HOME
The Info List - Saint Petersburg


--- Advertisement ---



Saint
Saint
Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, tr. Sankt-Peterburg, IPA: [ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk] ( listen)) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with five million inhabitants in 2012.[9] An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject (a federal city). Situated on the Neva
Neva
River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar
Tsar
Peter the Great
Peter the Great
on May 27 [O.S. 16] 1703. On 01 September 1914, the name was changed from Saint
Saint
Petersburg to Petrograd (Russian: Петрогра́д, IPA: [pʲɪtrɐˈgrat]), on 26 January 1924 to Leningrad (Russian: Ленингра́д, IPA: [lʲɪnʲɪnˈgrat]), and on 07 September 1991 back to Saint Petersburg.[10] Between 1713 and 1728 and in 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of Imperial Russia. In 1918, the central government bodies moved to Moscow.[11] Saint
Saint
Petersburg is one of the modern cities of Russia, as well as its cultural capital.[12] The Historic Centre of Saint
Saint
Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site. Saint
Saint
Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world.[13] Many foreign consulates, international corporations, banks and businesses have offices in Saint
Saint
Petersburg.

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Imperial Era (1703–1917) 2.2 Revolution and Soviet Era (1917–1941) 2.3 World War II
World War II
(1941–1945) 2.4 Soviet Era Continued (1945–1991) 2.5 Contemporary Era (1991-present)

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Toponymy

4 Demographics

4.1 Religion

5 Government 6 Economy 7 Cityscape 8 Tourism 9 Media and communications 10 Culture

10.1 Museums 10.2 Music 10.3 Film 10.4 Literature

11 Education 12 Sports 13 Infrastructure

13.1 Transportation

13.1.1 Roads and public transport

13.2 Saint
Saint
Petersburg public transportation statistics

13.2.1 Waterways 13.2.2 Rail 13.2.3 Air

13.3 Parks

14 Famous people

14.1 Born in Saint
Saint
Petersburg

15 Crime 16 Twin towns and sister cities 17 See also 18 References 19 Sources 20 External links

Name[edit] An admirer of everything Dutch, Peter the Great
Peter the Great
originally named the city, Sankt-Peterburg [Санкт-Петербург] -- which lacked the letter "s" between "Peter" and "burg". [14] On Sept. 1, 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the Imperial government renamed the city Petrograd (Russian: Петрогра́д, IPA: [pʲɪtrɐˈgrat]), [15] meaning "Peter's City", in order to expunge the German-sounding words Sankt and Burg. On 26 January 1924 it was renamed to Leningrad (Russian: Ленингра́д, IPA: [lʲɪnʲɪnˈgrat]), meaning "Lenin's City". On 6 September 1991, the original name, Sankt-Peterburg, was returned. Today, in English the city is known as "St. Petersburg." Local residents often refer to the city by its nickname, Piter. History[edit] Main articles: History of Saint Petersburg
History of Saint Petersburg
and Timeline of Saint Petersburg

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Imperial Era (1703–1917)[edit]

The Bronze
Bronze
Horseman, monument to Peter the Great

Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress at the mouth of the Neva River in 1611, in what was then called Ingermanland, which was inhabited by Finnic tribe of Ingrians. The small town of Nyen grew up around it. At the end of the 17th century, Peter the Great, who was very interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, wanted Russia
Russia
to gain a seaport in order to trade with Europe.[16] He needed a better seaport than the country's main one at the time, Arkhangelsk, which was on the White Sea
White Sea
in the far north and closed to shipping during the winter. On May 12 [O.S. 1] 1703, during the Great Northern War, Peter the Great
Peter the Great
captured Nyenskans and soon replaced the fortress.[17] On May 27 [O.S. 16] 1703,[18] closer to the estuary 5 km (3 mi) inland from the gulf), on Zayachy (Hare) Island, he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city.[19] The city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia; a number of Swedish prisoners of war were also involved in some years under the supervision of Alexander Menshikov.[20] Tens of thousands of serfs died building the city.[21] Later, the city became the centre of the Saint
Saint
Petersburg Governorate. Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint
Saint
Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the Treaty of Nystad
Treaty of Nystad
of 1721 ended the war; he referred to Saint
Saint
Petersburg as the capital (or seat of government) as early as 1704.[16]

Map of Saint
Saint
Petersburg, 1744

During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the right bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress. However, Saint
Saint
Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan. By 1716 the Swiss Italian
Swiss Italian
Domenico Trezzini
Domenico Trezzini
had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals. The project was not completed, but is evident in the layout of the streets. In 1716, Peter the Great appointed Frenchman Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond
Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond
as the chief architect of Saint
Saint
Petersburg.[22] The style of Petrine Baroque, developed by Trezzini and other architects and exemplified by such buildings as the Menshikov Palace, Kunstkamera, Peter and Paul Cathedral, Twelve Collegia, became prominent in the city architecture of the early 18th century. In 1724 the Academy of Sciences, University and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint
Saint
Petersburg by Peter the Great. In 1725, Peter died at the age of fifty-two. His endeavours to modernize Russia
Russia
had met with opposition from the Russian nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life and a treason case involving his son.[23] In 1728, Peter II of Russia
Russia
moved his seat back to Moscow. But four years later, in 1732, under Empress Anna of Russia, Saint
Saint
Petersburg was again designated as the capital of the Russian Empire. It remained the seat of the Romanov dynasty
Romanov dynasty
and the Imperial Court of the Russian Tsars, as well as the seat of the Russian government, for another 186 years until the communist revolution of 1917. In 1736–1737 the city suffered from catastrophic fires. To rebuild the damaged boroughs, a committee under Burkhard Christoph von Münnich commissioned a new plan in 1737. The city was divided into five boroughs, and the city center was moved to the Admiralty
Admiralty
borough, situated on the east bank between the Neva
Neva
and Fontanka.

Palace Square
Palace Square
backed by the General staff arch and building, as the main square of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
it was the setting of many events of historic significance

It developed along three radial streets, which meet at the Admiralty building and are now one street known as Nevsky Prospekt
Nevsky Prospekt
(which is considered the main street of the city), Gorokhovaya Street
Gorokhovaya Street
and Voznesensky Prospekt. Baroque architecture
Baroque architecture
became dominant in the city during the first sixty years, culminating in the Elizabethan Baroque, represented most notably by Italian Bartolomeo Rastrelli with such buildings as the Winter Palace. In the 1760s, Baroque architecture
Baroque architecture
was succeeded by neoclassical architecture. Established in 1762, the Commission of Stone Buildings of Moscow
Moscow
and Saint
Saint
Petersburg ruled that no structure in the city can be higher than the Winter Palace
Winter Palace
and prohibited spacing between buildings. During the reign of Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great
in the 1760s–1780s, the banks of the Neva
Neva
were lined with granite embankments. However, it was not until 1850 that the first permanent bridge across the Neva, Blagoveshchensky Bridge, was allowed to open. Before that, only pontoon bridges were allowed. Obvodny Canal
Obvodny Canal
(dug in 1769–1833) became the southern limit of the city. The most prominent neoclassical and Empire-style architects in Saint Petersburg included:

Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe
Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe
(Imperial Academy of Arts, Small Hermitage, Gostiny Dvor, New Holland Arch, Catholic Church of St. Catherine) Antonio Rinaldi ( Marble
Marble
Palace) Yury Felten
Yury Felten
(Old Hermitage, Chesme Church) Giacomo Quarenghi
Giacomo Quarenghi
(Academy of Sciences, Hermitage Theatre, Yusupov Palace) Andrey Voronikhin
Andrey Voronikhin
(Mining Institute, Kazan
Kazan
Cathedral) Andreyan Zakharov
Andreyan Zakharov
( Admiralty
Admiralty
building) Jean-François Thomas de Thomon
Jean-François Thomas de Thomon
(Spit of Vasilievsky Island) Carlo Rossi (Yelagin Palace, Mikhailovsky Palace, Alexandrine Theatre, Senate and Synod Buildings, General staff Building, design of many streets and squares) Vasily Stasov ( Moscow
Moscow
Triumphal Gate, Trinity Cathedral) Auguste de Montferrand
Auguste de Montferrand
( Saint
Saint
Isaac's Cathedral, Alexander Column)

Decembrists
Decembrists
at the Senate Square, December 26, 1825.

In 1810, Alexander I established the first engineering Higher learning institution, the Saint
Saint
Petersburg Main military engineering School in Saint
Saint
Petersburg. Many monuments commemorate the Russian victory over Napoleonic France
France
in the Patriotic War of 1812, including the Alexander Column
Alexander Column
by Montferrand, erected in 1834, and the Narva Triumphal Gate. In 1825, the suppressed Decembrist revolt
Decembrist revolt
against Nicholas I took place on the Senate Square in the city, a day after Nicholas assumed the throne. By the 1840s, neoclassical architecture had given way to various romanticist styles, which dominated until the 1890s, represented by such architects as Andrei Stackenschneider
Andrei Stackenschneider
(Mariinsky Palace, Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace, Nicholas Palace, New Michael Palace) and Konstantin Thon
Konstantin Thon
(Moskovsky railway station). With the emancipation of the serfs undertaken by Alexander II in 1861 and an Industrial Revolution, the influx of former peasants into the capital increased greatly. Poor boroughs spontaneously emerged on the outskirts of the city. Saint
Saint
Petersburg surpassed Moscow
Moscow
in population and industrial growth; it developed as one of the largest industrial cities in Europe, with a major naval base (in Kronstadt), river and sea port. The names of saints Peter and Paul, bestowed upon original city's citadel and its cathedral (from 1725—a burial vault of Russian emperors) coincidentally were the names of the first two assassinated Russian Emperors, Peter III (1762, supposedly killed in a conspiracy led by his wife, Catherine the Great) and Paul I (1801, Nicholas Zubov
Nicholas Zubov
and other conspirators who brought to power Alexander I, the son of their victim). The third emperor's assassination took place in Petersburg in 1881 when Alexander II fell victim to narodniki (see the Church of the Savior on Blood).

Saint
Saint
Michael's Castle

Kronstadt
Kronstadt
Naval Cathedral

Fontanka
Fontanka
River

Griboyedov Canal

Petergof

The Revolution of 1905 began in Saint
Saint
Petersburg and spread rapidly into the provinces. On September 1, 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the Imperial government renamed the city Petrograd,[15] meaning "Peter's City", to remove the German words Sankt and Burg. Revolution and Soviet Era (1917–1941)[edit] In March 1917, during the February Revolution
February Revolution
Nicholas II abdicated both for himself and on behalf of his son, ending the Russian monarchy and over three hundred years of Romanov dynastic rule.

The Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
of 1917 began in Petrograd when the Bolsheviks stormed the Winter Palace

On November 7, 1917 (OS October 25), the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, stormed the Winter Palace
Winter Palace
in an event known thereafter as the October Revolution, which led to the end of the post-Tsarist provisional government, the transfer of all political power to the Soviets, and the rise of the Communist Party.[24] After that the city acquired a new descriptive name, "the city of three revolutions",[25] referring to the three major developments in the political history of Russia
Russia
of the early 20th-century. In September and October 1917, German troops invaded the West Estonian archipelago and threatened Petrograd with bombardment and invasion. On March 12, 1918, the Soviets transferred the government to Moscow, to keep it away from the state border. During the ensuing Civil War, in 1919 general Yudenich advancing from Estonia
Estonia
repeated the attempt to capture the city, but Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky
mobilized the army and forced him to retreat. On January 26, 1924, five days after Lenin's death, Petrograd was renamed Leningrad. Later some streets and other toponyms were renamed accordingly. The city has over 230 places associated with the life and activities of Lenin. Some of them were turned into museums,[26] including the cruiser Aurora – a symbol of the October Revolution and the oldest ship in the Russian Navy. In the 1920s and 1930s, the poor outskirts were reconstructed into regularly planned boroughs. Constructivist architecture
Constructivist architecture
flourished around that time. Housing became a government-provided amenity; many "bourgeois" apartments were so large that numerous families were assigned to what were called "communal" apartments (kommunalkas). By the 1930s, 68% of the population lived in such housing. In 1935 a new general plan was outlined, whereby the city should expand to the south. Constructivism was rejected in favor of a more pompous Stalinist architecture. Moving the city center further from the border with Finland, Stalin adopted a plan to build a new city hall with a huge adjacent square at the southern end of Moskovsky Prospekt, designated as the new main street of Leningrad. After the Winter (Soviet-Finnish) war in 1939-1940, the Soviet-Finnish border moved northwards. Nevsky Prospekt
Nevsky Prospekt
with Palace Square
Palace Square
maintained the functions and the role of a city center. In December 1931, Leningrad was administratively separated from Leningrad Oblast. At that time it included the Leningrad Suburban District, some parts of which were transferred back to Leningrad Oblast in 1936 and turned into Vsevolozhsky District, Krasnoselsky District, Pargolovsky District and Slutsky District (renamed Pavlovsky District in 1944).[27] On December 1, 1934, Sergey Kirov, the popular communist leader of Leningrad, was assassinated, which became the pretext for the Great Purge.[28] World War II
World War II
(1941–1945)[edit] Main article: Siege of Leningrad

Citizens of Leningrad during the 872-day siege, in which more than one million civilians died, mostly from starvation.

