Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, tr.
Sankt-Peterburg, IPA: [ˈsankt
pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk] ( listen)) is Russia's second-largest
city after Moscow, with five million inhabitants in 2012. An
important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal
subject (a federal city).
Situated on the
Neva River, at the head of the
Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland on the
Baltic Sea, it was founded by
Peter the Great
Peter the Great on May
27 [O.S. 16] 1703. On 01 September 1914, the name was
Saint Petersburg to Petrograd (Russian:
Петрогра́д, IPA: [pʲɪtrɐˈgrat]), on 26 January 1924
to Leningrad (Russian: Ленингра́д,
IPA: [lʲɪnʲɪnˈgrat]), and on 07 September 1991 back to Saint
Petersburg. Between 1713 and 1728 and in 1732–1918, Saint
Petersburg was the capital of Imperial Russia. In 1918, the central
government bodies moved to Moscow.
Saint Petersburg is one of the modern cities of Russia, as well as its
cultural capital. The Historic Centre of
Saint Petersburg and
Related Groups of Monuments constitute a
UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Saint Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art
museums in the world. Many foreign consulates, international
corporations, banks and businesses have offices in
2.1 Imperial Era (1703–1917)
2.2 Revolution and Soviet Era (1917–1941)
World War II
World War II (1941–1945)
2.4 Soviet Era Continued (1945–1991)
2.5 Contemporary Era (1991-present)
9 Media and communications
13.1.1 Roads and public transport
Saint Petersburg public transportation statistics
14 Famous people
14.1 Born in
16 Twin towns and sister cities
17 See also
20 External links
An admirer of everything Dutch,
Peter the Great
Peter the Great originally named the
city, Sankt-Peterburg [Санкт-Петербург] -- which lacked
the letter "s" between "Peter" and "burg".  On Sept. 1, 1914,
after the outbreak of World War I, the Imperial government renamed the
city Petrograd (Russian: Петрогра́д,
IPA: [pʲɪtrɐˈgrat]),  meaning "Peter's City", in order to
expunge the German-sounding words Sankt and Burg. On 26 January 1924
it was renamed to Leningrad (Russian: Ленингра́д,
IPA: [lʲɪnʲɪnˈgrat]), meaning "Lenin's City". On 6 September
1991, the original name, Sankt-Peterburg, was returned. Today, in
English the city is known as "St. Petersburg." Local residents often
refer to the city by its nickname, Piter.
History of Saint Petersburg
History of Saint Petersburg and Timeline of Saint
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Imperial Era (1703–1917)
Bronze Horseman, monument to Peter the Great
Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress at the mouth of the Neva
River in 1611, in what was then called Ingermanland, which was
inhabited by Finnic tribe of Ingrians. The small town of Nyen grew up
At the end of the 17th century, Peter the Great, who was very
interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, wanted
Russia to gain a
seaport in order to trade with Europe. He needed a better seaport
than the country's main one at the time, Arkhangelsk, which was on the
White Sea in the far north and closed to shipping during the winter.
On May 12 [O.S. 1] 1703, during the Great Northern War,
Peter the Great
Peter the Great captured Nyenskans and soon replaced the fortress.
On May 27 [O.S. 16] 1703, closer to the estuary
5 km (3 mi) inland from the gulf), on Zayachy (Hare) Island,
he laid down the Peter and Paul Fortress, which became the first brick
and stone building of the new city.
The city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia; a
number of Swedish prisoners of war were also involved in some years
under the supervision of Alexander Menshikov. Tens of thousands of
serfs died building the city. Later, the city became the centre of
Saint Petersburg Governorate. Peter moved the capital from Moscow
Saint Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the
Treaty of Nystad
Treaty of Nystad of
1721 ended the war; he referred to
Saint Petersburg as the capital (or
seat of government) as early as 1704.
Saint Petersburg, 1744
During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square
on the right bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress.
Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a
plan. By 1716 the
Domenico Trezzini had elaborated a
project whereby the city centre would be located on Vasilyevsky Island
and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals. The project was not
completed, but is evident in the layout of the streets. In 1716, Peter
the Great appointed Frenchman
Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond
Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond as the
chief architect of
The style of Petrine Baroque, developed by Trezzini and other
architects and exemplified by such buildings as the Menshikov Palace,
Kunstkamera, Peter and Paul Cathedral, Twelve Collegia, became
prominent in the city architecture of the early 18th century. In 1724
the Academy of Sciences, University and Academic Gymnasium were
Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great.
In 1725, Peter died at the age of fifty-two. His endeavours to
Russia had met with opposition from the Russian
nobility—resulting in several attempts on his life and a treason
case involving his son. In 1728, Peter II of
Russia moved his seat
back to Moscow. But four years later, in 1732, under Empress Anna of
Saint Petersburg was again designated as the capital of the
Russian Empire. It remained the seat of the
Romanov dynasty and the
Imperial Court of the Russian Tsars, as well as the seat of the
Russian government, for another 186 years until the communist
revolution of 1917.
In 1736–1737 the city suffered from catastrophic fires. To rebuild
the damaged boroughs, a committee under Burkhard Christoph von
Münnich commissioned a new plan in 1737. The city was divided into
five boroughs, and the city center was moved to the
situated on the east bank between the
Neva and Fontanka.
Palace Square backed by the General staff arch and building, as the
main square of the
Russian Empire it was the setting of many events of
It developed along three radial streets, which meet at the Admiralty
building and are now one street known as
Nevsky Prospekt (which is
considered the main street of the city),
Gorokhovaya Street and
Baroque architecture became dominant in the city
during the first sixty years, culminating in the Elizabethan Baroque,
represented most notably by Italian Bartolomeo Rastrelli with such
buildings as the Winter Palace. In the 1760s,
Baroque architecture was
succeeded by neoclassical architecture.
Established in 1762, the Commission of Stone Buildings of
Saint Petersburg ruled that no structure in the city can be higher
Winter Palace and prohibited spacing between buildings.
During the reign of
Catherine the Great
Catherine the Great in the 1760s–1780s, the
banks of the
Neva were lined with granite embankments.
However, it was not until 1850 that the first permanent bridge across
the Neva, Blagoveshchensky Bridge, was allowed to open. Before that,
only pontoon bridges were allowed.
Obvodny Canal (dug in 1769–1833)
became the southern limit of the city.
The most prominent neoclassical and Empire-style architects in Saint
Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe
Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe (Imperial Academy of Arts, Small
Hermitage, Gostiny Dvor, New Holland Arch, Catholic Church of St.
Antonio Rinaldi (
Yury Felten (Old Hermitage, Chesme Church)
Giacomo Quarenghi (Academy of Sciences, Hermitage Theatre, Yusupov
Andrey Voronikhin (Mining Institute,
Andreyan Zakharov (
Jean-François Thomas de Thomon
Jean-François Thomas de Thomon (Spit of Vasilievsky Island)
Carlo Rossi (Yelagin Palace, Mikhailovsky Palace, Alexandrine Theatre,
Senate and Synod Buildings, General staff Building, design of many
streets and squares)
Vasily Stasov (
Moscow Triumphal Gate, Trinity Cathedral)
Auguste de Montferrand
Auguste de Montferrand (
Saint Isaac's Cathedral, Alexander Column)
Decembrists at the Senate Square, December 26, 1825.
In 1810, Alexander I established the first engineering Higher learning
Saint Petersburg Main military engineering School in
Saint Petersburg. Many monuments commemorate the Russian victory over
France in the Patriotic War of 1812, including the
Alexander Column by Montferrand, erected in 1834, and the Narva
In 1825, the suppressed
Decembrist revolt against Nicholas I took
place on the Senate Square in the city, a day after Nicholas assumed
By the 1840s, neoclassical architecture had given way to various
romanticist styles, which dominated until the 1890s, represented by
such architects as
Andrei Stackenschneider (Mariinsky Palace,
Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace, Nicholas Palace, New Michael Palace) and
Konstantin Thon (Moskovsky railway station).
With the emancipation of the serfs undertaken by Alexander II in
1861 and an Industrial Revolution, the influx of former peasants into
the capital increased greatly. Poor boroughs spontaneously emerged on
the outskirts of the city.
Saint Petersburg surpassed
population and industrial growth; it developed as one of the largest
industrial cities in Europe, with a major naval base (in Kronstadt),
river and sea port.
The names of saints Peter and Paul, bestowed upon original city's
citadel and its cathedral (from 1725—a burial vault of Russian
emperors) coincidentally were the names of the first two assassinated
Russian Emperors, Peter III (1762, supposedly killed in a
conspiracy led by his wife, Catherine the Great) and Paul I
Nicholas Zubov and other conspirators who brought to power
Alexander I, the son of their victim). The third emperor's
assassination took place in Petersburg in 1881 when Alexander II
fell victim to narodniki (see the Church of the Savior on Blood).
Saint Michael's Castle
Kronstadt Naval Cathedral
The Revolution of 1905 began in
Saint Petersburg and spread rapidly
into the provinces.
On September 1, 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the Imperial
government renamed the city Petrograd, meaning "Peter's City", to
remove the German words Sankt and Burg.
Revolution and Soviet Era (1917–1941)
In March 1917, during the
February Revolution Nicholas II abdicated
both for himself and on behalf of his son, ending the Russian monarchy
and over three hundred years of Romanov dynastic rule.
Russian Revolution of 1917 began in Petrograd when the Bolsheviks
stormed the Winter Palace
On November 7, 1917 (OS October 25), the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir
Lenin, stormed the
Winter Palace in an event known thereafter as the
October Revolution, which led to the end of the post-Tsarist
provisional government, the transfer of all political power to the
Soviets, and the rise of the Communist Party. After that the city
acquired a new descriptive name, "the city of three revolutions",
referring to the three major developments in the political history of
Russia of the early 20th-century.
