SAINT PETERSBURG (Russian : Санкт-Петербу́рг, tr.
_Sankt-Peterburg_; IPA: ( listen )) is Russia's second-largest city
Moscow , with five million inhabitants in 2012, and an
important Russian port on the
Baltic Sea . It is politically
incorporated as a federal subject (a federal city ). Situated on the
Neva River , at the head of the
Gulf of Finland on the
Baltic Sea , it
was founded by
Peter the Great on May 27 1703. In 1914, the name
was changed from
Saint Petersburg to PETROGRAD (Russian :
Петрогра́д; IPA: ), in 1924 to LENINGRAD (Russian :
Ленингра́д; IPA: ), and in 1991 back to
Between 1713 and 1728 and in 1732–1918,
Saint Petersburg was the
capital of imperial Russia. In 1918, the central government bodies
moved to Moscow.
Saint Petersburg is one of the modern cities of Russia, as well as
its cultural capital. The Historic Centre of
Saint Petersburg and
Related Groups of Monuments constitute a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site .
Saint Petersburg is home to The Hermitage , one of the largest art
museums in the world. Many foreign consulates , international
corporations , banks, and businesses have offices in
* 1 History
* 1.1 Imperial Era (1703-1917)
* 1.2 Revolution and Soviet Era (1917-1941)
World War II
World War II (1941-1945)
* 1.4 Soviet Era Continued (1945-1991)
* 1.5 Contemporary Era (1991-present)
* 2 Geography
* 2.1 Climate
* 2.2 Toponymy
* 3 Demographics
* 4 Government
* 5 Economy
* 6 Cityscape
* 7 Tourism
* 8 Media and communications
* 9 Culture
* 9.1 Museums
* 9.2 Music
* 9.3 Film
* 9.4 Literature
* 10 Education
* 11 Sports
* 12 Infrastructure
* 12.1 Transportation
* 12.1.1 Roads and public transport
* 12.1.2 Waterways
* 12.1.3 Rail
* 12.1.4 Air
* 12.2 Parks
* 13 Famous people
* 14 Crime
* 15 Twin towns and sister cities
* 16 See also
* 17 References
* 18 Sources
* 19 External links
History of Saint Petersburg and Timeline of Saint
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IMPERIAL ERA (1703-1917)
Bronze Horseman , monument to
Peter the Great Map of
Saint Petersburg, 1744
Swedish colonists built Nyenskans , a fortress, at the mouth of the
Neva River in 1611, in a land then called Ingermanland , that was
inhabited by Finnic tribe of Ingrians . A small town called "Nyen"
grew up around it.
Peter the Great was interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, and
he intended to have
Russia gain a seaport in order to be able to trade
with other maritime nations. He needed a better seaport than
Arkhangelsk , which was on the
White Sea to the north and closed to
shipping for months during the winter.
On May 12 1703, during the
Great Northern War , Peter the Great
captured Nyenskans and soon replaced the fortress. On May 27 1703,
closer to the estuary 5 km (3 mi) inland from the gulf ), on Zayachy
(Hare) Island , he laid down the
Peter and Paul Fortress
Peter and Paul Fortress , which
became the first brick and stone building of the new city.
The city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia; a
number of Swedish prisoners of war were also involved in some years
under the supervision of Alexander Menshikov . Tens of thousands of
serfs died building the city. Later, the city became the centre of
Saint Petersburg Governorate . Peter moved the capital from Moscow
Saint Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the
Treaty of Nystad of
1721 ended the war; he referred to
Saint Petersburg as the capital (or
seat of government) as early as 1704.
During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square
on the right bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress.
Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a
plan. By 1716 the
Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a
project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island
and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals. The project was not
completed, but is evident in the layout of the streets. In 1716, Peter
the Great appointed Frenchman
Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the
chief architect of
The style of
Petrine Baroque , developed by Trezzini and other
architects and exemplified by such buildings as the
Menshikov Palace ,
Peter and Paul Cathedral
Peter and Paul Cathedral ,
Twelve Collegia , became
prominent in the city architecture of the early 18th century. In 1724
the Academy of Sciences , University and Academic Gymnasium were
Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great.
In 1725, Peter died at the age of fifty-two. His endeavours to
Russia had met with opposition from the Russian nobility
—resulting in several attempts on his life and a treason case
involving his son. In 1728, Peter II of
Russia moved his seat back to
Moscow. But four years later, in 1732, under Empress Anna of
Saint Petersburg was again designated as the capital of the Russian
Empire . It remained the seat of the
Romanov dynasty and the Imperial
Court of the
Russian Tsars , as well as the seat of the Russian
government, for another 186 years until the communist revolution of
In 1736–1737 the city suffered from catastrophic fires. To rebuild
the damaged boroughs, a committee under Burkhard Christoph von
Münnich commissioned a new plan in 1737. The city was divided into
five boroughs, and the city center was moved to the
situated on the east bank between the
Fontanka . Palace
Square backed by the General staff arch and building , as the main
square of the
Russian Empire it was the setting of many events of
It developed along three radial streets, which meet at the Admiralty
building and are now one street known as
Nevsky Prospekt (which is
considered the main street of the city),
Gorokhovaya Street and
Voznesensky Prospekt .
Baroque architecture became dominant in the
city during the first sixty years, culminating in the Elizabethan
Baroque, represented most notably by Italian Bartolomeo Rastrelli with
such buildings as the
Winter Palace . In the 1760s, Baroque
architecture was succeeded by neoclassical architecture .
Established in 1762, the Commission of Stone Buildings of
Saint Petersburg ruled that no structure in the city can be higher
Winter Palace and prohibited spacing between buildings.
During the reign of
Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great in the 1760s–1780s, the
banks of the
Neva were lined with granite embankments.
However, it was not until 1850 that the first permanent bridge across
Blagoveshchensky Bridge , was allowed to open. Before that,
only pontoon bridges were allowed.
Obvodny Canal (dug in 1769–1833)
became the southern limit of the city.
The most prominent neoclassical and Empire-style architects in Saint
Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe (
Imperial Academy of Arts , Small
Hermitage , Gostiny Dvor , New Holland Arch , Catholic Church of St.
* Antonio Rinaldi (
Marble Palace )
Yury Felten (Old Hermitage ,
Chesme Church )
Giacomo Quarenghi (Academy of Sciences,
Hermitage Theatre ,
Yusupov Palace )
Andrey Voronikhin (Mining Institute ,
Kazan Cathedral )
Andreyan Zakharov (
Admiralty building )
Jean-François Thomas de Thomon (
Spit of Vasilievsky Island )
* Carlo Rossi (
Yelagin Palace , Mikhailovsky Palace , Alexandrine
Theatre , Senate and Synod Buildings , General staff Building , design
of many streets and squares)
Vasily Stasov (
Moscow Triumphal Gate , Trinity Cathedral )
Auguste de Montferrand (
Saint Isaac\'s Cathedral , Alexander
Decembrists at the Senate Square , December 26, 1825.
In 1810, Alexander I established the first engineering Higher
learning institution , the
Saint Petersburg Main military engineering
Saint Petersburg. Many monuments commemorate the Russian
victory over Napoleonic
France in the Patriotic War of 1812 ,
Alexander Column by Montferrand, erected in 1834, and
Narva Triumphal Gate .
In 1825, the suppressed
Decembrist revolt against Nicholas I took
place on the Senate Square in the city, a day after Nicholas assumed
By the 1840s, neoclassical architecture had given way to various
romanticist styles, which dominated until the 1890s, represented by
such architects as
Andrei Stackenschneider (
Mariinsky Palace ,
Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace ,
Nicholas Palace , New Michael Palace )
Konstantin Thon (Moskovsky railway station ).
With the emancipation of the serfs undertaken by Alexander II in 1861
Industrial Revolution , the influx of former peasants into the
capital increased greatly. Poor boroughs spontaneously emerged on the
outskirts of the city.
Saint Petersburg surpassed
Moscow in population
and industrial growth; it developed as one of the largest industrial
cities in Europe, with a major naval base (in
Kronstadt ), river and
The names of saints Peter and Paul , bestowed upon original city\'s
citadel and its cathedral (from 1725—a burial vault of Russian
emperors) coincidentally were the names of the first two assassinated
Russian Emperors, Peter III (1762, supposedly killed in a conspiracy
led by his wife,
Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great ) and Paul I (1801, Nicholas
Zubov and other conspirators who brought to power Alexander I , the
son of their victim). The third emperor's assassination took place in
Petersburg in 1881 when Alexander II fell victim to narodniki (see the
Church of the Savior on Blood
Church of the Savior on Blood ).
Saint Michael\'s Castle
Kronstadt Naval Cathedral
The Revolution of 1905 began in
Saint Petersburg and spread rapidly
into the provinces.
On September 1, 1914, after the outbreak of
World War I
World War I , the
Imperial government renamed the city _Petrograd_, meaning "Peter's
City", to remove the German words _Sankt_ and _Burg_.
REVOLUTION AND SOVIET ERA (1917-1941)
In March 1917, during the
February Revolution Nicholas II abdicated
both for himself and on behalf of his son, ending the Russian monarchy
and over three hundred years of Romanov dynastic rule . The
Russian Revolution of 1917 began in Petrograd when the Bolsheviks
On November 7, 1917 (OS October 25), the
Bolsheviks , led by Vladimir
Lenin , stormed the
Winter Palace in an event known thereafter as the
October Revolution , which led to the end of the post-Tsarist
provisional government , the transfer of all political power to the
Soviets , and the rise of the Communist Party . After that the city
acquired a new descriptive name, "the city of three revolutions",
referring to the three major developments in the political history of
Russia of the early 20th-century.
In September and October 1917, German troops invaded the West
Estonian archipelago and threatened Petrograd with bombardment and
invasion. On March 12, 1918, the Soviets transferred the government to
Moscow, to keep it away from the state border. During the ensuing
Civil War , in 1919 general Yudenich advancing from
the attempt to capture the city, but
Leon Trotsky mobilized the army
and forced him to retreat.
On January 26, 1924, five days after Lenin's death, Petrograd was
renamed _Leningrad_. Later some streets and other toponyms were
renamed accordingly. The city has over 230 places associated with the
life and activities of Lenin. Some of them were turned into museums,
including the cruiser _Aurora_ – a symbol of the October Revolution
and the oldest ship in the
Russian Navy .
In the 1920s and 1930s, the poor outskirts were reconstructed into
regularly planned boroughs.
Constructivist architecture flourished
around that time. Housing became a government-provided amenity ; many
"bourgeois" apartments were so large that numerous families were
assigned to what were called "communal" apartments (_kommunalkas _).