During World War II, German forces besieged Leningrad following the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in June 1941.[29] The siege lasted 872 days, or almost two and a half years,[29] from September 8, 1941 to January 27, 1944.[30] The Siege of Leningrad
Siege of Leningrad
proved one of the longest, most destructive, and most lethal sieges of a major city in modern history. It isolated the city from food supplies except those provided through the Road of Life across Lake Ladoga, which could not make it through until the lake literally froze. More than one million civilians were killed, mainly from starvation. Many others were eventually evacuated or escaped, so the city became largely depopulated. On May 1, 1945 Joseph Stalin, in his Supreme Commander
Commander
Order No. 20, named Leningrad, alongside Stalingrad, Sevastopol, and Odessa, hero cities of the war. A law acknowledging the honorary title of "Hero City" passed on May 8, 1965 (the 20th anniversary of the victory in the Great Patriotic War), during the Brezhnev era. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR
USSR
awarded Leningrad as a Hero City
Hero City
the Order of Lenin
Order of Lenin
and the Gold Star medal
Gold Star medal
"for the heroic resistance of the city and tenacity of the survivors of the Siege". The Hero-City Obelisk bearing the Gold Star sign was installed in April 1985. Soviet Era Continued (1945–1991)[edit] In October 1946 some territories along the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland, which had passed to the USSR
USSR
from Finland
Finland
in 1940 under the peace treaty following the Winter War, were transferred from Leningrad Oblast
Leningrad Oblast
to Leningrad and divided into Sestroretsky District and Kurortny District. These included the town of Terijoki (renamed Zelenogorsk in 1948).[27] Leningrad and many of its suburbs were rebuilt over the post-war decades, partially according to pre-war plans. The 1948 general plan for Leningrad featured radial urban development in the north as well as in the south. In 1953 Pavlovsky District in Leningrad Oblast
Leningrad Oblast
was abolished, and parts of its territory, including Pavlovsk, merged with Leningrad. In 1954 the settlements Levashovo, Pargolovo
Pargolovo
and Pesochny merged with Leningrad.[27] Leningrad gave its name to the Leningrad Affair (1949–1952), a notable event in the postwar political struggle in the USSR. It was a product of rivalry between Stalin's potential successors where one side was represented by the leaders of the city Communist Party organization—the second most significant one in the country after Moscow. The entire elite leadership of Leningrad was destroyed, including the former mayor Kuznetsov, the acting mayor Pyotr Sergeevich Popkov, and all their deputies; overall 23 leaders were sentenced to the death penalty, 181 to prison or exile (exonerated in 1954). About 2,000 ranking officials across the USSR
USSR
were expelled from the party and the Komsomol and removed from leadership positions. They were accused (almost entirely falsely) of Russian nationalism.[31] The Leningrad Metro underground rapid transit system, designed before the war, opened in 1955 with its first eight stations decorated with marble and bronze. However, after the death of Stalin in 1953, the perceived ornamental excesses of the Stalinist architecture
Stalinist architecture
were abandoned. From the 1960s to the 1980s many new residential boroughs were built on the outskirts; while the functionalist apartment blocks were nearly identical to each other, many families moved there from kommunalkas in the city centre in order to live in separate apartments. Contemporary Era (1991-present)[edit]

View from the Colonnade, St. Isaac's Cathedral, Saint
Saint
Petersburg

On June 12, 1991, simultaneously with the first Russian presidential elections, the city authorities arranged for the mayoral elections and a referendum upon the name of the city. The turnout was 65%; 66.13% of the total count of votes went to Anatoly Sobchak, who became the first directly elected mayor of the city. Meanwhile, economic conditions started to deteriorate as the country tried to adapt to major changes. For the first time since the 1940s, food rationing was introduced, and the city received humanitarian food aid from abroad.[32] This dramatic time was depicted in photographic series of Russian photographer Alexey Titarenko.[33][34] Economic conditions began to improve only at the beginning of the 21st century.[35] In 1995 a northern section of the Kirovsko-Vyborgskaya Line of the Saint Petersburg Metro
Saint Petersburg Metro
was cut off by underground flooding, creating a major obstacle to the city development for almost ten years. In 1996, Vladimir Yakovlev defeated Anatoly Sobchak
Anatoly Sobchak
in the elections for the head of the city administration. The title of the city head was changed from "mayor" to "governor". In 2000 Yakovlev won re-election. His second term expired in 2004; the long-awaited restoration of broken subway connection was expected to finish by that time. But in 2003 Yakovlev suddenly resigned, leaving the governor's office to Valentina Matviyenko.

Standard "Home-Ship" (1970s–1980s)

The law on election of the City Governor was changed, breaking the tradition of democratic election by a universal suffrage. In 2006 the city legislature re-approved Matviyenko as governor. Residential building had intensified again; real-estate prices inflated greatly, which caused many new problems for the preservation of the historical part of the city. Although the central part of the city has a UNESCO
UNESCO
designation (there are about 8,000 architectural monuments in Petersburg), the preservation of its historical and architectural environment became controversial.[36] After 2005, the demolition of older buildings in the historical centre was permitted.[37] In 2006 Gazprom
Gazprom
announced an ambitious project to erect a 396-meter skyscraper opposite to Smolny, which[according to whom?] could result in the loss of the unique line of Petersburg landscape.[citation needed] Urgent protests by citizens and prominent public figures of Russia
Russia
against this project were not considered by Governor Valentina Matviyenko
Valentina Matviyenko
and the city authorities until December 2010, when after the statement of President Dmitry Medvedev, the city decided to find a more appropriate location for this project. In the same year, the new location for the project was relocated to Lakhta, a historical area northwest of the center city, and the new project would be named Lakhta Center. Construction
Construction
was approved by Gazprom
Gazprom
and the city administration and commenced in 2012. The Lakhta Center
Lakhta Center
would be the first tallest skyscraper in Russia
Russia
and Europe that is outside of Moscow. Geography[edit]

The Neva River
Neva River
flows through much of the centre of the city. Left – the Spit of Vasilievsky Island, center – River Neva, Peter and Paul Fortress and Trinity Bridge, right – Palace Embankment with the Winter Palace

Main article: Geography of Saint
Saint
Petersburg

Territory of the federal subject of Saint
Saint
Petersburg

Satellite image of Saint
Saint
Petersburg

The area of Saint
Saint
Petersburg city proper is 605.8 square kilometers (233.9 sq mi). The area of the federal subject is 1,439 square kilometers (556 sq mi), which contains Saint Petersburg proper (consisting of eighty-one municipal okrugs), nine municipal towns – (Kolpino, Krasnoye Selo, Kronstadt, Lomonosov, Pavlovsk, Petergof, Pushkin, Sestroretsk, Zelenogorsk) – and twenty-one municipal settlements. Petersburg is situated on the middle taiga lowlands along the shores of the Neva Bay
Neva Bay
of the Gulf of Finland, and islands of the river delta. The largest are Vasilyevsky Island
Vasilyevsky Island
(besides the artificial island between Obvodny canal and Fontanka, and Kotlin in the Neva Bay), Petrogradsky, Dekabristov and Krestovsky. The latter together with Yelagin and Kamenny Island
Kamenny Island
are covered mostly by parks. The Karelian Isthmus, North of the city, is a popular resort area. In the south Saint
Saint
Petersburg crosses the Baltic-Ladoga Klint and meets the Izhora Plateau. The elevation of Saint
Saint
Petersburg ranges from the sea level to its highest point of 175.9 meters (577 ft) at the Orekhovaya Hill in the Duderhof Heights in the south. Part of the city's territory west of Liteyny Prospekt
Liteyny Prospekt
is no higher than 4 meters (13 ft) above sea level, and has suffered from numerous floods. Floods in Saint Petersburg are triggered by a long wave in the Baltic Sea, caused by meteorological conditions, winds and shallowness of the Neva
Neva
Bay. The four most disastrous floods occurred in 1824 (421 centimeters or 166 inches above sea level, during which over three hundred buildings were destroyed[38]), 1924 (380 centimeters or 150 inches), 1777 (321 centimeters or 126 inches), 1955 (293 centimeters or 115 inches), and 1975 (281 centimeters or 111 inches). To prevent floods, the Saint Petersburg Dam has been constructed.[39] Since the 18th century the terrain in the city has been raised artificially, at some places by more than 4 meters (13 ft), making mergers of several islands, and changing the hydrology of the city. Besides the Neva
Neva
and its tributaries, other important rivers of the federal subject of Saint
Saint
Petersburg are Sestra, Okhta and Izhora. The largest lake is Sestroretsky Razliv in the north, followed by Lakhtinsky Razliv, Suzdal Lakes and other smaller lakes. Due to location at ca. 60° N latitude the day length in Petersburg varies across seasons, ranging from 5 hours 53 minutes to 18 hours 50 minutes. A period from mid-May to mid-July when twilight may last all night is called the white nights. Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Saint
Saint
Petersburg Under the Köppen climate classification, Saint
Saint
Petersburg is classified as Dfb, a humid continental climate. Distinct moderating influence of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
cyclones result in warm, humid and short summers and long, moderately cold wet winters. Climate of Saint Petersburg is close to the climate of Helsinki, although colder in winter and warmer in summer because of its more eastern location. The average maximum temperature in July is 23 °C (73 °F), and the average minimum temperature in February is −8.5 °C (16.7 °F); an extreme temperature of 37.1 °C (98.8 °F) occurred during the 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat wave. A winter minimum of −35.9 °C (−32.6 °F) was recorded in 1883. The average annual temperature is 5.8 °C (42.4 °F). The Neva River
Neva River
within the city limits usually freezes up in November–December and break-up occurs in April. From December to March there are 118 days average with snow cover, which reaches an average snow depth of 19 cm (7.5 in) by February.[40] The frost-free period in the city lasts on average for about 135 days. Despite St. Petersburg's northern location, its winters are warmer than Moscow's due to the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
and some Gulf Stream influence from Scandinavian winds that can bring temperature slightly above freezing. The city also has a slightly warmer climate than its suburbs. Weather conditions are quite variable all year round.[41][42]

Average annual precipitation varies across the city, averaging 660 millimeters (26 in) per year and reaching maximum in late summer. Soil moisture is almost always high because of lower evapotranspiration due to the cool climate. Air humidity is 78% on average, and there are, on average, 165 overcast days per year.

Climate data for Saint
Saint
Petersburg 1981–2010

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 8.7 (47.7) 10.2 (50.4) 14.9 (58.8) 25.3 (77.5) 32.0 (89.6) 34.6 (94.3) 35.3 (95.5) 37.1 (98.8) 30.4 (86.7) 21.0 (69.8) 12.3 (54.1) 10.9 (51.6) 37.1 (98.8)

Average high °C (°F) −3.0 (26.6) −3.0 (26.6) 2.0 (35.6) 9.3 (48.7) 16.0 (60.8) 20.0 (68) 23.0 (73.4) 20.8 (69.4) 15.0 (59) 8.6 (47.5) 2.0 (35.6) −1.5 (29.3) 9.1 (48.4)

Daily mean °C (°F) −5.5 (22.1) −5.8 (21.6) −1.3 (29.7) 5.1 (41.2) 11.3 (52.3) 15.7 (60.3) 18.8 (65.8) 16.9 (62.4) 11.6 (52.9) 6.2 (43.2) 0.1 (32.2) −3.7 (25.3) 5.8 (42.4)

Average low °C (°F) −8.0 (17.6) −8.5 (16.7) −4.2 (24.4) 1.5 (34.7) 7.0 (44.6) 11.7 (53.1) 15.0 (59) 13.4 (56.1) 8.8 (47.8) 4.0 (39.2) −1.8 (28.8) −6.1 (21) 2.7 (36.9)

Record low °C (°F) −35.9 (−32.6) −35.2 (−31.4) −29.9 (−21.8) −21.8 (−7.2) −6.6 (20.1) 0.1 (32.2) 4.9 (40.8) 1.3 (34.3) −3.1 (26.4) −12.9 (8.8) −22.2 (−8) −34.4 (−29.9) −35.9 (−32.6)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 44 (1.73) 33 (1.3) 37 (1.46) 31 (1.22) 46 (1.81) 71 (2.8) 79 (3.11) 83 (3.27) 64 (2.52) 68 (2.68) 55 (2.17) 51 (2.01) 661 (26.02)

Average rainy days 9 7 10 13 16 18 17 17 20 20 16 10 173

Average snowy days 17 17 10 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 9 17 75

Average relative humidity (%) 86 84 79 69 65 69 71 76 80 83 86 87 78

Mean monthly sunshine hours 21.7 53.7 124.0 180.0 260.4 276.0 266.6 213.9 129.0 71.3 24.0 12.4 1,633

Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[40]

Source #2: HKO (sunshine hours)[43]

Toponymy[edit]

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The first and fairly rich chapter of the history of the local toponymy is the story of the own name of the city itself. The name day of Peter I falls on June 29, when the Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church
observes the memory of Saint
Saint
Apostles Peter and Paul. The consecration of the small wooden church in their names (its construction began simultaneously with the citadel) made them the heavenly patrons of the Peter and Paul Fortress, while St. Peter at the same time became the eponym of the whole city. In June 1703 Peter the Great
Peter the Great
officially gave the site the name Sankt Pieter Burkh (an emulation of Dutch topografical suffix -burg, which refers to fortified towns and places, as Peter was a Neerlandophile) which was subsequently russefied.[44][45]

While not originally named for Tsar
Tsar
Peter the Great, during World War I the city was changed from the Germanic "Peterburg" to "Petrograd" in his honour

A 14- to 15-letter-long name, composed of the three roots proved too cumbersome, and a lot of shortened versions appeared in habitual use. The first General Governor of the city Menshikov is maybe also the author of the first nickname of Petersburg which he called Петри (Petri). It took some years until the known Russian spelling of this name finally settled. In 1740s Mikhail Lomonosov
Mikhail Lomonosov
uses a derivative of Greek: Πετρόπολις (Petropolis, Петрополис) in a russified form Petropol' (Петрополь). A combo Piterpol (Питерпол) also appears at this time.[46] In any case, eventually the usage of prefix "Sankt-" ceased except for the formal official documents, where a three-letter abbreviation "СПб" (SPb) was very widely used as well. In the 1830s Alexander Pushkin
Alexander Pushkin
translated the "foreign" city name of " Saint
Saint
Petersburg" to the more Russian Petrograd in one of his poems. However, it was only on 31 [O.S. 18 August] 1914, after the war with Germany
Germany
had begun, that tsar Nicholas II renamed the capital to Petrograd. Since the prefix 'Saint' was omitted,[47] this act also changed the eponym and the "patron" of the city, from Apostle Peter
Apostle Peter
to Peter the Great,[citation needed] its founder.

From 1924 to 1991 the city was known as 'Leningrad'. This is a picture of the Saint
Saint
Petersburg port entrance with an old 'Ленинград' (Leningrad) sign

After the October Revolution
October Revolution
the name Red Petrograd (Красный Петроград) was often used in newspapers and other prints until the city was renamed Leningrad in January 1924. A referendum on reversing the renaming of Leningrad was held on June 12, 1991, with 54.86% of voters (with a turnout of 65%) supporting " Saint
Saint
Petersburg". Renaming the city Petrograd was not an option. This change officially took effect on September 6, 1991.[32] Meanwhile, the oblast whose administrative center is also in Saint Petersburg is still named Leningrad. Having passed the role of capital to Petersburg, Moscow
Moscow
never relinquished the title of "capital", being called pervoprestolnaya ("first-throned") for 200 years. An equivalent name for Petersburg, the "Northern Capital", has re-entered usage today since several federal institutions were recently moved from Moscow
Moscow
to Saint Petersburg. Solemn descriptive names like "the city of three revolutions" and "the cradle of the October revolution" used in Soviet era are reminders of the pivotal events in national history that occurred here. For their part, poetic names of the city, like the " Venice
Venice
of the North" and the "Northern Palmyra" emphasize town-planning and architectural features contrasting these parallels to the northern location of this megalopolis.[48] Petropolis is a translation of a city name to Greek, and is also a kind of descriptive name: Πέτρ~ is a Greek root for "stone", so the "city from stone" emphasizes the material that had been forcibly made obligatory for construction from the very first years of the city.[46] (Its official Greek name is Αγία Πετρούπολη.) Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Saint
Saint
Petersburg

Soviet era apartment buildings in Saint
Saint
Petersburg, July 2010

Saint Petersburg Metro
Saint Petersburg Metro
passengers

Saint
Saint
Petersburg is the second largest city in Russia. As of the 2017 Rosstat, the federal subject's population is 5,281,579 or 3.6% of the total population of Russia;[49] up from 4,879,566 (3.4%) recorded in the 2010 Census,[9] and up from 5,023,506 recorded in the 1989 Census.[50]

Vital statistics for 2016

Births: 72 879 (13.9 per 1000) Deaths: 61 459 (11.7 per 1000) [51] Total fertility rate:[52]

year fertility rate

2009 1.34

2010 1.38

2011 1.38

2012 1.48

2013 1.48

2014 1.52

2015 1.59

2016 1.65(e)