In September and October 1917, German troops invaded the West Estonian
archipelago and threatened Petrograd with bombardment and invasion. On
March 12, 1918, the Soviets transferred the government to Moscow, to
keep it away from the state border. During the ensuing Civil War, in
1919 general Yudenich advancing from
Estonia repeated the attempt to
capture the city, but
Leon Trotsky mobilized the army and forced him
On January 26, 1924, five days after Lenin's death, Petrograd was
renamed Leningrad. Later some streets and other toponyms were renamed
accordingly. The city has over 230 places associated with the life and
activities of Lenin. Some of them were turned into museums,
including the cruiser Aurora – a symbol of the October
Revolution and the oldest ship in the Russian Navy.
In the 1920s and 1930s, the poor outskirts were reconstructed into
regularly planned boroughs.
Constructivist architecture flourished
around that time. Housing became a government-provided amenity; many
"bourgeois" apartments were so large that numerous families were
assigned to what were called "communal" apartments (kommunalkas). By
the 1930s, 68% of the population lived in such housing. In 1935 a new
general plan was outlined, whereby the city should expand to the
south. Constructivism was rejected in favor of a more pompous
Stalinist architecture. Moving the city center further from the border
with Finland, Stalin adopted a plan to build a new city hall with a
huge adjacent square at the southern end of Moskovsky Prospekt,
designated as the new main street of Leningrad. After the Winter
(Soviet-Finnish) war in 1939-1940, the Soviet-Finnish border moved
Nevsky Prospekt with
Palace Square maintained the
functions and the role of a city center.
In December 1931, Leningrad was administratively separated from
Leningrad Oblast. At that time it included the Leningrad Suburban
District, some parts of which were transferred back to Leningrad
Oblast in 1936 and turned into Vsevolozhsky District, Krasnoselsky
District, Pargolovsky District and Slutsky District (renamed Pavlovsky
District in 1944).
On December 1, 1934, Sergey Kirov, the popular communist leader of
Leningrad, was assassinated, which became the pretext for the Great
World War II
World War II (1941–1945)
Main article: Siege of Leningrad
Citizens of Leningrad during the 872-day siege, in which more than one
million civilians died, mostly from starvation.
During World War II, German forces besieged Leningrad following the
Axis invasion of the
Soviet Union in June 1941. The siege lasted
872 days, or almost two and a half years, from September 8, 1941
to January 27, 1944.
Siege of Leningrad
Siege of Leningrad proved one of the longest, most destructive,
and most lethal sieges of a major city in modern history. It isolated
the city from food supplies except those provided through the Road of
Life across Lake Ladoga, which could not make it through until the
lake literally froze. More than one million civilians were killed,
mainly from starvation. Many others were eventually evacuated or
escaped, so the city became largely depopulated.
On May 1, 1945 Joseph Stalin, in his Supreme
Commander Order No. 20,
named Leningrad, alongside Stalingrad, Sevastopol, and Odessa, hero
cities of the war. A law acknowledging the honorary title of "Hero
City" passed on May 8, 1965 (the 20th anniversary of the victory in
the Great Patriotic War), during the Brezhnev era. The Presidium of
the Supreme Soviet of the
USSR awarded Leningrad as a
Hero City the
Order of Lenin
Order of Lenin and the
Gold Star medal
Gold Star medal "for the heroic resistance of
the city and tenacity of the survivors of the Siege". The Hero-City
Obelisk bearing the Gold Star sign was installed in April 1985.
Soviet Era Continued (1945–1991)
In October 1946 some territories along the northern coast of the Gulf
of Finland, which had passed to the
Finland in 1940 under
the peace treaty following the Winter War, were transferred from
Leningrad Oblast to Leningrad and divided into Sestroretsky District
and Kurortny District. These included the town of Terijoki (renamed
Zelenogorsk in 1948). Leningrad and many of its suburbs were
rebuilt over the post-war decades, partially according to pre-war
plans. The 1948 general plan for Leningrad featured radial urban
development in the north as well as in the south. In 1953 Pavlovsky
Leningrad Oblast was abolished, and parts of its
territory, including Pavlovsk, merged with Leningrad. In 1954 the
Pargolovo and Pesochny merged with
Leningrad gave its name to the
Leningrad Affair (1949–1952), a
notable event in the postwar political struggle in the USSR. It was a
product of rivalry between Stalin's potential successors where one
side was represented by the leaders of the city Communist Party
organization—the second most significant one in the country after
Moscow. The entire elite leadership of Leningrad was destroyed,
including the former mayor Kuznetsov, the acting mayor Pyotr
Sergeevich Popkov, and all their deputies; overall 23 leaders were
sentenced to the death penalty, 181 to prison or exile (exonerated in
1954). About 2,000 ranking officials across the
USSR were expelled
from the party and the Komsomol and removed from leadership positions.
They were accused (almost entirely falsely) of Russian
The Leningrad Metro underground rapid transit system, designed before
the war, opened in 1955 with its first eight stations decorated with
marble and bronze. However, after the death of Stalin in 1953, the
perceived ornamental excesses of the
Stalinist architecture were
abandoned. From the 1960s to the 1980s many new residential boroughs
were built on the outskirts; while the functionalist apartment blocks
were nearly identical to each other, many families moved there from
kommunalkas in the city centre in order to live in separate
Contemporary Era (1991-present)
View from the Colonnade, St. Isaac's Cathedral,
On June 12, 1991, simultaneously with the first Russian presidential
elections, the city authorities arranged for the mayoral elections and
a referendum upon the name of the city. The turnout was 65%; 66.13% of
the total count of votes went to Anatoly Sobchak, who became the first
directly elected mayor of the city.
Meanwhile, economic conditions started to deteriorate as the country
tried to adapt to major changes. For the first time since the 1940s,
food rationing was introduced, and the city received humanitarian food
aid from abroad. This dramatic time was depicted in photographic
series of Russian photographer Alexey Titarenko. Economic
conditions began to improve only at the beginning of the 21st
century. In 1995 a northern section of the Kirovsko-Vyborgskaya
Line of the
Saint Petersburg Metro
Saint Petersburg Metro was cut off by underground
flooding, creating a major obstacle to the city development for almost
In 1996, Vladimir Yakovlev defeated
Anatoly Sobchak in the elections
for the head of the city administration. The title of the city head
was changed from "mayor" to "governor". In 2000 Yakovlev won
re-election. His second term expired in 2004; the long-awaited
restoration of broken subway connection was expected to finish by that
time. But in 2003 Yakovlev suddenly resigned, leaving the governor's
office to Valentina Matviyenko.
Standard "Home-Ship" (1970s–1980s)
The law on election of the City Governor was changed, breaking the
tradition of democratic election by a universal suffrage. In 2006 the
city legislature re-approved Matviyenko as governor. Residential
building had intensified again; real-estate prices inflated greatly,
which caused many new problems for the preservation of the historical
part of the city.
Although the central part of the city has a
UNESCO designation (there
are about 8,000 architectural monuments in Petersburg), the
preservation of its historical and architectural environment became
controversial. After 2005, the demolition of older buildings in
the historical centre was permitted. In 2006
Gazprom announced an
ambitious project to erect a 396-meter skyscraper opposite to Smolny,
which[according to whom?] could result in the loss of the unique line
of Petersburg landscape. Urgent protests by citizens
and prominent public figures of
Russia against this project were not
considered by Governor
Valentina Matviyenko and the city authorities
until December 2010, when after the statement of President Dmitry
Medvedev, the city decided to find a more appropriate location for
this project. In the same year, the new location for the project was
relocated to Lakhta, a historical area northwest of the center city,
and the new project would be named Lakhta Center.
Gazprom and the city administration and commenced in 2012.
Lakhta Center would be the first tallest skyscraper in
Europe that is outside of Moscow.
Neva River flows through much of the centre of the city. Left –
the Spit of Vasilievsky Island, center – River Neva, Peter and Paul
Fortress and Trinity Bridge, right –
Palace Embankment with the
Main article: Geography of
Territory of the federal subject of
Satellite image of
The area of
Saint Petersburg city proper is 605.8 square kilometers
(233.9 sq mi). The area of the federal subject is 1,439
square kilometers (556 sq mi), which contains Saint
Petersburg proper (consisting of eighty-one municipal okrugs), nine
municipal towns – (Kolpino, Krasnoye Selo, Kronstadt, Lomonosov,
Pavlovsk, Petergof, Pushkin, Sestroretsk, Zelenogorsk) – and
twenty-one municipal settlements.
Petersburg is situated on the middle taiga lowlands along the shores
Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland, and islands of the river
delta. The largest are
Vasilyevsky Island (besides the artificial
island between Obvodny canal and Fontanka, and Kotlin in the Neva
Bay), Petrogradsky, Dekabristov and Krestovsky. The latter together
with Yelagin and
Kamenny Island are covered mostly by parks. The
Karelian Isthmus, North of the city, is a popular resort area. In the
Saint Petersburg crosses the Baltic-Ladoga Klint and meets the
The elevation of
Saint Petersburg ranges from the sea level to its
highest point of 175.9 meters (577 ft) at the Orekhovaya Hill in
Duderhof Heights in the south. Part of the city's territory west
Liteyny Prospekt is no higher than 4 meters (13 ft) above sea
level, and has suffered from numerous floods. Floods in Saint
Petersburg are triggered by a long wave in the Baltic Sea, caused by
meteorological conditions, winds and shallowness of the
Neva Bay. The
four most disastrous floods occurred in 1824 (421 centimeters or 166
inches above sea level, during which over three hundred buildings were
destroyed), 1924 (380 centimeters or 150 inches), 1777 (321
centimeters or 126 inches), 1955 (293 centimeters or 115 inches), and
1975 (281 centimeters or 111 inches). To prevent floods, the Saint
Petersburg Dam has been constructed.