By the 1930s, 68% of the population lived in such housing. In 1935 a
new general plan was outlined, whereby the city should expand to the
south. Constructivism was rejected in favor of a more pompous
Stalinist architecture . Moving the city center further from the
border with Finland, Stalin adopted a plan to build a new city hall
with a huge adjacent square at the southern end of Moskovsky Prospekt
, designated as the new main street of Leningrad. After the Second
World War, the Soviet-Finnish border moved northwards. Nevsky Prospekt
Palace Square maintained the functions and the role of a city
In December 1931, Leningrad was administratively separated from
Leningrad Oblast . At that time it included the Leningrad Suburban
District, some parts of which were transferred back to Leningrad
Oblast in 1936 and turned into
Vsevolozhsky District , Krasnoselsky
District , Pargolovsky District and Slutsky District (renamed
Pavlovsky District in 1944).
On December 1, 1934,
Sergey Kirov , the popular communist leader of
Leningrad, was assassinated, which became the pretext for the Great
WORLD WAR II (1941-1945)
Siege of Leningrad Citizens of Leningrad during
the 872-day siege , in which more than one million civilians died.
World War II
World War II , German forces besieged Leningrad following the
Axis invasion of the
Soviet Union in June 1941. The siege lasted 872
days, from September 1941 to January 1944. The Siege of Leningrad
proved one of the longest, most destructive, and most lethal sieges of
a major city in modern history . It isolated the city from most
supplies except those provided through the
Road of Life
Road of Life across Lake
Ladoga . More than one million civilians were killed, mainly from
starvation. Many others were eventually evacuated or escaped, so the
city became largely depopulated.
On May 1, 1945
Joseph Stalin , in his Supreme
Commander Order No. 20,
named Leningrad, alongside
Sevastopol , and
Odessa , hero
cities of the war. A law acknowledging the honorary title of "Hero
City" passed on May 8, 1965 (the 20th anniversary of the victory in
the Great Patriotic War), during the Brezhnev era . The Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet of the
USSR awarded Leningrad as a
Hero City the
Order of Lenin and the
Gold Star medal "for the heroic resistance of
the city and tenacity of the survivors of the Siege". The Hero-City
Obelisk bearing the Gold Star sign was installed in April 1985.
SOVIET ERA CONTINUED (1945-1991)
In October 1946 some territories along the northern coast of the Gulf
Finland , which had passed to the
Finland in 1940 under
the peace treaty following the
Winter War , were transferred from
Leningrad Oblast to Leningrad and divided into Sestroretsky District
Kurortny District . These included the town of Terijoki (renamed
Zelenogorsk in 1948). Leningrad and many of its suburbs were rebuilt
over the post-war decades, partially according to pre-war plans. The
1948 general plan for Leningrad featured radial urban development in
the north as well as in the south. In 1953 Pavlovsky District in
Leningrad Oblast was abolished, and parts of its territory, including
Pavlovsk, merged with Leningrad. In 1954 the settlements Levashovo ,
Pargolovo and Pesochny merged with Leningrad.
Leningrad gave its name to the
Leningrad Affair (1949–1952), a
notable event in the postwar political struggle in the
USSR . It was a
product of rivalry between Stalin's potential successors where one
side was represented by the leaders of the city Communist Party
organization—the second most significant one in the country after
Moscow. The entire elite leadership of Leningrad was destroyed,
including the former mayor Kuznetsov , the acting mayor Pyotr
Sergeevich Popkov, and all their deputies; overall 23 leaders were
sentenced to the death penalty, 181 to prison or exile (exonerated in
1954). About 2,000 ranking officials across the
USSR were expelled
from the party and the Komsomol and removed from leadership positions.
They were accused (almost entirely falsely) of Russian nationalism .
The Leningrad Metro underground rapid transit system , designed
before the war, opened in 1955 with its first eight stations decorated
with marble and bronze . However, after the death of Stalin in 1953,
the perceived ornamental excesses of the
Stalinist architecture were
abandoned. From the 1960s to the 1980s many new residential boroughs
were built on the outskirts; while the functionalist apartment blocks
were nearly identical to each other, many families moved there from
_kommunalkas_ in the city centre in order to live in separate
CONTEMPORARY ERA (1991-PRESENT)
View from the Colonnade, St. Isaac's Cathedral,
Standard "Home-Ship" (1970s–1980s)
On June 12, 1991, simultaneously with the first Russian presidential
elections , the city authorities arranged for the mayoral elections
and a referendum upon the name of the city. The turnout was 65%;
66.13% of the total count of votes went to
Anatoly Sobchak , who
became the first directly elected mayor of the city .
Meanwhile, economic conditions started to deteriorate as the country
tried to adapt to major changes. For the first time since the 1940s,
food rationing was introduced, and the city received humanitarian food
aid from abroad. This dramatic time was depicted in photographic
series of Russian photographer
Alexey Titarenko . Economic conditions
began to improve only at the beginning of the 21st century. In 1995 a
northern section of the Kirovsko-Vyborgskaya Line of the Saint
Petersburg Metro was cut off by underground flooding, creating a major
obstacle to the city development for almost ten years.
In 1996, Vladimir Yakovlev defeated
Anatoly Sobchak in the elections
for the head of the city administration . The title of the city head
was changed from "mayor" to "governor". In 2000 Yakovlev won
re-election. His second term expired in 2004; the long-awaited
restoration of broken subway connection was expected to finish by that
time. But in 2003 Yakovlev suddenly resigned, leaving the governor's
Valentina Matviyenko .
The law on election of the City Governor was changed, breaking the
tradition of democratic election by a universal suffrage. In 2006 the
city legislature re-approved Matviyenko as governor. Residential
building had intensified again; real-estate prices inflated greatly,
which caused many new problems for the preservation of the historical
part of the city.
Although the central part of the city has a
UNESCO designation (there
are about 8,000 architectural monuments in Petersburg), the
preservation of its historical and architectural environment became
controversial. After 2005, the demolition of older buildings in the
historical centre was permitted. In 2006
Gazprom announced an
ambitious project to erect a 396-meter skyscraper opposite to
which could result in the loss of the unique line of Petersburg
landscape. Urgent protests by citizens and prominent public figures of
Russia against this project were not considered by Governor Valentina
Matviyenko and the city authorities until December 2010, when after
the statement of President
Dmitry Medvedev , the city decided to find
a more appropriate location for this project. In the same year, the
new location for the project was relocated to Lakhta , a historical
area northwest of the center city, and the new project would be named
Lakhta Center .
Construction was approved by
Gazprom and the city
administration and commenced in 2012. The
Lakhta Center would be the
first tallest skyscraper in
Russia and Europe that is outside of
Neva River flows through much of the centre of the city.
Left – the
Spit of Vasilievsky Island , center –
River Neva ,
Peter and Paul Fortress
Peter and Paul Fortress and Trinity Bridge , right – Palace
Embankment with the
Winter Palace Main article: Geography of Saint
Petersburg Territory of the federal subject of
Satellite image of
The area of
Saint Petersburg city proper is 605.8 square kilometers
(233.9 sq mi). The area of the federal subject is 1,439 square
kilometers (556 sq mi), which contains
Saint Petersburg proper
(consisting of eighty-one municipal okrugs ), nine municipal towns –
Krasnoye Selo ,
Kronstadt , Lomonosov , Pavlovsk , Petergof
, Pushkin ,
Zelenogorsk ) – and twenty-one municipal
Petersburg is situated on the middle taiga lowlands along the shores
Neva Bay of the
Gulf of Finland , and islands of the river
delta. The largest are
Vasilyevsky Island (besides the artificial
island between Obvodny canal and
Fontanka , and Kotlin in the
), Petrogradsky, Dekabristov and Krestovsky . The latter together with
Kamenny Island are covered mostly by parks. The Karelian
Isthmus , North of the city, is a popular resort area . In the south
Saint Petersburg crosses the Baltic-Ladoga Klint and meets the Izhora
The elevation of
Saint Petersburg ranges from the sea level to its
highest point of 175.9 meters (577 ft) at the Orekhovaya Hill in the
Duderhof Heights in the south. Part of the city's territory west of
Liteyny Prospekt is no higher than 4 meters (13 ft) above sea level ,
and has suffered from numerous floods.
Floods in Saint Petersburg are
triggered by a long wave in the
Baltic Sea , caused by meteorological
conditions, winds and shallowness of the
Neva Bay . The four most
disastrous floods occurred in 1824 (421 centimeters or 166 inches
above sea level, during which over three hundred buildings were
destroyed ), 1924 (380 centimeters or 150 inches), 1777 (321
centimeters or 126 inches), 1955 (293 centimeters or 115 inches), and
1975 (281 centimeters or 111 inches). To prevent floods, the Saint
Petersburg Dam has been constructed.
Since the 18th century the terrain in the city has been raised
artificially, at some places by more than 4 meters (13 ft), making
mergers of several islands, and changing the hydrology of the city.
Neva and its tributaries, other important rivers of the
federal subject of
Saint Petersburg are Sestra , Okhta and Izhora .
The largest lake is Sestroretsky Razliv in the north, followed by
Lakhtinsky Razliv , Suzdal Lakes and other smaller lakes.
Due to location at ca. 60° N latitude the day length in Petersburg
varies across seasons, ranging from 5 hours 53 minutes to 18 hours 50
minutes. A period from mid-May to mid-July when twilight may last all
night is called _the white nights _.
Climate of Saint Petersburg
Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification ,
Saint Petersburg is
classified as _Dfb_, a humid continental climate . Distinct moderating
influence of the
Baltic Sea cyclones result in warm, humid and short
summers and long, moderately cold wet winters. Climate of Saint
Petersburg is close to the climate of
Helsinki , although colder in
winter and warmer in summer because of its more eastern location.
The average maximum temperature in July is 23 °C (73 °F), and the
average minimum temperature in February is −8.5 °C (16.7 °F); an
extreme temperature of 37.1 °C (98.8 °F) occurred during the 2010
Northern Hemisphere summer heat wave . A winter minimum of −35.9 °C
(−32.6 °F) was recorded in 1883. The average annual temperature is
5.8 °C (42.4 °F). The
Neva River within the city limits usually
freezes up in November–December and break-up occurs in April. From
December to March there are 118 days average with snow cover, which
reaches an average snow depth of 19 cm (7.5 in) by February. The
frost-free period in the city lasts on average for about 135 days.
Despite St. Petersburg's northern location, its winters are warmer
than Moscow's due to the
Gulf of Finland and some Gulf Stream
influence from Scandinavian winds that can bring temperature slightly
above freezing. The city also has a slightly warmer climate than its
suburbs. Weather conditions are quite variable all year round.