The 2010 Census recorded the ethnic composition as follows:[9] Russian 80.1%, Ukrainian 1.3%, Belarusians 0.8%, Tatar 0.6%, Armenian 0.6%, Jewish 0.5%, Uzbek 0.4%, Tajik 0.3%, Azeri 0.3%, Georgian 0.2%, Moldovan 0.2%, Finns 0.1%, other – 1.3%. The ethnicity of the remaining 13.4% of the inhabitants was not specified. During the 20th century, the city experienced dramatic population changes. From 2.4 million residents in 1916 its population dropped to less than 740,000 by 1920 during the Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
of 1917 and Russian Civil War. The minorities of Germans, Poles, Finns, Estonians and Latvians were almost completely transferred from Leningrad during the 1930s.[53] From 1941 to the end of 1943, population dropped from 3 million to less than 600,000, as people died in battles, starved to death during the Siege of Leningrad, or were evacuated. After the siege, some of the evacuees returned, but most influx was due to migration from other parts of the Soviet Union. The city absorbed about 3 million people in the 1950s and grew to over 5 million in the 1980s. From 1991 to 2006 the city's population decreased to 4.6 million, while the suburban population increased due to privatization of land and massive move to suburbs. Based on the 2010 census results the population is over 4.8 million.[54][55] The birth rate remained lower than the death rate(until the 2012[56]) ; people over 65 constitute more than twenty percent of the population; and the median age is about 40 years.[57] Since 2012 the birth rate became higher than the death rate[56] People in urban Saint
Saint
Petersburg lived mostly in apartments. Between 1918 and the 1990s, the Soviets nationalised housing and forced residents to share communal apartments (kommunalkas). With 68% living in shared flats in the 1930s, Leningrad was the city in the USSR
USSR
with the largest number of kommunalkas. Resettling residents of kommunalkas is now on the way out, albeit shared apartments are still not uncommon. As new boroughs were built on the outskirts in the 1950s–1980s, over half a million low income families eventually received free apartments, and about an additional hundred thousand condos were purchased. While economic and social activity is concentrated in the historic city centre, the richest part of Saint Petersburg, most people live in commuter areas. For the first half of 2007, the birth rate was 9.1 per 1000.[58] Religion[edit]

Religion in Saint
Saint
Petersburg as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[59][60]

Russian Orthodoxy

50.3%

Other Orthodox

1.4%

Other Christians

3.2%

Islam

2.2%

Spiritual but not religious

20.5%

Atheism
Atheism
and irreligion

15.4%

Other and undeclared

7.6%

The previous table showing religious membership within Saint Petersburg shows that roughly half of the population are Russian Orthodoxy.

Government[edit] Further information: Politics of Saint
Saint
Petersburg and Administrative divisions of Saint
Saint
Petersburg

The Smolny Institute, seat of the governor

The city assembly meets in the Mariinsky Palace

Saint
Saint
Petersburg is a federal subject of Russia
Russia
(a federal city).[61] The political life of Saint
Saint
Petersburg is regulated by the Charter of Saint
Saint
Petersburg adopted by the city legislature in 1998.[62] The superior executive body is the Saint
Saint
Petersburg City Administration, led by the city governor (mayor before 1996). Saint
Saint
Petersburg has a single-chamber legislature, the Saint
Saint
Petersburg Legislative Assembly, which is the city's regional parliament. According to the federal law passed in 2004, heads of federal subjects, including the governor of Saint
Saint
Petersburg, were nominated by the President of Russia
Russia
and approved by local legislatures. Should the legislature disapprove the nominee, the President could dissolve it. The former governor, Valentina Matviyenko, was approved according to the new system in December 2006. She was the only woman governor in the whole of Russia
Russia
until her resignation on August 22, 2011. Matviyenko stood for elections as member of the Regional Council of Saint
Saint
Petersburg and won comprehensively with allegations of rigging and ballot stuffing by the opposition. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev has already backed her for the position of Speaker to the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation and her election qualifies her for that job. After her resignation, Georgy Poltavchenko
Georgy Poltavchenko
was appointed as the new acting governor the same day. In 2012, following passage of a new federal law,[63] restoring direct elections of heads of federal subjects, the city charter was again amended to provide for direct elections of governor.[64] Saint
Saint
Petersburg city is divided into eighteen districts. Saint Petersburg is also the unofficial but de facto administrative centre of Leningrad Oblast, and of the Northwestern Federal District.[65] The Constitutional Court of Russia
Russia
moved to Saint
Saint
Petersburg from Moscow in May 2008. Saint
Saint
Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast, being two different federal subjects, share a number of local departments of federal executive agencies and courts, such as court of arbitration, police, FSB, postal service, drug enforcement administration, penitentiary service, federal registration service, and other federal services. Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Saint
Saint
Petersburg

Admiralty
Admiralty
Shipyard

The Saint
Saint
Petersburg International Economic Forum is a major Russian investment forum

Power Machines plant building on Sverdlovskaya embankment in Saint Petersburg

Saint
Saint
Petersburg is a major trade gateway, serving as the financial and industrial centre of Russia, with specializations in oil and gas trade; shipbuilding yards; aerospace industry; technology, including radio, electronics, software, and computers; machine building, heavy machinery and transport, including tanks and other military equipment; mining; instrument manufacture; ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy (production of aluminium alloys); chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and medical equipment; publishing and printing; food and catering; wholesale and retail; textile and apparel industries; and many other businesses. It was also home to Lessner, one of Russia's two pioneering automobile manufacturers (along with Russo-Baltic); it was founded by machine tool and boiler maker G. A. Lessner in 1904, with designs by Boris Loutsky, and it survived until 1910.[66] Ten percent of the world's power turbines are made there at the LMZ, which built over two thousand turbines for power plants across the world. Major local industries are Admiralty
Admiralty
Shipyard, Baltic Shipyard, LOMO, Kirov Plant, Elektrosila, Izhorskiye Zavody; also registered in Saint
Saint
Petersburg are Sovkomflot, Petersburg Fuel Company
Petersburg Fuel Company
and SIBUR among other major Russian and international companies. Saint
Saint
Petersburg has three large cargo seaports: Bolshoi Port Saint Petersburg, Kronstadt, and Lomonosov. International cruise liners have been served at the passenger port at Morskoy Vokzal on the south-west of Vasilyevsky Island. In 2008 the first two berths were opened at the New Passenger Port on the west of the island.[67] The new port is part of the city's "Marine Facade" development project[68] and is due to have seven berths in operation by 2010. A complex system of riverports on both banks of the Neva River
Neva River
are interconnected with the system of seaports, thus making Saint Petersburg the main link between the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
and the rest of Russia through the Volga-Baltic Waterway. The Saint
Saint
Petersburg Mint (Monetny Dvor), founded in 1724, is one of the largest mints in the world, it mints Russian coins, medals and badges. Saint
Saint
Petersburg is also home to the oldest and largest Russian foundry, Monumentskulptura, which made thousands of sculptures and statues that are now gracing public parks of Saint
Saint
Petersburg, as well as many other cities. Monuments and bronze statues of the Tsars, as well as other important historic figures and dignitaries, and other world famous monuments, such as the sculptures by Peter Clodt von Jürgensburg, Paolo Troubetzkoy, Mark Antokolsky, and others, were made there. In 2007, Toyota
Toyota
opened a Camry plant after investing 5 billion roubles (approx. 200 mln dollars) in Shushary, one of the southern suburbs of Saint
Saint
Petersburg. Opel, Hyundai and Nissan have signed deals with the Russian government to build their automotive plants in Saint
Saint
Petersburg too. Automotive and auto-parts industry is on the rise there during the last decade. Saint
Saint
Petersburg is the location of a significant brewery and distillery industry. It is known as the "beer capital" of Russia, due to the supply and quality of local water, contributing over 30% of the domestic production of beer with its five large-scale breweries including Europe's second largest brewery Baltika, Vena (both operated by BBH), Heineken Brewery, Stepan Razin (both by Heineken) and Tinkoff brewery (SUN-InBev). The city has a lot of local distilleries that produce a broad range of vodka brands. The oldest ones is LIVIZ (founded in 1897). Among the youngest is Russian Standard Vodka
Vodka
introduced in Moscow
Moscow
in 1998, which opened in 2006 a new $60 million distillery in Petersburg (an area of 30,000 m2 (320,000 sq ft), production rate of 22,500 bottles per hour). In 2007 this brand was exported to over 70 countries.[69] Saint
Saint
Petersburg has the second largest construction industry in Russia, including commercial, housing and road construction. In 2006 Saint
Saint
Petersburg's city budget was 179.9 billion rubles (about 6.651 billion US$
US$
at 2006 exchange rates),[70] and is planned to double by 2012. The federal subject's Gross Regional Product as of 2016[update] was 3.7 trillion Russian rubles (or US$66 billion), ranked 4th in Russia, after Moscow, Tyumen Oblast, and Moscow
Moscow
Oblast,[71] and per capita of US$12,000, ranked 12th among Russia's federal subjects,[72] contributed mostly by wholesale and retail trade and repair services (24.7%) as well as processing industry (20.9%) and transportation and telecommunications (15.1%).[73] Budget revenues of the city in 2009 amounted to 294.3 billion rubles (about 10.044 billion US$
US$
at 2009 exchange rates), expenses – 336.3 billion rubles (about 11.477 billion US$ at 2009 exchange rates). The budget deficit amounted to about 42 billion rubles.[74] (about 1.433 billion US$
US$
at 2009 exchange rates) By 2015, St. Petersburg takes the 4th place on economy scales among all subjects of the Russian Federation, conceding only to Moscow, the Tyumen and Moscow
Moscow
Region.[75] Cityscape[edit] Main article: Landmarks of Saint
Saint
Petersburg

Palace Square
Palace Square
in winter. Winter Palace, Alexander Column, General staff Building

Kazan
Kazan
Cathedral

Saint
Saint
Petersburg has three skyscrapers: Leader Tower (140 m), Alexander Nevsky
Alexander Nevsky
(124 m) and Atlantic City (105 m) all three being situated far away from the historical centre. Regulations forbid construction of tall buildings in the city centre. The 310-meter (1,020 ft) tall Saint
Saint
Petersburg TV Tower is the tallest completed structure in the city. However, there was a controversial project endorsed by the city authorities, and known as the Okhta Center, to build a 396 meters (1,299 ft) supertall skyscraper. In 2008, the World Monuments Fund
World Monuments Fund
included the Saint
Saint
Petersburg historic skyline on the watch list of the 100 most endangered sites due to the expected construction, which threatens to alter it drastically.[76] The Okhta Center project has been finally cancelled at the end of 2010 and instead of that Lakhta Center
Lakhta Center
project is started at the city outskirts. The complex will include 463-metre-tall (1,519-foot) office skyscraper and several low rise mixed use buildings. The Lakhta Center project has caused much less controversy and, unlike the previous unbuilt project, is not seen by UNESCO
UNESCO
as a potential threat to the city's cultural heritage because it is located far away from the historical centre. Skyscraper construction has already started, and the building is set to be completed in 2018. It is assumed that the building will be the tallest in Russia
Russia
and Europe.

Saint
Saint
Isaac's Square

Unlike in Moscow, in Saint
Saint
Petersburg the historic architecture of the city centre, mostly consisting of Baroque
Baroque
and neoclassical buildings of the 18th and 19th centuries, has been largely preserved; although a number of buildings were demolished after the Bolsheviks' seizure of power, during the Siege of Leningrad
Siege of Leningrad
and in recent years.[citation needed] The oldest of the remaining building is a wooden house built for Peter I in 1703 on the shore of the Neva
Neva
near Trinity Square. Since 1991 the Historic Centre of Saint
Saint
Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments in Saint
Saint
Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast
Leningrad Oblast
have been listed by UNESCO
UNESCO
as a World Heritage Site. The ensemble of Peter and Paul Fortress with the Peter and Paul Cathedral
Peter and Paul Cathedral
takes a dominant position on Zayachy Island
Zayachy Island
along the right bank of the Neva
Neva
River. Each noon a cannon fires a blank shot from the fortress. The Saint
Saint
Petersburg Mosque, the largest mosque in Europe when opened in 1913, is situated on the right bank nearby. The Spit of Vasilievsky Island, which splits the river into two largest armlets, the Bolshaya Neva
Neva
and Malaya Neva, is connected to the northern bank (Petrogradsky Island) via the Exchange Bridge
Exchange Bridge
and occupied by the Old Saint
Saint
Petersburg Stock Exchange and Rostral Columns. The southern coast of Vasilyevsky Island along the Bolshaya Neva
Neva
features some of the city's oldest buildings, dating from the 18th century, including the Kunstkamera, Twelve Collegia, Menshikov Palace
Menshikov Palace
and Imperial Academy of Arts. It hosts one of two campuses of Saint
Saint
Petersburg State University.

Peter and Paul Fortress

On the southern, left bank of the Neva, connected to the spit of Vasilyevsky Island
Vasilyevsky Island
via the Palace Bridge, lie the Admiralty
Admiralty
building, the vast Hermitage Museum
Hermitage Museum
complex stretching along the Palace Embankment, which includes the baroque Winter Palace, former official residence of Russian emperors, as well as the neoclassical Marble Palace. The Winter Palace
Winter Palace
faces Palace Square, the city's main square with the Alexander Column. Nevsky Prospekt, also situated on the left bank of the Neva, is the main avenue in the city. It starts at the Admiralty
Admiralty
and runs eastwards next to Palace Square. Nevsky Prospekt crosses the Moika (Green Bridge), Griboyedov Canal
Griboyedov Canal
(Kazansky Bridge), Garden Street, the Fontanka
Fontanka
(Anichkov Bridge), meets Liteyny Prospekt and proceeds to Uprising Square near the Moskovsky railway station, where it meets Ligovsky Prospekt
Ligovsky Prospekt
and turns to the Alexander Nevsky Lavra. The Passage, Catholic Church of St. Catherine, Book House (former Singer Manufacturing Company Building in the Art Nouveau style), Grand Hotel Europe, Lutheran Church of Saint Peter
Saint Peter
and Saint Paul, Great Gostiny Dvor, Russian National Library, Alexandrine Theatre behind Mikeshin's statue of Catherine the Great, Kazan Cathedral, Stroganov Palace, Anichkov Palace
Anichkov Palace
and Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace are all situated along that avenue.

Nevsky Prospect
Nevsky Prospect
at Christmas.

Singer House

The Alexander Nevsky
Alexander Nevsky
Lavra, intended to house the relics of St. Alexander Nevsky, is an important centre of Christian education in Russia. It also contains the Tikhvin Cemetery
Tikhvin Cemetery
with graves of many notable Petersburgers. On the territory between the Neva
Neva
and Nevsky Prospekt the Church of the Savior on Blood, Mikhailovsky Palace housing the Russian Museum, Field of Mars, St. Michael's Castle, Summer Garden, Tauride Palace, Smolny Institute and Smolny Convent are located.