Since the 18th century the terrain in the city has been raised
artificially, at some places by more than 4 meters (13 ft),
making mergers of several islands, and changing the hydrology of the
city. Besides the
Neva and its tributaries, other important rivers of
the federal subject of
Saint Petersburg are Sestra, Okhta and Izhora.
The largest lake is Sestroretsky Razliv in the north, followed by
Lakhtinsky Razliv, Suzdal Lakes and other smaller lakes.
Due to location at ca. 60° N latitude the day length in Petersburg
varies across seasons, ranging from 5 hours 53 minutes to 18 hours 50
minutes. A period from mid-May to mid-July when twilight may last all
night is called the white nights.
Main article: Climate of
Under the Köppen climate classification,
Saint Petersburg is
classified as Dfb, a humid continental climate. Distinct moderating
influence of the
Baltic Sea cyclones result in warm, humid and short
summers and long, moderately cold wet winters. Climate of Saint
Petersburg is close to the climate of Helsinki, although colder in
winter and warmer in summer because of its more eastern location.
The average maximum temperature in July is 23 °C (73 °F),
and the average minimum temperature in February is −8.5 °C
(16.7 °F); an extreme temperature of 37.1 °C
(98.8 °F) occurred during the 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer
heat wave. A winter minimum of −35.9 °C (−32.6 °F) was
recorded in 1883. The average annual temperature is 5.8 °C
(42.4 °F). The
Neva River within the city limits usually freezes
up in November–December and break-up occurs in April. From December
to March there are 118 days average with snow cover, which reaches an
average snow depth of 19 cm (7.5 in) by February. The
frost-free period in the city lasts on average for about 135 days.
Despite St. Petersburg's northern location, its winters are warmer
than Moscow's due to the
Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland and some Gulf Stream
influence from Scandinavian winds that can bring temperature slightly
above freezing. The city also has a slightly warmer climate than its
suburbs. Weather conditions are quite variable all year round.
Average annual precipitation varies across the city, averaging 660
millimeters (26 in) per year and reaching maximum in late summer.
Soil moisture is almost always high because of lower
evapotranspiration due to the cool climate. Air humidity is 78% on
average, and there are, on average, 165 overcast days per year.
Climate data for
Saint Petersburg 1981–2010
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average rainy days
Average snowy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net
Source #2: HKO (sunshine hours)
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The first and fairly rich chapter of the history of the local toponymy
is the story of the own name of the city itself. The name day of Peter
I falls on June 29, when the
Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church observes the
Saint Apostles Peter and Paul. The consecration of the small
wooden church in their names (its construction began simultaneously
with the citadel) made them the heavenly patrons of the Peter and Paul
Fortress, while St. Peter at the same time became the eponym of
the whole city. In June 1703
Peter the Great
Peter the Great officially gave the site
the name Sankt Pieter Burkh (an emulation of Dutch topografical suffix
-burg, which refers to fortified towns and places, as Peter was a
Neerlandophile) which was subsequently russefied.
While not originally named for
Tsar Peter the Great, during World War
I the city was changed from the Germanic "Peterburg" to "Petrograd" in
A 14- to 15-letter-long name, composed of the three roots proved too
cumbersome, and a lot of shortened versions appeared in habitual use.
The first General Governor of the city Menshikov is maybe also the
author of the first nickname of Petersburg which he called Петри
(Petri). It took some years until the known Russian spelling of this
name finally settled. In 1740s
Mikhail Lomonosov uses a derivative of
Greek: Πετρόπολις (Petropolis, Петрополис) in a
russified form Petropol' (Петрополь). A combo Piterpol
(Питерпол) also appears at this time. In any case,
eventually the usage of prefix "Sankt-" ceased except for the formal
official documents, where a three-letter abbreviation "СПб" (SPb)
was very widely used as well.
In the 1830s
Alexander Pushkin translated the "foreign" city name of
Saint Petersburg" to the more Russian Petrograd in one of his poems.
However, it was only on 31 [O.S. 18 August] 1914, after the
Germany had begun, that tsar Nicholas II renamed the capital
to Petrograd. Since the prefix 'Saint' was omitted, this act also
changed the eponym and the "patron" of the city, from
Apostle Peter to
Peter the Great, its founder.
From 1924 to 1991 the city was known as 'Leningrad'. This is a picture
Saint Petersburg port entrance with an old 'Ленинград'
October Revolution the name Red Petrograd (Красный
Петроград) was often used in newspapers and other prints
until the city was renamed Leningrad in January 1924.
A referendum on reversing the renaming of Leningrad was held on June
12, 1991, with 54.86% of voters (with a turnout of 65%) supporting
Saint Petersburg". Renaming the city Petrograd was not an option.
This change officially took effect on September 6, 1991.
Meanwhile, the oblast whose administrative center is also in Saint
Petersburg is still named Leningrad.
Having passed the role of capital to Petersburg,
relinquished the title of "capital", being called pervoprestolnaya
("first-throned") for 200 years. An equivalent name for Petersburg,
the "Northern Capital", has re-entered usage today since several
federal institutions were recently moved from
Moscow to Saint
Petersburg. Solemn descriptive names like "the city of three
revolutions" and "the cradle of the October revolution" used in Soviet
era are reminders of the pivotal events in national history that
occurred here. For their part, poetic names of the city, like the
Venice of the North" and the "Northern Palmyra" emphasize
town-planning and architectural features contrasting these parallels
to the northern location of this megalopolis. Petropolis is a
translation of a city name to Greek, and is also a kind of descriptive
name: Πέτρ~ is a Greek root for "stone", so the "city from stone"
emphasizes the material that had been forcibly made obligatory for
construction from the very first years of the city. (Its official
Greek name is Αγία Πετρούπολη.)
Main article: Demographics of
Soviet era apartment buildings in
Saint Petersburg, July 2010
Saint Petersburg Metro
Saint Petersburg Metro passengers
Saint Petersburg is the second largest city in Russia. As of the 2017
Rosstat, the federal subject's population is 5,281,579 or 3.6% of the
total population of Russia; up from 4,879,566 (3.4%) recorded in
the 2010 Census, and up from 5,023,506 recorded in the 1989
Vital statistics for 2016
Births: 72 879 (13.9 per 1000)
Deaths: 61 459 (11.7 per 1000) 
Total fertility rate:
The 2010 Census recorded the ethnic composition as follows: Russian
80.1%, Ukrainian 1.3%, Belarusians 0.8%, Tatar 0.6%, Armenian 0.6%,
Jewish 0.5%, Uzbek 0.4%, Tajik 0.3%, Azeri 0.3%, Georgian 0.2%,
Moldovan 0.2%, Finns 0.1%, other – 1.3%. The ethnicity of the
remaining 13.4% of the inhabitants was not specified.
During the 20th century, the city experienced dramatic population
changes. From 2.4 million residents in 1916 its population
dropped to less than 740,000 by 1920 during the
Russian Revolution of
1917 and Russian Civil War. The minorities of Germans, Poles, Finns,
Estonians and Latvians were almost completely transferred from
Leningrad during the 1930s. From 1941 to the end of 1943,
population dropped from 3 million to less than 600,000, as people
died in battles, starved to death during the Siege of Leningrad, or
were evacuated. After the siege, some of the evacuees returned, but
most influx was due to migration from other parts of the Soviet Union.
The city absorbed about 3 million people in the 1950s and grew to
over 5 million in the 1980s. From 1991 to 2006 the city's
population decreased to 4.6 million, while the suburban
population increased due to privatization of land and massive move to
suburbs. Based on the 2010 census results the population is over
4.8 million. The birth rate remained lower than the death
rate(until the 2012) ; people over 65 constitute more than
twenty percent of the population; and the median age is about 40
years. Since 2012 the birth rate became higher than the death
People in urban
Saint Petersburg lived mostly in apartments. Between
1918 and the 1990s, the Soviets nationalised housing and forced
residents to share communal apartments (kommunalkas). With 68% living
in shared flats in the 1930s, Leningrad was the city in the
the largest number of kommunalkas. Resettling residents of kommunalkas
is now on the way out, albeit shared apartments are still not
uncommon. As new boroughs were built on the outskirts in the
1950s–1980s, over half a million low income families eventually
received free apartments, and about an additional hundred thousand
condos were purchased. While economic and social activity is
concentrated in the historic city centre, the richest part of Saint
Petersburg, most people live in commuter areas. For the first half of
2007, the birth rate was 9.1 per 1000.
Saint Petersburg as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)
Spiritual but not religious
Atheism and irreligion
Other and undeclared
The previous table showing religious membership within Saint
Petersburg shows that roughly half of the population are Russian
Further information: Politics of
Saint Petersburg and Administrative
Smolny Institute, seat of the governor
The city assembly meets in the Mariinsky Palace
Saint Petersburg is a federal subject of
Russia (a federal city).
The political life of
Saint Petersburg is regulated by the Charter of
Saint Petersburg adopted by the city legislature in 1998. The
superior executive body is the
Saint Petersburg City Administration,
led by the city governor (mayor before 1996).
Saint Petersburg has a
single-chamber legislature, the
Saint Petersburg Legislative Assembly,
which is the city's regional parliament.
According to the federal law passed in 2004, heads of federal
subjects, including the governor of
Saint Petersburg, were nominated
by the President of
Russia and approved by local legislatures. Should
the legislature disapprove the nominee, the President could dissolve
it. The former governor, Valentina Matviyenko, was approved according
to the new system in December 2006. She was the only woman governor in
the whole of
Russia until her resignation on August 22, 2011.
