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Ingrian Finns
The Ingrians ( fi, inkeriläiset, ; russian: Ингерманландцы, translit=Ingermanlandts'i), sometimes called Ingrian Finns, are the Finnish population of Ingria (now the central part of Leningrad Oblast in Russia), descending from Lutheran Finnish immigrants introduced into the area in the 17th century, when Finland and Ingria were both parts of the Swedish Empire. In the forced deportations before and after World War II, and during the genocide of Ingrian Finns, most of them were relocated to other parts of the Soviet Union, or killed. Today the Ingrian Finns constitute the largest part of the Finnish population of the Russian Federation. According to some records, some 25,000 Ingrian Finns have returned or still reside in the region of Saint Petersburg. History Origins Finnish-speaking Ingrians are not to be confused with Izhorian-speaking Ingrians. Ingrian Finns mainly consist of two groups: '' Savakot'', who originated from migrant Savonians; and '' Äyrämö ...
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Finland
Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east, with the Gulf of Bothnia to the west and the Gulf of Finland across Estonia to the south. Finland covers an area of with a population of 5.6 million. Helsinki is the capital and largest city, forming a larger metropolitan area with the neighbouring cities of Espoo, Kauniainen, and Vantaa. The vast majority of the population are ethnic Finns. Finnish, alongside Swedish, are the official languages. Swedish is the native language of 5.2% of the population. Finland's climate varies from humid continental in the south to the boreal in the north. The land cover is primarily a boreal forest biome, with more than 180,000 recorded lakes. Finland was first inhabited around 9000 BC after the Last Glacial Period. The Stone Age introduced several differe ...
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Genocide Of The Ingrian Finns
The genocide of the Ingrian Finns () was a series of events triggered by the Russian Revolution in the 20th century, in which the Soviet Union deported, imprisoned and killed Ingrians and destroyed their culture. In the process, Ingria, in the historical sense of the word, ceased to exist. Before the persecution there were 140,000 to 160,000 Ingrians in Russia and today approximately 19,000 (after several thousands repatriated since 1990). From 1935 onwards, the genocide manifested itself in deportations of entire Ingrian villages, mass arrests and executions, especially in 1937 and 1938 associated with the Great Purge. The reason for the genocide was the skeptical attitude of the Soviet Union towards the Ingrian people due to their close cultural and historical relations with Finland. At the same time, many other ethnic groups and minorities were also persecuted. The destruction process targeted at Ingrian Finns was centrally managed and considered. Russian legislation in the ...
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GeoJournal
''GeoJournal'' is a peer-reviewed international academic journal on all aspects of geography founded in 1977. Twelve issues (three volumes) a year were published by Springer Netherlands Springer Science+Business Media, commonly known as Springer, is a German multinational publishing company of books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing. Originally founded in 1842 i ... (formerly Kluwer) until December 2009 and can be accessed via SpringerLink. Starting February 2010, ''GeoJournal'' was relaunched as an international journal for spatially integrated social sciences and humanities with six issues a year. The journal's editor-in-chief is currently Barney Warf (Department of Geography, University of Kansas). External links ''GeoJournal''@ SpringerLink Geography journals {{geo-journal-stub ...
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Sweden
Sweden, formally the Kingdom of Sweden,The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's formal name is the Kingdom of SwedenUNGEGN World Geographical Names, Sweden./ref> is a Nordic countries, Nordic country located on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north, Finland to the east, and is connected to Denmark in the southwest by Øresund Bridge, a bridgetunnel across the Öresund. At , Sweden is the largest Nordic country, the third-largest country in the European Union, and the List of European countries by area, fifth-largest country in Europe. The Capital city, capital and largest city is Stockholm. Sweden has a total population of 10.5 million, and a low population density of , with around 87% of Swedes residing in urban areas in the central and southern half of the country. Sweden has a nature dominated by forests and a large amount of lakes, including List of largest lakes of Europ ...
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Lutheran
Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism, identifying primarily with the theology of Martin Luther, the 16th-century German monk and reformer whose efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation. The reaction of the government and church authorities to the international spread of his writings, beginning with the '' Ninety-five Theses'', divided Western Christianity. During the Reformation, Lutheranism became the state religion of numerous states of northern Europe, especially in northern Germany, Scandinavia and the then- Livonian Order. Lutheran clergy became civil servants and the Lutheran churches became part of the state. The split between the Lutherans and the Roman Catholics was made public and clear with the 1521 Edict of Worms: the edicts of the Diet condemned Luther and officially banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas, subjecting advocates of Lut ...
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Lands Of Sweden
The lands of Sweden ( sv, Sveriges landsdelar) are three traditional and historical regions of the country, each consisting of several provinces. The division into lands goes back to the foundation of modern Sweden, when '' Götaland'', the land of the Geats, merged with ''Svealand'', the land of the Swedes, to form the country, while ''Norrland'' and ''Österland'' (the latter now Finland) were added later. The lands have no administrative function but are still seen by many Swedes as an important part of their identity. Subdivision * Götaland (''Gothenland'' or ''Gothia'', "Land of the Geats") is the southernmost, most densely populated part, consisting of ten provinces. * Svealand (''Swealand'', "Land of the Swedes") is the central, and smallest of the three lands, with six provinces; the administrative centre of Sweden has been situated here at least since the late Middle Ages. * Norrland (literally "Northland") is the northernmost, and largest, of the three lands, covering ...