Church of the Savior on Blood

Smolny Convent

Many notable landmarks are situated to the west and south of the Admiralty
Admiralty
Building, including the Trinity Cathedral, Mariinsky Palace, Hotel Astoria, famous Mariinsky Theatre, New Holland Island, Saint Isaac's Cathedral, the largest in the city, and Senate Square, also known as Decembrist's Square with the Bronze
Bronze
Horseman, 18th century equestrian monument to Peter the Great, which is considered among the city's most recognisable symbols. Other symbols of Saint
Saint
Petersburg include the weather vane in the shape of a small ship on top of the Admiralty's golden spire and the golden angel on top of the Peter and Paul Cathedral. The Palace Bridge
Palace Bridge
drawn at night is yet another symbol of the city. Every night during the navigation period from April to November, 22 bridges across the Neva
Neva
and main canals are drawn to let ships pass in and out of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
according to a schedule.[77] It was not until 2004 that the first high bridge across the Neva, which does not need to be drawn, Big Obukhovsky Bridge, was opened. There are hundreds of smaller bridges in Saint
Saint
Petersburg spanning across numerous canals and distributaries of the Neva, some of the most important of which are the Moika, Fontanka, Griboyedov Canal, Obvodny Canal, Karpovka and Smolenka. Due to the intricate web of canals, Saint
Saint
Petersburg is often called Venice
Venice
of the North. The rivers and canals in the city centre are lined with granite embankments. The embankments and bridges are separated from rivers and canals by granite or cast iron parapets.

Bolsheokhtinsky Bridge

Southern suburbs of the city feature former imperial residences, including Petergof, with majestic fountain cascades and parks, Tsarskoe Selo, with the baroque Catherine Palace
Catherine Palace
and the neoclassical Alexander Palace, and Pavlovsk, which contains a domed palace of Emperor Paul and one of the largest English-style parks in Europe. Some other residences situated nearby and making part of the world heritage site, including a castle and park in Gatchina, actually belong to Leningrad Oblast
Leningrad Oblast
rather than Saint
Saint
Petersburg. Another notable suburb is Kronstadt
Kronstadt
with its 19th-century fortifications and naval monuments, occupying the Kotlin Island
Kotlin Island
in the Gulf of Finland. Since around the end of the 20th century a great deal of active building and restoration works have been carried out in a number of the city's older districts. The authorities have recently been compelled to transfer the ownership of state-owned private residences in the city centre to private lessors. Many older buildings have been reconstructed to allow their use as apartments and penthouses. Some of these structures, such as the Saint
Saint
Petersburg Commodity and Stock Exchange have been recognised as town-planning errors.[78] Tourism[edit]

The Bolshoi Zal (Grand Hall) of Saint
Saint
Petersburg Philharmonia.

Saint
Saint
Petersburg has a significant historical and cultural heritage.[79][80][81][82][83][84][85] The 18th and 19th-century architectural ensemble of the city and its environs is preserved in virtually unchanged form. For various reasons (including large-scale destruction during World War II
World War II
and construction of modern buildings during the postwar period in the largest historical centers of Europe), Saint
Saint
Petersburg has become a unique reserve of European architectural styles of the past three centuries. Saint
Saint
Petersburg's loss of capital city status helped the city to retain many of its pre-revolutionary buildings, as modern architectural 'prestige projects' tended to be built in Moscow; this largely prevented the rise of mid-to-late-20th-century architecture and helped maintain the architectural appearance of the historic city center. Saint
Saint
Petersburg is inscribed on the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage list as an area with 36 historical architectural complexes and around 4000 outstanding individual monuments of architecture, history and culture. New tourist programs and sightseeing tours have been developed for those wishing to see Saint
Saint
Petersburg's cultural heritage.

The Small Italian Skylight Room in the Hermitage Museum.

The city has 221 museums, 2000 libraries, more than 80 theaters, 100 concert organizations, 45 galleries and exhibition halls, 62 cinemas and around 80 other cultural establishments. Every year the city hosts around 100 festivals and various competitions of art and culture, including more than 50 international ones.[citation needed] Despite the economic instability of the 1990s, not a single major theatre or museum was closed in Saint
Saint
Petersburg; on the contrary many new ones opened, for example a private museum of puppets (opened in 1999) is the third museum of its kind in Russia, where collections of more than 2000 dolls are presented including 'The multinational Saint Petersburg' and 'Pushkin's Petersburg'. The museum world of Saint Petersburg is incredibly diverse. The city is not only home to the world-famous Hermitage Museum
Hermitage Museum
and the Russian Museum
Russian Museum
with its rich collection of Russian art, but also the palaces of Saint
Saint
Petersburg and its suburbs, so-called small town museums and others like the museum of famous Russian writer Dostoyevsky; Museum of Musical Instruments, the museum of decorative arts and the museum of professional orientation. The musical life of Saint
Saint
Petersburg is rich and diverse, with the city now playing host to a number of annual carnivals. Ballet performances occupy a special place in the cultural life of Saint
Saint
Petersburg. The Petersburg School of Ballet is named as one of the best in the world. Traditions of the Russian classical school have been passed down from generation to generation among outstanding educators. The art of famous and prominent Saint
Saint
Petersburg dancers like Rudolf Nureyev, Natalia Makarova, Mikhail Baryshnikov
Mikhail Baryshnikov
was, and is, admired throughout the world. Contemporary Petersburg ballet is made up not only of traditional Russian classical school, but also ballets by those like Boris Eifman, who expanded the scope of strict classical Russian ballet
Russian ballet
to almost unimaginable limits. Remaining faithful to the classical basis (he was a choreographer at the Vaganova Academy of Russian Ballet), he combined classical ballet with the avant-garde style, and then, in turn, with acrobatics, rhythmic gymnastics, dramatic expressiveness, cinema, color, light, and finally with spoken word. Media and communications[edit] All major Russian newspapers are active in Saint
Saint
Petersburg. The city has a developed telecommunications system. In 2014 Rostelecom, the national operator announced it began a major modernization of the fixed-line network in the city.[86]

Television networks that can be received in the city

Channel One Russia-1 Russia-2 NTV TV Tsentr Channel 5 Russia-K Russia-24 Public Television of Russia REN TV STS TNT TV-3 Zvezda Domashny Carousel Peretz Euronews 2x2 Pyatnica! Disney Channel RBC Moskva 24 Dozhd

Radio stations

"Russian (Russkoye) Radio" "Europa Plus" "DFM" "NRJ (Russia)" "Radio Maximum" "Voice of Russia
Russia
(in English)" "Radio Freedom (Svoboda)" "Megapolis FM" "Radio Kultura (Culture)" "Pioneer FM" "Zvezda" "Komsomolskaya Pravda" "Orpheus" "Monte Carlo" "Love Radio" "Govorit Moskva" "Radio Dacha" "Nashe Radio" "Radio 7" "Humor FM" "Retro FM" "Ultra" "Keks FM" "Carnival" "Dobrye Pesni (Good Songs)" "Voyage FM" "Kino FM" "Finam FM" "First Popular" "Politseiskaya Volna (Police Wave)" "Radio Sport" "Radio Rossii" "Radio Podmoskovye" "Radiocompany Moscow" "UFM" "Mayak" "Business FM" "Autoradio" "Moya Semia (My Family)" "XFM" "Fresh Radio" "Silver Rain" "Chanson" "M-Radio" "Orphey" "Echo of Moscow" "Radio Jazz" "Classic Radio" "Vesti FM" "City FM" "Relax FM" "Kommersant FM" "Rock FM" "Children's Radio" "Radio Alla" "Best FM" "Next FM" "Hit FM" "Hermitage" "Radio Record"

Culture[edit] Main article: Society and culture in Saint
Saint
Petersburg Museums[edit]

The State Hermitage Museum
Hermitage Museum
(building on the right)

Saint
Saint
Petersburg is home to more than two hundred museums, many of them hosted in historic buildings. The largest of the museums is the Hermitage Museum, featuring interiors of the former imperial residence and a vast collection of art. The Russian Museum
Russian Museum
is a large museum devoted specifically to Russian fine art. The apartments of some famous Petersburgers, including Alexander Pushkin, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Feodor Chaliapin, Alexander Blok, Vladimir Nabokov, Anna Akhmatova, Mikhail Zoshchenko, Joseph Brodsky, as well as some palace and park ensembles of the southern suburbs and notable architectural monuments such as St. Isaac's Cathedral, have also been turned into public museums. The Kunstkamera, with its collection established in 1714 by Peter the Great to collect curiosities from all over the world, is sometimes considered the first museum in Russia, which has evolved into the present-day Peter the Great
Peter the Great
Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography. The Russian Ethnography Museum, which has been split from the Russian Museum, is devoted to the cultures of the people of Russia, the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and Russian Empire. A number of museums provide insight into the Soviet history of Saint Petersburg, including the Museum of the Blockade, which describes the Siege of Leningrad
Siege of Leningrad
and the Museum of Political History, which explains many authoritarian features of the U.S.S.R.. Other notable museums include the Central Naval Museum, and Zoological Museum, Central Soil Museum, the Russian Railway Museum, Suvorov Museum, Museum of the Siege of Leningrad, Erarta
Erarta
Museum of Contemporary Art, the largest non-governmental Museum of contemporary art in Russia, Saint
Saint
Petersburg Museum of History in the Peter and Paul Fortress and Artillery Museum, which includes not only artillery items, but also a huge collection of other military equipment, uniforms and decorations.

Russian Museum

The Kunstkamera

Military Historical Museum

Museum ship
Museum ship
cruiser Aurora

Music[edit]

The main auditorium of the Mariinsky Theatre

Among the city's more than fifty theatres is the world-famous Mariinsky Theatre
Mariinsky Theatre
(also known as the Kirov Theatre in the USSR), home to the Mariinsky Ballet
Mariinsky Ballet
company and opera. Leading ballet dancers, such as Vaslav Nijinsky, Anna Pavlova, Rudolph Nureyev, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Galina Ulanova
Galina Ulanova
and Natalia Makarova, were principal stars of the Mariinsky ballet. The first music school, the Saint
Saint
Petersburg Conservatory, was founded in 1862 by the Russian pianist and composer Anton Rubinstein. The school alumni have included such notable composers as Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Sergei Prokofiev, Artur Kapp, Rudolf Tobias
Rudolf Tobias
and Dmitri Shostakovich, who taught at the conservatory during the 1960s, bringing it additional fame. The renowned Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov also taught at the conservatory from 1871 to 1905. Among his students were Igor Stravinsky, Alexander Glazounov, Anatoly Liadov and others. The former St. Petersburg apartment of Rimsky-Korsakov has been faithfully preserved as the composer's only museum.

Scarlet Sails celebration on the Neva River
Neva River
in Saint
Saint
Petersburg

Dmitri Shostakovich, who was born and raised in Saint
Saint
Petersburg, dedicated his Seventh Symphony to the city, calling it the "Leningrad Symphony". He wrote the symphony while based in the city during the siege of Leningrad. It was premiered in Samara in March 1942; a few month later, it received its first performance in the besieged Leningrad at the Bolshoy Philharmonic Hall under the baton of conductor Karl Eliasberg. It was heard over the radio and was said to have lifted the spirits of the surviving population.[87] In 1992, the 7th Symphony was performed by the 14 surviving orchestral players of the Leningrad premiere in the same hall as half a century before.[88] The Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra
Orchestra
remained one of the best known symphony orchestras in the world under the leadership of conductors Yevgeny Mravinsky
Yevgeny Mravinsky
and Yuri Temirkanov. Mravinsky's term as artistic director of the Leningrad Philharmonic – a term that is possibly the longest of any conductor with any orchestra in modern times – led the orchestra from being a little-known provincial ensemble to it becoming one of the world's most highly regarded orchestras today, especially for the performance of Russian music. The Imperial Choral Capella was founded and modeled after the royal courts of other European capitals.

The Alexander theatre, Saint
Saint
Petersburg

Saint
Saint
Petersburg has been home to the newest movements in popular music in the country. The first jazz band in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was founded here by Leonid Utyosov
Leonid Utyosov
in the 1920s, under the patronage of Isaak Dunayevsky. The first jazz club in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
was founded here in the 1950s and was later named jazz club Kvadrat. In 1956 the popular ensemble Druzhba was founded by Aleksandr Bronevitsky and Edita Piekha
Edita Piekha
to become the first popular band in the USSR
USSR
during the 1950s. In the 1960s student rock-groups Argonavty, Kochevniki and others pioneered a series of unofficial and underground rock concerts and festivals. In 1972 Boris Grebenshchikov
Boris Grebenshchikov
founded the band Aquarium, which later grew to huge popularity. Since then "Peter's rock" music style was formed. In the 1970s many bands came out from 'underground' and eventually founded the Leningrad Rock Club, which provided a stage to such bands as DDT, Kino, headed by the legendary Viktor Tsoi, Alisa, Zemlyane, Zoopark, Piknik, Secret and many other popular groups. The first Russian-style happening show Pop Mekhanika, mixing over 300 people and animals on stage, was directed by the multi-talented Sergey Kuryokhin in the 1980s. The annual International Music Festival SKIF (Sergey Kuriokhin International Festival) is named after him. In 2004 the Kuryokhin Center was founded, were the SKIF as well as the Electro-Mechanica festival and Ethnomechanica festival takes place. SKIF focuses on experimental pop music and avant garde music, Electro-Mechanica on electronic music and Ethnomechanica on world music. Today's Saint
Saint
Petersburg boasts many notable musicians of various genres, from popular Leningrad's Sergei Shnurov, Tequilajazzz, Splean, Korol i Shut, to rock veterans Yuri Shevchuk, Vyacheslav Butusov
Vyacheslav Butusov
and Mikhail Boyarsky. In the early 2000s on a wave of popularity of metalcore, rapcore, emocore and there are such groups as Amatory, Kirpichi, Psychea, Stigmata, Grenouer
Grenouer
and Animal Jazz. The White Nights Festival
White Nights Festival
in Saint
Saint
Petersburg is famous for spectacular fireworks and a massive show celebrating the end of the school year. The rave band Little Big, known for its absurd and colorful songs and videos, also hails from Saint
Saint
Petersburgh. Film[edit]

Konstantin Khabensky, known for his roles in Night Watch, Day Watch and Admiral, is a native of Saint
Saint
Petersburg.