Matviyenko stood for elections as member of the Regional Council of
Saint Petersburg and won comprehensively with allegations of rigging
and ballot stuffing by the opposition. Russian President Dmitry
Medvedev has already backed her for the position of Speaker to the
Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation
and her election qualifies her for that job. After her resignation,
Georgy Poltavchenko was appointed as the new acting governor the same
day. In 2012, following passage of a new federal law, restoring
direct elections of heads of federal subjects, the city charter was
again amended to provide for direct elections of governor.
Saint Petersburg city is divided into eighteen districts. Saint
Petersburg is also the unofficial but de facto administrative centre
of Leningrad Oblast, and of the Northwestern Federal District. The
Constitutional Court of
Russia moved to
Saint Petersburg from Moscow
in May 2008.
Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast, being two different federal
subjects, share a number of local departments of federal executive
agencies and courts, such as court of arbitration, police, FSB, postal
service, drug enforcement administration, penitentiary service,
federal registration service, and other federal services.
Main article: Economy of
Saint Petersburg International Economic Forum is a major Russian
Power Machines plant building on Sverdlovskaya embankment in Saint
Saint Petersburg is a major trade gateway, serving as the financial
and industrial centre of Russia, with specializations in oil and gas
trade; shipbuilding yards; aerospace industry; technology, including
radio, electronics, software, and computers; machine building, heavy
machinery and transport, including tanks and other military equipment;
mining; instrument manufacture; ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy
(production of aluminium alloys); chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and
medical equipment; publishing and printing; food and catering;
wholesale and retail; textile and apparel industries; and many other
businesses. It was also home to Lessner, one of Russia's two
pioneering automobile manufacturers (along with Russo-Baltic); it was
founded by machine tool and boiler maker G. A. Lessner in 1904, with
designs by Boris Loutsky, and it survived until 1910.
Ten percent of the world's power turbines are made there at the LMZ,
which built over two thousand turbines for power plants across the
world. Major local industries are
Admiralty Shipyard, Baltic Shipyard,
LOMO, Kirov Plant, Elektrosila, Izhorskiye Zavody; also registered in
Saint Petersburg are Sovkomflot,
Petersburg Fuel Company
Petersburg Fuel Company and SIBUR
among other major Russian and international companies.
Saint Petersburg has three large cargo seaports: Bolshoi Port Saint
Petersburg, Kronstadt, and Lomonosov. International cruise liners have
been served at the passenger port at Morskoy Vokzal on the south-west
of Vasilyevsky Island. In 2008 the first two berths were opened at the
New Passenger Port on the west of the island. The new port is part
of the city's "Marine Facade" development project and is due to
have seven berths in operation by 2010.
A complex system of riverports on both banks of the
Neva River are
interconnected with the system of seaports, thus making Saint
Petersburg the main link between the
Baltic Sea and the rest of Russia
through the Volga-Baltic Waterway.
Saint Petersburg Mint (Monetny Dvor), founded in 1724, is one of
the largest mints in the world, it mints Russian coins, medals and
Saint Petersburg is also home to the oldest and largest
Russian foundry, Monumentskulptura, which made thousands of sculptures
and statues that are now gracing public parks of
Saint Petersburg, as
well as many other cities. Monuments and bronze statues of the Tsars,
as well as other important historic figures and dignitaries, and other
world famous monuments, such as the sculptures by Peter Clodt von
Jürgensburg, Paolo Troubetzkoy, Mark Antokolsky, and others, were
Toyota opened a Camry plant after investing 5 billion
roubles (approx. 200 mln dollars) in Shushary, one of the southern
Saint Petersburg. Opel, Hyundai and Nissan have signed
deals with the Russian government to build their automotive plants in
Saint Petersburg too. Automotive and auto-parts industry is on the
rise there during the last decade.
Saint Petersburg is the location of a significant brewery and
distillery industry. It is known as the "beer capital" of Russia, due
to the supply and quality of local water, contributing over 30% of the
domestic production of beer with its five large-scale breweries
including Europe's second largest brewery Baltika, Vena (both operated
by BBH), Heineken Brewery, Stepan Razin (both by Heineken) and Tinkoff
The city has a lot of local distilleries that produce a broad range of
vodka brands. The oldest ones is LIVIZ (founded in 1897). Among the
youngest is Russian Standard
Vodka introduced in
Moscow in 1998, which
opened in 2006 a new $60 million distillery in Petersburg (an
area of 30,000 m2 (320,000 sq ft), production rate of
22,500 bottles per hour). In 2007 this brand was exported to over 70
Saint Petersburg has the second largest construction industry in
Russia, including commercial, housing and road construction.
Saint Petersburg's city budget was 179.9 billion rubles
(about 6.651 billion
US$ at 2006 exchange rates), and is
planned to double by 2012. The federal subject's Gross Regional
Product as of 2016[update] was 3.7 trillion Russian rubles (or
US$66 billion), ranked 4th in Russia, after Moscow, Tyumen
Moscow Oblast, and per capita of US$12,000, ranked
12th among Russia's federal subjects, contributed mostly by
wholesale and retail trade and repair services (24.7%) as well as
processing industry (20.9%) and transportation and telecommunications
Budget revenues of the city in 2009 amounted to 294.3 billion
rubles (about 10.044 billion
US$ at 2009 exchange rates),
expenses – 336.3 billion rubles (about 11.477 billion US$
at 2009 exchange rates). The budget deficit amounted to about
42 billion rubles. (about 1.433 billion
US$ at 2009
By 2015, St. Petersburg takes the 4th place on economy scales among
all subjects of the Russian Federation, conceding only to Moscow, the
Main article: Landmarks of
Palace Square in winter. Winter Palace, Alexander Column, General
Saint Petersburg has three skyscrapers: Leader Tower (140 m),
Alexander Nevsky (124 m) and Atlantic City (105 m) all three being
situated far away from the historical centre. Regulations forbid
construction of tall buildings in the city centre. The 310-meter
(1,020 ft) tall
Saint Petersburg TV Tower is the tallest
completed structure in the city. However, there was a controversial
project endorsed by the city authorities, and known as the Okhta
Center, to build a 396 meters (1,299 ft) supertall skyscraper. In
World Monuments Fund
World Monuments Fund included the
Saint Petersburg historic
skyline on the watch list of the 100 most endangered sites due to the
expected construction, which threatens to alter it drastically.
Okhta Center project has been finally cancelled at the end of 2010
and instead of that
Lakhta Center project is started at the city
outskirts. The complex will include 463-metre-tall (1,519-foot) office
skyscraper and several low rise mixed use buildings. The Lakhta Center
project has caused much less controversy and, unlike the previous
unbuilt project, is not seen by
UNESCO as a potential threat to the
city's cultural heritage because it is located far away from the
historical centre. Skyscraper construction has already started, and
the building is set to be completed in 2018. It is assumed that the
building will be the tallest in
Russia and Europe.
Saint Isaac's Square
Unlike in Moscow, in
Saint Petersburg the historic architecture of the
city centre, mostly consisting of
Baroque and neoclassical buildings
of the 18th and 19th centuries, has been largely preserved; although a
number of buildings were demolished after the Bolsheviks' seizure of
power, during the
Siege of Leningrad
Siege of Leningrad and in recent years.[citation
needed] The oldest of the remaining building is a wooden house built
for Peter I in 1703 on the shore of the
Neva near Trinity Square.
Since 1991 the Historic Centre of
Saint Petersburg and Related Groups
of Monuments in
Saint Petersburg and
Leningrad Oblast have been listed
UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The ensemble of Peter and Paul
Fortress with the
Peter and Paul Cathedral
Peter and Paul Cathedral takes a dominant position
Zayachy Island along the right bank of the
Neva River. Each noon a
cannon fires a blank shot from the fortress. The
Mosque, the largest mosque in Europe when opened in 1913, is situated
on the right bank nearby. The Spit of Vasilievsky Island, which splits
the river into two largest armlets, the Bolshaya
Neva and Malaya Neva,
is connected to the northern bank (Petrogradsky Island) via the
Exchange Bridge and occupied by the Old
Saint Petersburg Stock
Exchange and Rostral Columns. The southern coast of Vasilyevsky Island
along the Bolshaya
Neva features some of the city's oldest buildings,
dating from the 18th century, including the Kunstkamera, Twelve
Menshikov Palace and Imperial Academy of Arts. It hosts one
of two campuses of
Saint Petersburg State University.
Peter and Paul Fortress
On the southern, left bank of the Neva, connected to the spit of
Vasilyevsky Island via the Palace Bridge, lie the
Hermitage Museum complex stretching along the Palace
Embankment, which includes the baroque Winter Palace, former official
residence of Russian emperors, as well as the neoclassical Marble
Winter Palace faces Palace Square, the city's main square
with the Alexander Column. Nevsky Prospekt, also situated on the left
bank of the Neva, is the main avenue in the city. It starts at the
Admiralty and runs eastwards next to Palace Square. Nevsky Prospekt
crosses the Moika (Green Bridge),
Griboyedov Canal (Kazansky Bridge),
Garden Street, the
Fontanka (Anichkov Bridge), meets Liteyny Prospekt
and proceeds to Uprising Square near the Moskovsky railway station,
where it meets
Ligovsky Prospekt and turns to the Alexander Nevsky
Lavra. The Passage, Catholic Church of St. Catherine, Book House
(former Singer Manufacturing Company Building in the Art Nouveau
style), Grand Hotel Europe, Lutheran Church of
Saint Peter and Saint
Paul, Great Gostiny Dvor, Russian National Library, Alexandrine
Theatre behind Mikeshin's statue of Catherine the Great, Kazan
Cathedral, Stroganov Palace,
Anichkov Palace and Beloselsky-Belozersky
Palace are all situated along that avenue.