Average annual precipitation varies across the city, averaging 660
millimeters (26 in) per year and reaching maximum in late summer. Soil
moisture is almost always high because of lower evapotranspiration due
to the cool climate. Air humidity is 78% on average, and there is on
average, 165 overcast days per year.
CLIMATE DATA FOR SAINT PETERSBURG 1981–2010
RECORD HIGH °C (°F)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F)
RECORD LOW °C (°F)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES)
AVERAGE RAINY DAYS
AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS
AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%)
MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net
Source #2: HKO (sunshine hours)
The first and fairly rich chapter of the history of the local
toponymy is the story of the own name of the city itself. The name day
of Peter I falls on June 29, when the
Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church observes
the memory of
Saint Apostles Peter and Paul . The consecration of the
small wooden church in their names (its construction began
simultaneously with the citadel) made them the heavenly patrons of the
Peter and Paul Fortress
Peter and Paul Fortress , while St. Peter at the same time became the
eponym of the whole city.
An explanation that the origin of "Saint-" in _
Saint Petersburg_ is
due to Peter the Great's contact with Dutch culture is a common
misconception. It is unlikely as the Dutch Republic adhered to
Calvinist Protestantism and had long abandoned and even frowned upon
the culture of veneration of saints and the naming of places after
them, since the era of reformation . Moreover, "Saint-" in the Dutch
language is _Sint-_ and not _Sankt-_. The sample which czar Peter
followed does sound like the names of another European cities: Sankt
Goar in Germany, Sankt Michael in
Austria and some others, of which
the closest to _Sankt Petersburg_ was
Sankt Michel in the rival
Swedish Empire (now
Mikkeli in Finland). _Sankt-_ in these toponyms is
merely a Germanized form of Latin : _Sanctus_. While not
originally named for
Peter the Great , during
World War I
World War I the
city was changed from the Germanic "Peterburg" to "Petrograd" in his
A 14- to 15-letter-long name, composed of the three roots proved too
cumbersome, and a lot of shortened versions appeared in habitual use.
The first General Governor of the city Menshikov is maybe also the
author of the first nickname of Petersburg which he called
_Петри_ (_Petri_). It took some years until the known Russian
spelling of this name finally settled. In 1740s
Mikhail Lomonosov uses
a derivative of Greek : Πετρόπολις (_Petropolis_,
_Петрополис_) in a russified form _Petropol'_
(_Петрополь_). A combo _Piterpol_ (_Питерпол_) also
appears at this time. In any case, eventually the usage of prefix
"_Sankt-_" ceased except for the formal official documents, where a
three-letter abbreviation "СПб" (_SPb_) was very widely used as
In the 1830s
Alexander Pushkin translated the "foreign" city name of
Saint Petersburg" to the more Russian _Petrograd_ in one of his
poems. However, it was only on 31 1914, after the war with Germany
had begun, that tsar Nicholas II renamed the capital to Petrograd.
Since the prefix 'Saint' was omitted, this act also changed the
eponym and the "patron" of the city, from
Apostle Peter to Peter the
Great, its founder. From 1924 to 1991 the city was known as
'Leningrad'. This is a picture of the
Saint Petersburg port entrance
with an old 'Ленинград' (Leningrad) sign
October Revolution the name _Red Petrograd_
(_Красный Петроград_) was often used in newspapers and
other prints until the city was renamed _Leningrad_ in January 1924.
A referendum on reversing the renaming of _Leningrad_ was held on
June 12, 1991, with 54.86% of voters (with a turnout of 65%)
Saint Petersburg_". Renaming the city _Petrograd_ was not
an option. This change officially took effect on September 6, 1991.
Meanwhile, the oblast whose administrative center is also in Saint
Petersburg is still named Leningrad .
Having passed the role of capital to Petersburg,
relinquished the title of "capital", being called _pervoprestolnaya_
("first-throned") for 200 years. An equivalent name for Petersburg,
the "Northern Capital", has re-entered usage today since several
federal institutions were recently moved from
Moscow to Saint
Petersburg. Solemn descriptive names like "the city of three
revolutions" and "the cradle of the
October revolution " used in
Soviet era are reminders of the pivotal events in national history
which occurred here. For their part, poetic names of the city, like
Venice of the North " and the "Northern
Palmyra " emphasize
town-planning and architectural features contrasting these parallels
to the northern location of this megalopolis . _Petropolis_ is a
translation of a city name to Greek, and is also a kind of descriptive
name: Πέτρ~ is a Greek root for "stone", so the "city from stone"
emphasizes the material which had been forcibly made obligatory for
construction from the very first years of the city. (Its official
Greek name is _Αγία Πετρούπολη_.)
Main article: Demographics of
Saint Petersburg Soviet era
apartment buildings in
Saint Petersburg, July 2010 Saint
Petersburg Metro passengers
Saint Petersburg is the second largest city in Russia. As of the 2017
Rosstat, the federal subject's population is 5,281,579 or 3.6% of the
total population of Russia; up from 4,879,566 (3.4%) recorded in the
2010 Census , and up from 5,023,506 recorded in the 1989 Census .
Vital statistics for 2016
* Births: 72 879 (13.9 per 1000)
* Deaths: 61 459 (11.7 per 1000)
* Total fertility rate:
2009 – 1.34 2010 – 1.38 2011 – 1.38 2012 – 1.48 2013
– 1.48 2014 – 1.52 2015 – 1.59 2016 – 1.65(e)
The 2010 Census recorded the ethnic composition as follows: Russian
80.1%, Ukrainian 1.3%, Belarusians 0.8%, Tatar 0.6%, Armenian 0.6%,
Jewish 0.5%, Uzbek 0.4%, Tajik 0.3%, Azeri 0.3%, Georgian 0.2%,
Moldovan 0.2%, Finns 0.1%, other – 1.3%. The ethnicity of the
remaining 13.4% of the inhabitants was not specified.
During the 20th century, the city experienced dramatic population
changes. From 2.4 million residents in 1916 its population dropped to
less than 740,000 by 1920 during the
Russian Revolution of 1917 and
Russian Civil War . The minorities of Germans, Poles, Finns, Estonians
and Latvians were almost completely transferred from Leningrad during
the 1930s. From 1941 to the end of 1943, population dropped from 3
million to less than 600,000, as people died in battles, starved to
death during the
Siege of Leningrad , or were evacuated. After the
siege, some of the evacuees returned, but most influx was due to
migration from other parts of the Soviet Union. The city absorbed
about 3 million people in the 1950s and grew to over 5 million in the
1980s. From 1991 to 2006 the city's population decreased to 4.6
million, while the suburban population increased due to privatization
of land and massive move to suburbs. Based on the 2010 census results
the current population is over 4.8 million. The birth rate remained
lower than the death rate (until the 2012 ) ; people over 65
constitute more than twenty percent of the population; and the median
age is about 40 years. Since 2012 the birth rate became higher than
the death rate
People in urban
Saint Petersburg lived mostly in apartments. Between
1918 and the 1990s, the Soviets nationalised housing and forced
residents to share communal apartments (_kommunalkas _). With 68%
living in shared flats in the 1930s, Leningrad was the city in the
USSR with the largest number of _kommunalkas_. Resettling residents of
_kommunalkas_ is now on the way out, albeit shared apartments are
still not uncommon. As new boroughs were built on the outskirts in the
1950s–1980s, over half a million low income families eventually
received free apartments, and about an additional hundred thousand
condos were purchased. While economic and social activity is
concentrated in the historic city centre , the richest part of Saint
Petersburg, most people live in commuter areas . For the first half of
2007, the birth rate was 9.1 per 1000.
Further information: Politics of
Saint Petersburg and Administrative
Saint Petersburg The
Smolny Institute , seat of the
governor The city assembly meets in the
Saint Petersburg is a federal subject of
Russia (a federal city ).
The political life of
Saint Petersburg is regulated by the Charter of
Saint Petersburg adopted by the city legislature in 1998. The
superior executive body is the
Saint Petersburg City Administration ,
led by the city governor (mayor before 1996).
Saint Petersburg has a
single-chamber legislature, the
Saint Petersburg Legislative Assembly
which is the city's regional parliament .
According to the federal law passed in 2004, heads of federal
subjects, including the governor of
Saint Petersburg, were nominated
by the President of
Russia and approved by local legislatures. Should
the legislature disapprove the nominee, President could dissolve it.
The former governor,
Valentina Matviyenko , was approved according to
the new system in December 2006. She was the only woman governor in
the whole of
Russia until her resignation on August 22, 2011.
Matviyenko stood for elections as member of the Regional Council of
Saint Petersburg and won comprehensively with allegations of rigging
and ballot stuffing by the opposition. Russian President Dmitry
Medvedev has already backed her for the position of Speaker to the
Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation
and her election qualifies her for that job. After her resignation,
Georgy Poltavchenko was appointed as the new acting governor the same
day. In 2012, following passage of a new federal law, restoring
direct elections of heads of federal subjects, the city charter was
again amended to provide for direct elections of governor.
Saint Petersburg city is currently divided into eighteen districts .
Saint Petersburg is also the unofficial but _de facto_ administrative
Leningrad Oblast , and of the Northwestern Federal District
. The Constitutional Court of
Russia moved to
Saint Petersburg from
Moscow in May 2008.
Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast, being two different federal
subjects, share a number of local departments of federal executive
agencies and courts, such as court of arbitration, police, FSB ,
postal service, drug enforcement administration, penitentiary service,
federal registration service, and other federal services.
Main article: Economy of
Saint Petersburg International Economic Forum is a major
Russian investment forum hosted by Mohd Yazid Arshad Power
Machines plant building on Sverdlovskaya embankment in Saint
Saint Petersburg is a major trade gateway, serving as the financial
and industrial centre of Russia, with specialisions in oil and gas
trade; shipbuilding yards; aerospace industry ; technology, including
radio, electronics, software, and computers; machine building, heavy
machinery and transport, including tanks and other military equipment
; mining; instrument manufacture; ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy
(production of aluminium alloys); chemicals, pharmaceuticals , and
medical equipment ; publishing and printing; food and catering;
wholesale and retail; textile and apparel industries; and many other
businesses. It was also home to Lessner , one of Russia's two
pioneering automobile manufacturers (along with Russo-Baltic ); it was
founded by machine tool and boiler maker G. A. Lessner in 1904, with
designs by Boris Loutsky , and it survived until 1910.