Over 250 international and Russian movies were filmed in Saint Petersburg.[89] Well over a thousand feature films about tsars, revolution, people and stories set in Saint
Saint
Petersburg have been produced worldwide but not filmed in the city. The first film studios were founded in Saint
Saint
Petersburg in the 20th century and since the 1920s Lenfilm
Lenfilm
has been the largest film studio based in Saint Petersburg. The first foreign feature movie filmed entirely in Saint Petersburg was the 1997 production of Tolstoy's Anna Karenina, starring Sophie Marceau
Sophie Marceau
and Sean Bean
Sean Bean
and made by an international team of British, American, French and Russian filmmakers. The cult comedy Irony of Fate[90] (also Ирония судьбы, или С лёгким паром!) is set in Saint
Saint
Petersburg and pokes fun at Soviet city planning. The 1985 film White Nights received considerable Western attention for having captured genuine Leningrad street scenes at a time when filming in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
by Western production companies was generally unheard of. Other movies include GoldenEye
GoldenEye
(1995), Midnight in Saint
Saint
Petersburg (1996), Brother (1997) and Tamil romantic thriller film- Dhaam Dhoom
Dhaam Dhoom
(2008). Onegin (1999) is based on the Pushkin poem and showcases many tourist attractions. In addition, the Russian romantic comedy, Piter FM, intricately showcases the cityscape, almost as if it were a main character in the film. Several international film festivals are held annually, such as the Festival of Festivals, Saint
Saint
Petersburg, as well as the Message to Man International Documentary Film Festival, since its inauguration in 1988 during the White Nights.[91] Literature[edit]

The Pushkin House

Saint
Saint
Petersburg has a longstanding and world famous tradition in literature. Dostoyevsky
Dostoyevsky
called it "The most abstract and intentional city in the world", emphasizing its artificiality, but it was also a symbol of modern disorder in a changing Russia. It frequently appeared to Russian writers as a menacing and inhuman mechanism. The grotesque and often nightmarish image of the city is featured in Pushkin's last poems, the Petersburg stories of Gogol, the novels of Dostoyevsky, the verse of Alexander Blok
Alexander Blok
and Osip Mandelshtam, and in the symbolist novel Petersburg by Andrey Bely. According to Lotman in his chapter, 'The Symbolism of Saint
Saint
Petersburg' in Universe and the Mind, these writers were inspired by symbolism from within the city itself. The effect of life in Saint
Saint
Petersburg on the plight of the poor clerk in a society obsessed with hierarchy and status also became an important theme for authors such as Pushkin, Gogol and Dostoyevsky. Another important feature of early Saint
Saint
Petersburg literature is its mythical element, which incorporates urban legends and popular ghost stories, as the stories of Pushkin and Gogol included ghosts returning to Saint Petersburg to haunt other characters as well as other fantastical elements, creating a surreal and abstract image of Saint
Saint
Petersburg. 20th-century writers from Saint
Saint
Petersburg, such as Vladimir Nabokov, Ayn Rand, Andrey Bely and Yevgeny Zamyatin, along with his apprentices, The Serapion Brothers created entire new styles in literature and contributed new insights to the understanding of society through their experience in this city. Anna Akhmatova
Anna Akhmatova
became an important leader for Russian poetry. Her poem Requiem adumbrates the perils encountered during the Stalinist era. Another notable 20th-century writer from Saint
Saint
Petersburg is Joseph Brodsky, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
(1987). While living in the United States, his writings in English reflected on life in Saint
Saint
Petersburg from the unique perspective of being both an insider and an outsider to the city in essays such as, "A Guide to a Renamed City" and the nostalgic "In a Room and a Half".[92] Education[edit]

Saint
Saint
Petersburg State University

Saint
Saint
Petersburg Polytechnic University

Pulkovo Observatory

See also: Education in Russia
Russia
and List of higher education and academic institutions in Saint
Saint
Petersburg As of 2006[update]/2007 there were 1024 kindergartens, 716 public schools and 80 vocational schools in Saint
Saint
Petersburg.[93] The largest of the public higher education institutions is Saint
Saint
Petersburg State University, enrolling approximately 32,000 undergraduate students; and the largest non-governmental higher education institutions is the Institute of International Economic Relations, Economics, and Law. Other famous universities are Saint
Saint
Petersburg Polytechnic University, Herzen University, Saint Petersburg State University
Saint Petersburg State University
of Economics and Finance and Saint
Saint
Petersburg Military engineering-technical university. However, the public universities are all federal property and do not belong to the city. Sports[edit] Main article: Sport in Saint
Saint
Petersburg

Krestovsky Stadium

Leningrad hosted part of the association football tournament during the 1980 Summer Olympics. The 1994 Goodwill Games were also held here. In boating, the first competition here was the 1703 rowing event initiated by Peter the Great, after the victory over the Swedish fleet. Yachting
Yachting
events were held by the Russian Navy
Russian Navy
since the foundation of the city. Yacht clubs:[94] St. Petersburg River Yacht Club, Neva
Neva
Yacht Club, the latter is the oldest yacht club in the world. In the winter, when the sea and lake surfaces are frozen and yachts and dinghies cannot be used, local people sail ice boats. Equestrianism
Equestrianism
has been a long tradition, popular among the Tsars and aristocracy, as well as part of military training. Several historic sports arenas were built for equestrianism since the 18th century, to maintain training all year round, such as the Zimny Stadion and Konnogvardeisky Manezh, among others. Chess
Chess
tradition was highlighted by the 1914 international tournament, partially funded by the Tsar, in which the title "Grandmaster" was first formally conferred by Russian Tsar
Tsar
Nicholas II to five players: Lasker, Capablanca, Alekhine, Tarrasch and Marshall.

SKA Saint
Saint
Petersburg logo

Kirov Stadium
Kirov Stadium
(now demolished) was one of the largest stadiums in the world and home to FC Zenit Saint
Saint
Petersburg from 1950 to 1993 and again in 1995. In 1951 a crowd of 110,000 set the single-game attendance record for Soviet football. In 1984, 2007, 2010 and 2011/2012 Zenit were the champions of the Soviet and Russian leagues, respectively, and won the Russian Cup in 1999 and 2010, the UEFA Cup 2007–08 season and the 2008 UEFA Super Cup. The team leader was local player Andrei Arshavin. Zenit play their home games at Petrovsky Stadium. The New Zenit Stadium, which will host 2018 FIFA
FIFA
World Cup matches, is under construction. There is also a second professional football club in Saint
Saint
Petersburg, FC Dynamo Saint
Saint
Petersburg, which is owned by the historic Dynamo sports society. Hockey teams in the city include SKA Saint
Saint
Petersburg in the KHL, HC VMF St. Petersburg in the VHL, and junior clubs SKA-1946 and Silver Lions in the Russian Major League. SKA Saint
Saint
Petersburg is one of the most popular in the KHL, consistently being at or near the top of the league in attendance. Along with their popularity, they are one of the best teams in the KHL
KHL
right now, as they have won the Gagarin Cup twice.[95] Well-known players on the team include Pavel Datsyuk, Ilya Kovalchuk, Nikita Gusev, Sergei Shirokov
Sergei Shirokov
and Viktor Tikhonov. During the NHL lockout, stars Ilya Kovalchuk, Sergei Bobrovsky
Sergei Bobrovsky
and Vladimir Tarasenko also played for the team. They play their home games at Ice Palace Saint
Saint
Petersburg. The city's long-time basketball team is BC Kondrashin Belov, which launched the career of Andrei Kirilenko. Kondrashin Belov won two championships in the USSR
USSR
Premier League (1975 and 1992), two USSR Cups (1978 and 1987), and a Russian Cup title (2011). They also won the Saporta Cup
Saporta Cup
twice (1973 and 1975). Legends of the club include Alexander Belov
Alexander Belov
and Vladimir Kondrashin. The city also has a new basketball team, BC Zenit Saint
Saint
Petersburg. Infrastructure[edit] Transportation[edit]

A section of the Western High-Speed Diameter

Saint
Saint
Petersburg is a major transport hub. The first Russian railway was built here in 1837, and since then the city's transport infrastructure has continued to develop and keep pace with the growth of the city. Petersburg has an extensive system of local roads and railway services, maintains a large public transport system that includes the Saint
Saint
Petersburg tram and the Saint
Saint
Petersburg Metro, and is home to a number of riverine services that convey passengers around the city efficiently and in relative comfort. The city is connected to the rest of Russia
Russia
and the wider world by a number of federal highways and national and international rail routes. Pulkovo Airport
Pulkovo Airport
serves the majority of air passengers departing from or arriving to the city. Roads and public transport[edit]

Trolleybus
Trolleybus
on Nevsky Avenue.

Obvodny Kanal station, opened in 2010

Tram on Moscow
Moscow
Gate Square.

Hydrofoil
Hydrofoil
docking in St.Petersburg upon arrival from Peterhof Palace (2008).

Saint
Saint
Petersburg has an extensive city-funded network of public transport (buses, trams, trolleybuses) and several hundred routes served by marshrutkas. Trams in Saint
Saint
Petersburg used to be the main mean of transport; in the 1980s this was the largest tram network in the world, but many tracks were dismantled in the 2000s. Buses carry up to three million passengers daily, serving over 250 urban and a number of suburban bus routes. Saint
Saint
Petersburg Metro underground rapid transit system was opened in 1955; it now has 5 lines with 67 stations, connecting all five railway terminals, and carrying 2.3 million passengers daily.[96] Metro stations are often elaborately decorated with materials such as marble and bronze.

Saint Petersburg Metro
Saint Petersburg Metro
map

Traffic jams are common in the city due to daily commuter traffic volumes, intercity traffic and excessive winter snow. The construction of freeways such as the Saint
Saint
Petersburg Ring Road, completed in 2011, and the Western High-Speed Diameter, completed in 2017, helped partially reduce the traffic in the city. The controversial M11, also known as the Moscow- Saint
Saint
Petersburg Motorway, would connect Saint Petersburg and Moscow
Moscow
by a freeway and is expected to be completed before the Russia
Russia
FIFA
FIFA
World Cup 2018.[97] Construction
Construction
has started in 2010 and the first sections of the freeway was finished in 2014 and 2015. Saint
Saint
Petersburg is an important transport corridor linking Scandinavia
Scandinavia
to Russia
Russia
and Eastern Europe. The city is a node of the international European routes E18 towards Helsinki, E20 towards Tallinn, E95 towards Pskov, Kiev
Kiev
and Odessa
Odessa
and E105 towards Petrozavodsk, Murmansk
Murmansk
and Kirkenes
Kirkenes
(north) and towards Moscow
Moscow
and Kharkiv
Kharkiv
(south). Saint
Saint
Petersburg public transportation statistics[edit] The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Saint
Saint
Petersburg, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 69 min. 19.6% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 11 min, while 16.1% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 7 km, while 15.% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.[98] Waterways[edit] The city is also served by passenger and cargo seaports in the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, the river port higher up the Neva
Neva
and tens of smaller passenger stations on both banks of the Neva river. It is a terminus of both the Volga-Baltic and White Sea-Baltic waterways. The first high bridge that does not need to be drawn, a 2,824-meter (9,265 ft) long Big Obukhovsky Bridge, opened in 2004. Meteor hydrofoils link the city centre to the coastal towns of Kronstadt, Lomonosov, Petergof, Sestroretsk
Sestroretsk
and Zelenogorsk from May through October. In the warmer months many smaller boats and water-taxis maneuver the canals throughout the city. The shipping company St Peter Line
St Peter Line
operates two ferries that sail from Helsinki
Helsinki
to St Petersburg and from Stockholm
Stockholm
to St Petersburg. Rail[edit] See also: Rail transport in Russia

The Sapsan
Sapsan
high-speed train runs between Moscow
Moscow
and Saint
Saint
Petersburg

The city is the final destination for a web of intercity and suburban railways, served by five different railway terminals (Baltiysky, Finlyandsky, Ladozhsky, Moskovsky and Vitebsky),[99][100] as well as dozens of non-terminal railway stations within the federal subject. Saint
Saint
Petersburg has international railway connections to Helsinki, Finland, Berlin, Germany
Germany
and many former republics of the USSR. The Helsinki
Helsinki
railway, which was built in 1870 and is 443 kilometers (275 mi) long, has trains running four times a day, in a journey lasting about three and a half hours with the new Allegro train. The Moscow
Moscow
Saint
Saint
Petersburg Railway opened in 1851, and is 651 kilometers (405 mi) long; the commute to Moscow
Moscow
now requires from three and a half to nine hours.[101] In 2009 Russian Railways
Russian Railways
launched a high speed service for the Moscow – Saint
Saint
Petersburg route. The new train, known as Sapsan, is a derivative of the popular Siemens Velaro
Siemens Velaro
train; various versions of this already operate in some European countries. It set records for the fastest train in Russia
Russia
on May 2, 2009, travelling at 281 km/h (174.6 mph)[102] and on May 7, 2009, traveling at 290 kilometers per hour (180 mph). Since December 12, 2010 Karelian Trains, a joint venture between Russian Railways
Russian Railways
and VR (Finnish Railways), has been running Alstom Pendolino operated high-speed services between Saint
Saint
Petersburg's Finlyandsky and Helsinki's Central railway stations. These services are branded as "Allegro" trains. "Allegro" is known for suffering some big technical problems from time to time, which sometimes result in significant delays and even cancel of tourists' trips.[103]

Intercity and suburban rail terminals of Petersburg

Vitebsky Station 

Moskovsky Station 

Baltiysky Station 

Finlyandsky Station 

Ladozhsky Station 

Air[edit]

Pulkovo International Airport.

Saint
Saint
Petersburg is served by Pulkovo International Airport,[104] and also by three smaller commercial and cargo airports in the suburbs. Lappeenranta Airport, which is located near Saint
Saint
Petersburg but on the Finnish side of the border is also popular among Russian travellers. Pulkovo airport was opened to passengers as a small aerodrome in 1931. As of 2013[update], the Pulkovo airport, which handles over 12 million passengers annually, is the 3rd busiest in Russia
Russia
after Moscow's Sheremetyevo and Domodedovo. As a result, the steadily increasing passenger traffic has triggered a massive modernization of the entire airport infrastructure. A newly built Terminal 1 of the Pulkovo airport was put into operation on December 4, 2013 and integrated international flights of the former terminal Pulkovo-2. The renovated terminal Pulkovo-1 has been opened for domestic flights as an extension of the Terminal 1 in 2015. There is a regular rapid-bus connection (buses 39, 39E, K39) between Pulkovo airport and the Moskovskaya metro station as well as 24/7 taxi service. Parks[edit] Saint
Saint
Petersburg is home to numerous parks and gardens, some of the most famous of which are situated in the southern suburbs, including one of the largest English gardens in Europe in Pavlovsk. Sosnovka is the largest park within the limits of the city proper, occupying 240 ha. The Summer Garden
Summer Garden
is the oldest one, dating back to the early 18th century and designed in the regular style. It is situated on the southern bank of the Neva
Neva
at the head of the Fontanka
Fontanka
and is famous for its cast iron railing and marble sculptures. Among other notable parks are the Maritime Victory Park
Maritime Victory Park
on Krestovsky Island and the Moscow
Moscow
Victory Park in the south, both commemorating the victory over Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in the Second World War, as well as the Central Park of Culture and Leisure occupying Yelagin Island
Yelagin Island
and the Tauride Garden around the Tauride Palace. The most common trees grown in the parks are the English oak, Norway
Norway
maple, green ash, silver birch, Siberian Larch, blue spruce, crack willow, limes, and poplars. Important dendrological collections dating back to the 19th century are hosted by the Saint
Saint
Petersburg Botanical Garden and the Park of the Forestry Academy. In order to commemorate 300 years anniversary of Saint
Saint
Petersburg a new park was laid out. The park is situated in the north western part of the city. The construction was started in 1995. It is planned to connect the park with the pedestrian bridge to the territory of Lakhta Center's recreation areas. In the park 300 trees of valuable sorts, 300 decorative apple-trees, 70 limes. 300 other trees and bushes were planted. These trees were presented to Saint
Saint
Petersburg by non-commercial and educational organizations of the city, its sister-cities, city of Helsinki, heads of other regions of Russia, German Savings Bank and other people and organizations.[105]