Nevsky Prospect at Christmas.
Alexander Nevsky Lavra, intended to house the relics of St.
Alexander Nevsky, is an important centre of Christian education in
Russia. It also contains the
Tikhvin Cemetery with graves of many
notable Petersburgers. On the territory between the
Neva and Nevsky
Prospekt the Church of the Savior on Blood, Mikhailovsky Palace
housing the Russian Museum, Field of Mars, St. Michael's Castle,
Summer Garden, Tauride Palace,
Smolny Institute and
Smolny Convent are
Church of the Savior on Blood
Many notable landmarks are situated to the west and south of the
Admiralty Building, including the Trinity Cathedral, Mariinsky Palace,
Hotel Astoria, famous Mariinsky Theatre, New Holland Island, Saint
Isaac's Cathedral, the largest in the city, and Senate Square, also
known as Decembrist's Square with the
Bronze Horseman, 18th century
equestrian monument to Peter the Great, which is considered among the
city's most recognisable symbols. Other symbols of
include the weather vane in the shape of a small ship on top of the
Admiralty's golden spire and the golden angel on top of the Peter and
Paul Cathedral. The
Palace Bridge drawn at night is yet another symbol
of the city. Every night during the navigation period from April to
November, 22 bridges across the
Neva and main canals are drawn to let
ships pass in and out of the
Baltic Sea according to a schedule.
It was not until 2004 that the first high bridge across the Neva,
which does not need to be drawn, Big Obukhovsky Bridge, was opened.
There are hundreds of smaller bridges in
Saint Petersburg spanning
across numerous canals and distributaries of the Neva, some of the
most important of which are the Moika, Fontanka, Griboyedov Canal,
Obvodny Canal, Karpovka and Smolenka. Due to the intricate web of
Saint Petersburg is often called
Venice of the North. The
rivers and canals in the city centre are lined with granite
embankments. The embankments and bridges are separated from rivers and
canals by granite or cast iron parapets.
Southern suburbs of the city feature former imperial residences,
including Petergof, with majestic fountain cascades and parks,
Tsarskoe Selo, with the baroque
Catherine Palace and the neoclassical
Alexander Palace, and Pavlovsk, which contains a domed palace of
Emperor Paul and one of the largest English-style parks in Europe.
Some other residences situated nearby and making part of the world
heritage site, including a castle and park in Gatchina, actually
Leningrad Oblast rather than
Saint Petersburg. Another
notable suburb is
Kronstadt with its 19th-century fortifications and
naval monuments, occupying the
Kotlin Island in the Gulf of Finland.
Since around the end of the 20th century a great deal of active
building and restoration works have been carried out in a number of
the city's older districts. The authorities have recently been
compelled to transfer the ownership of state-owned private residences
in the city centre to private lessors. Many older buildings have been
reconstructed to allow their use as apartments and penthouses.
Some of these structures, such as the
Saint Petersburg Commodity and
Stock Exchange have been recognised as town-planning errors.
The Bolshoi Zal (Grand Hall) of
Saint Petersburg Philharmonia.
Saint Petersburg has a significant historical and cultural
The 18th and 19th-century architectural ensemble of the city and its
environs is preserved in virtually unchanged form. For various reasons
(including large-scale destruction during
World War II
World War II and
construction of modern buildings during the postwar period in the
largest historical centers of Europe),
Saint Petersburg has become a
unique reserve of European architectural styles of the past three
Saint Petersburg's loss of capital city status helped the
city to retain many of its pre-revolutionary buildings, as modern
architectural 'prestige projects' tended to be built in Moscow; this
largely prevented the rise of mid-to-late-20th-century architecture
and helped maintain the architectural appearance of the historic city
Saint Petersburg is inscribed on the
UNESCO World Heritage list as an
area with 36 historical architectural complexes and around 4000
outstanding individual monuments of architecture, history and culture.
New tourist programs and sightseeing tours have been developed for
those wishing to see
Saint Petersburg's cultural heritage.
The Small Italian Skylight Room in the Hermitage Museum.
The city has 221 museums, 2000 libraries, more than 80 theaters, 100
concert organizations, 45 galleries and exhibition halls, 62 cinemas
and around 80 other cultural establishments. Every year the city hosts
around 100 festivals and various competitions of art and culture,
including more than 50 international ones.
Despite the economic instability of the 1990s, not a single major
theatre or museum was closed in
Saint Petersburg; on the contrary many
new ones opened, for example a private museum of puppets (opened in
1999) is the third museum of its kind in Russia, where collections of
more than 2000 dolls are presented including 'The multinational Saint
Petersburg' and 'Pushkin's Petersburg'. The museum world of Saint
Petersburg is incredibly diverse. The city is not only home to the
Hermitage Museum and the
Russian Museum with its rich
collection of Russian art, but also the palaces of
and its suburbs, so-called small town museums and others like the
museum of famous Russian writer Dostoyevsky; Museum of Musical
Instruments, the museum of decorative arts and the museum of
The musical life of
Saint Petersburg is rich and diverse, with the
city now playing host to a number of annual carnivals.
Ballet performances occupy a special place in the cultural life of
Saint Petersburg. The Petersburg School of Ballet is named as one of
the best in the world. Traditions of the Russian classical school have
been passed down from generation to generation among outstanding
educators. The art of famous and prominent
Saint Petersburg dancers
like Rudolf Nureyev, Natalia Makarova,
Mikhail Baryshnikov was, and
is, admired throughout the world. Contemporary Petersburg ballet is
made up not only of traditional Russian classical school, but also
ballets by those like Boris Eifman, who expanded the scope of strict
Russian ballet to almost unimaginable limits. Remaining
faithful to the classical basis (he was a choreographer at the
Vaganova Academy of Russian Ballet), he combined classical ballet with
the avant-garde style, and then, in turn, with acrobatics, rhythmic
gymnastics, dramatic expressiveness, cinema, color, light, and finally
with spoken word.
Media and communications
All major Russian newspapers are active in
Saint Petersburg. The city
has a developed telecommunications system. In 2014 Rostelecom, the
national operator announced it began a major modernization of the
fixed-line network in the city.
Television networks that can be received in the city
Public Television of Russia
"Russian (Russkoye) Radio"
Russia (in English)"
"Radio Freedom (Svoboda)"
"Radio Kultura (Culture)"
"Dobrye Pesni (Good Songs)"
"Politseiskaya Volna (Police Wave)"
"Moya Semia (My Family)"
"Echo of Moscow"
Main article: Society and culture in
Hermitage Museum (building on the right)
Saint Petersburg is home to more than two hundred museums, many of
them hosted in historic buildings. The largest of the museums is the
Hermitage Museum, featuring interiors of the former imperial residence
and a vast collection of art. The
Russian Museum is a large museum
devoted specifically to Russian fine art. The apartments of some
famous Petersburgers, including Alexander Pushkin, Fyodor Dostoyevsky,
Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Feodor Chaliapin, Alexander Blok, Vladimir
Nabokov, Anna Akhmatova, Mikhail Zoshchenko, Joseph Brodsky, as well
as some palace and park ensembles of the southern suburbs and notable
architectural monuments such as St. Isaac's Cathedral, have also been
turned into public museums.
The Kunstkamera, with its collection established in 1714 by Peter the
Great to collect curiosities from all over the world, is sometimes
considered the first museum in Russia, which has evolved into the
Peter the Great
Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography.
The Russian Ethnography Museum, which has been split from the Russian
Museum, is devoted to the cultures of the people of Russia, the former
Soviet Union and Russian Empire.
A number of museums provide insight into the Soviet history of Saint
Petersburg, including the Museum of the Blockade, which describes the
Siege of Leningrad
Siege of Leningrad and the Museum of Political History, which explains
many authoritarian features of the U.S.S.R..
Other notable museums include the Central Naval Museum, and Zoological
Museum, Central Soil Museum, the Russian Railway Museum, Suvorov
Museum, Museum of the Siege of Leningrad,
Erarta Museum of
Contemporary Art, the largest non-governmental Museum of contemporary
art in Russia,
Saint Petersburg Museum of History in the Peter and
Paul Fortress and Artillery Museum, which includes not only artillery
items, but also a huge collection of other military equipment,
uniforms and decorations.
Military Historical Museum
Museum ship cruiser Aurora
The main auditorium of the Mariinsky Theatre
Among the city's more than fifty theatres is the world-famous
Mariinsky Theatre (also known as the Kirov Theatre in the USSR), home
Mariinsky Ballet company and opera. Leading ballet dancers,
such as Vaslav Nijinsky, Anna Pavlova, Rudolph Nureyev, Mikhail
Galina Ulanova and Natalia Makarova, were principal stars
of the Mariinsky ballet.
The first music school, the
Saint Petersburg Conservatory, was founded
in 1862 by the Russian pianist and composer Anton Rubinstein. The
school alumni have included such notable composers as Pyotr
Tchaikovsky, Sergei Prokofiev, Artur Kapp,
Rudolf Tobias and Dmitri
Shostakovich, who taught at the conservatory during the 1960s,
bringing it additional fame. The renowned Russian composer Nikolai
Rimsky-Korsakov also taught at the conservatory from 1871 to 1905.
Among his students were Igor Stravinsky, Alexander Glazounov, Anatoly
Liadov and others. The former St. Petersburg apartment of
Rimsky-Korsakov has been faithfully preserved as the composer's only
Scarlet Sails celebration on the
Neva River in
Dmitri Shostakovich, who was born and raised in
dedicated his Seventh Symphony to the city, calling it the "Leningrad
Symphony". He wrote the symphony while based in the city during the
siege of Leningrad. It was premiered in Samara in March 1942; a few
month later, it received its first performance in the besieged
Leningrad at the Bolshoy Philharmonic Hall under the baton of
conductor Karl Eliasberg. It was heard over the radio and was said to
have lifted the spirits of the surviving population. In 1992, the
7th Symphony was performed by the 14 surviving orchestral players of
the Leningrad premiere in the same hall as half a century before.
