina
Medina
in Birmingham, Najaf in Brent: Inside British Islam, Quote: "He remained a Salafi
Salafi
but became a popular speaker at events organised by a wide range of Islamic organizations" ^ "Jordanian cleric Abu Qatada
Abu Qatada
acquitted of terror charges". america.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2016-01-05.  ^ Cesari, Jocelyne (2013-07-25). Why the West Fears Islam: An Exploration of Muslims in Liberal Democracies. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781137258205.  ^ Bowen, Innes (2014-08-15). Medina
Medina
in Birmingham, Najaf in Brent: Inside British Islam. Hurst. ISBN 9781849045308.  ^ MARGARET COKER and JENNY GROSS, "Islamic Preacher Anjem Choudary Charged in U.K. With Inviting Support of Terror", Wall Street Journal, 5 August 2015 Quote="Mr. Choudary supports the fundamentalist strain of Islamic teaching known as Salafism
Salafism
and believes that Muslims can only attain a state of purity by living in a nation that is based on religious law, known as Shariah." ^ The Guardian: "Anjem Choudary: the British extremist who backs the caliphate" by Andrew Anthony 6 September 2014 "Although that was an event that radicalised a generation of Muslim
Muslim
activists, the former friend suggests it might have been Choudary's failure to land a job with a big legal firm upon graduating that set him off on his path to Salafi
Salafi
righteousness." ^ Rabasa, Angel; Benard, Cheryl (2014-10-27). Eurojihad: Patterns of Islamist Radicalization and Terrorism in Europe. Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 9781316062685.  ^ Aridi, Sara. "Islamic preacher charged with promoting ISIS
ISIS
in UK". Christian Science Monitor. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved 2015-12-18.  ^ Richey, Warren. "To turn tables on ISIS
ISIS
at home, start asking unsettling questions, expert says". Christian Science Monitor. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved 2016-03-02.  ^ The Globe and Mail: "Controversial imam Bilal Philips
Bilal Philips
says banning him won’t stop his message" September 15, 2014 "If Salafi
Salafi
means that you’re a traditionalist that follows the scripture according to the early traditions, then yeah. I’m not a modernist. I’m not a person who makes his own individual interpretations according to the times." ^ "Bombing Inquiry Turns to Motive and Russian Trip".  ^ Bowen, Innes (2014-08-15). Medina
Medina
in Birmingham, Najaf in Brent: Inside British Islam. Hurst. ISBN 9781849045308.  ^ Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
Studies: "Arab World Journalism in a Post-Beheading Era" by Thembisa Fakude 2013 "Al-Munajjid is considered one of the respected scholars of the Salafist movement, an Islamic school of thought whose teachings are said to inspire radical movements in the Arab world, including al-Qaeda and a group called al-Dawla al-Islamiya fil Iraq wal Sham (also known as the Islamic State, IS or Daesh)." ^ Caryle Murphy (15 July 2010). "A Kingdom Divided". GlobalPost. Archived from the original on 5 May 2014. Retrieved 6 May 2014. First, there is the void created by the 1999 death of the elder Bin Baz and that of another senior scholar, Muhammad
Muhammad
Salih al Uthaymin, two years later. Both were regarded as giants in conservative Salafi
Salafi
Islam
Islam
and are still revered by its adherents. Since their passing, no one "has emerged with that degree of authority in the Saudi religious establishment," said David Dean Commins, history professor at Dickinson College
Dickinson College
and author of The Wahhabi
Wahhabi
Mission and Saudi Arabia.  ^ Dowd, Robert A. (2015-07-01). Christianity, Islam, and Liberal Democracy: Lessons from Sub-Saharan Africa. Oxford University Press. p. 102. ISBN 9780190225216.  ^ Scheuer, Michael (2011-01-20). Osama Bin Laden. Oxford University Press. p. 247. ISBN 9780199753277.  ^ Moghadam, Assaf (May 1, 2011). The Globalization of Martyrdom: Al Qaeda, Salafi
Salafi
Jihad, and the Diffusion of Suicide Attacks. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 45. ISBN 9781421401447. Salafi Jihadist preachers such as Abu Hamza al-Masri and Omar Bakri Muhammad help inspire thousands of Muslim
Muslim
youth to develop a cultlike relationship to martyrdom in mosques  ^ Fair, C. Christine; Watson, Sarah J. (2015-02-18). Pakistan's Enduring Challenges. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 246. ISBN 9780812246902. Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
was a hard-core Salafi
Salafi
who openly espoused violence against the United States in order to achieve Salafi
Salafi
goals.  ^ Brown, Amy Benson; Poremski, Karen M. (2014-12-18). Roads to Reconciliation: Conflict and Dialogue in the Twenty-first Century. Routledge. p. 81. ISBN 9781317460763.  ^ "Profile: Sheikh Rabi' Ibn Haadi 'Umayr Al Madkhali". The Muslim 500: The World's Most Influential Muslims. The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre (MABDA المركز الملكي للبحوث و الدراسات الإسلامية ), see Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought. Archived from the original on 22 March 2013.  ^ Omayma Abdel-Latif, "Trends in Salafism." Taken from Islamist Radicalisation: The Challenge for Euro-Mediterranean Relations, p. 74. Eds. Michael Emerson, Kristina Kausch and Richard Youngs. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies, 2009. ISBN 9789290798651 ^ Elliot, Andrea (April 17, 2011). "Why Yasir Qadhi Wants to Talk About Jihad", New York Times. ^ Swami, Praveen (2011). "Islamist terrorism in India". In Warikoo, Kulbhushan. Religion and Security in South and Central Asia. London, England: Taylor & Francis. p. 61. ISBN 9780415575904. To examine this infrastructure, it is useful to consider the case of Zakir Naik, perhaps the most influential Salafi
Salafi
ideologue in India. 

Bibliography[edit]

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