Aerial view of the Field of Mars

The Summer Garden

Saint
Saint
Petersburg Botanical Garden

Catherine Park, Tsarskoye Selo

Famous people[edit] Main category: People from Saint
Saint
Petersburg Main article: List of people from Saint
Saint
Petersburg Born in Saint
Saint
Petersburg[edit]

Mikhail Kutuzov

Alexander Blok

Dmitri Shostakovich

Vladimir Nabokov

Peter II of Russia

Alexander III

Ivan VI of Russia

Alexander Borodin

Anna Pavlova

Vladimir Putin

Dmitry Medvedev

Alexei Kosygin

Nicholas Roerich

Andrey Arshavin

Vladimir Vernadsky

Grigori Perelman

Georg Cantor

George Balanchine

Ayn Rand

Galina Ulanova

Leonid Kantorovich

Boris Spassky

Joseph Brodsky

Sergei Krikalev

Crime[edit] See also: Crime in Russia
Russia
and Tambov gang

The Kresty Prison

The crime dynamic in Saint
Saint
Petersburg is tightly associated with the general social situation in the country. A sharp spike in the crime level occurred in the late 1980s/early 1990s as a result of the Perestroika-time turmoils (redistribution of property, privatization, decline of living standards, decrease of the effectiveness of militsiya etc.) By then the city had fallen under the control of a number of organized criminal groups such as Tambov Gang, Malyshev Gang, Kazan
Kazan
Gang and ethnic criminal groups, engaged in racket, extortion, paying off local government and violent clashes with each other.[106] After the assassinations of City Property Committee chairman and vice-Governor Mikhail Manevich (1997), State Duma
State Duma
deputy Galina Starovoytova (1998), acting City Legislature Speaker Viktor Novosyolov (1999) and a number of prominent businesspeople, Saint
Saint
Petersburg was dubbed Capital of Crime in the Russian press.[107][108] There were a number of movies filmed in Saint
Saint
Petersburg about the life of crime, Banditskiy Peterburg: Advocat and Brother, reinforcing its image as the Crime Capital of Russia.[109][110] According to official sources the number of crimes committed by foreigners in Saint
Saint
Petersburg in 2010 increased by 11.1%. Law enforcement authorities consider this was associated with an increased number of people from some CIS republics who live in Saint
Saint
Petersburg illegally.[111] On the other hand, some media reported that in recent years there had been a notable increase in racially motivated violence, in particular towards foreign students.[112] One of the notable white supremacist groups, Belaya Energia (White Energy, inspired by US "White Power" groups) has reportedly been one of the gangs involved in murdering foreign university students.[112] The official portal of the Government of Saint
Saint
Petersburg provided data on significant improvements in the crime situation.[111] In particular, it was reported that the number of crimes against tourists had decreased by more than half during 2009–2011. In 2012, Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs warned LGBT travellers about a vaguely worded law in Saint
Saint
Petersburg that came into effect on March 17, 2012, making it a criminal offence to publicize acts of male or female homosexuality, bisexuality, or transgenderism. The intention of the law is to protect minors. A Russian travel advisory on the Foreign Affairs website notes that while homosexuality is legal in Russia
Russia
(it was decriminalized in 1993), LGBT Canadian travellers should avoid "displaying affection in public, as homosexuals can be targets of violence.... Public actions (including dissemination of information, statements, displays or conspicuous behaviour) contradicting or appearing to contradict this law may lead to arrest, prosecution and the imposition of a fine."[113] Twin towns and sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia

List of sister cities to Saint
Saint
Petersburg as it appears on the official portal of the City Government, listing both sister cities and partnership ties [114]

Non CIS/Baltic states sister cities of Saint
Saint
Petersburg (from official government list)

Aarhus, Denmark
Denmark
(since 1989)[114] Adana, Turkey
Turkey
(since 1997)[114] Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia
Malaysia
(since 2017)[114] Antwerp, Belgium
Belgium
(since 1958)[114] Bangkok, Thailand
Thailand
(since 1997)[114] Barcelona, Spain
Spain
(since 1984)[114][115] Bethlehem, Palestine (since 2003)[116] Bordeaux, France
France
(since 1991)[114][117][118] Cape Town, South Africa
South Africa
(since 2001)[114] Cebu, Philippines
Philippines
(since 2010)[114][119] Colombo, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(since 1997)[114] Chengdu, China
China
(since 1998)[114] Daegu, South Korea
South Korea
(since 1997)[114][120] Dresden, Germany
Germany
(since 1961)[114][121] Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain[122] Edinburgh, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(since 1995)[114][123][not in citation given] Faisalabad, Pakistan Gdańsk, Poland
Poland
(since 1961)[114][124] Graz, Austria
Austria
(since 2001)[125][126] Gothenburg, Sweden
Sweden
(since 1962)[114] Hamburg, Germany
Germany
(since 1957)[114] Havana, Cuba
Cuba
(since 2000)[114] Helsinki, Finland
Finland
(since 1993)[114] Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Vietnam
(since 1977)[114] Isfahan, Iran
Iran
(since 1999)[114] İstanbul, Turkey
Turkey
(since 1990)[114][127][128] Kotka, Finland
Finland
(since 1997)[114] Le Havre, France
France
(since 1965)[114][129] Los Angeles, United States
United States
(since 1990)[114][130] Lyon, France
France
(since 1993)[114][131] Manchester, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(since 1956)[132] Melbourne, Australia
Australia
(since 1989)[114][133][134] Mikkeli, Finland
Finland
(since 1996)[114] Montevideo, Uruguay
Uruguay
(since 1998)[114] Mumbai, India
India
(since 1963)[114][135] Nice, France
France
(since 1997)[114][136] Osaka, Japan
Japan
(since 1961)[114][137] Piraeus, Greece
Greece
(since 1965)[114][138] Plovdiv, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(since 2001)[114][139] Prague, Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(since 1992)[114][140] Québec City, Canada
Canada
(since 2002)[114] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Brazil
(since 1986)[114] Rotterdam, Netherlands
Netherlands
(since 1966)[114] Santiago, Cuba[114] Shanghai, China
China
(since 1959)[114] Stockholm, Sweden
Sweden
(since 1992)[114] Tampere, Finland
Finland
(since 1993)[114] Thessaloniki, Greece
Greece
(since 2002)[114][141] Turku, Finland
Finland
(since 1953)[114] Warsaw, Poland
Poland
(since 1997)[114][142] Zagreb, Croatia
Croatia
(since 1968)[114][143] St. Petersburg, Florida, United States Sofia, Bulgaria

Sister cities in the Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
and Baltic states

Almaty, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(since 1996)[114] Baku, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
(since 1998)[114] Dushanbe, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(since 1999)[114] Yerevan, Armenia
Armenia
(since 1997)[114][144][145] Vilnius, Lithuania
Lithuania
(since 2002)[114][146] Riga, Latvia
Latvia
(since 1997)[114][147] Sevastopol
Sevastopol
(since 2000)[114] Daugavpils, Latvia
Latvia
(since 2002)[148] Tallinn, Estonia
Estonia
(since 2002)[149]

Sister cities of Saint
Saint
Petersburg (not included on official government list)

Aqaba, Jordan
Jordan
(since 2003)[150][not in citation given] Bethlehem, Palestine[151] State of Maryland, United States[152] Lansing, Michigan, United States
United States
(since 1992)[153] Maribor, Slovenia
Slovenia
(since 2001)[154] Galveston, Texas, United States[155] Osh, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
(since 2004)[150] Chungcheongbuk-do, South Korea
South Korea
(since 2008)[150] Mar del Plata, Argentina
Argentina
(since 2008)[150] Guadalajara, Mexico
Mexico
(since 2008)[150][156] Astana, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(since 2008)[150] Florence, Italy
Italy
(since 2001)[157] Turin, Italy
Italy
(since 2012)[158][159] Busan, South Korea
South Korea
(since 2008)[150] Sousse, Tunisia
Tunisia
(since 2008)[150] Oslo, Norway
Norway
(since 2002)[160] Hai Phong, Vietnam
Vietnam
(since 2008)[150] Rishon LeZion, Israel
Israel
(since 1966) Košice, Slovakia
Slovakia
(since 1995)[161] Haifa, Israel
Israel
(since 2008)[162] Khartoum, Sudan
Sudan
(since 2002)[150] Le Havre, France[163][164] Lviv, Ukraine
Ukraine
(since 2006)[165] Ulan Bator, Mongolia
Mongolia
(since 2008)[150] Debrecen, Hungary
Hungary
(since 2002)[166] Cebu
Cebu
City, Philippines
Philippines
(since 2008)[150] Nampho, North Korea
North Korea
(since 2002)[150] Porto Alegre, Brazil
Brazil
(since 2002)[167] Port Vila, Vanuatu Westport, Connecticut, United States[168]

Milan
Milan
and Venice
Venice
were formerly twin cities of Saint
Saint
Petersburg, but suspended this link due to St Petersburg's ban on "gay propaganda".[169] Milan
Milan
suspended the relationship with Saint Petersburg on November 23, 2012[170] and Venice
Venice
did so on January 28, 2013.[171] See also[edit]

Russia
Russia
portal

Flag of Saint
Saint
Petersburg Hotels in Saint
Saint
Petersburg List of buildings and structures in Saint
Saint
Petersburg List of bridges in Saint
Saint
Petersburg List of theatres in Saint
Saint
Petersburg List of museums in Saint
Saint
Petersburg List of Saint Petersburg Metro
Saint Petersburg Metro
stations List of notable people from Saint
Saint
Petersburg List of consulates in Saint
Saint
Petersburg List of Saint
Saint
Petersburg sister cities Outline of Saint
Saint
Petersburg

References[edit]