The Leningrad Philharmonic
Orchestra remained one of the best known
symphony orchestras in the world under the leadership of conductors
Yevgeny Mravinsky and Yuri Temirkanov. Mravinsky's term as artistic
director of the Leningrad Philharmonic – a term that is possibly the
longest of any conductor with any orchestra in modern times – led
the orchestra from being a little-known provincial ensemble to it
becoming one of the world's most highly regarded orchestras today,
especially for the performance of Russian music.
The Imperial Choral Capella was founded and modeled after the royal
courts of other European capitals.
The Alexander theatre,
Saint Petersburg has been home to the newest movements in popular
music in the country. The first jazz band in the
Soviet Union was
founded here by
Leonid Utyosov in the 1920s, under the patronage of
Isaak Dunayevsky. The first jazz club in the
Soviet Union was founded
here in the 1950s and was later named jazz club Kvadrat. In 1956 the
popular ensemble Druzhba was founded by Aleksandr Bronevitsky and
Edita Piekha to become the first popular band in the
USSR during the
1950s. In the 1960s student rock-groups Argonavty, Kochevniki and
others pioneered a series of unofficial and underground rock concerts
and festivals. In 1972
Boris Grebenshchikov founded the band Aquarium,
which later grew to huge popularity. Since then "Peter's rock" music
style was formed.
In the 1970s many bands came out from 'underground' and eventually
founded the Leningrad Rock Club, which provided a stage to such bands
as DDT, Kino, headed by the legendary Viktor Tsoi, Alisa, Zemlyane,
Zoopark, Piknik, Secret and many other popular groups. The first
Russian-style happening show Pop Mekhanika, mixing over 300 people and
animals on stage, was directed by the multi-talented Sergey Kuryokhin
in the 1980s. The annual International Music Festival SKIF (Sergey
Kuriokhin International Festival) is named after him. In 2004 the
Kuryokhin Center was founded, were the SKIF as well as the
Electro-Mechanica festival and Ethnomechanica festival takes place.
SKIF focuses on experimental pop music and avant garde music,
Electro-Mechanica on electronic music and Ethnomechanica on world
Saint Petersburg boasts many notable musicians of various
genres, from popular Leningrad's Sergei Shnurov, Tequilajazzz, Splean,
Korol i Shut, to rock veterans Yuri Shevchuk,
Vyacheslav Butusov and
Mikhail Boyarsky. In the early 2000s on a wave of popularity of
metalcore, rapcore, emocore and there are such groups as Amatory,
Kirpichi, Psychea, Stigmata,
Grenouer and Animal Jazz.
White Nights Festival
White Nights Festival in
Saint Petersburg is famous for
spectacular fireworks and a massive show celebrating the end of the
The rave band Little Big, known for its absurd and colorful songs and
videos, also hails from
Konstantin Khabensky, known for his roles in Night Watch, Day Watch
and Admiral, is a native of
Over 250 international and Russian movies were filmed in Saint
Petersburg. Well over a thousand feature films about tsars,
revolution, people and stories set in
Saint Petersburg have been
produced worldwide but not filmed in the city. The first film studios
were founded in
Saint Petersburg in the 20th century and since the
Lenfilm has been the largest film studio based in Saint
Petersburg. The first foreign feature movie filmed entirely in Saint
Petersburg was the 1997 production of Tolstoy's Anna Karenina,
Sophie Marceau and
Sean Bean and made by an international
team of British, American, French and Russian filmmakers.
The cult comedy Irony of Fate (also Ирония судьбы,
или С лёгким паром!) is set in
Saint Petersburg and
pokes fun at Soviet city planning. The 1985 film White Nights received
considerable Western attention for having captured genuine Leningrad
street scenes at a time when filming in the
Soviet Union by Western
production companies was generally unheard of. Other movies include
GoldenEye (1995), Midnight in
Saint Petersburg (1996), Brother (1997)
and Tamil romantic thriller film-
Dhaam Dhoom (2008). Onegin (1999) is
based on the Pushkin poem and showcases many tourist attractions. In
addition, the Russian romantic comedy, Piter FM, intricately showcases
the cityscape, almost as if it were a main character in the film.
Several international film festivals are held annually, such as the
Festival of Festivals,
Saint Petersburg, as well as the Message to Man
International Documentary Film Festival, since its inauguration in
1988 during the White Nights.
The Pushkin House
Saint Petersburg has a longstanding and world famous tradition in
Dostoyevsky called it "The most abstract and intentional
city in the world", emphasizing its artificiality, but it was also a
symbol of modern disorder in a changing Russia. It frequently appeared
to Russian writers as a menacing and inhuman mechanism. The grotesque
and often nightmarish image of the city is featured in Pushkin's last
poems, the Petersburg stories of Gogol, the novels of Dostoyevsky, the
Alexander Blok and Osip Mandelshtam, and in the symbolist
novel Petersburg by Andrey Bely. According to Lotman in his chapter,
'The Symbolism of
Saint Petersburg' in Universe and the Mind, these
writers were inspired by symbolism from within the city itself. The
effect of life in
Saint Petersburg on the plight of the poor clerk in
a society obsessed with hierarchy and status also became an important
theme for authors such as Pushkin, Gogol and Dostoyevsky. Another
important feature of early
Saint Petersburg literature is its mythical
element, which incorporates urban legends and popular ghost stories,
as the stories of Pushkin and Gogol included ghosts returning to Saint
Petersburg to haunt other characters as well as other fantastical
elements, creating a surreal and abstract image of
20th-century writers from
Saint Petersburg, such as Vladimir Nabokov,
Ayn Rand, Andrey Bely and Yevgeny Zamyatin, along with his
Serapion Brothers created entire new styles in
literature and contributed new insights to the understanding of
society through their experience in this city.
Anna Akhmatova became
an important leader for Russian poetry. Her poem Requiem adumbrates
the perils encountered during the Stalinist era. Another notable
20th-century writer from
Saint Petersburg is Joseph Brodsky, recipient
Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature (1987). While living in the United
States, his writings in English reflected on life in
from the unique perspective of being both an insider and an outsider
to the city in essays such as, "A Guide to a Renamed City" and the
nostalgic "In a Room and a Half".
Saint Petersburg State University
Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University
See also: Education in
Russia and List of higher education and
academic institutions in
As of 2006[update]/2007 there were 1024 kindergartens, 716 public
schools and 80 vocational schools in
Saint Petersburg. The largest
of the public higher education institutions is
Saint Petersburg State
University, enrolling approximately 32,000 undergraduate students; and
the largest non-governmental higher education institutions is the
Institute of International Economic Relations, Economics, and Law.
Other famous universities are
Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University,
Saint Petersburg State University
Saint Petersburg State University of Economics and
Saint Petersburg Military engineering-technical
university. However, the public universities are all federal property
and do not belong to the city.
Main article: Sport in
Leningrad hosted part of the association football tournament during
the 1980 Summer Olympics. The 1994
Goodwill Games were also held here.
In boating, the first competition here was the 1703 rowing event
initiated by Peter the Great, after the victory over the Swedish
Yachting events were held by the
Russian Navy since the
foundation of the city. Yacht clubs: St. Petersburg River Yacht
Neva Yacht Club, the latter is the oldest yacht club in the
world. In the winter, when the sea and lake surfaces are frozen and
yachts and dinghies cannot be used, local people sail ice boats.
Equestrianism has been a long tradition, popular among the Tsars and
aristocracy, as well as part of military training. Several historic
sports arenas were built for equestrianism since the 18th century, to
maintain training all year round, such as the Zimny Stadion and
Konnogvardeisky Manezh, among others.
Chess tradition was highlighted by the 1914 international tournament,
partially funded by the Tsar, in which the title "Grandmaster" was
first formally conferred by Russian
Tsar Nicholas II to five players:
Lasker, Capablanca, Alekhine, Tarrasch and Marshall.
Saint Petersburg logo
Kirov Stadium (now demolished) was one of the largest stadiums in the
world and home to FC Zenit
Saint Petersburg from 1950 to 1993 and
again in 1995. In 1951 a crowd of 110,000 set the single-game
attendance record for Soviet football. In 1984, 2007, 2010 and
2011/2012 Zenit were the champions of the Soviet and Russian leagues,
respectively, and won the Russian Cup in 1999 and 2010, the UEFA Cup
2007–08 season and the 2008 UEFA Super Cup. The team leader was
local player Andrei Arshavin. Zenit play their home games at Petrovsky
Stadium. The New Zenit Stadium, which will host 2018
FIFA World Cup
matches, is under construction.