Ten percent of the world's power turbines are made there at the LMZ ,
which built over two thousand turbines for power plants across the
world. Major local industries are
Admiralty Shipyard , Baltic Shipyard
Kirov Plant ,
Izhorskiye Zavody ; also
Saint Petersburg are Sovkomflot , Petersburg Fuel
Company and SIBUR among other major Russian and international
Saint Petersburg has three large cargo seaports : Bolshoi Port Saint
Kronstadt , and Lomonosov . International cruise liners
have been served at the passenger port at Morskoy Vokzal on the
Vasilyevsky Island . In 2008 the first two berths were
opened at the New Passenger Port on the west of the island. The new
port is part of the city's "Marine Facade" development project and is
due to have seven berths in operation by 2010.
A complex system of riverports on both banks of the
Neva River are
interconnected with the system of seaports, thus making Saint
Petersburg the main link between the
Baltic Sea and the rest of Russia
through the Volga-Baltic Waterway .
Saint Petersburg Mint (Monetny Dvor), founded in 1724, is one of
the largest mints in the world, it mints Russian coins , medals and
Saint Petersburg is also home to the oldest and largest
Russian foundry, Monumentskulptura , which made thousands of
sculptures and statues that are now gracing public parks of Saint
Petersburg, as well as many other cities. Monuments and bronze statues
of the Tsars, as well as other important historic figures and
dignitaries, and other world famous monuments, such as the sculptures
Peter Clodt von Jürgensburg ,
Paolo Troubetzkoy , Mark Antokolsky
, and others, were made there.
Toyota opened a Camry plant after investing 5 billion
roubles (approx. 200 mln dollars) in Shushary, one of the southern
Opel , Hyundai and Nissan have signed
deals with the Russian government to build their automotive plants in
Saint Petersburg too. Automotive and auto-parts industry is on the
rise there during the last decade.
Saint Petersburg is the location of a significant brewery and
distillery industry. It is known as the "beer capital" of Russia, due
to the supply and quality of local water, contributing over 30% of the
domestic production of beer with its five large-scale breweries
including Europe's second largest brewery Baltika , Vena (both
operated by BBH), Heineken Brewery , Stepan Razin (both by Heineken )
Tinkoff brewery (SUN-
The city has a lot of local distilleries which produce a broad range
of vodka brands. The oldest ones is LIVIZ (founded in 1897). Among the
youngest is Russian Standard
Vodka introduced in
Moscow in 1998, which
opened in 2006 a new $60 million distillery in Petersburg (an area of
30,000 m2 (320,000 sq ft), production rate of 22,500 bottles per
hour). In 2007 this brand was exported to over 70 countries.
Saint Petersburg has the second largest construction industry in
Russia, including commercial, housing and road construction.
Saint Petersburg's city budget was 179.9 billion rubles
(about 6.651 billion US$ at 2006 exchange rates ), and is planned to
double by 2012. The federal subject's
Gross Regional Product as of
2015 was 3,24 trillion Russian rubles (about 50 billion US$ at 2015
exchange rates ), ranked 4th in Russia, after Moscow,
Tyumen Oblast ,
Moscow Oblast , or 580,000 rubles per capita (about 9,500 US$ at
2015 exchange rates ), ranked 12th among Russia's federal subjects,
contributed mostly by wholesale and retail trade and repair services
(24.7%) as well as processing industry (20.9%) and transportation and
Budget revenues of the city in 2009 amounted to 294.3 billion rubles
(about 10.044 billion US$ at 2009 exchange rates), expenses – 336.3
billion rubles (about 11.477 billion US$ at 2009 exchange rates). The
budget deficit amounted to about 42 billion rubles. (about 1.433
billion US$ at 2009 exchange rates)
Palace Square in winter.
Winter Palace ,
Alexander Column ,
General staff Building
Kazan Cathedral Peter and Paul
Saint Isaac\'s Square
Nevsky Prospect at
Church of the Savior on Blood
Church of the Savior on Blood
Saint Petersburg has three skyscrapers: Leader Tower (140 m),
Alexander Nevsky (124 m) and Atlantic City (105 m) all three being
situated far away from the historical centre. Current regulations
forbid construction of high buildings in the city centre. The
310-meter (1,020 ft) tall
Saint Petersburg TV Tower is the tallest
completed structure in the city. However, there was a controversial
project endorsed by the city authorities, and known as the Okhta
Center , to build a 396 meters (1,299 ft) supertall skyscraper. In
World Monuments Fund included the
Saint Petersburg historic
skyline on the watch list of the 100 most endangered sites due to the
expected construction, which threatens to alter it drastically. The
Okhta Center project has been finally cancelled at the end of 2010 and
instead of that
Lakhta Center project is started at the city
outskirts. The complex shall include 463-metre-tall (1,519-foot)
office skyscraper and several low rise mixed use buildings. Lakhta
center project causes much less controversy and, unlike the previous
unbuilt project, is not seen by
UNESCO as potential threat to cultural
heritage because it is located far away from historical center.
Skyscraper construction has already started, the building should be
constructed in 2018. It is assumed that the building will be the
Russia and Europe.
Unlike in Moscow, in
Saint Petersburg the historic architecture of
the city centre, mostly consisting of
Baroque and neoclassical
buildings of the 18th and 19th centuries, has been largely preserved;
although a number of buildings were demolished after the Bolsheviks'
seizure of power, during the
Siege of Leningrad and in recent years.
The oldest of the remaining building is a wooden house built for Peter
I in 1703 on the shore of the
Neva near Trinity Square. Since 1991 the
Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments in
Saint Petersburg and
Leningrad Oblast have been listed by
UNESCO as a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site .
The ensemble of
Peter and Paul Fortress
Peter and Paul Fortress with the Peter and Paul
Cathedral takes a dominant position on
Zayachy Island along the right
bank of the
Neva River . Each noon a cannon fires a blank shot from
the fortress. The
Saint Petersburg Mosque , the largest mosque in
Europe when opened in 1913, is situated on the right bank nearby. The
Spit of Vasilievsky Island , which splits the river into two largest
armlets, the Bolshaya
Neva and Malaya
Neva , is connected to the
northern bank (
Petrogradsky Island ) via the
Exchange Bridge and
occupied by the Old
Saint Petersburg Stock Exchange and Rostral
Columns . The southern coast of
Vasilyevsky Island along the Bolshaya
Neva features some of the city's oldest buildings, dating from the
18th century, including the
Twelve Collegia , Menshikov
Imperial Academy of Arts . It hosts one of two campuses of
Saint Petersburg State University
Saint Petersburg State University .
On the southern, left bank of the Neva, connected to the spit of
Vasilyevsky Island via the
Palace Bridge , lie the
, the vast
Hermitage Museum complex stretching along the Palace
Embankment , which includes the baroque
Winter Palace , former
official residence of Russian emperors, as well as the neoclassical
Marble Palace . The
Winter Palace faces
Palace Square , the city's
main square with the
Alexander Column .
Nevsky Prospekt , also situated on the left bank of the
Neva , is the
main avenue in the city. It starts at the
Admiralty and runs eastwards
Palace Square .
Nevsky Prospekt crosses the Moika (Green
Griboyedov Canal (
Kazansky Bridge ), Garden Street , the
Anichkov Bridge ), meets
Liteyny Prospekt and proceeds to
Uprising Square near the Moskovsky railway station , where it meets
Ligovsky Prospekt and turns to the
Alexander Nevsky Lavra . The
Passage , Catholic Church of St. Catherine , Book House (former Singer
Manufacturing Company Building in the
Art Nouveau style), Grand Hotel
Europe , Lutheran Church of
Saint Peter and
Saint Paul , Great Gostiny
Dvor , Russian National Library , Alexandrine Theatre behind Mikeshin
's statue of
Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great ,
Kazan Cathedral , Stroganov Palace
Anichkov Palace and
Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace are all situated
along that avenue.
Alexander Nevsky Lavra , intended to house the relics of St.
Alexander Nevsky , is an important centre of Christian education in
Russia. It also contains the
Tikhvin Cemetery with graves of many
On the territory between the
Nevsky Prospekt the Church of
the Savior on Blood , Mikhailovsky Palace housing the
Russian Museum ,
Field of Mars , St. Michael\'s Castle ,
Summer Garden , Tauride Palace
Smolny Institute and
Smolny Convent are located.
Many notable landmarks are situated to the west and south of the
Admiralty Building, including the Trinity Cathedral , Mariinsky Palace
, Hotel Astoria , famous
Mariinsky Theatre ,
New Holland Island ,
Saint Isaac\'s Cathedral , the largest in the city, and Senate Square
, also known as Decembrist\'s Square with the
Bronze Horseman , 18th
century equestrian monument to
Peter the Great , which is considered
among the city's most recognisable symbols. Other symbols of Saint
Petersburg include the weather vane in the shape of a small ship on
top of the Admiralty's golden spire and the golden angel on top of the
Peter and Paul Cathedral. The
Palace Bridge drawn at night is yet
another symbol of the city. Every night during the navigation period
from April to November, 22 bridges across the
Neva and main canals are
drawn to let ships pass in and out of the
Baltic Sea according to a
schedule. It was not until 2004 that the first high bridge across the
Neva, which does not need to be drawn,
Big Obukhovsky Bridge , was
opened. There are hundreds of smaller bridges in
spanning across numerous canals and distributaries of the Neva, some
of the most important of which are the Moika ,
Fontanka , Griboyedov
Obvodny Canal , Karpovka and
Smolenka . Due to the intricate
web of canals,
Saint Petersburg is often called _
Venice of the North
_. The rivers and canals in the city centre are lined with granite
embankments. The embankments and bridges are separated from rivers and
canals by granite or cast iron parapets .
Southern suburbs of the city feature former imperial residences,
Petergof , with majestic fountain cascades and parks,
Tsarskoe Selo , with the baroque
Catherine Palace and the neoclassical
Alexander Palace , and Pavlovsk , which contains a domed palace of
Emperor Paul and one of the largest English-style parks in Europe.
Some other residences situated nearby and making part of the world
heritage site, including a castle and park in
Gatchina , actually
Leningrad Oblast rather than
Saint Petersburg. Another
notable suburb is
Kronstadt with its 19th-century fortifications and
naval monuments, occupying the
Kotlin Island in the Gulf of Finland.
Since around the end of the 20th century a great deal of active
building and restoration works have been carried out in a number of
the city's older districts. The authorities have recently been
compelled to transfer the ownership of state-owned private residences
in the city centre to private lessors. Many older buildings have been
reconstructed to allow their use as apartments and penthouses.
Some of these structures, such as the
Saint Petersburg Commodity and
Stock Exchange have been recognised as town-planning errors.
The Bolshoi Zal (Grand Hall) of
Saint Petersburg Philharmonia .
Saint Petersburg has a significant historical and cultural heritage.