^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.). ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. ( Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ). ^ Official website of St. Petersburg. St. Petersburg in Figures ^ Законодательное Собрание Санкт-Петербурга. Закон №555-75 от 26 октября 2005 г. «О праздниках и памятных датах в Санкт-Петербурге», в ред. Закона №541-112 от 6 ноября 2008 г. (Legislative Assembly of Saint
Saint
Petersburg. Law #555-75 of 26 October 2005 On Holidays and Memorial Dates in Saint
Saint
Petersburg. ). ^ Official website of St. Petersburg. Петербург в цифрах (St. Petersburg in Figures) (in Russian) ^ Rosstat. [1] (in Russian) ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.). ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All- Russia
Russia
Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.  ^ http://www.newsweek.com/2014/09/26/st-petersburg-ghosts-petrograd-267805.html ^ McColl, R. W., ed. (2005). Encyclopedia of world geography. 1. N. Y.: Infobase Publishing. pp. 633–634. ISBN 0-8160-5786-9. Retrieved 9 February 2011.  ^ V. Morozov. The Discourses of Saint
Saint
Petersburg and the Shaping of a Wider Europe, Copenhagen Peace Research Institute, 2002. ISSN 1397-0895 ^ "Exploring St. Petersburg / The Hermitage". Geographia.com. 6 January 1990. Retrieved 25 January 2010.  ^ and, Serge Schmemann. "Leningrad, Petersburg and the Great Name Debate".  ^ a b "Петроград — Энциклопедия «Вокруг света»". www.vokrugsveta.ru.  ^ a b Wilson, Derek (January 5, 2010). Peter the Great. Macmillan. p. 82. ISBN 9781429964678. Retrieved February 25, 2012.  ^ Williams, Harold (1914). Russia
Russia
of the Russians. Pitman & Sons. p. 33. Retrieved 2016-02-12.  ^ Hughes, Lindsey (2004). Peter the Great: a Biography. Yale University Press. p. 66. ISBN 0-300-10300-X.  ^ "Peter and Paul Fortress". Saint-Petersburg.com. Archived from the original on July 20, 2008. Retrieved June 19, 2009.  ^ "Consulate General of Sweden
Sweden
Sweden
Sweden
and Saint
Saint
Petersburg". Swedenabroad.com. October 17, 2005. Retrieved January 6, 2009.  ^ "St Petersburg: Paris of the North or City of Bones?", The Independent. July 8, 2006 Archived January 20, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Jean-Baptiste Le Blond, architect in St. Petersburg, Russia". saint-petersburg.com.  ^ Matthew S. Anderson, Peter the Great
Peter the Great
(London: Thames and Hudson, 1978) ^ Rex A. Wade The Russian Revolution, 1917 2005 Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-84155-0 ^ "The common characteristic of Saint-Petersburg". russia-travel.ws. 2005–2008. Retrieved February 9, 2011.  ^ Kann, Pavel Yakovlevich (1963). Leningrad: A Short Guide. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House. pp. 132–133. Retrieved February 9, 2011.  ^ a b c "Ленинградская область в целом: Административно-территориальное деление Ленинградской области". Lenobltrans.narod.ru. Archived from the original on June 8, 2009. Retrieved October 22, 2009.  ^ Stalin's Terror: High Politics and Mass Repression in the Soviet Union, Barry McLoughlin and Kevin McDermott (eds). Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, p. 6 ^ a b Siege of Leningrad. Encyclopædia Britannica ^ Baldack, Richard H. "Leningrad, Siege of", World Book Encyclopedia, Chicago, 2002, vol. 12, page 195. ^ Zubkova, Elena Yurievna (1998). "Chronology of Major Events". In Hugh Ragsdale. Russia
Russia
after the war: hopes, illusions, and disappointments, 1945–1957. N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, Inc. pp. 132–133. ISBN 0-7656-0227-X.  ^ a b Orttung, Robert W. (1995). "Chronology of Major Events". From Leningrad to Saint
Saint
Petersburg. London, N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 273–277. ISBN 0-312-12080-X.  ^ Ollman, Leah. "Russian Photos Trace Images of Mortality and Memory", Los Angeles Times, August 3, 2001 ^ Aidan Dunne. "Camera in a City of Shadows", Irish Times, Dublin, May 5, 2007 ^ http://petrostat.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_ts/petrostat/resources/58cc7e804f0a97d5bbddbb22524f7e0f/SPB15.pdf ^ Zagraevsky, Sergey. "Will Saint
Saint
Petersburg share the same fate as Moscow?". Zagraevsky.com. Retrieved November 16, 2012.  ^ "Photos of the violations of the historical environment of Saint Petersburg". Rusarch.ru. Retrieved October 22, 2009.  ^ The level of flooding is measured near Saint
Saint
Petersburg Mining Institute, which is normally 11 centimeters (4.3 in) a.s.l. ^ Нежиховский Р. А. Река Нева и Невская губа, Leningrad: Гидрометеоиздат, 1981. ^ a b "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved March 29, 2013.  ^ "Climate St. Peterburg – Historical weather records". Tutiempo.net. Retrieved November 16, 2012.  ^ "Архив погоды в Санкт-Петербурге, Санкт-Петербург". Rp5.ru. Retrieved November 16, 2012.  ^ "Climatological Information for St.Petersburg, Russia". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved March 29, 2013.  ^ "Leningrad, Petersburg and the Great Name Debate". The New York Times. 13 June 1991.  ^ Planet, Lonely; Masters, Tom; Richmond, Simon (1 February 2015). " Lonely Planet
Lonely Planet
St Petersburg". Lonely Planet
Lonely Planet
– via Google Books.  ^ a b Нестеров В. "Знаешь ли ты свой город" ("Do you know your city?"). Leningrad, 1958, p. 58. ^ "August 31, 1914 St.Petersburg renamed to Petrograd" (in Russian). Archived from the original on August 25, 2011. Retrieved January 14, 2011.  ^ "St Petersburg, the ' Venice
Venice
of the North', gets its own fleet of gondolas". The Independent. UK. June 29, 2004. Archived from the original on October 20, 2011. Retrieved December 7, 2010.  ^ invalid reference parameter ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.  ^ "Естественное движение населения в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации". gks.ru.  ^ "Каталог публикаций::Федеральная служба государственной статистики". gks.ru.  ^ Martin, Terry (1998). "The Origins of Soviet Ethnic Cleansing". The Journal of Modern History. University of Chicago Press. 70 (4): 813–61. doi:10.1086/235168. ISSN 1537-5358. JSTOR 10.1086/235168. (Registration required (help)).  ^ Чистякова Н. Третье сокращение численности населения... и последнее? Демоскоп Weekly 163 – 164, August 1–15, 2004. ^ Russian source: "Encyclopedia of Saint
Saint
Petersburg" Чистяков А. Ю. Население (обзорная статья). Энциклопедия Санкт-Петербурга ^ a b "Естественное движение населения в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации". www.gks.ru.  ^ Russian statistics Основные показатели социально-демографической ситуации в Санкт-Петербурге ^ "В первом полугодии продолжалось умеренное повышение числа рождений". Demoscope.ru. Retrieved January 6, 2009.  ^ "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived. ^ "The Constitution of the Russian federation". Constitution.ru. Retrieved October 22, 2009.  ^ "Russian source: Charter of Saint
Saint
Petersburg City". Gov.spb.ru. Retrieved October 22, 2009.  ^ "Федеральный закон от 02.05.2012 N 40-ФЗ "О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об общих принципах организации законодательных (представительных) и исполнительных органов государственной власти субъектов Российской Федерации" и Федеральный закон "Об основных гарантиях избирательных прав и права на участие в референдуме граждан Российской Федерации"". garant.ru.  ^ Saint
Saint
Petersburg law of 20.06.2012 № 339–59 ^ "Official website of the Northwestern Federal District
Northwestern Federal District
(Russian)". Szfo.ru. 25 June 2009. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 22 October 2009.  ^ G.N. Georgano Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886–1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985) ^ Discoverthebaltic.com Discover the Baltic online guide to Baltic cruise ports Archived December 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "ЗАО "Терра-Нова" Крупнейший в Европе проект по образованию и комплексному развитию территории в западной части Васильевского острова Санкт-Петербурга". Mfspb.ru. March 12, 2012. Retrieved November 16, 2012.  ^ Russian Standard Vodka
Vodka
Ranked 4th Fastest Growing Premium Spirits Brand Worldwide Impact, 2007. Archived July 15, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Budget of Saint
Saint
Petersburg (Russian document)". City of Saint Petersburg.  ^ "Валовой региональный продукт по субъектам Российской Федерации в 1998–2016гг. (в текущих основных ценах; млн.рублей)". Gks.ru. Retrieved October 22, 2009.  ^ "Валовой региональный продукт на душу населения (в текущих основных ценах; рублей)". Gks.ru. Retrieved October 22, 2009.  ^ "Отраслевая структура ВРП по видам экономической деятельности (по ОКВЭД) за 2005 год". Gks.ru. Retrieved October 22, 2009.  ^ Data of the Government of Saint-Petersburg ^ "Passport of St. Petersburg Industrial Zones" (PDF). http://www.regionen-russland.de. 2015. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-12-16.  External link in website= (help) ^ "St. Petersburg Historic Skyline, Russian Federation". Wmf.org. Retrieved October 22, 2009.  ^ "График разводки мостов на Неве в Санкт-Петербурге". Archived from the original on August 27, 2010. Retrieved October 3, 2010.  ^ Hudyakov Russian: Артём Худяков, Artiem (March 12, 2008). "Виртуальная защита Петербурга" [Virtual protection of Petersburg] (in Russian). bn.ru/. Retrieved August 5, 2009.  ^ "Visit Saint
Saint
Petersburg". Visit-Petersburg.ru. Retrieved September 20, 2016.  ^ " Saint
Saint
Petersburg Tourist Information Bureau". Petersburg.ru. Retrieved September 20, 2016.  ^ "Welcome to Saint
Saint
Petersburg!". Saint-Petersburg.com. Retrieved September 20, 2016.  ^ "National Geographic – Saint
Saint
Petersburg, Russia". NationalGeographic.com. Retrieved September 20, 2016.  ^ " Saint
Saint
Petersburg is a Stroll Along A Lovely Canal". LonelyPlanet.com. Retrieved September 20, 2016.  ^ "Fodor's Travel – Saint
Saint
Petersburg, Russia". Fodors.com. Retrieved September 20, 2016.  ^ "Rick Steve's Europe – Saint
Saint
Petersburg, Russia". RickSteves.com. Retrieved September 20, 2016.  ^ " Rostelecom
Rostelecom
to invest RUB 15 bln in St Petersburg". Telecom Paper. May 2, 2014. Retrieved May 3, 2014.  ^ Close (October 16, 2005). "Where a symphony silenced guns". The Guardian. London. Retrieved October 22, 2009.  ^ Vulliamy, Ed (November 25, 2001). "Orchestral manoeuvres (part one)". The Observer. London. Retrieved October 22, 2009.  ^ "Most Popular Titles With Location Matching "St. Petersburg, Russia"". IMDb. Retrieved November 16, 2012.  ^ "the irony of fate sat in st.petersburg". Retrieved August 26, 2009.  ^ "The XIX International "Message To Man" Film Festival". IFC Centaur. Archived from the original on May 15, 2009. Retrieved June 9, 2009.  ^ Joseph Brodsky. Less Than One: Selected Essays, 1986 ^ "ОТЧЕТ за 2006/2007 учебный год". Retrieved January 1, 2009.  ^ "History of Yacht Clubs in Russia". Encspb.ru. Retrieved October 22, 2009.  ^ "Datsyuk adds KHL
KHL
title to Stanley Cup victories".  ^ "St. Petersburg Metro". Accessed September 5, 2015. ^ "Moscow-St. Petersburg motorway believed to be opened by 2018 - eurasiatx". eurasiatx. 2016-04-18. Retrieved 2017-07-11.  ^ " Saint
Saint
Petersburg Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, 2017.  Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. ^ Until 2001, the Varshavsky Rail Terminal
Varshavsky Rail Terminal
served as a major station; it now is a railway museum. ^ "Бюпьюбяйхи Бнйгюк – Хярнпхъ". Russkialbum.ru. Archived from the original on October 16, 2012. Retrieved November 16, 2012.  ^ "Results of train ticket inquiry, Russian train schedules and Russian train tickets". RZD.com. Retrieved January 1, 2011.  ^ " Sapsan
Sapsan
claims Russian rail speed record". Railway Gazette International. May 7, 2009. Retrieved May 10, 2009.  ^ "Allegro trains suffered from the biggest problems in its history". St. Petersburg Travel Guide. August 15, 2016. Retrieved November 27, 2016.  ^ "Россия – российские авиалинии". Rossiya-airlines.com. July 25, 2007. Retrieved November 16, 2012.  ^ (in Russian)[2] Archived July 9, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Russian Mafia Shakes Down the Country by Steven R. Van Hook, Santa Barbara News-Press, November 20, 1994 ^ Trumbull, Nathaniel S. (2003) The impacts of globalization on Saint Petersburg: A secondary world city in from the cold? The Annals of Regional Science 37:533–546 ^ Powell, Bill & Brian Whitmore. The Capital Of Crime.(Saint Petersburg, Russia). Newsweek International, May 15, 2000. ^ ""Banditskiy Peterburg: Advokat" (2000)". IMDb. February 27, 2006. Retrieved January 6, 2009.  ^ "Brat (1997)". IMDb. April 16, 1998. Retrieved January 6, 2009.  ^ a b "Crime preventing measures have made good results. – An official portal of the administration of St. Petersburg". Gov.spb.ru. July 16, 2012. Archived from the original on March 24, 2012. Retrieved July 20, 2012.  ^ a b Russia: Racist Attacks Plague St. Petersburg Radio Free Europe September 30, 2005 ^ Postmedia News (March 16, 2012). " Canada
Canada
warns gay travellers to Russia
Russia
on heels of law banning homosexual "propaganda"". National Post. Retrieved June 13, 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb " Saint
Saint
Petersburg in figures – International and Interregional Ties". Saint
Saint
Petersburg City Government. Retrieved March 23, 2008.  ^ "Barcelona's Sister cities". 2008 Ajuntament de Barcelona
Barcelona
(City council's webpage). Archived from the original on 15 July 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2008.  ^ " Bethlehem
Bethlehem
Municipality". bethlehem-city.org. Archived from the original on July 24, 2010. Retrieved October 10, 2009.  ^ " Bordeaux
Bordeaux
– Rayonnement européen et mondial" (in French). Mairie de Bordeaux. Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.  ^ "Bordeaux-Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures" (in French). Délégation pour l'Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères). Archived from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.  ^ "St. Petersburg to promote Cebu
Cebu
as tourism spot". Cebu
Cebu
Tourism News. Retrieved December 10, 2016.  ^ "Coloful Daegu". Archived from the original on October 20, 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2008.  ^ " Dresden
Dresden
Twin cities". 2008 Landeshauptstadt Dresden
Dresden
(City of Dresden: Dresden.de). Archived from the original on October 16, 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2008.  ^ "Tenerife". Archived from the original on May 25, 2010. Retrieved February 27, 2012.  ^ " Edinburgh
Edinburgh
– Twin and Partner Cities". 2008 The City of Edinburgh Council, City Chambers, High Street, Edinburgh, EH1 1YJ Scotland. Archived from the original on March 28, 2008. Retrieved December 21, 2008.  ^ " Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Official Website: 'Miasta partnerskie'" (in Polish and English). 2009 Gdańsk. Retrieved July 11, 2009.  ^ "Stadt Graz: Sister Cities". Archived from the original on October 12, 2010. Retrieved December 1, 2008.  ^ "Twin Towns – Graz
Graz
Online – English Version". graz.at. Archived from the original on November 8, 2009. Retrieved January 5, 2010.  ^ "Sister Cities of Istanbul". Retrieved November 2, 2008.  ^ Erdem, Selim Efe (November 3, 2003). "İstanbul'a 49 kardeş" (in Turkish). Radikal. Retrieved November 2, 2008. 49 sister cities in 2003  ^ " Le Havre
Le Havre
Website – Twin Towns". (in English) 2006–2008 Ovidio Limited. Retrieved November 30, 2008.  ^ "Los Angeles City Council: Sister cities of Los Angeles". Archived from the original on July 19, 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2008.  ^ "Partner Cities of Lyon
Lyon
and Greater Lyon". 2008 Mairie de Lyon. Archived from the original on 19 July 2009. Retrieved 21 October 2008.  ^ "Friendship Agreements". Manchester
Manchester
City Council. Archived from the original on 11 June 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.  ^ "International relations: Saint
Saint
Petersburg". Archived from the original on September 26, 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2008.  ^ "City of Melbourne – International relations – Sister cities". City of Melbourne. Archived from the original on July 5, 2009. Retrieved July 7, 2009.  ^ "Official Website of Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai". Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. Retrieved December 1, 2008.  ^ "Villes jumelées avec la Ville de Nice" (in French). Ville de Nice. Archived from the original on October 29, 2012. Retrieved June 24, 2013.  ^ " Osaka
Osaka
and the World, the official website of the Osaka
Osaka
city". Archived from the original on 22 December 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.  ^ "Twinnings" (PDF). Central Union of Municipalities & Communities of Greece. Retrieved August 25, 2013.  ^ Plovdiv
Plovdiv
Sister cities Archived November 2, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Partnerská města HMP" [ Prague
Prague
– Twin Cities HMP] (in Czech). Portál "Zahraniční vztahy" [ Portal
Portal
"Foreign Affairs"]. 18 July 2013. Archived from the original on 25 June 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.  ^ "Twinning Cities". City of Thessaloniki. Retrieved December 1, 2008.  ^ "Miasta partnerskie Warszawy" (in Polish). um.warszawa.pl. 4 May 2005. Archived from the original on 6 December 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2008.  ^ " Zagreb
Zagreb
Sister Cities". Archived from the original on February 8, 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2008.  ^ " Yerevan
Yerevan
– Partner Cities". 2005—2013 Yerevan. Archived from the original on November 5, 2013. Retrieved November 4, 2013.  ^ " Yerevan
Yerevan
Municipality – Sister Cities". 2005–2009 Yerevan. Archived from the original on October 2, 2011. Retrieved June 22, 2009.  ^ "Guide to Vilnuis". Retrieved December 1, 2008.  ^ "Twin cities of Riga". Riga
Riga
City Council. Archived from the original on December 4, 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2008.  ^ "О городе Даугавпилс". Gorod.lv. Retrieved March 12, 2013.  ^ "TALLINN FACTS & FIGURES 2015" (PDF). Tallinn
Tallinn
City Enterprise Department. Retrieved September 20, 2015.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Chairman of the Committee for External Relations of St. Petersburg". Google. Retrieved July 20, 2012.  ^ "Twinning with Palestine". Retrieved May 29, 2016.  ^ "Online Directory: Russian Federation, Eurasia". Sister Cities International. Archived from the original on September 8, 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2008.  ^ "Sister cities: Saint
Saint
Petersburg, Russia". Archived from the original on October 19, 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2008.  ^ [3][dead link] ^ "US Africa Sister Cities Conference" (PDF). U.S. Africa sister cities foundation, inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 27, 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2008.  ^ "Sister Cities, Public Relations". Guadalajara
Guadalajara
municipal government. Archived from the original on 2 March 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ "Sister cities international". Archived from the original on 27 May 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2008.  ^ Pessotto, Lorenzo. "International Affairs – Twinnings and Agreements". International Affairs Service in cooperation with Servizio Telematico Pubblico. City of Torino. Archived from the original on 18 June 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.  ^ "La Stampa – Torino-San Pietroburgo, c'è l'intesa sull'asse strategico". Lastampa.it. June 22, 2012. Retrieved November 16, 2012.  ^ "Sister partners of Oslo". Archived from the original on 2 January 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2008.  ^ "Twin cities of the City of Kosice". Magistrát mesta Košice, Tr. Retrieved July 27, 2013.  ^ " Haifa
Haifa
agreement with partner" (in Russian). Mignews.com. Retrieved July 20, 2012.  ^ Florence, Jeanne. " Le Havre
Le Havre
– Les villes jumelées" [ Le Havre
Le Havre
– Twin towns] (in French). Retrieved August 7, 2013.  ^ " Le Havre
Le Havre
– Les villes jumelées" [ Le Havre
Le Havre
– Twin towns] (in French). lehavre.fr. Archived from the original on 29 July 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2013.  ^ "The city of Lviv, and its sister cities". Retrieved December 1, 2008.  ^ "Hungary- Russia
Russia
sister cities". Vengria.ru. Archived from the original on 19 September 2012. Retrieved 20 July 2012.  ^ "Porto Alegre's International Sister Cities Program". Porto Alegre, RS. Retrieved August 22, 2008.  ^ "Town of Westport, CT : Sister Cities Committee". westportct.gov.  ^ " Milan
Milan
severs twin city ties with St Petersburg over 'homosexual propaganda' ban". The Telegraph. November 29, 2012. Retrieved November 30, 2012.  ^ Associazione Radicale Certi Diritti (November 23, 2012). "Associazione radicale Certi Diritti Gemellaggio tra Milano e San Pietroburgo: Consiglio comunale approva mozione che ne chiede la sospensione". Certidiritti.it. Retrieved March 12, 2013.  ^ Associazione Radicale Certi Diritti. "Associazione radicale Certi Diritti Venezia approva mozione per la sospensione degli effetti del gemellaggio con San Pietroburgo". Certidiritti.it. Retrieved March 12, 2013. 