There is also a second professional football club in
Saint Petersburg, which is owned by the historic Dynamo
Hockey teams in the city include SKA
Saint Petersburg in the KHL, HC
VMF St. Petersburg in the VHL, and junior clubs
SKA-1946 and Silver
Lions in the Russian Major League. SKA
Saint Petersburg is one of the
most popular in the KHL, consistently being at or near the top of the
league in attendance. Along with their popularity, they are one of the
best teams in the
KHL right now, as they have won the Gagarin Cup
twice. Well-known players on the team include Pavel Datsyuk, Ilya
Kovalchuk, Nikita Gusev,
Sergei Shirokov and Viktor Tikhonov. During
the NHL lockout, stars Ilya Kovalchuk,
Sergei Bobrovsky and Vladimir
Tarasenko also played for the team. They play their home games at Ice
The city's long-time basketball team is BC Kondrashin Belov, which
launched the career of Andrei Kirilenko. Kondrashin Belov won two
championships in the
USSR Premier League (1975 and 1992), two USSR
Cups (1978 and 1987), and a Russian Cup title (2011). They also won
Saporta Cup twice (1973 and 1975). Legends of the club include
Alexander Belov and Vladimir Kondrashin. The city also has a new
basketball team, BC Zenit
A section of the Western High-Speed Diameter
Saint Petersburg is a major transport hub. The first Russian railway
was built here in 1837, and since then the city's transport
infrastructure has continued to develop and keep pace with the growth
of the city. Petersburg has an extensive system of local roads and
railway services, maintains a large public transport system that
Saint Petersburg tram and the
Saint Petersburg Metro, and
is home to a number of riverine services that convey passengers around
the city efficiently and in relative comfort.
The city is connected to the rest of
Russia and the wider world by a
number of federal highways and national and international rail routes.
Pulkovo Airport serves the majority of air passengers departing from
or arriving to the city.
Roads and public transport
Trolleybus on Nevsky Avenue.
Obvodny Kanal station, opened in 2010
Moscow Gate Square.
Hydrofoil docking in St.Petersburg upon arrival from Peterhof Palace
Saint Petersburg has an extensive city-funded network of public
transport (buses, trams, trolleybuses) and several hundred routes
served by marshrutkas. Trams in
Saint Petersburg used to be the main
mean of transport; in the 1980s this was the largest tram network in
the world, but many tracks were dismantled in the 2000s.
Buses carry up to three million passengers daily, serving over 250
urban and a number of suburban bus routes.
Saint Petersburg Metro
underground rapid transit system was opened in 1955; it now has 5
lines with 67 stations, connecting all five railway terminals, and
carrying 2.3 million passengers daily. Metro stations are
often elaborately decorated with materials such as marble and bronze.
Saint Petersburg Metro
Saint Petersburg Metro map
Traffic jams are common in the city due to daily commuter traffic
volumes, intercity traffic and excessive winter snow. The construction
of freeways such as the
Saint Petersburg Ring Road, completed in 2011,
and the Western High-Speed Diameter, completed in 2017, helped
partially reduce the traffic in the city. The controversial M11, also
known as the Moscow-
Saint Petersburg Motorway, would connect Saint
Moscow by a freeway and is expected to be completed
FIFA World Cup 2018.
Construction has started in
2010 and the first sections of the freeway was finished in 2014 and
Saint Petersburg is an important transport corridor linking
Russia and Eastern Europe. The city is a node of the
international European routes E18 towards Helsinki, E20 towards
Tallinn, E95 towards Pskov,
Odessa and E105 towards
Kirkenes (north) and towards
Saint Petersburg public transportation statistics
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit
Saint Petersburg, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 69
min. 19.6% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every
day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for
public transit is 11 min, while 16.1% of riders wait for over 20
minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride
in a single trip with public transit is 7 km, while 15.% travel for
over 12 km in a single direction.
The city is also served by passenger and cargo seaports in the Neva
Bay of the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea, the river port higher up the
Neva and tens of smaller passenger stations on both banks of the Neva
river. It is a terminus of both the Volga-Baltic and White Sea-Baltic
The first high bridge that does not need to be drawn, a 2,824-meter
(9,265 ft) long Big Obukhovsky Bridge, opened in 2004. Meteor
hydrofoils link the city centre to the coastal towns of Kronstadt,
Zelenogorsk from May through
October. In the warmer months many smaller boats and water-taxis
maneuver the canals throughout the city.
The shipping company
St Peter Line
St Peter Line operates two ferries that sail from
Helsinki to St Petersburg and from
Stockholm to St Petersburg.
See also: Rail transport in Russia
Sapsan high-speed train runs between
The city is the final destination for a web of intercity and suburban
railways, served by five different railway terminals (Baltiysky,
Finlyandsky, Ladozhsky, Moskovsky and Vitebsky), as well as
dozens of non-terminal railway stations within the federal subject.
Saint Petersburg has international railway connections to Helsinki,
Germany and many former republics of the USSR. The
Helsinki railway, which was built in 1870 and is 443 kilometers
(275 mi) long, has trains running four times a day, in a journey
lasting about three and a half hours with the new Allegro train.
Saint Petersburg Railway opened in 1851, and is 651
kilometers (405 mi) long; the commute to
Moscow now requires from
three and a half to nine hours.
Russian Railways launched a high speed service for the Moscow
Saint Petersburg route. The new train, known as Sapsan, is a
derivative of the popular
Siemens Velaro train; various versions of
this already operate in some European countries. It set records for
the fastest train in
Russia on May 2, 2009, travelling at
281 km/h (174.6 mph) and on May 7, 2009, traveling at
290 kilometers per hour (180 mph).
Since December 12, 2010 Karelian Trains, a joint venture between
Russian Railways and VR (Finnish Railways), has been running Alstom
Pendolino operated high-speed services between
Finlyandsky and Helsinki's Central railway stations. These services
are branded as "Allegro" trains. "Allegro" is known for suffering some
big technical problems from time to time, which sometimes result in
significant delays and even cancel of tourists' trips.
Intercity and suburban rail terminals of Petersburg
Pulkovo International Airport.
Saint Petersburg is served by Pulkovo International Airport, and
also by three smaller commercial and cargo airports in the suburbs.
Lappeenranta Airport, which is located near
Saint Petersburg but on
the Finnish side of the border is also popular among Russian
Pulkovo airport was opened to passengers as a small aerodrome in 1931.
As of 2013[update], the Pulkovo airport, which handles over 12 million
passengers annually, is the 3rd busiest in
Russia after Moscow's
Sheremetyevo and Domodedovo. As a result, the steadily increasing
passenger traffic has triggered a massive modernization of the entire
airport infrastructure. A newly built Terminal 1 of the Pulkovo
airport was put into operation on December 4, 2013 and integrated
international flights of the former terminal Pulkovo-2. The renovated
terminal Pulkovo-1 has been opened for domestic flights as an
extension of the Terminal 1 in 2015.
There is a regular rapid-bus connection (buses 39, 39E, K39) between
Pulkovo airport and the Moskovskaya metro station as well as 24/7 taxi
Saint Petersburg is home to numerous parks and gardens, some of the
most famous of which are situated in the southern suburbs, including
one of the largest English gardens in Europe in Pavlovsk.
the largest park within the limits of the city proper, occupying 240
Summer Garden is the oldest one, dating back to the early 18th
century and designed in the regular style. It is situated on the
southern bank of the
Neva at the head of the
Fontanka and is famous
for its cast iron railing and marble sculptures.
Among other notable parks are the
Maritime Victory Park
Maritime Victory Park on Krestovsky
Island and the
Moscow Victory Park in the south, both commemorating
the victory over
Nazi Germany in the Second World War, as well as the
Central Park of Culture and Leisure occupying
Yelagin Island and the
Tauride Garden around the Tauride Palace. The most common trees grown
in the parks are the English oak,
Norway maple, green ash, silver
birch, Siberian Larch, blue spruce, crack willow, limes, and poplars.
Important dendrological collections dating back to the 19th century
are hosted by the
Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden and the Park of
the Forestry Academy.
In order to commemorate 300 years anniversary of
Saint Petersburg a
new park was laid out. The park is situated in the north western part
of the city. The construction was started in 1995. It is planned to
connect the park with the pedestrian bridge to the territory of Lakhta
Center's recreation areas. In the park 300 trees of valuable sorts,
300 decorative apple-trees, 70 limes. 300 other trees and bushes were
planted. These trees were presented to
Saint Petersburg by
non-commercial and educational organizations of the city, its
sister-cities, city of Helsinki, heads of other regions of Russia,
German Savings Bank and other people and organizations.
Aerial view of the Field of Mars
The Summer Garden
Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden
Catherine Park, Tsarskoye Selo
Main category: People from
Main article: List of people from
Peter II of Russia
Ivan VI of Russia
See also: Crime in
Russia and Tambov gang
The Kresty Prison
The crime dynamic in
Saint Petersburg is tightly associated with the
general social situation in the country. A sharp spike in the crime
level occurred in the late 1980s/early 1990s as a result of the
Perestroika-time turmoils (redistribution of property, privatization,
decline of living standards, decrease of the effectiveness of
militsiya etc.) By then the city had fallen under the control of a
number of organized criminal groups such as Tambov Gang, Malyshev
Kazan Gang and ethnic criminal groups, engaged in racket,
extortion, paying off local government and violent clashes with each
After the assassinations of City Property Committee chairman and
Mikhail Manevich (1997),
State Duma deputy Galina
Starovoytova (1998), acting City Legislature Speaker Viktor Novosyolov
(1999) and a number of prominent businesspeople,
Saint Petersburg was
dubbed Capital of Crime in the Russian press. There were a
number of movies filmed in
Saint Petersburg about the life of crime,
Banditskiy Peterburg: Advocat and Brother, reinforcing its image as
the Crime Capital of Russia.
According to official sources the number of crimes committed by
Saint Petersburg in 2010 increased by 11.1%. Law
enforcement authorities consider this was associated with an increased
number of people from some CIS republics who live in
illegally. On the other hand, some media reported that in recent
years there had been a notable increase in racially motivated
violence, in particular towards foreign students. One of the
notable white supremacist groups, Belaya Energia (White Energy,
inspired by US "White Power" groups) has reportedly been one of the
gangs involved in murdering foreign university students.
The official portal of the Government of
Saint Petersburg provided
data on significant improvements in the crime situation. In
particular, it was reported that the number of crimes against tourists
had decreased by more than half during 2009–2011.