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Äyräpää
Baryshevo (russian: Барышево; fi, Pölläkkälä, Äyräpää) is a rural locality on Karelian Isthmus, in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast. It is situated on the southern shore of Vuoksi River. Until the Winter War and Continuation War, it had been the administrative center of the Äyräpää municipality of the Viipuri Province of Finland Finland ( fi, Suomi ; sv, Finland ), officially the Republic of Finland (; ), is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east, with the Gulf of Bot .... See also * Battle of Vuosalmi Rural localities in Leningrad Oblast Karelian Isthmus {{LeningradOblast-geo-stub ...
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Karelian Isthmus
The Karelian Isthmus (russian: Карельский перешеек, Karelsky peresheyek; fi, Karjalankannas; sv, Karelska näset) is the approximately stretch of land, situated between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga in northwestern Russia, to the north of the River Neva. Its northwestern boundary is a line from the Bay of Vyborg to the westernmost point of Lake Ladoga, Pekonlahti. If the Karelian Isthmus is defined as the entire territory of present-day Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast to the north of the Neva and also a tiny part of the Republic of Karelia, the area of the isthmus is about . The smaller part of the isthmus to the southeast of the old Russia-Finland border is considered historically as Northern Ingria, rather than part of the Karelian Isthmus itself. The rest of the isthmus was historically a part of Finnish Karelia. This was conquered by the Russian Empire during the Great Northern War in 1712 and included within the autonomous Grand Duch ...
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Äyrämöiset
The Äyrämöiset or, as the Russians call them, Evrimeiset ( Russian: Эвремейсы), were a Finnish language-speaking people who lived in the Saint Petersburg Oblast and earlier also on the Finnish part of the Karelian Isthmus. Äyrämöiset are one of the two main Finnish speaking groups in St. Petersburg Oblast, the other being the Savakot. Most of the Äyrämöiset are Lutherans. The name Äyrämöiset (äkrämöiset) comes from the ancient county of Äyräpää (Äkräpää) in the Western part of the Karelian Isthmus - which was a part of the kingdom of Sweden after 1323 AD. In earlier times existed as well an agricultural deity called Äkräs (Ägräs), the god of beans, peas and hemp and the mythological forefather of the Äyrämöiset. The Äyrämöiset made up the majority of the population of the Province of Ingria, when it was established in the 17th century. The Äyrämöiset did not mix with the immigrants from Savonia, but by the 20th century, the intermi ...
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Savonians
Savonians ( fi, Savolaiset, Savonian: ''Savolaaset'', ''Savolaeset'') are a subgroup ( ''heimo'') of the Finnish people who live in the areas of the historical province of Savonia. History Savonians are descendants of Tavastian and Karelian peasants who, during the Middle Ages, had settled in the areas that would later become known as ''Savonia'' in order to find new lands suitable for slash-and-burn agriculture. During 16th and 17th centuries, many Savonians emigrated to Eastern Norway and Central Sweden were they became known as the Forest Finns. In the 17th century, there was also a migration to Swedish Ingria (now part of Russia), where they became known as Savakot and collectively known as the Ingrian Finns together with the Äyrämöiset (Finnish Karelians). Description and stereotypes The stereotypical Savonian is talkative, easy-going, jolly and humorous, occasionally even to an offensive degree. Traditionally, the Savonians have often been considered to be "snea ...
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Savakot
Savakot (plural; singular: Savakko) were one of the two main subgroups of Ingrian Finns, the other being the Äyrämöiset. The Savakot descended from Finnish ( Savonian) peasants who had migrated to Swedish Ingria (now part of Russia) from Savonia in Eastern Finland during the 17th century.Чистяков А.Ю. Этнические группы ингерманландских финнов в 18-19 вв. // Петербургские чтения 97. Петербург и Россия. СПб., 1997, as cited in"Savakots"(retrieved November 12, 2015) According to Peter Köppen, in the middle of the 19th century there were 43,000 Savakot on the Karelian Isthmus. In 1929, in Leningrad Oblast, there were about 115,000 "Leningrad Finns", which included both Savakot and Äyrämöiset and excluded "Finland Finns" (whose number was estimated at 13,000).''Национальные меньшинства Ленинградской области. (Сборник материалов)'' ...
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Izhorian Language
The Izhorians (russian: Ижо́ра; ижо́рцы; fi, inkerikot; et, isurid; sg. ''ižoralain'', ''inkeroin'', ''ižora'', ''ingermans'', ''ingers'', ''ingrian'', pl. ''ižoralaizet''), along with the Votes, are a Finnic indigenous people native to Ingria. Small numbers can still be found in the western part of Ingria, between the Narva and Neva rivers in northwestern Russia. Although in English oftentimes sharing a common name with the Finns of Ingria, these two groups are distinct from one another. History The history of the Izhorians is bound to the history of Ingria. It is supposed that shortly after 1000 AD the Izhorians moved from Karelia to the west and south-west. In 1478, the Novgorod Republic, where Ingrians had settled, was united with the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and some of the Izhorians were transferred to the east. The establishment of St Petersburg in 1703 had a great influence on Izhorian culture. World War II had the biggest impact on Izhorians, as dev ...
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