The 18th and 19th-century architectural ensemble of the city and its
environs is preserved in virtually unchanged form. For various reasons
(including large-scale destruction during
World War II
World War II and
construction of modern buildings during the postwar period in the
largest historical centers of Europe),
Saint Petersburg has become a
unique reserve of European architectural styles of the past three
Saint Petersburg's loss of capital city status helped the
city to retain many of its pre-revolutionary buildings, as modern
architectural 'prestige projects' tended to be built in Moscow; this
largely prevented the rise of mid-to-late-20th-century architecture
and helped maintain the architectural appearance of the historic city
Saint Petersburg is inscribed on the
UNESCO World Heritage list as an
area with 36 historical architectural complexes and around 4000
outstanding individual monuments of architecture, history and culture.
New tourist programs and sightseeing tours have been developed for
those wishing to see
Saint Petersburg's cultural heritage. The
Small Italian Skylight Room in the
Hermitage Museum .
The city has 221 museums, 2000 libraries, more than 80 theaters, 100
concert organizations, 45 galleries and exhibition halls, 62 cinemas
and around 80 other cultural establishments. Every year the city hosts
around 100 festivals and various competitions of art and culture,
including more than 50 international ones.
Despite the economic instability of the 1990s , not a single major
theatre or museum was closed in
Saint Petersburg; on the contrary many
new ones opened, for example a private museum of puppets (opened in
1999) is the third museum of its kind in Russia, where collections of
more than 2000 dolls are presented including 'The multinational Saint
Petersburg' and 'Pushkin\'s Petersburg '. The museum world of Saint
Petersburg is incredibly diverse. The city is not only home to the
Hermitage Museum and the
Russian Museum with its rich
Russian art , but also the palaces of
and its suburbs, so-called small town museums and others like the
museum of famous Russian writer
Dostoyevsky ; Museum of Musical
Instruments , the museum of decorative arts and the museum of
The musical life of
Saint Petersburg is rich and diverse, with the
city now playing host to a number of annual carnivals.
Ballet performances occupy a special place in the cultural life of
Saint Petersburg. The Petersburg School of Ballet is named as one of
the best in the world. Traditions of the Russian classical school have
been passed down from generation to generation among outstanding
educators. The art of famous and prominent
Saint Petersburg dancers
Rudolf Nureyev ,
Natalia Makarova ,
Mikhail Baryshnikov was, and
is, admired throughout the world. Contemporary Petersburg ballet is
made up not only of traditional Russian classical school, but also
ballets by those like
Boris Eifman , who expanded the scope of strict
Russian ballet to almost unimaginable limits. Remaining
faithful to the classical basis (he was a choreographer in Vaganova
Academy of Dance ), he combined classical ballet with the avant-garde
style , and then, in turn, with acrobatics, rhythmic gymnastics,
dramatic expressiveness, cinema , color, light, and finally with
MEDIA AND COMMUNICATIONS
All major Russian newspapers are active in
Saint Petersburg. The city
has a developed telecommunications system. In 2014
Rostelecom , the
national operator announced it began a major modernization of the
fixed-line network in the city.
Television networks which can be received in the city:
* Channel One
* Channel 5
* Public Television of
* Disney Channel
* Moskva 24
* "Russian (Russkoye) Radio"
Europa Plus "
* "NRJ (Russia)"
Radio Maximum "
* "Voice of
Russia (in English)"
* "Radio Freedom (Svoboda)"
* "Megapolis FM"
* "Radio Kultura (Culture)"
* "Pioneer FM"
* "Komsomolskaya Pravda"
* "Monte Carlo"
* "Love Radio"
* "Govorit Moskva"
* "Radio Dacha"
Nashe Radio "
* "Radio 7"
* "Humor FM"
* "Retro FM"
* "Keks FM"
* "Dobrye Pesni (Good Songs)"
* "Voyage FM"
* "Kino FM"
* "Finam FM"
* "First Popular"
* "Politseiskaya Volna (Police Wave)"
* "Radio Sport"
Radio Rossii "
* "Radio Podmoskovye"
* "Radiocompany Moscow"
* "Business FM"
* "Moya Semia (My Family)"
* "Fresh Radio"
* "Silver Rain"
* "Echo of
* "Radio Jazz"
* "Classic Radio"
* "Vesti FM"
* "City FM"
* "Relax FM"
* "Kommersant FM"
* "Rock FM"
* "Children's Radio"
* "Radio Alla"
* "Best FM"
* "Next FM"
* "Hit FM"
* "Radio Record"
Hermitage Museum (building on the right)
Saint Petersburg is home to more than two hundred museums, many of
them hosted in historic buildings. The largest of the museums is the
Hermitage Museum , featuring interiors of the former imperial
residence and a vast collection of art. The
Russian Museum is a large
museum devoted specifically to Russian fine art. The apartments of
some famous Petersburgers, including
Alexander Pushkin , Fyodor
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov ,
Feodor Chaliapin , Alexander
Vladimir Nabokov ,
Anna Akhmatova ,
Mikhail Zoshchenko , Joseph
Brodsky , as well as some palace and park ensembles of the southern
suburbs and notable architectural monuments such as St. Isaac's
Cathedral, have also been turned into public museums.
Kunstkamera , with its collection established in 1714 by Peter
the Great to collect curiosities from all over the world, is sometimes
considered the first museum in Russia, which has evolved into the
Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography .
Russian Ethnography Museum , which has been split from the Russian
Museum, is devoted to the cultures of the people of Russia, the former
Soviet Union and Russian Empire.
A number of museums provide insight into the Soviet history of Saint
Petersburg, including the Museum of the Blockade, which describes the
Siege of Leningrad and the Museum of Political History, which explains
many authoritarian features of the
Other notable museums include the
Central Naval Museum , and
Zoological Museum , Central Soil Museum , the Railway Museum , Suvorov
Museum , Museum of the Siege of Leningrad,
Erarta Museum of
Contemporary Art , the largest non-governmental Museum of contemporary
art in Russia,
Saint Petersburg Museum of History in the Peter and
Paul Fortress and Artillery Museum , which includes not only artillery
items, but also a huge collection of other military equipment,
uniforms and decorations.
Military Historical Museum
Museum ship cruiser Aurora
The main auditorium of the
Among the city's more than fifty theatres is the world-famous
Mariinsky Theatre (also known as the Kirov Theatre in the
USSR ), home
Mariinsky Ballet company and opera. Leading ballet dancers,
Vaslav Nijinsky ,
Anna Pavlova , Rudolph Nureyev , Mikhail
Galina Ulanova and
Natalia Makarova , were principal
stars of the Mariinsky ballet.
The First music professional institution – Conservatory –
appeared in 1862 in St. Petersburg thanks to the Russian pianist and
Anton Rubinstein . The school alumni have included such
notable composers as
Pyotr Tchaikovsky ,
Sergei Prokofiev , Artur Kapp
Rudolf Tobias and
Dmitri Shostakovich , who taught at the
conservatory during the 1960s, bringing it additional fame. Famous
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov who taught at the
Conservatory for more than 30 years, created strong composers' school.
Among his students were
Igor Stravinsky ,
Alexander Glazounov ,
Anatoly Liadov and others. The only composer\'s museum in St.
Petersburg is now museum in the former apartment of Nikolai
Rimsky-Korsakov . The completeness and authenticity of these rooms
make the museum particularly invaluable. Scarlet Sails
celebration on the
Neva River in
Dmitri Shostakovich , who was born and raised in
dedicated his Seventh Symphony to the city, calling it the "Leningrad
Symphony." He wrote the symphony while in the city during the siege of
Leningrad. The 7th symphony was premiered in 1942; its performance in
the besieged Leningrad at the Bolshoy Philharmonic Hall under the
baton of conductor
Karl Eliasberg . It was heard over the radio and
lifted the spirits of the survivors. In 1992 a reunion performance of
the 7th Symphony by the (then) 14 survivors was played in the same
hall as they done half a century earlier. The Leningrad Philharmonic
Orchestra remained one of the best known symphony orchestras in the
world under the leadership of conductors
Yevgeny Mravinsky and Yuri
Temirkanov . Mravinsky's term as artistic director of the Leningrad
Philharmonic – a term which is possibly the longest of any conductor
with any orchestra in modern times – led the orchestra from being a
little-known provincial ensemble to it becoming one of the world's
most highly regarded orchestras today, especially for the performance
of Russian music.
The Imperial Choral Capella was founded and modeled after the royal
courts of other European capitals. The Alexander theatre , Saint
Saint Petersburg has been home to the newest movements in popular
music in the country. The first jazz band in the
Soviet Union was
founded here by
Leonid Utyosov in the 1920s, under the patronage of
Isaak Dunayevsky . The first jazz club in the
Soviet Union was founded
here in the 1950s and was later named jazz club Kvadrat. In 1956 the
popular ensemble Druzhba was founded by Aleksandr Bronevitsky and
Edita Piekha to become the first popular band in the
USSR during the
1950s. In the 1960s student rock-groups Argonavty , Kochevniki and
others pioneered a series of unofficial and underground rock concerts
and festivals. In 1972
Boris Grebenshchikov founded the band Aquarium
which later grew to huge popularity. Since then "Peter's rock" music
style was formed.
In the 1970s many bands came out from 'underground' and eventually
Leningrad Rock Club , which provided a stage to such bands
as DDT , Kino , headed by the legendary
Viktor Tsoi ,
Alisa , Zemlyane
Piknik , Secret and many other popular groups. The first
Russian-style happening show Pop Mekhanika , mixing over 300 people
and animals on stage, was directed by the multi-talented Sergey
Kuryokhin in the 1980s. The annual International Music Festival SKIF
(Sergey Kuriokhin International Festival ) is named after him. In 2004
Kuryokhin Center was founded, were the SKIF as well as the
Electro-Mechanica festival and Ethnomechanica festival takes place.
SKIF focuses on experimental pop music and avant garde music ,
Electro-Mechanica on electronic music and Ethnomechanica on world
Saint Petersburg boasts many notable musicians of various
genres, from popular Leningrad's
Sergei Shnurov ,
Korol i Shut , to rock veterans
Yuri Shevchuk , Vyacheslav
Mikhail Boyarsky . In the early 2000s on a wave of
popularity of metalcore , rapcore , emocore and there are such groups
as Amatory ,
Kirpichi , Psychea, Stigmata ,
Grenouer and Animal
White Nights Festival in
Saint Petersburg is famous for
spectacular fireworks and a massive show celebrating the end of the
school year .
Konstantin Khabensky , known for his roles in Night Watch _,
_Day Watch _ and _Admiral _, is a native of
Over 250 international and Russian movies were filmed in Saint
Petersburg. Well over a thousand feature films about tsars,
revolution, people and stories set in
Saint Petersburg have been
produced worldwide but not filmed in the city. The first film studios
were founded in
Saint Petersburg in the 20th century and since the
Lenfilm has been the largest film studio based in Saint
Petersburg. The first foreign feature movie filmed entirely in Saint
Petersburg was the 1997 production of Tolstoy's _Anna Karenina _,
Sophie Marceau and
Sean Bean and made by an international
team of British, American, French and Russian filmmakers.