In 2012, Canada's Department of Foreign Affairs warned LGBT travellers
about a vaguely worded law in
Saint Petersburg that came into effect
on March 17, 2012, making it a criminal offence to publicize acts of
male or female homosexuality, bisexuality, or transgenderism. The
intention of the law is to protect minors. A Russian travel advisory
on the Foreign Affairs website notes that while homosexuality is legal
Russia (it was decriminalized in 1993), LGBT Canadian travellers
should avoid "displaying affection in public, as homosexuals can be
targets of violence.... Public actions (including dissemination of
information, statements, displays or conspicuous behaviour)
contradicting or appearing to contradict this law may lead to arrest,
prosecution and the imposition of a fine."
Twin towns and sister cities
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia
List of sister cities to
Saint Petersburg as it appears on the
official portal of the City Government, listing both sister cities and
Non CIS/Baltic states sister cities of
Saint Petersburg (from official
Denmark (since 1989)
Turkey (since 1997)
Malaysia (since 2017)
Belgium (since 1958)
Thailand (since 1997)
Spain (since 1984)
Bethlehem, Palestine (since 2003)
France (since 1991)
South Africa (since 2001)
Philippines (since 2010)
Sri Lanka (since 1997)
China (since 1998)
South Korea (since 1997)
Germany (since 1961)
Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
United Kingdom (since 1995)[not in citation
Poland (since 1961)
Austria (since 2001)
Sweden (since 1962)
Germany (since 1957)
Cuba (since 2000)
Finland (since 1993)
Ho Chi Minh City,
Vietnam (since 1977)
Iran (since 1999)
Turkey (since 1990)
Finland (since 1997)
France (since 1965)
United States (since 1990)
France (since 1993)
United Kingdom (since 1956)
Australia (since 1989)
Finland (since 1996)
Uruguay (since 1998)
India (since 1963)
France (since 1997)
Japan (since 1961)
Greece (since 1965)
Bulgaria (since 2001)
Czech Republic (since 1992)
Canada (since 2002)
Rio de Janeiro,
Brazil (since 1986)
Netherlands (since 1966)
China (since 1959)
Sweden (since 1992)
Finland (since 1993)
Greece (since 2002)
Finland (since 1953)
Poland (since 1997)
Croatia (since 1968)
St. Petersburg, Florida, United States
Sister cities in the
Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States and Baltic
Kazakhstan (since 1996)
Azerbaijan (since 1998)
Tajikistan (since 1999)
Armenia (since 1997)
Lithuania (since 2002)
Latvia (since 1997)
Sevastopol (since 2000)
Latvia (since 2002)
Estonia (since 2002)
Sister cities of
Saint Petersburg (not included on official government
Jordan (since 2003)[not in citation given]
State of Maryland, United States
United States (since 1992)
Slovenia (since 2001)
Galveston, Texas, United States
Kyrgyzstan (since 2004)
South Korea (since 2008)
Mar del Plata,
Argentina (since 2008)
Mexico (since 2008)
Kazakhstan (since 2008)
Italy (since 2001)
Italy (since 2012)
South Korea (since 2008)
Tunisia (since 2008)
Norway (since 2002)
Vietnam (since 2008)
Israel (since 1966)
Slovakia (since 1995)
Israel (since 2008)
Sudan (since 2002)
Le Havre, France
Ukraine (since 2006)
Mongolia (since 2008)
Hungary (since 2002)
Philippines (since 2008)
North Korea (since 2002)
Brazil (since 2002)
Port Vila, Vanuatu
Westport, Connecticut, United States
Venice were formerly twin cities of
Saint Petersburg, but
suspended this link due to St Petersburg's ban on "gay
Milan suspended the relationship with Saint
Petersburg on November 23, 2012 and
Venice did so on January 28,
List of buildings and structures in
List of bridges in
List of theatres in
List of museums in
Saint Petersburg Metro
Saint Petersburg Metro stations
List of notable people from
List of consulates in
Saint Petersburg sister cities
^ Президент Российской
Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая
2000 г. «О полномочном представителе
Президента Российской Федерации в
федеральном округе». Вступил в
силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован:
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Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the
Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian
Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
^ Госстандарт Российской
Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995
г. «Общероссийский классификатор
2. Экономические районы», в ред.
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Gosstandart of the Russian
Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian
Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as
amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
^ Official website of St. Petersburg. St. Petersburg in
^ Законодательное Собрание
Санкт-Петербурга. Закон №555-75 от 26
октября 2005 г. «О праздниках и памятных
датах в Санкт-Петербурге», в ред.
Закона №541-112 от 6 ноября 2008 г. (Legislative
Saint Petersburg. Law #555-75 of 26
October 2005 On Holidays and Memorial Dates in
Saint Petersburg. ).
^ Official website of St. Petersburg. Петербург в
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^ Rosstat.  (in Russian)
^ Правительство Российской
закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об
исчислении времени», в ред.
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of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating
Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the
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^ invalid reference parameter
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See also: Bibliography of the history of
Amery, Colin, Brian Curran & Yuri Molodkovets. St. Petersburg.
London: Frances Lincoln, 2006. ISBN 0-7112-2492-7.
Bater, James H. St. Petersburg: Industrialization and Change.
Montreal: McGuill-Queen’s University Press, 1976.
Berelowitch, Wladimir & Olga Medvedkova. Histoire de
Saint-Pétersbourg. Paris: Fayard, 1996. ISBN 2-213-59601-8.
Brumfield, William Craft. The Origins of Modernism in Russian
Architecture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.
Buckler, Julie. Mapping St. Petersburg: Imperial Text and Cityshape.
Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005 ISBN 0-691-11349-1.
Clark, Katerina, Petersburg, Crucible of Revolution. Cambridge:
Harvard University Press, 1995.
Cross, Anthony (ed.). St. Petersburg, 1703–1825. Basingstoke:
Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. ISBN 1-4039-1570-9.
"San Pietroburgo, la capitale del nord" by
Giuseppe D'Amato in Viaggio
nell'Hansa baltica. L'Unione europea e l'allargamento ad Est.
Greco&Greco editori, Milano, 2004. pp. 27–46.
ISBN 88-7980-355-7. (Travel to the Baltic Hansa. The European
Union and its enlargement to the East) Book in Italian.
George, Arthur L. & Elena George. St. Petersburg: Russia's Window
to the Future, The First Three Centuries. Lanham: Taylor Trade
Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-58979-017-0.
Glantz, David M. The Battle for Leningrad, 1941–1944. Lawrence:
University Press of Kansas, 2002. ISBN 0-7006-1208-4.
Hellberg-Hirn, Elena. Imperial Imprints: Post-Soviet St. Petersburg.
Finnish literature Society, 2003.
Hughes, Lindsey (2004). Peter the Great: a Biography. Yale University
Press. ISBN 0-300-10300-X.
Knopf Guide: Sat. Petersburg. New York: Knopf, 1995.
Eyewitness Guide: St. Petersburg.
Lincoln, W. Bruce. Sunlight at Midnight: St. Petersburg and the Rise
of Modern Russia. New York: Basic Books, 2000.
Orttung, Robert W. From Leningrad to St. Petersburg: Democratization
in a Russian City. New York: St. Martin’s, 1995.
Richardson, Daniel; Humphreys, Robert (February 26, 1998). St.
Petersburg: The Rough Guide (September 2004 – Fifth ed.). Rough
Guides – New York, London & Delhi. ISBN 978-1-85828-298-5.
Retrieved March 10, 2010.
Ruble, Blair A. Leningrad: Shaping a Soviet City. Berkeley: University
of California Press, 1990. ISBN 0-87772-347-8.
Shvidkovsky, Dmitry O. & Alexander Orloff. St. Petersburg:
Architecture of the Tsars. New York: Abbeville Press, 1996.
Volkov, Solomon. St. Petersburg: A Cultural History. New York: Free
Press, 1995. ISBN 0-02-874052-1.
Architecture of the Tsars. 360 pages. Abbeville Press,
1996. ISBN 0-7892-0217-4
Saint Petersburg: Museums, Palaces, and Historic Collections: A Guide
to the Lesser Known Treasures of St. Petersburg. 2003.
Sergei V. Ivanov. Unknown Socialist Realism. The Leningrad School. –
Saint Petersburg: NP-Print Edition, 2007. – 448
p. ISBN 5-901724-21-6, ISBN 978-5-901724-21-7.
Нежиховский Р. А. Река Нева и Невская
губа, Leningrad: Гидрометеоиздат, 1981.
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Footscray, Victoria, Australia: Lonely Planet.
ISBN 978-1-74059-827-9. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
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Bob Atchinson (2010). "
Saint Petersburg, 1900: a photographic
travelogue of the capital of Imperial Russia". Retrieved February 9,
2011 [50 photographs of St. Petersburg from "Travelogues" of
Burton Holmes (Vol. 8, 1914) and other sources
Официальный портал администрации
Санкт-Петербурга [The Official
Portal of the Saint
Petersburg City Authority] (in Russian). The
Saint Petersburg City
Authority: 191060, St. Petersburg, Smolny
[Администрация Санкт-Петербурга 191060,
СПб., Смольный]. 2001–2011. Retrieved February 9,
Saint Petersburg". St. Petersburg: The
Likhachov Foundation. 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2011 [3500
entries, 9200 personalities, 3500 addresses, 2000 pictures and 40
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Байков В.Д. Ленинградские хроники: от
послевоенных 50-х до "лихих 90-х". М.
Карамзин, 2017. - 486 с., илл. — in English: Leningrad
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Malaya Konushennaya Street
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On ninth of January Prospekt
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near Petrogradskaya, Bezimyanniy Pereulok
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Belgradskaya Street (apple orchards)
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