Sources[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Saint
Saint
Petersburg

Amery, Colin, Brian Curran & Yuri Molodkovets. St. Petersburg. London: Frances Lincoln, 2006. ISBN 0-7112-2492-7. Bater, James H. St. Petersburg: Industrialization and Change. Montreal: McGuill-Queen’s University Press, 1976. ISBN 0-7735-0266-1. Berelowitch, Wladimir & Olga Medvedkova. Histoire de Saint-Pétersbourg. Paris: Fayard, 1996. ISBN 2-213-59601-8. Brumfield, William Craft. The Origins of Modernism in Russian Architecture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991. ISBN 0-520-06929-3. Buckler, Julie. Mapping St. Petersburg: Imperial Text and Cityshape. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005 ISBN 0-691-11349-1. Clark, Katerina, Petersburg, Crucible of Revolution. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995. Cross, Anthony (ed.). St. Petersburg, 1703–1825. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. ISBN 1-4039-1570-9. "San Pietroburgo, la capitale del nord" by Giuseppe D'Amato in Viaggio nell'Hansa baltica. L'Unione europea e l'allargamento ad Est. Greco&Greco editori, Milano, 2004. pp. 27–46. ISBN 88-7980-355-7. (Travel to the Baltic Hansa. The European Union and its enlargement to the East) Book in Italian. George, Arthur L. & Elena George. St. Petersburg: Russia's Window to the Future, The First Three Centuries. Lanham: Taylor Trade Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-58979-017-0. Glantz, David M. The Battle for Leningrad, 1941–1944. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002. ISBN 0-7006-1208-4. Hellberg-Hirn, Elena. Imperial Imprints: Post-Soviet St. Petersburg. Helsinki: SKS Finnish literature
Finnish literature
Society, 2003. ISBN 951-746-491-6. Hughes, Lindsey (2004). Peter the Great: a Biography. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10300-X.  Knopf Guide: Sat. Petersburg. New York: Knopf, 1995. ISBN 0-679-76202-7. Eyewitness Guide: St. Petersburg. Lincoln, W. Bruce. Sunlight at Midnight: St. Petersburg and the Rise of Modern Russia. New York: Basic Books, 2000. ISBN 0-465-08323-4. Orttung, Robert W. From Leningrad to St. Petersburg: Democratization in a Russian City. New York: St. Martin’s, 1995. ISBN 0-312-17561-2. Richardson, Daniel; Humphreys, Robert (February 26, 1998). St. Petersburg: The Rough Guide (September 2004 – Fifth ed.). Rough Guides – New York, London & Delhi. ISBN 978-1-85828-298-5. Retrieved March 10, 2010.  Ruble, Blair A. Leningrad: Shaping a Soviet City. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990. ISBN 0-87772-347-8. Shvidkovsky, Dmitry O. & Alexander Orloff. St. Petersburg: Architecture
Architecture
of the Tsars. New York: Abbeville Press, 1996. ISBN 0-7892-0217-4. Volkov, Solomon. St. Petersburg: A Cultural History. New York: Free Press, 1995. ISBN 0-02-874052-1. St. Petersburg: Architecture
Architecture
of the Tsars. 360 pages. Abbeville Press, 1996. ISBN 0-7892-0217-4 Saint
Saint
Petersburg: Museums, Palaces, and Historic Collections: A Guide to the Lesser Known Treasures of St. Petersburg. 2003. ISBN 1-59373-000-4. Sergei V. Ivanov. Unknown Socialist Realism. The Leningrad School. – Saint
Saint
Petersburg: NP-Print Edition, 2007. – 448 p. ISBN 5-901724-21-6, ISBN 978-5-901724-21-7. Нежиховский Р. А. Река Нева и Невская губа, Leningrad: Гидрометеоиздат, 1981. Vorhees, Mara (February 1, 2008). St. Petersburg (Fifth ed.). Footscray, Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-1-74059-827-9. Retrieved March 11, 2010. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saint
Saint
Petersburg.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Saint
Saint
Petersburg (Russia).

Listen to this article (info/dl)

This audio file was created from a revision of the article "Saint Petersburg" dated August 11, 2011, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help) More spoken articles

City Tourist Portal ST. PETERSBURG – 2018 FIFA
FIFA
World Cup™ Host City on YouTube
YouTube
by FIFA St Petersburg on In Our Time at the BBC. St-Petersburg, Virtual Tour • 360° Aerial Panorama Bob Atchinson (2010). " Saint
Saint
Petersburg, 1900: a photographic travelogue of the capital of Imperial Russia". Retrieved February 9, 2011 [50 photographs of St. Petersburg from "Travelogues" of Burton Holmes
Burton Holmes
(Vol. 8, 1914) and other sources  Официальный портал администрации Санкт-Петербурга [The Official Portal
Portal
of the Saint Petersburg City Authority] (in Russian). The Saint
Saint
Petersburg City Authority: 191060, St. Petersburg, Smolny [Администрация Санкт-Петербурга 191060, СПб., Смольный]. 2001–2011. Retrieved February 9, 2011.  "Encyclopaedia of Saint
Saint
Petersburg". St. Petersburg: The Likhachov Foundation. 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2011 [3500 entries, 9200 personalities, 3500 addresses, 2000 pictures and 40 geographical maps, 3800 bibliographical references from the original "Encyclopaedia of Saint
Saint
Petersburg" (SPb., Rosspen, 2004)]  Байков В.Д. Ленинградские хроники: от послевоенных 50-х до "лихих 90-х". М. Карамзин, 2017. - 486 с., илл. — in English: Leningrad Chronicles: from the postwar fifties to the "wild nineties" ISBN 978-5-00071-516-1

Articles related to Saint
Saint
Petersburg

v t e

Saint
Saint
Petersburg

Districts Federal City

General topics

History

Timeline Peter the Great Siege of Leningrad

People Economy Climate

Floods

Flag Demographics Architecture

Geography

Neva
Neva
River Baltic Sea

Gulf of Finland

Dam

Society and Culture

Literature Sports Tourism Museums

Hermitage Winter Palace Peterhof Palace

Theaters

Hermitage Theatre

World Heritage Site Parks Philharmonic Orchestra

Government

Politics City Administration Heads of Government

Emergency services

Police Crime

Education

Education (primary, secondary, and tertiary)

Transportation

Metro Trams Pulkovo Airport Bridges Buses

Leningrad Oblast Russia

v t e

Subdivisions of Russia

Federal subjects

Republics

Adygea Altai Bashkortostan Buryatia Chechnya Chuvashia Crimea1 Dagestan Ingushetia Kabardino-Balkaria Kalmykia Karachay-Cherkessia Karelia Khakassia Komi Mari El Mordovia North Ossetia-Alania Sakha Tatarstan Tuva Udmurtia

Krais

Altai Kamchatka Khabarovsk Krasnodar Krasnoyarsk Perm Primorsky Stavropol Zabaykalsky

Oblasts

Amur Arkhangelsk Astrakhan Belgorod Bryansk Chelyabinsk Irkutsk Ivanovo Kaliningrad Kaluga Kemerovo Kirov Kostroma Kurgan Kursk Leningrad Lipetsk Magadan Moscow Murmansk Nizhny Novgorod Novgorod Novosibirsk Omsk Orenburg Oryol Penza Pskov Rostov Ryazan Sakhalin Samara Saratov Smolensk Sverdlovsk Tambov Tomsk Tula Tver Tyumen Ulyanovsk Vladimir Volgograd Vologda Voronezh Yaroslavl

Federal cities

Moscow St. Petersburg Sevastopol1

Autonomous oblast

Jewish

Autonomous okrugs

Chukotka Khanty-Mansi2 Nenets3 Yamalo-Nenets2

1Claimed by Ukraine
Ukraine
and considered by most of the international community to be part of Ukraine 2Administratively subordinated to Tyumen Oblast 3Administratively subordinated to Arkhangelsk
Arkhangelsk
Oblast

Internal additional non-constitutional divisions by different institutions

Economic regions (by Ministry of Economic Development) Military districts (by Ministry of Defence) Federal districts (by President) Judicial districts (by law "On arbitration courts")

History

v t e

Historical capitals of Rus' and Russian states and their predecessors

Predecessors of modern Russia

Novgorod Rus', Kievan Rus'

Ryurikovo Gorodische, Novgorod (862–882) Kiev
Kiev
(882–1169)

Vladimir-Suzdal

Vladimir-on-Klyazma (1169–1328)

Grand Duchy of Moscow

Vladimir-on-Klyazma (1169–1328)

Tsardom of Russia

Moscow
Moscow
(1328–1565) Oprichnina: Tsar’s residence in Alexandrova Sloboda (1564/1565–1572/1584) Moscow
Moscow
(1572–1611) Provisional government "Council of All Land": Yaroslavl
Yaroslavl
(1611–1612) Moscow
Moscow
(1612–1712) St. Petersburg (1712–1728)

Russian Empire, Russian Republic

St. Petersburg (1712–1728) de facto Moscow
Moscow
(1728–1730) St. Petersburg/Petrograd (1730–...)

Anti- Bolshevik
Bolshevik
(White movement)

Samara (June 8, 1918 – September 23, 1918) Ufa
Ufa
(September 23, 1918 – October 9, 1918) Omsk
Omsk
(October 9, 1918 – November 18, 1918)

Soviet Union
Soviet Union
( USSR
USSR
included Russia
Russia
from 1922–1991, Russian Federation is the legal successor of the USSR)

Soviet Union

Moscow
Moscow
(1922–1991) WWII partly and temporary (1941–1943): Kuybyshev (administrative), Sverdlovsk (industrial), Kazan
Kazan
(science)

Modern Russia
Russia
(since November 7, 1917)

Soviet Russia, RSFSR, Russian Federation

Petrograd (November 7, 1917 – March 12, 1918) Moscow
Moscow
(since March 12, 1918)

v t e

Hero Cities of the Soviet Union

Leningrad Odessa Sevastopol Stalingrad Kiev Brest Fortress Moscow Kerch Novorossiysk Minsk Tula Murmansk Smolensk

Infrastructure

v t e

Pedestrian zones of Saint
Saint
Petersburg by creation year

Pedestrian zones

1996

Malaya Konushennaya Street

1998

Malaya Sadovaya Street

1999

Planernaya Street (Avenue to Liquidators Chernobyl Accidents)

2000

near Avtovo Vasya Alekseev Street Litseiskiy pereulok

2001

Gospitalniy pereulok 6-7 Liniya of Vasilievsky Island Finskiy pereulok Bulvar Novatorov On ninth of January Prospekt Tankistov Street Volodarskogo Street Quarter 5 (Rzhevka) Quarter 11 Svoboda Square Rubakina Street Alexandrovskaya Street near Zvyozdnaya near Lomonosovskaya, Matushenko Street Nizhnaya Doroga near Staraya Derevnya Akademitheskiy Prodpekt Arts Square

2002

near Shuvalovo Quarter 18 - 18А Burenin Street Blagodatnaya Street (first stage) Kommunarov Street near Gorkovskaya, Alexander Park Sadovaya Street, Tsarskoye Selo Turku
Turku
Street Quarter 24 Konushenniy Pereulok Kuznechniy Pereulok Palace Square

2003

Andreevskie Dvoriki: 27, 6 Liniya of Vasilievsky Island 32, 7 Liniya of Vasilievsky Island near Udelnaya Rizhskaya Street Quarter 5 (South-West) Blagodatnaya Street (second stage) Shlisselburgskiy Prospekt near Petrogradskaya, Bezimyanniy Pereulok Klenovaya Alleya Millionnaya Street Griboyedov Canal
Griboyedov Canal
Quay Bolshaya Konushennaya Street Solyanoy Pereulok

2004

Efimova street near Ozerki Blagodatnaya Street (third stage) Belgradskaya Street (apple orchards)

2009

Blagoeva street

Memorials

Alexander Column Bronze
Bronze
Horseman Hero-City Obelisk Column of Glory Cruiser Aurora Peter I near St. Michael's Castle Church of the Savior on Blood Alexander Pushkin
Alexander Pushkin
in Arts Square Nikolai Gogol
Nikolai Gogol
in Konushennaya Street Chesme Column Kagul Obelisk Monument to Nicholas I Mother Motherland Moscow
Moscow
Triumphal Gate Narva Triumphal Gate Vasily Korchmin Liquidators Chernobyl Accidens Genio loci Barometer clock Saint
Saint
Petersburgs policeman Sphere fountain Photographer Reproduct

v t e

Baltic Fleet
Baltic Fleet
of Russian navy

Commander
Commander
of fleet

Vice Admiral
Vice Admiral
V. P. Kravchuk

Divisions

Leningrad Naval Base Baltiysk
Baltiysk
Naval base Separate Guards brigade of marines of the Baltic fleet 127 separate sea engineering battalion Strazh Balticy (newspaper)

Navy bases in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast

Fleet command: Kaliningrad Marine base: Baltiysk Air bases: Chernyakhovsk Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Chkalovsk Donskoye Khrabrovo

Navy base in Saint
Saint
Petersburg and Oblast

Saint
Saint
Petersburg Kronstadt Vysotsk

Former naval bases

Finland: Hanko Porkkala Suomenlinna Estonia: Paldiski Latvia: Liepāja

Baltic Fleet
Baltic Fleet
page at the official Ministry of Defence website

v t e

Saint
Saint
Petersburg Navy structures

Military educational institutions

N.G. Kuznetsov Naval Academy

Military research institutes and design offices

Malachite design office

The military ship-building and ship-repair enterprises

Admiralty
Admiralty
Shipyard Almaz Shipbuilding Company Baltic Shipyard Rubin Design Bureau Severnaya Verf Severnoe Design Bureau

Part of Leningrad Naval base

Saint
Saint
Petersburg Kronstadt Petergof Priozersk Vysotsk

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 139487820 LCCN: n81039599 GND: 4267026-3 SUDOC: 031917593 BNF: cb15289272f (data) NDL: 0062

.