The cult comedy _Irony of Fate _ (also Ирония судьбы,
или С лёгким паром!) is set in
Saint Petersburg and
pokes fun at Soviet city planning. The 1985 film _White Nights _
received considerable Western attention for having captured genuine
Leningrad street scenes at a time when filming in the
Soviet Union by
Western production companies was generally unheard of. Other movies
GoldenEye _ (1995), _Midnight in
Saint Petersburg _ (1996),
_Brother _ (1997) and Tamil romantic thriller film -_
Dhaam Dhoom _
(2008). _Onegin _ (1999) is based on the Pushkin poem and showcases
many tourist attractions . In addition, the Russian romantic comedy,
Piter FM _, intricately showcases the cityscape, almost as if it were
a main character in the film.
Several international film festivals are held annually, such as the
Festival of Festivals,
Saint Petersburg , as well as the Message to
Man International Documentary Film Festival , since its inauguration
in 1988 during the White Nights.
Saint Petersburg has a longstanding and world famous tradition in
Dostoyevsky called it "The most abstract and intentional
city in the world," emphasizing its artificiality, but it was also a
symbol of modern disorder in a changing Russia. It frequently appeared
to Russian writers as a menacing and inhuman mechanism. The grotesque
and often nightmarish image of the city is featured in Pushkin's last
poems, the Petersburg stories of Gogol , the novels of
the verse of
Alexander Blok and Osip Mandelshtam , and in the
symbolist novel _Petersburg _ by Andrey Bely . According to Lotman in
his chapter, 'The Symbolism of
Saint Petersburg' in _Universe and the
Mind_, these writers were inspired by symbolism from within the city
itself. The effect of life in
Saint Petersburg on the plight of the
poor clerk in a society obsessed with hierarchy and status also became
an important theme for authors such as Pushkin , Gogol and Dostoyevsky
. Another important feature of early
Saint Petersburg literature is
its mythical element, which incorporates urban legends and popular
ghost stories , as the stories of Pushkin and Gogol included ghosts
Saint Petersburg to haunt other characters as well as
other fantastical elements, creating a surreal and abstract image of
20th-century writers from
Saint Petersburg, such as Vladimir Nabokov
Ayn Rand , Andrey Bely and
Yevgeny Zamyatin , along with his
Serapion Brothers created entire new styles in
literature and contributed new insights to the understanding of
society through their experience in this city.
Anna Akhmatova became
an important leader for Russian poetry . Her poem _Requiem_ adumbrates
the perils encountered during the Stalinist era. Another notable
20th-century writer from
Saint Petersburg is
Joseph Brodsky ,
recipient of the
Nobel Prize in Literature (1987). While living in the
United States, his writings in English reflected on life in Saint
Petersburg from the unique perspective of being both an insider and an
outsider to the city in essays such as, "A Guide to a Renamed City"
and the nostalgic "In a Room and a Half".
Saint Petersburg State University
Saint Petersburg State University
Pulkovo Observatory See also:
Russia and List of higher education and academic
As of 2006 /2007 there were 1024 kindergartens, 716 public schools
and 80 vocational schools in
Saint Petersburg. The largest of the
public higher education institutions is
Saint Petersburg State
University , enrolling approximately 32,000 undergraduate students;
and the largest non-governmental higher education institutions is the
Institute of International Economic Relations, Economics, and Law .
Other famous universities are
Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University
Herzen University ,
Saint Petersburg State University
Saint Petersburg State University of Economics
and Finance and
Saint Petersburg Military engineering-technical
university . However, the public universities are all federal property
and do not belong to the city.
Main article: Sport in
Leningrad hosted part of the association football tournament during
the 1980 Summer Olympics . The 1994
Goodwill Games were also held
In boating, the first competition here was the 1703 rowing event
initiated by Peter the Great, after the victory over the Swedish fleet
Yachting events were held by the
Russian Navy since the foundation
of the city. Yacht clubs :
St. Petersburg River Yacht Club , Neva
Yacht Club , the latter is the oldest yacht club in the world. In the
winter, when the sea and lake surfaces are frozen and yachts and
dinghies cannot be used, local people sail ice boats .
Equestrianism has been a long tradition, popular among the Tsars and
aristocracy, as well as part of military training . Several historic
sports arenas were built for equestrianism since the 18th century, to
maintain training all year round, such as the Zimny Stadion and
Konnogvardeisky Manezh , among others.
Chess tradition was highlighted by the 1914 international tournament,
partially funded by the Tsar, in which the title "Grandmaster" was
first formally conferred by Russian
Tsar Nicholas II to five players:
Lasker , Capablanca , Alekhine , Tarrasch and Marshall . SKA
Saint Petersburg logo
Kirov Stadium (now demolished) was one of the largest stadiums in the
world and home to FC Zenit
Saint Petersburg from 1950 to 1993 and
again in 1995. In 1951 a crowd of 110,000 set the single-game
attendance record for Soviet football. In 1984, 2007, 2010 and
2011/2012 Zenit were the champions of the Soviet and Russian leagues,
respectively, and won the Russian Cup in 1999 and 2010, the UEFA Cup
2007–08 season and the
2008 UEFA Super Cup . The team leader was
Andrei Arshavin . Zenit currently play their home games
Petrovsky Stadium . The
New Zenit Stadium , which will host 2018
FIFA World Cup matches, is currently under construction.
There is also a second professional football club in Saint
Petersburg, FC Dynamo
Saint Petersburg , which is owned by the
Dynamo sports society .
Hockey teams in the city include SKA
Saint Petersburg in the
KHL , HC
VMF St. Petersburg in the
VHL , and junior clubs
SKA-1946 and Silver
Lions in the
Russian Major League . SKA
Saint Petersburg is one of the
KHL , consistently being at or near the top of the league
in attendance, despite the fact that they have never won the
championship. Well-known players include
Maxim Afinogenov , Patrick
Dmitri Kalinin ,
Petr Průcha and Viktor Tikhonov . During
the NHL lockout, stars
Ilya Kovalchuk ,
Sergei Bobrovsky and Vladimir
Tarasenko also played for the team. They play their home games at Ice
Saint Petersburg .
The city's long-time basketball team is
BC Kondrashin Belov , which
launched the career of
Andrei Kirilenko . Kondrashin Belov won two
championships in the
USSR Premier League (1975 and 1992), two USSR
Cups (1978 and 1987), and a Russian Cup title (2011). They also won
Saporta Cup twice (1973 and 1975). Legends of the club include
Alexander Belov and
Vladimir Kondrashin . The city also has a new
basketball team, BC Zenit
Saint Petersburg .
A section of the Western High-Speed Diameter
Saint Petersburg is a major transport hub. The first Russian railway
was built here in 1837, and since then the city's transport
infrastructure has continued to develop and keep pace with the growth
of the city. Petersburg has an extensive system of local roads and
railway services, maintains a large public transport system that
Saint Petersburg tram and the
Saint Petersburg Metro
Saint Petersburg Metro ,
and is home to a number of riverine services that convey passengers
around the city efficiently and in relative comfort.
The city is connected to the rest of
Russia and the wider world by a
number of federal highways and national and international rail routes.
Pulkovo Airport serves the majority of air passengers departing from
or arriving to the city.
Roads And Public Transport
Trolleybus on Nevsky Avenue . Obvodny Kanal station,
opened in 2010 Tram on
Moscow Gate Square . Hydrofoil
docking in St.Petersburg upon arrival from
Peterhof Palace (2008).
Saint Petersburg has an extensive city-funded network of public
transport (buses, trams , trolleybuses ) and several hundred routes
served by _marshrutkas _. Trams in
Saint Petersburg used to be the
main mean of transport; in the 1980s this was the largest tram network
in the world, but many tracks were dismantled in the 2000s.
Buses carry up to three million passengers daily, serving over 250
urban and a number of suburban bus routes.
Saint Petersburg Metro
underground rapid transit system was opened in 1955; it now has 5
lines with 67 stations, connecting all five railway terminals, and
carrying 2.3 million passengers daily. Metro stations are often
elaborately decorated with materials such as marble and bronze.
SAINT PETERSBURG METRO MAP
Traffic jams are common in the city due to daily commuter traffic
volumes, intercity traffic and excessive winter snow. The construction
of freeways such as the
Saint Petersburg Ring Road , completed in
2011, and the Western High-Speed Diameter , completed in 2017, helped
partially reduce the traffic in the city. The controversial M11 , also
known as the Moscow-
Saint Petersburg Motorway, would connect Saint
Moscow by a freeway and is expected to be completed
FIFA World Cup 2018 .
Construction has started in
2010 and the first sections of the freeway was finished in 2014 and
Saint Petersburg is an important transport corridor linking
Russia and Eastern Europe. The city is a node of the
international European routes E18 towards
Helsinki , E20 towards
Tallinn , E95 towards
Odessa and E105 towards
Kirkenes (north) and towards
The city is also served by passenger and cargo seaports in the Neva
Bay of the
Gulf of Finland ,
Baltic Sea , the river port higher up the
Neva and tens of smaller passenger stations on both banks of the Neva
river. It is a terminus of both the Volga-Baltic and White Sea-Baltic
The first high bridge that does not need to be drawn, a 2,824-meter
(9,265 ft) long
Big Obukhovsky Bridge , opened in 2004. Meteor
hydrofoils link the city centre to the coastal towns of
Zelenogorsk from May through
October. In the warmer months many smaller boats and water-taxis
maneuver the canals throughout the city.
The shipping company
St Peter Line operates two ferries which sail
Helsinki to St Petersburg and from
Stockholm to St Petersburg.
See also: Rail transport in
Sapsan high-speed train
The city is the final destination for a web of intercity and suburban
railways, served by five different railway terminals (Baltiysky ,
Finlyandsky , Ladozhsky , Moskovsky and Vitebsky ), as well as
dozens of non-terminal railway stations within the federal subject.
Saint Petersburg has international railway connections to
Germany and many former republics of the USSR. The
Helsinki railway , which was built in 1870 and is 443 kilometers (275
mi) long, has trains running four times a day, in a journey lasting
about three and a half hours with the new Allegro train.
Saint Petersburg Railway opened in 1851, and is 651
kilometers (405 mi) long; the commute to
Moscow now requires from
three and a half to nine hours.
Russian Railways launched a high speed service for the Moscow
Saint Petersburg route. The new train, known as
Sapsan , is a
derivative of the popular
Siemens Velaro train; various versions of
this already operate in some European countries. It set records for
the fastest train in
Russia on May 2, 2009, travelling at 281 km/h
(174.6 mph) and on May 7, 2009, traveling at 290 kilometers per hour
Since December 12, 2010
Karelian Trains , a joint venture between
Russian Railways and VR (Finnish Railways) , has been running Alstom
Pendolino operated high-speed services between
Finlyandsky and Helsinki's Central railway stations. These services
are branded as "Allegro" trains. "Allegro" is known for suffering some
big technical problems from time to time which sometimes result in
significant delays and even cancel of tourists' trips.
INTERCITY AND SUBURBAN RAIL TERMINALS OF PETERSBURG
Pulkovo International Airport .
Saint Petersburg is served by Pulkovo International Airport , and
also by three smaller commercial and cargo airports in the suburbs.
Lappeenranta Airport , which is located near
Saint Petersburg but on
the Finnish side of the border is also popular among Russian
Pulkovo airport was opened to passengers as a small aerodrome in
1931. As of 2013 , the Pulkovo airport, which handles over 12 million
passengers annually, is the 3rd busiest in
Russia after Moscow's
Sheremetyevo and Domodedovo . As a result, the steadily increasing
passenger traffic has triggered a massive modernization of the entire
airport infrastructure. A newly built Terminal 1 of the Pulkovo
airport was put into operation on December 4, 2013 and integrated
international flights of the former terminal Pulkovo-2. The renovated
terminal Pulkovo-1 has been opened for domestic flights as an
extension of the Terminal 1 in 2015.
There is a regular rapid-bus connection (buses 39, 39E, K39) between
Pulkovo airport and the Moskovskaya metro station as well as 24/7 taxi
Saint Petersburg is home to numerous parks and gardens, some of the
most famous of which are situated in the southern suburbs, including
one of the largest English gardens in Europe in Pavlovsk .
the largest park within the limits of the city proper, occupying 240
Summer Garden is the oldest one, dating back to the early 18th
century and designed in the regular style. It is situated on the
southern bank of the
Neva at the head of the
Fontanka and is famous
for its cast iron railing and marble sculptures.
Among other notable parks are the
Maritime Victory Park on Krestovsky
Island and the
Moscow Victory Park in the south, both commemorating
the victory over
Nazi Germany in the
Second World War
Second World War , as well as the
Central Park of Culture and Leisure occupying
Yelagin Island and the
Tauride Garden around the
Tauride Palace . The most common trees grown
in the parks are the English oak ,
Norway maple , green ash , silver
Siberian Larch , blue spruce , crack willow , limes , and
poplars . Important dendrological collections dating back to the 19th
century are hosted by the
Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden and the
Park of the Forestry Academy.
In order to commemorate 300 years anniversary of
Saint Petersburg a
new park was laid out. The park is situated in the north western part
of the city. The construction was started in 1995. It is planned to
connect the park with the pedestrian bridge to the territory of Lakhta
Center 's recreation areas. In the park 300 trees of valuable sorts,
300 decorative apple-trees, 70 limes. 300 other trees and bushes were
planted. These trees were presented to
Saint Petersburg by
non-commercial and educational organizations of the city, its
sister-cities, city of Helsinki, heads of other regions of Russia,
German Savings Bank and other people and organizations.
Aerial view of the Field of Mars
Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden
Catherine Park ,
Main category: People from
Saint Petersburg Main article: List of
Dmitry Mendeleev is generally
credited with the publication of the first widely recognized periodic
table of elements .
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov , a prominent
Russian composer of 19th century (Portrait by
Valentin Serov )
Ukrainian-born Russian writer
Nikolai Gogol Dmitry Medvedev
Vladimir Putin , President of
Russia , both born in the city
Anna Pavlova Russian aviation pioneer Igor
Peter the Great – Later the Russian emperor
Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great – Empress of Russia
* Alexander II – Emperor of Russia
Grigori Rasputin – Russian mystic and advisor to the Romanovs
Alexander Suvorov – Generalissimo of the Russian Empire
Mikhail Kutuzov – Field Marshal of the Russian Empire
Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly – Russian Field Marshal and
Minister of War
* Aleksandr Menshikov – Russian statesman, Generalissimo, Admiral,
Princes of the Holy Roman Empire
Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim – Finnish military leader and
Alexander Pushkin – Russian author of the Romantic era
Alexander Blok – Russian lyrical poet
Anna Akhmatova – Russian modernist poet
Alexander Kolchak – Russian commander in the Imperial Russian
Dostoyevsky – Russian novelist, short story writer and
Sandra Drouker – concert pianist
Nikolai Gogol – Russian dramatist, novelist and short story
Mikhail Lermontov – Russian Romantic writer, poet and painter
Nikolai Leskov – Russian novelist, short story writer and
Fyodor Tyutchev – Russian lyrical poet
Vasily Zhukovsky – Russian poet
Nikolay Nekrasov – Russian poet, writer, critic and publisher
Vladimir Mayakovsky – Russian poet
Joseph Brodsky – Russian poet and essayist
Vladimir Nabokov – Russian-American novelist
Arkady and Boris Strugatsky – Russian science fiction authors
Alfred Nobel – Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, and
Dmitri Mendeleev – Russian chemist and inventor
Mikhail Lomonosov – Russian polymath, scientist and writer
Carl Heinrich von Siemens – German entrepreneur
Nicholas Miklouho-Maclay – Russian explorer, ethnologist,
anthropologist and biologist
Igor Sikorsky – Russian aviation pioneer
Georgy Grechko – Russian cosmonaut
Grigori Perelman – Russian mathematician
Nikolai Vavilov – Russian botanist
Ivan Pavlov – Russian physiologist
Dmitry Likhachov – Russian philologist
Lev Gumilev – Russian historian, ethnologist, anthropologist and
Sergei Rachmaninoff – Russian composer, pianist, and conductor
Modest Mussorgsky – Russian composer
Mikhail Glinka – Russian composer
Valery Gergiev – Russian conductor and opera company director
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov – Russian composer
Dmitri Shostakovich – Russian composer and pianist
Igor Stravinsky – Russian composer, pianist and conductor
Peter Carl Fabergé – Russian jeweller
Domenico Trezzini –
Swiss Italian architect
Andrey Voronikhin – Russian architect and painter
* Carlo Rossi – Italian-born Russian architect
Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli – Italian-born Russian architect
Giacomo Quarenghi – Italian-born Russian architect
Kazimir Malevich – Russian painter and art theoretician
Ilya Repin – Russian painter and sculptor
Anna Pavlova – Russian ballerina
Vladimir Putin – President of Russia
Dmitry Medvedev – Prime Minister of Russia
Vaslav Nijinsky – Russian danseur and choreographer
Alexander Karasyov – Russian writer
Evgeni Plushenko – Russian figure skater
Fedor Emelianenko – Russian politician and retired heavyweight
mixed martial artist, sambist, and judoka
Andrei Kirilenko – Russian professional basketball player
Svetlana Abrosimova – Professional basketball player in Russia
Nikolai Valuev – Russian professional boxer
Oxana Fedorova – Miss
Russia 2001 and Miss Universe 2002
Peter Chernobrivets – composer, musicologist
Ivan Urgant - Russian actor and TV host
See also: Crime in
Tambov gang The
Kresty Prison .
The crime dynamic in
Saint Petersburg is tightly associated with the
general social situation in the country. A sharp spike in the crime
level occurred in the late 1980s/early 1990s as a result of the
Perestroika -time turmoils (redistribution of property, privatization,
decline of living standards, decrease of the effectiveness of
militsiya etc.) By then the city had fallen under the control of a
number of organized criminal groups such as
Tambov Gang , Malyshev
Kazan Gang and ethnic criminal groups, engaged in racket ,
extortion , paying off local government and violent clashes with each
After the assassinations of City Property Committee chairman and
Mikhail Manevich (1997),
State Duma deputy Galina
Starovoytova (1998), acting City Legislature Speaker Viktor Novosyolov
(1999) and a number of prominent businesspeople,
Saint Petersburg was
dubbed _Capital of Crime_ in the Russian press. There were a number
of movies filmed in
Saint Petersburg about the life of crime,
_Banditskiy Peterburg: Advocat _ and _Brother _, reinforcing its image
as the Crime Capital of Russia.
According to official sources the number of crimes committed by
Saint Petersburg in 2010 increased by 11.1%. Law
enforcement authorities consider this was associated with an increased
number of people from some CIS republics who live in
illegally. On the other hand, some media reported that in recent
years there had been a notable increase in racially motivated
violence, in particular towards foreign students . One of the notable
white supremacist groups, _Belaya Energia_ (White Energy, inspired by
White Power " groups) has reportedly been one of the gangs
involved in murdering foreign university students.
The official portal of the Government of
Saint Petersburg provided
data on significant improvements in the crime situation. In
particular, it was reported that the number of crimes against tourists
had decreased by more than half during 2009–2011.
In 2012, Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs warned LGBT
travellers about a vaguely worded law in
Saint Petersburg (which came
into effect on March 17, 2012) that makes it a criminal offence to
publicize acts of male or female homosexuality, bisexuality, or
transgenderism. The intention of the law is to protect minors. A
Russian travel advisory on the Foreign Affairs website notes that
while homosexuality is legal in
Russia (it was decriminalized in
1993), LGBT Canadian travellers should avoid "displaying affection in
public, as homosexuals can be targets of violence… Public actions
(including dissemination of information, statements, displays or
conspicuous behaviour) contradicting or appearing to contradict this
law may lead to arrest, prosecution and the imposition of a fine."
TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in
Russia List of
sister cities to
Saint Petersburg, just like it appears on the
official portal of the City Government, listing both sister cities and
NON CIS/BALTIC STATES SISTER CITIES OF SAINT PETERSBURG (FROM
OFFICIAL GOVERNMENT LIST)
Denmark (since 1989)
Turkey (since 1997)
Kota Kinabalu ,
Malaysia (since 2017)
Belgium (since 1958)
Thailand (since 1997)
Spain (since 1984)
Bethlehem , Palestine (since 2003)
France (since 1991)
Cape Town ,
South Africa (since 2001)
Philippines (since 2010)
Sri Lanka (since 1997)
China (since 1998)
South Korea (since 1997)
Germany (since 1961)
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Santa Cruz de Tenerife ,
United Kingdom (since 1995)
Faisalabad , Pakistan
Poland (since 1961)
Austria (since 2001)
* Göteborg ,
Sweden (since 1962)
Germany (since 1957)
Cuba (since 2000)
Finland (since 1993)
Ho Chi Minh City ,
Vietnam (since 1977)
* Isfahan ,
Iran (since 1999)
Turkey (since 1990)
Finland (since 1997)
Le Havre ,
France (since 1965)
* Los Angeles,
United States (since 1990)
France (since 1993)
United Kingdom (since 1956)
Australia (since 1989)
Finland (since 1996)
Uruguay (since 1998)
India (since 1963)
France (since 1997)
Japan (since 1961)
Greece (since 1965)
Bulgaria (since 2001)
Czech Republic (since 1992)
* Québec City ,
Canada (since 2002)
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro ,
Brazil (since 1986)
Netherlands (since 1966)
* Santiago ,
China (since 1959)
Sweden (since 1992)
Finland (since 1993)
Greece (since 2002)
Finland (since 1953)
Poland (since 1997)
Croatia (since 1968)
St. Petersburg, Florida
St. Petersburg, Florida , United States
Sofia , Bulgaria
Sister cities in the
Commonwealth of Independent States and Baltic
Kazakhstan (since 1996)
Azerbaijan (since 1998)
Tajikistan (since 1999)
Armenia (since 1997)
Lithuania (since 2002)
Latvia (since 1997)
Sevastopol (since 2000)
Latvia (since 2002)
Estonia (since 2002)
Other sisterhoods not on the government list:
SISTER CITIES OF SAINT PETERSBURG (NOT INCLUDED ON OFFICIAL
Jordan (since 2003)
Bethlehem , Palestine
* State of
Lansing, Michigan ,
United States (since 1992)
Slovenia (since 2001)
Galveston, Texas ,
Kyrgyzstan (since 2004)
South Korea (since 2008)
Mar del Plata
Mar del Plata ,
Argentina (since 2008)
Mexico (since 2008)
Kazakhstan (since 2008)
Italy (since 2001)
Italy (since 2012)
South Korea (since 2008)
Tunisia (since 2008)
Norway (since 2002)
Hai Phong ,
Vietnam (since 2008)
Rishon LeZion ,
Israel (since 1966)
Slovakia (since 1995)
Israel (since 2008)
Sudan (since 2002)
Le Havre ,
Ukraine (since 2006)
Ulan Bator ,
Mongolia (since 2008)
Hungary (since 2002)
Cebu City ,
Philippines (since 2008)
North Korea (since 2002)
Porto Alegre ,
Brazil (since 2002)
Port Vila , Vanuatu
Westport, Connecticut ,
Venice were formerly twin cities of
Saint Petersburg, but
suspended this link due to St Petersburg's ban on "gay propaganda".
Milan suspended the relationship with
Saint Petersburg on November 23,
Venice did so on January 28, 2013.
Flag of Saint Petersburg
* Hotels in
* List of buildings and structures in
* List of bridges in
* List of theatres in
* List of museums in
* List of
Saint Petersburg Metro
Saint Petersburg Metro stations
* List of notable people from
List of consulates in Saint Petersburg
* List of
Saint Petersburg sister cities
* ^ Президент Российской Федерации.
Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном
представителе Президента Российской
Федерации в федеральном округе».
Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован:
"Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст.
2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree
#849 of May 13, 2000 _On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the
President of the
Russian Federation in a Federal District_. Effective
as of May 13, 2000.).
* ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации.
№ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г.
экономических регионов. 2.
Экономические районы», в ред.
Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (
Gosstandart of the Russian
Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 _Russian Classification of
Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions_, as amended by the Amendment
#5/2001 OKER. ).
* ^ Official website of St. Petersburg. St. Petersburg in Figures
* ^ Законодательное Собрание
Санкт-Петербурга. Закон №555-75 от 26
октября 2005 г. «О праздниках и памятных
датах в Санкт-Петербурге», в ред.
Закона №541-112 от 6 ноября 2008 г. (Legislative
Saint Petersburg. Law #555-75 of October 26, 2005 _On
Holidays and Memorial Dates in
Saint Petersburg_. ).
* ^ Official website of St. Petersburg. Петербург в
цифрах (_St. Petersburg in Figures_) (in Russian)
* ^ Rosstat . (in Russian)
* ^ Правительство Российской
Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от
3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в
ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03
июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в
Федеральный закон "Об исчислении
времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении
шестидесяти дней после дня
официального опубликования (6 августа
2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская
газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian
Federation . Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 _On Calculating
Time_, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 _On
Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time"_. Effective as of after
sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
* ^ Official throughout the
Russian Federation according to Article
68.1 of the Constitution of
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_
Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011).
"Всероссийская перепись населения 2010
года. Том 1" . _Всероссийская перепись
населения 2010 года (2010 All-
Russia Population Census)_
(in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service . Retrieved June 29,
* ^ McColl, R. W., ed. (2005). _Encyclopedia of world geography_.
1. N. Y.: Infobase Publishing. pp. 633–634. ISBN 0-8160-5786-9 .
Retrieved February 9, 2011.
* ^ V. Morozov. _The Discourses of
Saint Petersburg and the Shaping
of a Wider Europe_,
Copenhagen Peace Research Institute , 2002. ISSN
* ^ "Exploring St. Petersburg / The Hermitage". Geographia.com.
January 6, 1990. Retrieved January 25, 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Wilson, Derek (January 5, 2010). _Peter the Great_.
Macmillan. p. 82. ISBN 9781429964678 . Retrieved February 25, 2012.
* ^ Williams, Harold (1914). _
Russia of the Russians_. Pitman &
Sons. p. 33. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
* ^ Hughes, Lindsey (2004). _Peter the Great: a Biography_. Yale
University Press . p. 66. ISBN 0-300-10300-X .
* ^ "Peter and Paul Fortress". Saint-Petersburg.com. Archived from
the original on July 20, 2008. Retrieved June 19, 2009.
* ^ "Consulate General of
Swedenabroad.com. October 17, 2005. Retrieved January 6, 2009.
* ^ "St Petersburg: Paris of the North or City of Bones?," _The
Independent_. July 8, 2006 Archived January 20, 2012, at the Wayback
* ^ "Jean-Baptiste Le Blond, architect in St. Petersburg, Russia".
* ^ Matthew S. Anderson, _Peter the Great_ (London: Thames and
Hudson , 1978)
* ^ Rex A. Wade _The Russian Revolution, 1917_ 2005 Cambridge
University Press ISBN 0-521-84155-0
* ^ "The common characteristic of Saint-Petersburg".
russia-travel.ws. 2005–2008. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
* ^ Kann, Pavel Yakovlevich (1963). _Leningrad: A Short Guide_.
Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House. pp. 132–133. Retrieved
February 9, 2011.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Ленинградская область в
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_See also: Bibliography of the history of
Saint Petersburg _
* Amery, Colin, Brian Curran & Yuri Molodkovets. _St. Petersburg_.
Frances Lincoln , 2006. ISBN 0-7112-2492-7 .
* Bater, James H. _St. Petersburg: Industrialization and Change_.
Montreal: McGuill-Queen’s University Press, 1976. ISBN 0-7735-0266-1
* Berelowitch, Wladimir & Olga Medvedkova. _Histoire de
Saint-Pétersbourg_. Paris: Fayard, 1996. ISBN 2-213-59601-8 .
* Brumfield, William Craft. _The Origins of Modernism in Russian
University of California Press , 1991. ISBN
* Buckler, Julie. _Mapping St. Petersburg: Imperial Text and
Princeton University Press , 2005 ISBN
* Clark, Katerina, _Petersburg, Crucible of Revolution_. Cambridge:
Harvard University Press , 1995.
* Cross, Anthony (ed.). _St. Petersburg, 1703–1825_. Basingstoke:
Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. ISBN 1-4039-1570-9 .
* "San Pietroburgo, la capitale del nord" by Giuseppe D\'Amato in
_Viaggio nell'Hansa baltica._ L'Unione europea e l'allargamento ad
Est. Greco&Greco editori, Milano, 2004. pp. 27–46. ISBN
88-7980-355-7 . (Travel to the Baltic Hansa. The European Union and
its enlargement to the East) Book in Italian.
* George, Arthur L. & Elena George. _St. Petersburg: Russia's Window
to the Future, The First Three Centuries_. Lanham: Taylor Trade
Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-58979-017-0 .
* Glantz, David M. _The Battle for Leningrad, 1941–1944_.
University Press of Kansas , 2002. ISBN 0-7006-1208-4 .
* Hellberg-Hirn, Elena. _Imperial Imprints: Post-Soviet St.
Petersburg_. Helsinki: SKS
Finnish literature Society, 2003. ISBN
* Hughes, Lindsey (2004). _Peter the Great: a Biography_. Yale
University Press . ISBN 0-300-10300-X .
* _Knopf Guide: Sat. Petersburg_. New York: Knopf, 1995. ISBN
* Eyewitness Guide: St. Petersburg.
* Lincoln, W. Bruce. _Sunlight at Midnight: St. Petersburg and the
Rise of Modern Russia_. New York:
Basic Books , 2000. ISBN
* Orttung, Robert W. _From Leningrad to St. Petersburg:
Democratization in a Russian City_. New York: St. Martin’s, 1995.
ISBN 0-312-17561-2 .
* Richardson, Daniel; Humphreys, Robert (February 26, 1998). _St.
Petersburg: The Rough Guide_ (September 2004 – Fifth ed.). Rough
Guides – New York, London &
Delhi . ISBN 978-1-85828-298-5 .
Retrieved March 10, 2010.
* Ruble, Blair A. _Leningrad: Shaping a Soviet City_. Berkeley:
University of California Press , 1990. ISBN 0-87772-347-8 .
* Shvidkovsky, Dmitry O. & Alexander Orloff. _St. Petersburg:
Architecture of the Tsars_. New York: Abbeville Press, 1996. ISBN
* Volkov, Solomon. _St. Petersburg: A Cultural History_. New York:
Free Press, 1995. ISBN 0-02-874052-1 .
* St. Petersburg:
Architecture of the Tsars. 360 pages. Abbeville
Press, 1996. ISBN 0-7892-0217-4
Saint Petersburg: Museums, Palaces, and Historic Collections: A
Guide to the Lesser Known Treasures of St. Petersburg. 2003. ISBN
* _Sergei V. Ivanov . Unknown Socialist Realism. The Leningrad
Saint Petersburg: NP-Print Edition, 2007. – 448 p. ISBN
5-901724-21-6 , ISBN 978-5-901724-21-7 .
* Нежиховский Р. А. _Река Нева и
Невская губа_, Leningrad, Гидрометеоиздат,
* Vorhees, Mara (February 1, 2008). _St. Petersburg_ (Fifth ed.).
Footscray, Victoria, Australia:
Lonely Planet . ISBN 978-1-74059-827-9
. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
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